Merit Ptah is often called the first woman doctor. Now, a researcher calls it a case of mistaken identity.
For decades, an ancient Egyptian known as Merit Ptah has been celebrated as the first female physician and a role model for women entering medicine. Yet a researcher from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus now says she never existed and is an example of how misconceptions can spread.
"Almost like a detective, I had to trace back her story, following every lead, to discover how it all began and who invented Merit Ptah," said Jakub Kwiecinski, PhD, an instructor in the Dept. of Immunology and Microbiology at the CU School of Medicine and a medical historian.
His study was published last week in the Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences .
The Growth of Merit Ptah
Kwiecinski's interest in Merit Ptah (`beloved of god Ptah') was sparked after seeing her name in so many places.
"Merit Ptah was everywhere. In online posts about women in STEM, in computer games, in popular history books, there's even a crater on Venus named after her," he said. "And yet, with all these mentions, there was no proof that she really existed. It soon became clear that there had been no ancient Egyptian woman physician called Merit Ptah."
Digging deep into the historical record, Kwiecinski discovered a case of mistaken identity that took on a life of its own, fueled by those eager for an inspirational story.
Many of the accounts warn ‘not to be confused with the wife of Ramose the governor of Thebes,’ which is 18th dynasty of Egypt , shown here, but it seems that the name has been confused from the off. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )
Birth of a Modern Legend
According to Kwiecinski, Merit Ptah the physician had her origins in the 1930s when Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead, a medical historian, doctor and activist, set out to write a complete history of medical women around the world. Her book was published in 1938.
She talked about the excavation of a tomb in the Valley of Kings where there was a “picture of a woman doctor named Merit Ptah, the mother of a high priest, who is calling her ‘the Chief Physician.’”
Kwiecinski said there was no record of such a person being a physician.
"Merit Ptah as a name existed in the Old Kingdom, but does not appear in any of the collated lists of ancient Egyptian healers - not even as one of the `legendary'; or `controversial cases," he said. "She is also absent from the list of Old Kingdom women administrators. No Old Kingdom tombs are present in the Valley of the Kings, where the story places Merit Ptah's son, and only a handful of such tombs exist in the larger area, the Theban Necropolis."
The Old Kingdom of Egypt lasted from 2575 to 2150 BC.
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But there was another woman who bears a striking resemblance to Merit Ptah. In 1929-30, an excavation in Giza uncovered a tomb of Akhethetep, an Old Kingdom courtier. Inside, a false door depicted a woman called Peseshet, presumably the tomb owner's mother, described as the `Overseer of Healer Women.' Peseshet and Merit Ptah came from the same time periods and were both mentioned in the tombs of their sons who were high priestly officials.
Tomb of Akhethetep in Saqqarah
This discovery was described in several books and one of them found its way into Hurd-Mead's private library. Kwiecinski believes Hurd-Mead confused Merit Ptah with Peseset.
"Unfortunately, Hurd-Mead in her own book accidentally mixed up the name of the ancient healer, as well as the date when she lived, and the location of the tomb," he said. "And so, from a misunderstood case of an authentic Egyptian woman healer, Peseshet, a seemingly earlier Merit Ptah, `the first woman physician' was born."
The Merit Ptah story spread far and wide, driven by a variety of forces. Kwiecinski said one factor was the popular perception of ancient Egypt as an almost fairytale land "outside time and space" perfectly suited for the creation of legendary stories.
The story spread through amateur historian circles, creating a kind of echo chamber not unlike how fake news stories circulate today.
"Finally, it was associated with an extremely emotional, partisan - but also deeply personal - issue of equal rights," he said. "Altogether this created a perfect storm that propelled the story of Merit Ptah into being told over and over again."
Yet Kwiecinski said the most striking part of the story is not the mistake but the determination of generations of women historians to recover the forgotten history of female healers, proving that science and medicine have never been exclusively male.
"So even though Merit Ptah is not an authentic ancient Egyptian woman healer," he said. "She is a very real symbol of the 20th century feministic struggle to write women back into the history books, and to open medicine and STEM to women."
Earliest Known Female Physician Likely Never Existed - History
As caretakers of children, family and community, it was natural that women were the nurses, the caregivers, as human society evolved. Nursing may be the oldest known profession, as some nurses were paid for their services from the beginning. This was especially true of wet nurses, who nursed a baby when the mother died or could not nurse her child. A woman whose infant did not survive birth, or who was ready to wean her child, or who was capable of nursing more than one baby, would accept employment as a wet nurse, usually going to live in the home of her employer.
The home, in fact, was the center of health care, and for the first two centuries after European exploration of North America, all nursing was home nursing. Even when the nation’s first hospital began in Philadelphia in 1751, it was thought of primarily as an asylum or poorhouse another century or more would pass before the public viewed hospitals as reputable and safe.
The Civil War gave enormous impetus to the building of hospitals and to the development of nursing as a credentialed profession. Initial wartime volunteers, however, often were seen as no different from “camp followers,” the women (sometimes mistresses and sometimes wives) who followed their soldier men. It was an era of sharp class definitions, and especially in the South, “respectable” women could not be seen in a military hospital.
Some women had the courage and common sense to defy decorum, though, especially in the North, where the US Sanitary Commission became the forerunner to the Red Cross. The best known of these women, of course, is Clara Barton—but her genius was in supply distribution and in development of systems for the missing and dead, not in nursing. Barton herself acknowledged that she actually nursed for only about six months of the four-year war and that other women did much more.
Perhaps the best known nurse at the time, was Mary Ann Bickerdyke of Illinois. A middle-aged widow, her accidental career began when she delivered money raised by local charities to the giant, if temporary, hospitals that the Union built at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. After witnessing suffering soldiers who had literally no one to care for them, she went on to be the only woman that General William T. Sherman allowed with his army. At the Tennessee battle of Lookout Mountain, she was the sole nurse for some two thousand men.
In the Confederacy, the most prominent nurses were Captain Sally Tompkins and Phoebe Pember. Tompkins was commissioned as an officer in the Confederate army so that she could have the power to commandeer supplies. She converted her Richmond mansion into Robertson Hospital and established a reputation for extraordinary quality: Tompkins’ hospital had by far the lowest death rate of any facility in the North or South, even though physicians sent their worst cases to her. Her staff of six—four of whom were black women still in slavery—treated more than 1,600 patients and lost only 73, an uncommonly low number in an era before germ theory was understood.
Phoebe Levy Pember c. 1855
Phoebe Levy Pember has become somewhat better known since the Post Office recently included her on a series of Civil War stamps. A young widow from a wealthy, Jewish family based in Charleston and Atlanta, she went north to the Confederate capital of Richmond and eventually ran the world’s largest hospital. On an average day, Pember supervised the treatment of 15,000 patients, most of them cared for by nearly 300 slave women.
The war thus led to greater respect for nurses, something that Congress acknowledged in 1892, when it belatedly passed a bill providing pensions to Civil War nurses. More important, the war served as the beginning of moving the profession from the home to the hospital and clinic. The result was an explosion of nursing schools in the late nineteenth century. Usually these schools were closely associated with a hospital, and nurses—all of whom were assumed to be female—lived and worked at the hospital.
Often called “sisters” (as British nurses still are), their lives were indeed similar to those of nuns. Forbidden to marry, they were cloistered in “nurses’ homes” on hospital grounds, where every aspect of life was strictly disciplined. Student nurses were not paid at all, and because too many hospitals valued this free labor over classroom and laboratory time, many spent their days scrubbing floors, doing laundry, and other menial tasks. Curricula improved, however, in part because of the development of a tradition with caps: each nursing school had a distinctive cap that women wore after graduation, and because her educational background was literally visible every day, schools soon raised standards so that their graduates would affirm their quality.
There were more female physicians (and hospital administrators) during the 19 th century than most people realize today—and some of these female physicians recognized the need for nurses and worked to professionalize the occupation. Dr. Marie Zakrewska founded a medical school for women in Boston that was affiliated with her New England Hospital for Women and Children in 1862, during the Civil War—and a decade later, in 1872, she began an associated nursing school that was the nation’s first.
Linda Richards was its first graduate and thus is known as America’s first professionally trained nurse. Richards went on to establish her own precedent-setting programs as superintendent of nursing at New York’s Bellevue Hospital and at Massachusetts General Hospital she also set up the first nursing school in Japan.
Like most educational institutions at the time, these schools did not admit African Americans, and the informally trained black women who nursed during the Civil War seldom were able to obtain credentials. The first credentialed black nurse was Mary Mahoney, who graduated in 1879 from Dr. Zakrewska’s nursing school in Boston. As segregation remained the rule far into the 20th century, Mahoney led the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses, which began in 1908.
During the four decades between the Civil War and the beginning of the twentieth century, the image of nurses moved from being viewed as somewhat less than honorable to a respected profession. The next century would bring still more changes, and nurses of the 19 th century would scarcely recognize the occupation as it is in the 21 st century. They would, however, agree that a world of difference has occurred in the care of patients, and that has been an unmitigated good—achieved primarily by women.
The History of Physicians / Doctors
Even in the worst of times, going into medicine is a pretty safe bet. Good thing, since the profession has existed in one form or another for more than 25,000 years.
Check out the history of being a doctor, from the Stone Age to the Information Age…It turns out that the job of being a physician was more like a hobby the farther back you go…Surgical spoon anyone?
Prehistoric “doctors”: 25,000 BC +
The first “healers” were chronicled in cave paintings in what is now France. The paintings were radiocarbon-dated as far back as 27,000 years ago and depicted people using plants for medicinal purposes. This is the first recorded instance of what eventually developed into the first medical knowledge base, passed down through tribes. Trepanation – puncturing the skull to relieve pain, was done thousands of years ago with spotty success…
Treat like an Egyptian: Surgery 5,000 years ago
Not only were the ancient Egyptians some of the healthiest people on Earth (Homer – of Odyssey fame, not the one in the ancient Egypt Simpsons episode – credited their public health care system, as well as the dry climate) but Egyptians also performed some of the first recorded surgery: root canal (some evidence suggests teeth may have been drilled as early as 9,000 years ago in India.) Back then, being a doctor involved mastery of supernatural texts as well as later being trained in anatomy and diagnosis.
“Take two frogs and call me in the morning”
Some 3,000 years ago, the ancient Babylonians may have been the first to offer prescriptions. Babylonian health “experts” also had a diagnostic text that featured a number of symptoms and treatments that had worked previously.
Greece and the birthplace of medical ethics
Influenced by Egyptian and Babylonian medicine, the famed Greek “physician” Hippocrates wrote the Hippocratic Corpus which is a collection of around seventy early medical works from ancient Greece strongly associated with Hippocrates and his students. Most famously, Hippocrates invented the Hippocratic Oath for physicians, which is still relevant and in use today.
This probably won’t kill you…
By the time medicine was being practiced in the 9th century Middle East, doctors started practicing in what you could call hospitals. Around this time, doctors generally knew about how to use catgut and forceps, plaster, ligature, surgical needle, saw, scalpels, and the ever calming, surgical spoon. Basically at this point, medicine was more likely to help you than harm you.
Medieval Europe and the first med schools
12th century Italy saw the emergence of universities and the first medical schools. At this point, being a doctor depended less on the “gospel” of pre-existing medical texts and more on applying those texts and others to a doctor’s individual experiences in the field. The ability to reliably affect a patient’s health was still hit & miss.
19th Century and the explosion of science
Over the last few hundred years, doctors came to benefit from the use of developing sciences such as chemistry. Physicians began to access other disciplines to help heal patients. They also began to draw on multiple facets of medicine to cure ailments. Among the goodies at the disposal of 19th Century doctors: knowledge of evolution, psychiatry, the beginnings of genetics, and immunology.
Just say yes to drugs: Modern medicine begins
After 1920, physicians no longer needed to ask permission of the church before starting their practice or performing surgery. Finally, reliable prescription drugs, and penicillin began to curb sickness before surgery or other last resorts were necessary. Modern surgery was coming of age. The last lobotomy to treat schizophrenia was done in 1970.
The modern doctor
To be sure, modern medicine is all the things people expect when they visit a hospital, but a modern doctor in the developed world is as much of a super hero or science fiction character as friendly sawbones. The “utility belt” of tools at a modern doctor’s disposal includes surgical lasers and robots, high-powered magnetic imagers and networked data streams.
The future: robots, remote patients, wireless data feeds..
Between technology and scarcity of actual doctors, it’s likely that future physicians will see patients any way they can: That could mean remotely (from the other end of a screen or robot) or as part of an assembly-line process (robot assistants actually do most of the work, with doctors coming in at the last step to confirm the diagnosis or perform the trickiest part of the surgery.) Also, medicine will be tailored to each patient’s individual genome, administered both by nano-scale and sports-stadium-sized apparati, across time zones and even on other worlds.
Now isn’t that worth a dozen years of school? If you want to make history too, check out our physician jobs today through the button below!
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The core male members of each family proved to be related and to derive mainly from mixing between Neolithic farmers in the region with migrants from the steppes, as had been expected from previous genetic work on the origin of Europeans. Also, the individual households could last for several generations, they found.
But the women found in the cemeteries were found to be something else entirely. Some came from the pre-Alpine lowlands and some from as much as 350 kilometers away, the data show.
&ldquoIn nearly all the households, the females were not related to the males, having left their homes farther afield to marry,&rdquo the researchers write.
Pin, female burial, Königsbrunn. K. Massy
Marry? It seems so. Grave goods buried with the women suggest they were also high-status members of the family, reports the team.
Buried in style
The men didn&rsquot move much and were buried at home, it seems &ndash though three of the males seem to have strayed far from home in their adolescence, based on isotope analysis of their teeth. They came back, though.
Women, on the other hand, seem to have left these farming hamlets and disappeared. Almost all the first-degree and second-degree genetic relationships were found between people buried at the same site, but not at different sites &mdash and of the 10 parent-offspring pairs detected, not a single one was female. Note that of these 10 male offspring, nine were adult. The inference is that the girls left to marry strangers somewhere else.
Dagger, male burial, Kleinaitingen. K. Massy
The grave goods of men and women differed. Men were buried chiefly with weapons: the authors cite daggers, axes, chisels and arrow-heads. The women were buried with adornments, including large head-dresses and &ldquomassive&rdquo leg rings, the team writes.
As usual in the case of people gone for thousands of years, what all this means is up for interpretation, but the consensus in archaeological circles is that rich burial goods indicate that the dead individual was important.
Both men and women had these grave goods, but the archaeologists note that interestingly, weapons were found much more often in graves of men with relatives than in graves of men without close relatives. And that indicates what? Inheritance, possibly. At one site, only three of 16 burials were &ldquowell-equipped,&rdquo they write &ndash and the three were a mother and her two sons. The archaeologists suspect this indicates that in Bronze Age Germany, status was inherited. The theory that status was inherited is further supported by the discovery of children buried with grave goods.
Note again that the women arrived from afar, going by isotopic analysis of their teeth, but almost all were interred in style.
Dagger, male burial, Haunstetten. (c) K. Massy
Now, alongside these high-status local men and foreign women, the researchers found people who, going by the absence of grave goods, were local and low in status. How their status could be defined &ndash staff, servant, slave, serf - will have to remain a mystery. But they weren&rsquot the poor relatives. They were not local.
&ldquoWe never thought something as complex as this this could exist at the time,&rdquo Stockhammer says &ndash meaning at the level of the individual household. The thinking had been that social structures were much simpler. It turns out, though, that &ldquolife was much more complex in the Early Bronze Age in central Europe than we thought.&rdquo
To be clear, nobody thought the peoples of the Early Bronze Age were democratic, flower-sniffing egalitarian peaceniks. From the continental perspective (as opposed to the local one), one finds an increase in the number of &ldquoprincely graves&rdquo in the Early Bronze Age. Stories of kings and queens and their offspring go back to the dawn of writing some fairy tales based on social stratification and strife seem to go back as much as 6,000 years, predating recorded history itself.
The assumption had been that Bronze Age Germany had large numbers of peasants and a small group of elites. The unexpected element, as said, is the social stratification not between households, but within them.
Copper disc, female burial (original & reconstruction.) K. Massy
The custom of traveling afar to marry is not a shock in the sense that continentally speaking, one finds an exogamous marriage network in prehistoric Europe. For whatever reason, cognizant or not of the dangers incest poses, the ancients evidently strove to avoid it.
Some of the brides in the Lech Valley originated in a group known as the Unitice culture, and must have originated least 350 kilometers away &ndash possibly in what is today the Czech Republic, Poland or Slovakia, the researchers assess. It is true that the horse had been tamed by the time of these prehistoric movements: that happened far to the east of this valley, around 5,500 years ago. But we don&rsquot know how these women were transported, if they walked or something else.
In any case, this new study changes our perception of human social complexity in prehistoric times. So did the discovery of a war site over 13,000 years old in Sudan. The thinking had been that hunter-gatherers probably didn&rsquot go to war because their groups were small, a few dozen at most, and if one group had a beef with another group, it could peacefully move on. Apparently, they did not necessarily do so.
By 1975, reported cervical cancer deaths in black women were 16 out of 100,000 – a third of what they had been in the 1930s
Her techniques worked. In 1965, she drew a crowd of 250 women to St Charles Borromeo Hall Parish in South Philadelphia to receive Pap smears. By 1975, reported cervical cancer deaths in black women were 16 out of 100,000 – a third of what they had been in the 1930s.
Still, that number was twice the rate it was for white women.
This disparity persists today. Black and Hispanic women still get cervical cancer more than other group, “possibly because of decreased access to Pap testing or follow-up treatment”, according to the Centers for Disease Control. When they do get it, black women are at least 1.5 times more likely to die of the disease.
The quiet activist
In her medical training, Dickens also witnessed another phenomenon that was devastating women, both black and white: laws criminalising abortion. At Harlem Hospital, she worked in a septic abortion ward for women who had gotten – or given themselves – botched abortions. The experience pained her deeply.
“I just felt that these women deserved to be taken care of, just like anybody who comes in with anything,” she would recall. “And I certainly (didn’t) want to see those complications again.”
After joining the faculty of Penn’s Medical School, Dickens opened an obstetric clinic to serve teenagers (Credit: University of Pennsylvania)
In the 1960s, it was still illegal in many states to provide the contraceptive pill to unmarried women. But in 1967, after joining the faculty of Penn’s Medical School, Dickens opened a teen obstetric clinic, teaching teenagers how contraception worked and urging many to get on it. By 1970, 40 out of 50 teenage girls she counseled and tracked had started using contraceptives.
Dickens surrounded young mothers-to-be with a cohort of their peers and supported them with a social worker, a family planning counselor, a nurse, and a “male outreach worker” who encouraged fathers and new husbands to participate. She provided classes on childrearing and gave mothers-to-be tours of the hospital birthing ward to allay their fears about the birthing process. There were theatre productions, dance classes, and visits from a beautician.
The Doctor Who Championed Hand-Washing And Briefly Saved Lives
Ignaz Semmelweis washing his hands in chlorinated lime water before operating.
This is the story of a man whose ideas could have saved a lot of lives and spared countless numbers of women and newborns' feverish and agonizing deaths.
You'll notice I said "could have."
The year was 1846, and our would-be hero was a Hungarian doctor named Ignaz Semmelweis.
Semmelweis was a man of his time, according to Justin Lessler, an assistant professor at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
Semmelweis considered scientific inquiry part of his mission as a physician. De Agostini Picture Library/Getty Images hide caption
Semmelweis considered scientific inquiry part of his mission as a physician.
De Agostini Picture Library/Getty Images
It was a time Lessler describes as "the start of the golden age of the physician scientist," when physicians were expected to have scientific training.
So doctors like Semmelweis were no longer thinking of illness as an imbalance caused by bad air or evil spirits. They looked instead to anatomy. Autopsies became more common, and doctors got interested in numbers and collecting data.
The young Dr. Semmelweis was no exception. When he showed up for his new job in the maternity clinic at the General Hospital in Vienna, he started collecting some data of his own. Semmelweis wanted to figure out why so many women in maternity wards were dying from puerperal fever — commonly known as childbed fever.
He studied two maternity wards in the hospital. One was staffed by all male doctors and medical students, and the other was staffed by female midwives. And he counted the number of deaths on each ward.
When Semmelweis crunched the numbers, he discovered that women in the clinic staffed by doctors and medical students died at a rate nearly five times higher than women in the midwives' clinic.
At Vienna General Hospital, women were much more likely to die after childbirth if a male doctor attended, compared to a midwife. Josef and Peter Schafer/Wikipedia hide caption
At Vienna General Hospital, women were much more likely to die after childbirth if a male doctor attended, compared to a midwife.
Josef and Peter Schafer/Wikipedia
Semmelweis went through the differences between the two wards and started ruling out ideas.
Right away he discovered a big difference between the two clinics.
In the midwives' clinic, women gave birth on their sides. In the doctors' clinic, women gave birth on their backs. So he had women in the doctors' clinic give birth on their sides. The result, Lessler says, was "no effect."
Then Semmelweis noticed that whenever someone on the ward died of childbed fever, a priest would walk slowly through the doctors' clinic, past the women's beds with an attendant ringing a bell. This time Semmelweis theorized that the priest and the bell ringing so terrified the women after birth that they developed a fever, got sick and died.
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So Semmelweis had the priest change his route and ditch the bell. Lessler says, "It had no effect."
By now, Semmelweis was frustrated. He took a leave from his hospital duties and traveled to Venice. He hoped the break and a good dose of art would clear his head.
When Semmelweis got back to the hospital, some sad but important news was waiting for him. One of his colleagues, a pathologist, had fallen ill and died. It was a common occurrence, according to Jacalyn Duffin, who teaches the history of medicine at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario.
This was a revelation — childbed fever wasn't something only women in childbirth got sick from. It was something other people in the hospital could get sick from as well.
"This often happened to the pathologists," Duffin says. "There was nothing new about the way he died. He pricked his finger while doing an autopsy on someone who had died from childbed fever." And then he got very sick himself and died.
Semmelweis studied the pathologist's symptoms and realized the pathologist died from the same thing as the women he had autopsied. This was a revelation: Childbed fever wasn't something only women in childbirth got sick from. It was something other people in the hospital could get sick from as well.
But it still didn't answer Semmelweis' original question: "Why were more women dying from childbed fever in the doctors' clinic than in the midwives' clinic?"
Duffin says the death of the pathologist offered him a clue.
"The big difference between the doctors' ward and the midwives' ward is that the doctors were doing autopsies and the midwives weren't," she says.
So Semmelweis hypothesized that there were cadaverous particles, little pieces of corpse, that students were getting on their hands from the cadavers they dissected. And when they delivered the babies, these particles would get inside the women who would develop the disease and die.
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If Semmelweis' hypothesis was correct, getting rid of those cadaverous particles should cut down on the death rate from childbed fever.
So he ordered his medical staff to start cleaning their hands and instruments not just with soap but with a chlorine solution. Chlorine, as we know today, is about the best disinfectant there is. Semmelweis didn't know anything about germs. He chose the chlorine because he thought it would be the best way to get rid of any smell left behind by those little bits of corpse.
Semmelweis didn't know anything about germs. He chose the chlorine because he thought it would be the best way to get rid of any smell left behind by those little bits of corpse.
And when he imposed this, the rate of childbed fever fell dramatically.
What Semmelweis had discovered is something that still holds true today: Hand-washing is one of the most important tools in public health. It can keep kids from getting the flu, prevent the spread of disease and keep infections at bay.
You'd think everyone would be thrilled. Semmelweis had solved the problem! But they weren't thrilled.
For one thing, doctors were upset because Semmelweis' hypothesis made it look like they were the ones giving childbed fever to the women.
And Semmelweis was not very tactful. He publicly berated people who disagreed with him and made some influential enemies.
Eventually the doctors gave up the chlorine hand-washing, and Semmelweis — he lost his job.
Even today, convincing health care providers to take hand washing seriously is a challenge.
Semmelweis kept trying to convince doctors in other parts of Europe to wash with chlorine, but no one would listen to him.
Even today, convincing health care providers to take hand-washing seriously is a challenge. Hundreds of thousands of hospital patients get infections each year, infections that can be deadly and hard to treat. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says hand hygiene is one of the most important ways to prevent these infections.
Over the years, Semmelweis got angrier and eventually even strange. There's been speculation he developed a mental condition brought on by possibly syphilis or even Alzheimer's. And in 1865, when he was only 47 years old, Ignaz Semmelweis was committed to a mental asylum.
The sad end to the story is that Semmelweis was probably beaten in the asylum and eventually died of sepsis, a potentially fatal complication of an infection in the bloodstream — basically, it's the same disease Semmelweis fought so hard to prevent in those women who died from childbed fever.
Earliest Known Female Physician Likely Never Existed - History
The first woman in America to receive a medical degree, Elizabeth Blackwell championed the participation of women in the medical profession and ultimately opened her own medical college for women.
Born near Bristol, England on February 3, 1821, Blackwell was the third of nine children of Hannah Lane and Samuel Blackwell, a sugar refiner, Quaker, and anti-slavery activist. Blackwell’s famous relatives included brother Henry, a well-known abolitionist and women’s suffrage supporter who married women’s rights activist Lucy Stone Emily Blackwell, who followed her sister into medicine and sister-in-law Antoinette Brown Blackwell, the first ordained female minister in a mainstream Protestant denomination.
In 1832, the Blackwell family moved to America, settling in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1838, Samuel Blackwell died, leaving the family penniless during a national financial crisis. Elizabeth, her mother, and two older sisters worked in the predominantly female profession of teaching.
Blackwell was inspired to pursue medicine by a dying friend who said her ordeal would have been better had she had a female physician. Most male physicians trained as apprentices to experienced doctors there were few medical colleges and none that accepted women, though a few women also apprenticed and became unlicensed physicians.
While teaching, Blackwell boarded with the families of two southern physicians who mentored her. In 1847, she returned to Philadelphia, hoping that Quaker friends could assist her entrance into medical school. Rejected everywhere she applied, she was ultimately admitted to Geneva College in rural New York, however, her acceptance letter was intended as a practical joke.
Blackwell faced discrimination and obstacles in college: professors forced her to sit separately at lectures and often excluded her from labs local townspeople shunned her as a “bad” woman for defying her gender role. Blackwell eventually earned the respect of professors and classmates, graduating first in her class in 1849. She continued her training at London and Paris hospitals, though doctors there relegated her to midwifery or nursing. She began to emphasize preventative care and personal hygiene, recognizing that male doctors often caused epidemics by failing to wash their hands between patients.
In 1851, Dr. Blackwell returned to New York City, where discrimination against female physicians meant few patients and difficulty practicing in hospitals and clinics. With help from Quaker friends, Blackwell opened a small clinic to treat poor women in 1857, she opened the New York Infirmary for Women and Children with her sister Dr. Emily Blackwell and colleague Dr. Marie Zakrzewska. Its mission included providing positions for women physicians. During the Civil War, the Blackwell sisters trained nurses for Union hospitals.
In 1868, Blackwell opened a medical college in New York City. A year later, she placed her sister in charge and returned permanently to London, where in 1875, she became a professor of gynecology at the new London School of Medicine for Women. She also helped found the National Health Society and published several books, including an autobiography, Pioneer Work in Opening the Medical Profession to Women (1895).
50 Fascinating Facts for Women’s History Month
History texts and classes are often dominated by male figures, yet women have played and continue to play a major role in the world’s economy, politics, culture and discoveries and deserve their fair share of recognition as well. March is Women’s History Month and there’s no better time to celebrate their contributions. Here are some fascinating facts about women’s history that will showcase some standouts, accomplishments, impacts and just how far they have come.
By the Numbers
Here you’ll find some amazing stats about women in the world today.
- Today, 71% of moms with kids under 18 work. In 1975, fewer than 47% did. Once upon a time, the idea of women working outside of the home was frowned upon and most women who did so worked as maids, seamstresses, took in laundry or worked in one of the traditionally female fields. Today, more women not only work outside the home, but hold a wider variety of jobs, with some even making it to the top of business, technology and science fields.
- Women currently hold 17% of Congressional and Senate seats and 18% of gubernatorial positions in the U.S. While women are still underrepresented in political life, the current state of things is a far cry from a time when women weren’t even allowed to vote — a mere 90 years ago.
- In almost every country in the world, the life expectancy for women is higher than men. For virtually all causes of death at all ages, mortality rates are higher for men. Scientists aren’t entirely sure why this is the case, but believe it might have to do with the presence of estrogen in the body improving immune function.
- Approximately 14% of active members in the U.S. armed forces today are women. In 1950, women comprised less than 2% of the U.S. military. Today, women play an active role in serving their country through military service, but many in years past would simply disguise themselves as men in order to gain access to the battlefield, including well-known examples like Frances Clayton in the American Civil War.
- Over 60 percent of college degrees awarded in the U.S. every year are earned by women. In fact, women are more likely than men to get a high school diploma as well, and the numbers are only expected to rise in the coming years.
- The two highest IQs ever recorded, through standardized testing, both belong to women. One of these high IQ women is the columnist and author Marilyn vos Savant. Of course, these numbers should be taken with a grain of salt, as IQ tests aren’t perfect in measuring intelligence, but it does help show that women aren’t inferior to men in intelligence – as was claimed for centuries.
- More American women work in the education, health services, and social assistance industries than any other. It seems that while women are moving into the workforce in large numbers, they’re still taking on traditionally female positions like teaching, nursing and social services. These three industries employ nearly one-third of all female workers.
Check out these facts to learn more about women in sports throughout recorded history.
- No women or girls were allowed at the first Olympics, but the Games of Hera, featuring footraces for women, were held every four years. In fact, women were not even allowed to watch the Olympic games or encouraged to participate in athletics (with the exception of the Spartans) so that the games existed at all is surprising. At their inception, the games only included that one event.
- At the first Winter Olympic Games in 1924, the only event open to women was figure skating. Only 15 women participated in these games, something that would change drastically over the decades.
- Women were not allowed to compete in track and field events at the Olympics until 1928. The ancient Greeks and Romans may have let women run in footraces in the Heraen Games, but when it came to the Olympics, both ancient and modern, these events were off limits to women until 1928. Unfortunately, some of the events were too much for the untrained female athletes, and because many collapsed after the end of the 800-meter race, it was banned until 1960.
- Roberta Gibb was the first woman to run and finish the Boston Marathon in 1966. Of course, she didn’t get official credit for it, as women were not allowed to enter the race until 1972, but her wins, in , , and seriously challenged long-held beliefs about the athletic prowess of women.
- Virne “Jackie” Mitchell, a pitcher, was the first woman in professional baseball. While women still don’t have much of a presence in baseball today, Mitchell proved that it wasn’t because they couldn’t play. During an exhibition game, she struck out both Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig. Her performance probably played a part in baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banning women from the sport later that year.
- Mary, Queen of Scots is reported to be the first woman to play golf in Scotland. Golf today is still seen as a man’s sport, but this powerful and scandalous queen couldn’t have cared less. In fact, she even went out to play golf a few days after her husband Lord Darnley’s murder.
- Donald Walker’s book, Exercise for Ladies, warns women against horseback riding, because it deforms the lower part of the body. While this book was published in 1837, the views it documented about women doing any kind of exertion or exercise were to hold throughout the Victorian era and beyond.
Learn more about the role women have played in art, music and literature from these facts.
- The world’s first novel, The Tale of Genji, was published in Japan around A.D. 1000 by female author Murasaki Shikibu. It is still revered today for its masterful observations about court life and has been translated into dozens of languages.
- In 1921, American novelist Edith Wharton was the first woman to receive a Pulitzer Prize for fiction. She won the award for her novel The Age of Innocence, a story set in upper-class New York during the 1870s.
- Women often wrote under pen names in times when it was not seen as appropriate for them to contribute to literature. Even some female authors who are highly acclaimed today had to resort to fake names like Jane Austen, the Bronte Sisters, Mary Ann Evans (perhaps better known by her pen name George Eliot), and Louisa May Alcott.
- In the early years of the blues, from 1910 to 1925, the vast majority of singers were women.It might go against the common idea of just what the blues are or what they should sound like, but new research has found that some of the biggest players in the form of music were actually women.
- In an era when female painters had to struggle for acceptance, Artemesia Gentileschi was the first female to be accepted by the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence. A follower of the style popularized by Caravaggio, her work is often particularly adept at bringing to life the passion and suffering of mythological and biblical women.
These amazing women make for some pretty inspiring facts, perfect for Women’s History Month.
- Marie Curie is the only woman to ever win two Nobel Prizes. Her first award was for physics for her work on spontaneous radiation with her husband, with her second being in Chemistry for her studies of radioactivity.
- Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful women in the ancient world and the one and only female pharaoh in recorded history. She was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt after taking over as a supposed regent for her son and reigned for over twenty years. While accounts seem to paint her reign as a favorable one, her images have been defaced on temples and inscriptions as though they meant to wipe her existence from history.
- Martha Wright Griffiths, an American lawyer and judge, pushed through the Sex Discrimination Act in 1964 as part of the Civil Rights Act. This act has helped protect countless women on the job and in everyday life from discrimination based on their gender.
- Journalist Nellie Bly put Jules Verne’s character Phileas Fogg to shame when she completed an around the world journey in only seventy two days– quite a feat before the invention of the airplane. Bly is also well-known for her expose on mental institutions, a project for which she had to fake psychological illness to gain access to the facilities.
- Jane Addams was the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Because of her work with the Hull House, the public philosopher, writer, leader and suffragist went down as one of the most influential and prolific women in American history.
- Upon her husband’s death, Cherokee leader Nancy Ward took his place in a 1775 battle against the Creeks, and led the Cherokee to victory. After the victory, she became head of the Woman’s Council and a member of the Council of Chiefs, playing a key role in social and political changes to the Cherokee nation throughout her life.
- In 1777, sixteen-year-old Sybil Ludington raced through the night to warn New York patriots that the British were attacking nearby Danbury, CT, where munitions and supplies for the entire region were stored during the heat of the Revolutionary War. While Paul Revere gets all the glory for nighttime rides, her journey took her twice the distance and helped the troops prepare and repel a British attack.
- Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony spent their lives fighting for women’s suffrage, but neither lived long enough to see the Amendment granting them the right to vote. Stanton passed away in 1902, decades before women finally won out, and Anthony in 1906 only a few years later.
- African-American performer Josephine Baker was working in France during WWII, but not only as a singer, dancer and actress. She was also helping the war movement, smuggling numerous messages to French soldiers. She often hid messages inside her dress or concealed with invisible ink on her sheet music. Baker’s work in the war is only part of what makes her such an amazing figure, as she was the first African American female to star in a major motion picture, perform in a concert hall and played a big role in the Civil Rights Movement.
Paving the way for generations to come, these women took down barriers to become the first of their kind in a wide range of fields.
- In 1853 Antoinette Blackwell became the first American woman to be ordained a minister in a recognized denomination. Impressive, considering there are still only a handful of female ministers nationwide today.
- The earliest recorded female physician was Merit Ptah, a doctor in ancient Egypt who lived around 2700 B.C. Many historians believe she may be the first woman recorded by name in the history of all of the sciences, making her achievement all the more impressive.
- The first woman to rule a country as an elected leader in the modern era was Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka, who was elected as prime minister of the island nation in 1960 and later re-elected in 1970. She is still one of only a handful of female heads of states, though numbers are growing with female leaders being recently elected in places like Brazil, Switzerland, Costa Rice, Lithuania and Gabon.
- In 1756, during America’s Colonial period, Lydia Chapin Taft became the first woman to legally vote with the consent of the electorate. While all women didn’t enjoy this privilege until 1920, Taft was allowed to vote because her husband, a powerful local figure, had passed away right before a major town vote. She was allowed to step in in his stead.
- The first woman to run for U.S. president was Victoria Woodhull, who campaigned for the office in 1872 under the National Woman’s Suffrage Association. While women would not be granted the right to vote by a constitutional amendment for nearly 50 years, there were no laws prohibiting one from running for the chief executive position.
- The first female governor of a U.S. state was Wyoming governor Nellie Tayloe Ross, elected in 1924. Wyoming was also the first state to give women the right to vote, enacting women’s suffrage in 1869, making it a surprising leader in women’s rights.
- The first female member of a president’s cabinet was Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor under FDR. She remained in office for the duration of FDRs terms and helped put together the labor programs needed for the New Deal to succeed.
- The first person to make the daring attempt to go over Niagara Falls in a wooden barrel was a woman. On October 24, 1901, Annie Edson Taylor, a forty-three-year-old schoolteacher from Michigan plunged over the falls. She survived with only a small gash on her head, but swore to never take them on again.
- Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, was the first woman elected to serve in Congress. She was elected in both 1916 and 1940. A lifelong pacifist, she was the only member of Congress to vote against entering WWII.
- On May 15, 1809, Mary Dixon Kies received the first U.S. patent issued to a woman for inventing a process for weaving straw with silk or thread. Before then, most women inventors didn’t bother to patent their new inventions because they couldn’t legally own property independent of their husbands. Few could get the support necessary to turn their ideas into a reality.
Learn more about women in history from these interesting facts.
- Wyoming was the first state to grant women the right to vote. It was also the first state to elect a female governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross.
- The first country to grant women the right to vote in the modern era was New Zealand in 1893. In this same year, Elizabeth Yates also become major of Onehunga, the first ever female mayor anywhere in the British empire.
- In 1770, a bill proposing that women using makeup should be punished for witchcraft was put forward to the British Parliament. The use of makeup was frowned upon during this period for the effect it would have on men, and women who were thought to be luring men in with scents, makeup, wigs or other cosmetics were thought to be performing the devils’ work by inciting lustfulness. Even the Queen took a hard stance on makeup, calling it “impolite.”
- On Nov. 26, 1916 birth control activist Margaret Sanger was arrested for distributing birth control information. While Sanger’s views on race are questionable, her efforts to provide women with control over their reproduction were not. Birth control is still a hot issue among many, with some conservative groups condemning it altogether.
- Think that factory work was always done by men? In fact, during the 19th century, factory workers were primarily young, single women. Men and married women stayed home to work the farm or manage the house.
- Until 1846, the practice of obstetrics was a female-dominated field. It was then that most medical colleges decided women could not attend and the newly founded American Medical Association barred women. Legislation intended to regulate the medical profession also made it nearly impossible for young women to pursue a medical career. Today, however, obstetrics is a female-dominated field once again.
- Betsy Ross probably didn’t make the first American flag. While she may have been a flagmaker, patriot and businesswoman of note, there is little evidence to suggest that Betsy Ross actually made the first flag. In fact, the first retellings of this story didn’t happen until years after her death.
These women came up with new and innovative ideas well worth reading about.
Earth's Earliest Dinosaur Possibly Discovered
A wonky beast about the size of a Labrador retriever with a long neck and lengthy tail may be the world's earliest known dinosaur, say researchers who analyzed fossilized bones discovered in Tanzania in the 1930s.
Now named Nyasasaurus parringtoni, the dinosaur would've walked a different Earth from today. It lived between 240 million and 245 million years ago when the planet's continents were still stitched together to form the landmass Pangaea. Tanzania would've been part of the southern end of Pangaea that also included Africa, South America, Antarctica and Australia.
It likely stood upright, measuring 7 to 10 feet (2 to 3 meters) in length, 3 feet (1 m) at the hip, and may have weighed between 45 and 135 pounds (20 to 60 kilograms).
"If the newly named Nyasasaurus parringtoni is not the earliest dinosaur, then it is the closest relative found so far," said lead researcher Sterling Nesbitt, a postdoctoral biology researcher at the University of Washington.
The findings, detailed online Dec. 5 in the journal Biology Letters, push the dinosaur lineage back 10 million to 15 million years than previously known, all the way into the Middle Triassic, which lasted from about 245 million to 228 million years ago. [See Photos of the Oldest Dinosaur Fossils]
Dating a dinosaur
The study is based on seemingly few bones &mdash a humerus or upper arm bone and six vertebrae &mdash though Nesbitt pointed out much of what we know about dinosaurs comes from similar number of fossils. Only a rare few dinosaurs are excavated with near-complete skeletons, a la museum centerpieces.
For their study, the researchers had to determine whether the bones indeed belonged to a dinosaur and how long ago the beast would've lived.
They dated the fossils based on the layer of rock in which it was found and the ages for the layers above and below it (over time layers of sediment accumulate on top of remains, making a vertical slice somewhat of a timeline into the past).
They also looked at the ages of rock layers with similar animal remains found across the globe.
As for whether the beast is a dinosaur, several clues say it is. For instance, dinosaurs grew quickly, and a cross-section of the humerus suggests bone tissue was laid down in a haphazard way, a telltale sign of rapid growth.
"We can tell from the bone tissues that Nyasasaurus had a lot of bone cells and blood vessels," said co-author Sarah Werning of the University of California, Berkeley, who did the bone analysis. "In living animals, we only see this many bone cells and blood vessels in animals that grow quickly, like some mammals or birds," Werning said in a statement.
The upper arm bone also sported a distinctively enlarged crest that would've served as a place of attachment for arm muscles.
"It's kind of your shoulder muscle or the equivalent in a dinosaur," Nesbitt told LiveScience, adding that "early dinosaurs are the only group to have this feature."
Vertebrate paleontologist and geologist Hans-Dieter Sues, who was not involved in the study, agrees with the dating and dinosaur tag placed on the remains. "I first saw the bones in the 1970s when the late Alan Charig (one of the co-authors) showed them to me," Sues, of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., told LiveScience in an email. At that time none of his colleagues would accept that dinosaurs had appeared so early in geological history."
Sues added that additional, more complete remains are needed to confirm the relationships between Nyasasaurus and other dinosaurs. [6 Weird Species Discovered in Museums]
Answering a long-standing question
Paleontologists have for about 150 years suggested dinosaurs existed in the Middle Triassic, as the oldest dinosaur fossils fit into the Late Triassic period. However, that evidence has been fraught with uncertainty, with conclusions based on only dinosaurlike footprints or very fragmentary fossils. Footprints can be tricky to interpret, in this case, because other animals roaming Earth at the time would've made similar pedal prints.
"Previous to this find, all the oldest dinosaurs were all equally old from the same place in Argentina, and those sediments are about 230 million years [old]. So this pushes the dinosaur lineage or the closest relative to dinosaurs all the way back to the Middle Triassic," Nesbitt said during a telephone interview. "This is our best evidence of a Middle Triassic dinosaur."
In addition to pushing back the timeline for dinosaurs, Nesbitt says the study also reveals how dinosaurs emerged on Earth. Rather than waking up on the planet as the dominant beasts during their heydays in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, dinosaurs gradually ramped up to their reign.
"They were a unique group, but they didn't evolve and take over terrestrial ecosystems immediately," Nesbitt said. "Most of what we see in museums are from the Jurassic and Cretaceous when they did dominate &mdash at their origins they were just a part of the radiation of Archosaurs," or the dominant land animals during the Triassic period that included dinosaurs, crocodiles and their relatives.
Nesbitt hopes the discovery will encourage other paleontologists digging in Middle Triassic rocks to keep a lookout for dinosaurs &mdash fossils, that is.
There have been very few people in the past who have had the guts to challenge the authenticity of islam’s “Muhammad”, and very little research has been done into the subject. However, when it is looked into, it becomes more and more apparent that just like the “jesus” of xianity, Muhammad is too a false, fabricated character created for no other purpose than the destruction, desecration and removal of the true Ancient Knowledge given to humanity by the Gods and the consequent enslavement of the Gentile People.
Islam and its false “prophet” have heaped untold sorrow and suffering upon humanity from the moment of their creation. One only need look to the Middle East and other areas and countries dominated by islam to see that this is true. The poverty, war, destruction, anti-life practices, abuse of women and children, total lack of personal privacy and freedom, filth, ignorance and violence in these areas all have their roots in islam and its Muhammad. To rid the world and the Gentile people of this suffering, the world must be rid of the lie that is Muhammad.
There is a ton of evidence to prove this character never existed. That which stands out most clearly is the fact that the only so-called “Ancient Sources” of information concerning the life of Muhammad are extremely questionable and have never been able to be proven accurate and authentic.
As one example, the earliest “biography” of Muhammad has left no surviving copies and even so is dated to at least 100 years after his supposed death. Very suspicious, to say the least, and the question has to arise, if this was such an important character as islam states, why did people wait 100 years to document his life and achievements? Also, considering the fact Muhammad had already been dead 100 years at the time, the biography could not have been written by anyone who knew him personally, and therefore the accuracy would have been extremely questionable. This biography is known only because it is mentioned in much later texts, and no copies or anything of the sort have ever been found to prove its existence. Why? Because it never existed in the first place.
There are many more examples like this one. The same as with xianities “jesus”, the only place in which the life and existence of Muhammad is documented is within islam’s qur’an. Outside of this, there is nothing. One scholar wrote, “It is a striking fact that such documentary evidence as survives from the Sufnayid period makes no mention of the messenger of god at all. The papyri do not refer to him. The Arabic inscriptions of the Arab-Sasanian coins only invoke Allah, not his rasul [messenger] and the Arab-Byzantine bronze coins on which Muhammad appears as rasul Allah, previously dated to the Sufyanid period, have not been placed in that of the Marwanids. Even the two surviving pre-Marwanid tombstones fail to mention the rasul”.
The qur’an and pseudo-biographies of this supposed prophet claim that he was widely known, and that people, many of whom were powerful in the political world of the time, travelled from all over to witness his “miracles” and teachings. If this were so, there would be much surviving documentation for us to investigate, and it would be a known historical fact. We have hundreds of documentations of Alexander the Great, Christopher Columbus, all of the Egyptian Pharaohs and other powerful and influential people of history from those who saw and interacted with them, because they were real people who existed in a real time and were involved in events which really took place. It is human nature to document events and experiences in order to preserve them for future generations to learn from. However, as stated above, no documentation of this man Muhammad exists outside of the islamic texts, which themselves cannot be put forward as proof of his existence.
As for the inscriptions upon Arab Sasanian coins mentioning “Allah”, it has already been proven that the name “Allah” was STOLEN from the Ancient Pagan Title for the chief God or Goddess of an area, which was Al-Ilah. The Al-Ilah was the “supreme God” of a region. The Moon God Sin was given this title in much of Ancient Arabia, and many connections have been made between Sin and “Allah”, due only to the fact that islam STOLE this. This goes a lot deeper, however I will address this in an entirely separate article in the near future .
On the other hand, the real historical documentation that we have is in contradiction with the islamic version of history, which again proves that islam and its Muhammad are false.
As a small example, according to the history put forth by the qur’an and other islamic Texts, islam spread through much of Arabia peacefully and by willing conversions of hundreds of people. However, historical documentation tells us that this is not the case at all and that the time known as the islamic conquest was a time of brutal and savage war perpetrated by the bringers of islam against the Pagan people residing in the Arabian Peninsula and countries father East such as India at the time. Pagan Temples had to be destroyed, thousands and thousands of Ancient Sacred Texts full of the knowledge of the Gods were destroyed, Pagan Priesthood were brutally tortured and murdered, cities were besieged and raised to the ground and hundreds and thousands of people died as a result of the spread of islam.
Various other artifacts that have been found have blatantly contradicted what islam has put forth as history and reveal a different story altogether.
Aside from this, once again, we can expose the lies of islam through its connection to xianity. Xianity has been proven to be false. Everything it has was blatantly STOLEN from Ancient Paganism with the purpose of the enslavement and eventual destruction of our Gentile people. There is literally more than a ton of proof for this. One only need read through all of the articles contained on http://www.exposingchristianity.com by High Priestess Maxine Dietrich to see that this is true, I also highly recommend the book, “The Christ Conspiracy, the Greatest Story Ever Sold” by Acharya S.
When the enemy formed their trinity of lies, they gave it one major flaw, and that is the fact that all three are undeniably and irrevocably connected. Thus, when one comes down, the others must come down with it. At least to a very large extent.
The character Muhammad is said to have been descended from the jewish (Note another connection to the jews, the root of the lies and the perpetrators of Gentile Enslavement. Muhammad was always described as a jew himself, and NOT an Arab/Gentile!!) Ishmael, son of Abraham. “Abraham” has been proven to be fictitious and was a corruption stolen from the Hindu God Brahma. This has been discussed on exposingchristianity.com. As the stolen and corrupted jewish story goes, Abraham was most famous for his “many Sons”. This is a blatant corruption of Brahma and his “many forms”. Also, the connection can be made when you look at “Abraham and his wife Sarai/Sarah”. This was stolen from Brahma and his wife Saraswati, the Hindu Goddess of Knowledge. Once again, like all the fictitious characters invented by the enemy jews, there is absolutely no physical proof that Abraham ever existed, or that his so-called son Ishmael ever existed. It is safe to assume that anyone else said to be descended from them never existed either, and would therefore make them fictitious.
Connecting Muhammad with the jewish characters is yet another subliminal message of jewish supremacy over Gentile People. This is the entire purpose for islam’s invention of Muhammad. To enslave the Gentile people who have been blinded by the lie of islam and put them under the power of the enemy jews and their masters. It is simple as that.
Many of the other supposed family member of Muhammad are also nothing more than stolen and corrupted versions of Ancient Pagan Gods. A prime example is “Fatima”, supposedly Muhammad’s daughter, who was STOLEN from the Goddess Inanna/Isis/Al-Uzza. She was supposed to be portrayed as the fertile, “divine” mother, and divine Feminine. Although, considering how appallingly women are treated in islam, any reverence of “divine feminine” is an outright contradiction. None the less, Fatima’s character is stolen from the Goddess Al-Uzza, the Arabian Goddess of Fertility, motherhood and the Planet Venus, among other things. Al-Uzza was the original Arabian Feminine Divine and the sacred mother. Islam took this and horrendously corrupted it into “Fatima”, the so-called ideal islamic woman/mother and role model for women to live by. This is no different than in xianity where the virgin-kike Mary was also stolen from Inanna/Isis/Al-Uzza. Once again, it is a common theme throughout the enemy programs.
As well as this, Muhammad accompanied by his four family members Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussein can be seen as a corrupted (Stolen) Spiritual Allegory. The Five together are a representation and corruption of the Five Elements of the Soul. Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussein = Akasha, Fire, Water, Air and Earth, the Elements which make up all that exists, the central forces of the Universe. These five characters are the central characters of islam. In the same way that the Akasha was supposed to have “given life” to Fire and Water, which further joined and gave birth to Air and Earth, Muhammad (Akasha) gave life to Fatima who married/joined with Ali (Fire and Water) and they in turn gave birth to Hassan and Hussein (Air and Earth). The Spiritual/Alchemical corruption is blatant here, and it is also blatant that these were never real characters, but stolen allegories.
There are countless more examples like this one. Another is the Imams”, who are a rip off of the 12 constellations of the Zodiac and the 12 Great Ages accompanying them. However, I will write on this in much more detail in a later article.
The qur’an makes many more connections between Muhammad and other characters who have been proven fictitious. An example is Moses/Musa who is stolen from a number of Ancient Pagan Gods, such as the Egyptian Gods Set and Horus. For more information regarding this, see exposingchristianity.com. Muhammad is also frequently compared to and given ties to xianities “jesus”, who again has been 100% proven to be stolen and fictitious. Again, see exposing christianity. A character who is constantly compared with and so deeply connected to fictitious characters is fictitious themselves.
The events which are said to have occurred throughout the life of Muhammad are also nothing more than Alchemical Corruptions. Here are but a few examples (There are far too many to list here, but more will be dealt with in a separate article):
-The qur’an relates how when Muhammad was only an infant, two men appeared to him and cut open his breast, retrieving his heart and removing from it a “Black Clot” which they proceeded to cast away. The “Black Clot” is the Philosophers Stone. The Philosophers Stone has often been described as “Black”, i.e. “The Black Stone” referred to in many Alchemical writings. “Black” refers to and Alchemical process before the Stone is transformed and becomes White. Black is Base/Lead. As has been said before, the Philosophers Stone is contained within the Heart Chakra, thus why they “removed it from his Heart”. Note how islam removes the Philosophers Stone (True Satanic Power, GodHead, etc) and “casts it away”. This is a powerful subliminal message.
-The “angel” (enemy thoughtform) Gabriel appears before Muhammad, striking the side of a hill and causing a Spring to come gushing forth. With it he instructs Muhammad on how to perform Ritual Ablution for purification, also teaching him the prayer postures, “the standing, the inclining, the prostrating and the sitting” to be accompanied by repetitions of sacred names. This is ripped straight from Ancient Yoga and Mantra Practices of the Far East! Anyone who practices Yoga and Meditation will be able to see this easily, the postures that are performed along with Mantras/Words of Power, in order to drastically increase Bio-Electricity. Although, in islam, the energy raised is reversed and directed not to the person performing the postures and Mantras, but to the enemy thoughtform. As well as this, the “striking the Hill, causing a spring to come gushing forth” is an Alchemical Corruption. The Chakras have often been portrayed allegorically as hills or mountains in various Ancient Texts throughout the world, due to their True Form. The “Spring” is referring to the Alchemical Elixirs which are released and “dripped” from the Chakras during the Magnum Opus.
-Muhammad performs a “miracle” by splitting the Full Moon into Two Halves, causing half a Moon to Shine on either side of the Mountain. Once again, the Mountain represents the Chakras, and the Moon being split in two represents the two polarities of the Soul.
-The “Isra and Mi’raj”, The Night Journey and the ascension through the Seven Heavens. This entire event is an Alchemical corruption and rip off of the raising of the Kundalini Serpent through the Seven Chakras. The word Mi’raj means ladder, which is referring to the Spine up which the Serpent Ascends. The qur’an relates how Muhammad rode a Winged Horse (An Ancient Alchemical Symbol!) to the “Circles of Heaven”- The Chakras. He is taken through each one until finally after going through the Seventh Heaven, he meets with “God”. It is blatantly obvious that this is a corruption of reaching “Enlightenment” when the Kundalini rises to the Seventh (Crown) Chakra.
As I said above, there are many other examples of this. The Stolen and corrupted Alchemy is astounding and blatant throughout islam and its qur’an.
This not only proves Muhammad to be false, but it also proves the qur’an to be false. Throughout its pages, it has professed these characters and events to be real, yet it has been proven that on the contrary, all of these characters are fictitious and STOLEN.
Everything that islam has, like xianity, has been STOLEN and corrupted from Ancient Pagan Religions that are many thousands of years older.
*Muhammad Sven Kalisch, German Muslim states “likely muhammad never existed”
*MUHAMMAD: his life based on the earliest sources, Martin Lings (Abu Bakar Siraj al-Din), 2006
* Quran (Arabic and English Translation)