Information

Life may have appeared on Mars before Earth


The recent discovery revealing that Mars could have supported microbial life raises the possibility that life could have evolved on Mars before it developed on Earth.

According to researchers, the conditions supporting life on Mars corresponds to a period about 3.8 billion years ago, which is comparable to that of Earth.

Scientists have hypothesized that life could have begun on Mars and then travelled to Earth on an asteroid. Orbital dynamics have shown that it is much easier for rocks to travel from Mars to Earth than in the other direction.

The Mars Curiosity Rover has not yet found conclusive evidence of life on Mars but continues in its investigations of the Red Planet.

You can read more here.


    Was there life on Mars?

    After traveling more than six months in space, NASA’s latest rover landed on the red planet February 18. The explorer craft touched down in an area that may have hosted life on what was once a water-soaked Mars billions of years ago. The planet is now a frozen desert.

    Decades in development, the Perseverance rover is equipped with everything it needs to traverse the edge of an ancient lake bed, Jezero Crater, searching for microscopic evidence of ancient life.

    It was no simple voyage. The trip to Mars took Perseverance 203 days to travel 293 million miles to reach the planet.

    At that distance, communications between the lander and ground control take 11 minutes to transmit. Radio waves can only move at the speed of light, so at this distance the lag applies to even the speediest transmissions. This meant the spacecraft needed to navigate and decide on its own where to land based on the mission.

    The lander, despite these challenges, successfully entered Mars’ thin atmosphere, lowering Perseverance safely onto the rocky surface.

    This wasn’t NASA’s first rodeo. To date, the space agency has safely landed nine times on Mars. Perseverance marks the fifth time NASA has landed a rover.

    Over the years, other space agencies also have ventured to the red planet. Voyages from Earth to Mars conducted by the European Space Agency, the space program of the former Soviet Union (now the Russian Federation’s Roscosmos) and more have gone on since the ’60s.

    To date, there have been seven attempts outside of NASA to land on Mars. Of those attempts, though, only one — Mars 3 — from the former Soviet Union was successful in 1971. (Since the time this piece was published, China successfully landed a Mars rover.)

    The Perseverance rover made history by landing in the previously unexplored Jezero Crater.


    Contents

    Mars' polar ice caps were discovered in the mid-17th century. [ citation needed ] In the late 18th century, William Herschel proved they grow and shrink alternately, in the summer and winter of each hemisphere. By the mid-19th century, astronomers knew that Mars had certain other similarities to Earth, for example that the length of a day on Mars was almost the same as a day on Earth. They also knew that its axial tilt was similar to Earth's, which meant it experienced seasons just as Earth does—but of nearly double the length owing to its much longer year. These observations led to increase in speculation that the darker albedo features were water and the brighter ones were land, whence followed speculation on whether Mars may be inhabited by some form of life. [17]

    In 1854, William Whewell, a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, theorized that Mars had seas, land and possibly life forms. [18] Speculation about life on Mars exploded in the late 19th century, following telescopic observation by some observers of apparent Martian canals—which were later found to be optical illusions. Despite this, in 1895, American astronomer Percival Lowell published his book Mars, followed by Mars and its Canals in 1906, [19] proposing that the canals were the work of a long-gone civilization. [20] This idea led British writer H. G. Wells to write The War of the Worlds in 1897, telling of an invasion by aliens from Mars who were fleeing the planet's desiccation. [21]

    Spectroscopic analysis of Mars' atmosphere began in earnest in 1894, when U.S. astronomer William Wallace Campbell showed that neither water nor oxygen were present in the Martian atmosphere. [22] The influential observer Eugène Antoniadi used the 83-cm (32.6 inch) aperture telescope at Meudon Observatory at the 1909 opposition of Mars and saw no canals, the outstanding photos of Mars taken at the new Baillaud dome at the Pic du Midi observatory also brought formal discredit to the Martian canals theory in 1909, [23] and the notion of canals began to fall out of favor. [22]

    Chemical, physical, geological, and geographic attributes shape the environments on Mars. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. [24] The two current ecological approaches for predicting the potential habitability of the Martian surface use 19 or 20 environmental factors, with an emphasis on water availability, temperature, the presence of nutrients, an energy source, and protection from solar ultraviolet and galactic cosmic radiation. [25] [26]

    Scientists do not know the minimum number of parameters for determination of habitability potential, but they are certain it is greater than one or two of the factors in the table below. [24] Similarly, for each group of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined. [24] Laboratory simulations show that whenever multiple lethal factors are combined, the survival rates plummet quickly. [27] There are no full-Mars simulations published yet that include all of the biocidal factors combined. [27] Furthermore, the possibility of Martian life having a far different biochemistry and habitability requirements than the terrestrial biosphere is an open question.

      (e.g., Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, As, Cd, etc., some essential, but toxic at high levels)
    • Globally distributed oxidizing soils
    • Temperature
    • Extreme diurnal temperature fluctuations
    • Low pressure (Is there a low-pressure threshold for terrestrial anaerobes?)
    • Strong ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and solar particle events (long-term accumulated effects)
    • Solar UV-induced volatile oxidants, e.g., O2 − , O − , H2O2, O3
    • Climate/variability (geography, seasons, diurnal, and eventually, obliquity variations)
    • Substrate (soil processes, rock microenvironments, dust composition, shielding)
    • High CO2 concentrations in the global atmosphere
    • Transport (aeolian, groundwater flow, surface water, glacial)

    Past Edit

    Recent models have shown that, even with a dense CO2 atmosphere, early Mars was colder than Earth has ever been. [28] [29] [30] [31] Transiently warm conditions related to impacts or volcanism could have produced conditions favoring the formation of the late Noachian valley networks, even though the mid-late Noachian global conditions were probably icy. Local warming of the environment by volcanism and impacts would have been sporadic, but there should have been many events of water flowing at the surface of Mars. [31] Both the mineralogical and the morphological evidence indicates a degradation of habitability from the mid Hesperian onward. The exact causes are not well understood but may be related to a combination of processes including loss of early atmosphere, or impact erosion, or both. [31]

    The loss of the Martian magnetic field strongly affected surface environments through atmospheric loss and increased radiation this change significantly degraded surface habitability. [33] When there was a magnetic field, the atmosphere would have been protected from erosion by the solar wind, which would ensure the maintenance of a dense atmosphere, necessary for liquid water to exist on the surface of Mars. [34] The loss of the atmosphere was accompanied by decreasing temperatures. Part of the liquid water inventory sublimed and was transported to the poles, while the rest became trapped in permafrost, a subsurface ice layer. [31]

    Observations on Earth and numerical modeling have shown that a crater-forming impact can result in the creation of a long-lasting hydrothermal system when ice is present in the crust. For example, a 130 km large crater could sustain an active hydrothermal system for up to 2 million years, that is, long enough for microscopic life to emerge, [31] but unlikely to have progressed any further down the evolutionary path. [35]

    Soil and rock samples studied in 2013 by NASA's Curiosity rover's onboard instruments brought about additional information on several habitability factors. [36] The rover team identified some of the key chemical ingredients for life in this soil, including sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and possibly carbon, as well as clay minerals, suggesting a long-ago aqueous environment—perhaps a lake or an ancient streambed—that had neutral acidity and low salinity. [36] On December 9, 2013, NASA reported that, based on evidence from Curiosity studying Aeolis Palus, Gale Crater contained an ancient freshwater lake which could have been a hospitable environment for microbial life. [37] [38] The confirmation that liquid water once flowed on Mars, the existence of nutrients, and the previous discovery of a past magnetic field that protected the planet from cosmic and solar radiation, [39] [40] together strongly suggest that Mars could have had the environmental factors to support life. [41] [42] The assessment of past habitability is not in itself evidence that Martian life has ever actually existed. If it did, it was probably microbial, existing communally in fluids or on sediments, either free-living or as biofilms, respectively. [33] The exploration of terrestrial analogues provide clues as to how and where best look for signs of life on Mars. [43]

    Impactite, shown to preserve signs of life on Earth, was discovered on Mars and could contain signs of ancient life, if life ever existed on the planet. [44]

    On June 7, 2018, NASA announced that the Curiosity rover had discovered organic molecules in sedimentary rocks dating to three billion years old. [45] [46] The detection of organic molecules in rocks indicate that some of the building blocks for life were present. [47] [48]

    Present Edit

    Conceivably, if life exists (or existed) on Mars, evidence of life could be found, or is best preserved, in the subsurface, away from present-day harsh surface conditions. [49] Present-day life on Mars, or its biosignatures, could occur kilometers below the surface, or in subsurface geothermal hot spots, or it could occur a few meters below the surface. The permafrost layer on Mars is only a couple of centimeters below the surface, and salty brines can be liquid a few centimeters below that but not far down. Water is close to its boiling point even at the deepest points in the Hellas basin, and so cannot remain liquid for long on the surface of Mars in its present state, except after a sudden release of underground water. [50] [51] [52]

    So far, NASA has pursued a "follow the water" strategy on Mars and has not searched for biosignatures for life there directly since the Viking missions. The consensus by astrobiologists is that it may be necessary to access the Martian subsurface to find currently habitable environments. [49]

    Cosmic radiation Edit

    In 1965, the Mariner 4 probe discovered that Mars had no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic radiation and solar radiation observations made in the late 1990s by the Mars Global Surveyor confirmed this discovery. [53] Scientists speculate that the lack of magnetic shielding helped the solar wind blow away much of Mars' atmosphere over the course of several billion years. [54] As a result, the planet has been vulnerable to radiation from space for about 4 billion years. [55]

    Recent in-situ data from Curiosity rover indicates that ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) may not be a limiting factor in habitability assessments for present-day surface life on Mars. The level of 76 mGy per year measured by Curiosity is similar to levels inside the ISS. [56]

    Cumulative effects Edit

    Curiosity rover measured ionizing radiation levels of 76 mGy per year. [57] This level of ionizing radiation is sterilizing for dormant life on the surface of Mars. It varies considerably in habitability depending on its orbital eccentricity and the tilt of its axis. If the surface life has been reanimated as recently as 450,000 years ago, then rovers on Mars could find dormant but still viable life at a depth of one meter below the surface, according to an estimate. [58] Even the hardiest cells known could not possibly survive the cosmic radiation near the surface of Mars since Mars lost its protective magnetosphere and atmosphere. [59] [60] After mapping cosmic radiation levels at various depths on Mars, researchers have concluded that over time, any life within the first several meters of the planet's surface would be killed by lethal doses of cosmic radiation. [59] [61] [62] The team calculated that the cumulative damage to DNA and RNA by cosmic radiation would limit retrieving viable dormant cells on Mars to depths greater than 7.5 meters below the planet's surface. [61] Even the most radiation-tolerant terrestrial bacteria would survive in dormant spore state only 18,000 years at the surface at 2 meters—the greatest depth at which the ExoMars rover will be capable of reaching—survival time would be 90,000 to half a million years, depending on the type of rock. [63]

    Data collected by the Radiation assessment detector (RAD) instrument on board the Curiosity rover revealed that the absorbed dose measured is 76 mGy/year at the surface, [64] and that "ionizing radiation strongly influences chemical compositions and structures, especially for water, salts, and redox-sensitive components such as organic molecules." [64] Regardless of the source of Martian organic compounds (meteoric, geological, or biological), its carbon bonds are susceptible to breaking and reconfiguring with surrounding elements by ionizing charged particle radiation. [64] These improved subsurface radiation estimates give insight into the potential for the preservation of possible organic biosignatures as a function of depth as well as survival times of possible microbial or bacterial life forms left dormant beneath the surface. [64] The report concludes that the in situ "surface measurements—and subsurface estimates—constrain the preservation window for Martian organic matter following exhumation and exposure to ionizing radiation in the top few meters of the Martian surface." [64]

    In September 2017, NASA reported Radiation levels on the surface of the planet Mars were temporarily doubled and were associated with an aurora 25 times brighter than any observed earlier, due to a major, and unexpected, solar storm in the middle of the month. [65]

    UV radiation Edit

    On UV radiation, a 2014 report concludes [66] that "[T]he Martian UV radiation environment is rapidly lethal to unshielded microbes but can be attenuated by global dust storms and shielded completely by < 1 mm of regolith or by other organisms." In addition, laboratory research published in July 2017 demonstrated that UV irradiated perchlorates cause a 10.8-fold increase in cell death when compared to cells exposed to UV radiation after 60 seconds of exposure. [67] [68] The penetration depth of UV radiation into soils is in the sub-millimeter to millimeter range and depends on the properties of the soil. [68]

    Perchlorates Edit

    The Martian regolith is known to contain a maximum of 0.5% (w/v) perchlorate (ClO4 − ) that is toxic for most living organisms, [69] but since they drastically lower the freezing point of water and a few extremophiles can use it as an energy source (see Perchlorates - Biology), it has prompted speculation of what their influence would be on habitability. [67] [70] [71]

    Research published in July 2017 shows that when irradiated with a simulated Martian UV flux, perchlorates become even more lethal to bacteria (bactericide). Even dormant spores lost viability within minutes. [67] In addition, two other compounds of the Martian surface, iron oxides and hydrogen peroxide, act in synergy with irradiated perchlorates to cause a 10.8-fold increase in cell death when compared to cells exposed to UV radiation after 60 seconds of exposure. [67] [68] It was also found that abraded silicates (quartz and basalt) lead to the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species. [72] The researchers concluded that "the surface of Mars is lethal to vegetative cells and renders much of the surface and near-surface regions uninhabitable." [73] This research demonstrates that the present-day surface is more uninhabitable than previously thought, [67] [74] and reinforces the notion to inspect at least a few meters into the ground to ensure the levels of radiation would be relatively low. [74] [75]

    However, researcher Kennda Lynch discovered the first-known instance of a habitat containing perchlorates and perchlorates-reducing bacteria in an analog environment: a paleolake in Pilot Valley, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah. [76] She has been studying the biosignatures of these microbes, and is hoping that the Mars Perseverance rover will find matching biosignatures at its Jezero Crater site. [77] [78]

    Recurrent slope lineae Edit

    Recurrent slope lineae (RSL) features form on Sun-facing slopes at times of the year when the local temperatures reach above the melting point for ice. The streaks grow in spring, widen in late summer and then fade away in autumn. This is hard to model in any other way except as involving liquid water in some form, though the streaks themselves are thought to be a secondary effect and not a direct indication of the dampness of the regolith. Although these features are now confirmed to involve liquid water in some form, the water could be either too cold or too salty for life. At present they are treated as potentially habitable, as "Uncertain Regions, to be treated as Special Regions".). [79] [80] They were suspected as involving flowing brines back then. [81] [82] [83] [84]

    The thermodynamic availability of water (water activity) strictly limits microbial propagation on Earth, particularly in hypersaline environments, and there are indications that the brine ionic strength is a barrier to the habitability of Mars. Experiments show that high ionic strength, driven to extremes on Mars by the ubiquitous occurrence of divalent ions, "renders these environments uninhabitable despite the presence of biologically available water." [85]

    Nitrogen fixation Edit

    After carbon, nitrogen is arguably the most important element needed for life. Thus, measurements of nitrate over the range of 0.1% to 5% are required to address the question of its occurrence and distribution. There is nitrogen (as N2) in the atmosphere at low levels, but this is not adequate to support nitrogen fixation for biological incorporation. [86] Nitrogen in the form of nitrate could be a resource for human exploration both as a nutrient for plant growth and for use in chemical processes. On Earth, nitrates correlate with perchlorates in desert environments, and this may also be true on Mars. Nitrate is expected to be stable on Mars and to have formed by thermal shock from impact or volcanic plume lightning on ancient Mars. [87]

    On March 24, 2015, NASA reported that the SAM instrument on the Curiosity rover detected nitrates by heating surface sediments. The nitrogen in nitrate is in a "fixed" state, meaning that it is in an oxidized form that can be used by living organisms. The discovery supports the notion that ancient Mars may have been hospitable for life. [87] [88] [89] It is suspected that all nitrate on Mars is a relic, with no modern contribution. [90] Nitrate abundance ranges from non-detection to 681 ± 304 mg/kg in the samples examined until late 2017. [90] Modeling indicates that the transient condensed water films on the surface should be transported to lower depths (≈10 m) potentially transporting nitrates, where subsurface microorganisms could thrive. [91]

    In contrast, phosphate, one of the chemical nutrients thought to be essential for life, is readily available on Mars. [92]

    Low pressure Edit

    Further complicating estimates of the habitability of the Martian surface is the fact that very little is known about the growth of microorganisms at pressures close to those on the surface of Mars. Some teams determined that some bacteria may be capable of cellular replication down to 25 mbar, but that is still above the atmospheric pressures found on Mars (range 1–14 mbar). [93] In another study, twenty-six strains of bacteria were chosen based on their recovery from spacecraft assembly facilities, and only Serratia liquefaciens strain ATCC 27592 exhibited growth at 7 mbar, 0 °C, and CO2-enriched anoxic atmospheres. [93]

    Liquid water is a necessary but not sufficient condition for life as humans know it, as habitability is a function of a multitude of environmental parameters. [94] Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars except at the lowest elevations for minutes or hours. [95] [96] Liquid water does not appear at the surface itself, [97] but it could form in minuscule amounts around dust particles in snow heated by the Sun. [98] [99] Also, the ancient equatorial ice sheets beneath the ground may slowly sublimate or melt, accessible from the surface via caves. [100] [101] [102] [103]

    Water on Mars exists almost exclusively as water ice, located in the Martian polar ice caps and under the shallow Martian surface even at more temperate latitudes. [107] [108] A small amount of water vapor is present in the atmosphere. [109] There are no bodies of liquid water on the Martian surface because its atmospheric pressure at the surface averages 600 pascals (0.087 psi)—about 0.6% of Earth's mean sea level pressure—and because the temperature is far too low, (210 K (−63 °C)) leading to immediate freezing. Despite this, about 3.8 billion years ago, [110] there was a denser atmosphere, higher temperature, and vast amounts of liquid water flowed on the surface, [111] [112] [113] [114] including large oceans. [115] [116] [117] [118] [119]

    It has been estimated that the primordial oceans on Mars would have covered between 36% [120] and 75% of the planet. [121] On November 22, 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior. [104] [105] [106] Analysis of Martian sandstones, using data obtained from orbital spectrometry, suggests that the waters that previously existed on the surface of Mars would have had too high a salinity to support most Earth-like life. Tosca et al. found that the Martian water in the locations they studied all had water activity, aw ≤ 0.78 to 0.86—a level fatal to most Terrestrial life. [122] Haloarchaea, however, are able to live in hypersaline solutions, up to the saturation point. [123]

    In June 2000, possible evidence for current liquid water flowing at the surface of Mars was discovered in the form of flood-like gullies. [124] [125] Additional similar images were published in 2006, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor, that suggested that water occasionally flows on the surface of Mars. The images showed changes in steep crater walls and sediment deposits, providing the strongest evidence yet that water coursed through them as recently as several years ago.

    There is disagreement in the scientific community as to whether or not the recent gully streaks were formed by liquid water. Some suggest the flows were merely dry sand flows. [126] [127] [128] Others suggest it may be liquid brine near the surface, [129] [130] [131] but the exact source of the water and the mechanism behind its motion are not understood. [132]

    In July 2018, scientists reported the discovery of a subglacial lake on Mars, 1.5 km (0.93 mi) below the southern polar ice cap, and extending sideways about 20 km (12 mi), the first known stable body of water on the planet. [133] [134] [135] [136] The lake was discovered using the MARSIS radar on board the Mars Express orbiter, and the profiles were collected between May 2012 and December 2015. [137] The lake is centered at 193°E, 81°S, a flat area that does not exhibit any peculiar topographic characteristics but is surrounded by higher ground, except on its eastern side, where there is a depression. [133]

    Silica Edit

    In May 2007, the Spirit rover disturbed a patch of ground with its inoperative wheel, uncovering an area 90% rich in silica. [138] The feature is reminiscent of the effect of hot spring water or steam coming into contact with volcanic rocks. Scientists consider this as evidence of a past environment that may have been favorable for microbial life and theorize that one possible origin for the silica may have been produced by the interaction of soil with acid vapors produced by volcanic activity in the presence of water. [139]

    Based on Earth analogs, hydrothermal systems on Mars would be highly attractive for their potential for preserving organic and inorganic biosignatures. [140] [141] [142] For this reason, hydrothermal deposits are regarded as important targets in the exploration for fossil evidence of ancient Martian life. [143] [144] [145]

    In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land on Earth may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits (often found around hot springs and geysers) uncovered in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. [146] [147] These findings may be helpful in deciding where best to search for early signs of life on the planet Mars. [146] [147]

    Methane Edit

    Methane (CH4) is chemically unstable in the current oxidizing atmosphere of Mars. It would quickly break down due to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun and chemical reactions with other gases. Therefore, a persistent presence of methane in the atmosphere may imply the existence of a source to continually replenish the gas.

    Trace amounts of methane, at the level of several parts per billion (ppb), were first reported in Mars' atmosphere by a team at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in 2003. [148] [149] Large differences in the abundances were measured between observations taken in 2003 and 2006, which suggested that the methane was locally concentrated and probably seasonal. [150] On June 7, 2018, NASA announced it has detected a seasonal variation of methane levels on Mars. [15] [151] [47] [48] [152] [153] [154] [46]

    The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), launched in March 2016, began on April 21, 2018 to map the concentration and sources of methane in the atmosphere, [155] [156] as well as its decomposition products such as formaldehyde and methanol. As of May 2019, the Trace Gas Orbiter showed that the concentration of methane is under detectable level (< 0.05 ppbv). [157] [158]

    The principal candidates for the origin of Mars' methane include non-biological processes such as water-rock reactions, radiolysis of water, and pyrite formation, all of which produce H2 that could then generate methane and other hydrocarbons via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with CO and CO2. [159] It has also been shown that methane could be produced by a process involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral olivine, which is known to be common on Mars. [160] Although geologic sources of methane such as serpentinization are possible, the lack of current volcanism, hydrothermal activity or hotspots [161] are not favorable for geologic methane.

    Living microorganisms, such as methanogens, are another possible source, but no evidence for the presence of such organisms has been found on Mars, [162] [163] [164] until June 2019 as methane was detected by the Curiosity rover. [165] Methanogens do not require oxygen or organic nutrients, are non-photosynthetic, use hydrogen as their energy source and carbon dioxide (CO2) as their carbon source, so they could exist in subsurface environments on Mars. [166] If microscopic Martian life is producing the methane, it probably resides far below the surface, where it is still warm enough for liquid water to exist. [167]

    Since the 2003 discovery of methane in the atmosphere, some scientists have been designing models and in vitro experiments testing the growth of methanogenic bacteria on simulated Martian soil, where all four methanogen strains tested produced substantial levels of methane, even in the presence of 1.0wt% perchlorate salt. [168]

    A team led by Levin suggested that both phenomena—methane production and degradation—could be accounted for by an ecology of methane-producing and methane-consuming microorganisms. [169] [170]

    Research at the University of Arkansas presented in June 2015 suggested that some methanogens could survive on Mars' low pressure. Rebecca Mickol found that in her laboratory, four species of methanogens survived low-pressure conditions that were similar to a subsurface liquid aquifer on Mars. The four species that she tested were Methanothermobacter wolfeii, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanobacterium formicicum, and Methanococcus maripaludis. [166] In June 2012, scientists reported that measuring the ratio of hydrogen and methane levels on Mars may help determine the likelihood of life on Mars. [162] [163] According to the scientists, "low H2/CH4 ratios (less than approximately 40)" would "indicate that life is likely present and active". [162] The observed ratios in the lower Martian atmosphere were "approximately 10 times" higher "suggesting that biological processes may not be responsible for the observed CH4". [162] The scientists suggested measuring the H2 and CH4 flux at the Martian surface for a more accurate assessment. Other scientists have recently reported methods of detecting hydrogen and methane in extraterrestrial atmospheres. [171] [172]

    Even if rover missions determine that microscopic Martian life is the seasonal source of the methane, the life forms probably reside far below the surface, outside of the rover's reach. [173]

    Formaldehyde Edit

    In February 2005, it was announced that the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter had detected traces of formaldehyde in the atmosphere of Mars. Vittorio Formisano, the director of the PFS, has speculated that the formaldehyde could be the byproduct of the oxidation of methane and, according to him, would provide evidence that Mars is either extremely geologically active or harboring colonies of microbial life. [174] [175] NASA scientists consider the preliminary findings well worth a follow-up but have also rejected the claims of life. [176] [177]

    Viking lander biological experiments Edit

    The 1970s Viking program placed two identical landers on the surface of Mars tasked to look for biosignatures of microbial life on the surface. Of the four experiments performed by each Viking lander, only the 'Labeled Release' (LR) experiment gave a positive result for metabolism, while the other three did not detect organic compounds. The LR was a specific experiment designed to test only a narrowly defined critical aspect of the theory concerning the possibility of life on Mars therefore, the overall results were declared inconclusive. [22] No Mars lander mission has found meaningful traces of biomolecules or biosignatures. The claim of extant microbial life on Mars is based on old data collected by the Viking landers, currently reinterpreted as sufficient evidence of life, mainly by Gilbert Levin, [178] [179] Joseph D. Miller, [180] Navarro, [181] Giorgio Bianciardi and Patricia Ann Straat, [182] that the Viking LR experiments detected extant microbial life on Mars.

    Assessments published in December 2010 by Rafael Navarro–Gonzáles [183] [184] [185] [186] indicate that organic compounds "could have been present" in the soil analyzed by both Viking 1 and 2. The study determined that perchlorate—discovered in 2008 by Phoenix lander [187] [188] —can destroy organic compounds when heated, and produce chloromethane and dichloromethane as a byproduct, the identical chlorine compounds discovered by both Viking landers when they performed the same tests on Mars. Because perchlorate would have broken down any Martian organics, the question of whether or not Viking found organic compounds is still wide open. [189] [190]

    The Labeled Release evidence was not generally accepted initially, and, to this day lacks the consensus of the scientific community. [191]

    Meteorites Edit

    As of 2018, there are 224 known Martian meteorites (some of which were found in several fragments). [192] These are valuable because they are the only physical samples of Mars available to Earth-bound laboratories. Some researchers have argued that microscopic morphological features found in ALH84001 are biomorphs, however this interpretation has been highly controversial and is not supported by the majority of researchers in the field. [193]

    Seven criteria have been established for the recognition of past life within terrestrial geologic samples. Those criteria are: [193]

    1. Is the geologic context of the sample compatible with past life?
    2. Is the age of the sample and its stratigraphic location compatible with possible life?
    3. Does the sample contain evidence of cellular morphology and colonies?
    4. Is there any evidence of biominerals showing chemical or mineral disequilibria?
    5. Is there any evidence of stable isotope patterns unique to biology?
    6. Are there any organic biomarkers present?
    7. Are the features indigenous to the sample?

    For general acceptance of past life in a geologic sample, essentially most or all of these criteria must be met. All seven criteria have not yet been met for any of the Martian samples. [193]

    ALH84001 Edit

    In 1996, the Martian meteorite ALH84001, a specimen that is much older than the majority of Martian meteorites that have been recovered so far, received considerable attention when a group of NASA scientists led by David S. McKay reported microscopic features and geochemical anomalies that they considered to be best explained by the rock having hosted Martian bacteria in the distant past. Some of these features resembled terrestrial bacteria, aside from their being much smaller than any known form of life. Much controversy arose over this claim, and ultimately all of the evidence McKay's team cited as evidence of life was found to be explainable by non-biological processes. Although the scientific community has largely rejected the claim ALH 84001 contains evidence of ancient Martian life, the controversy associated with it is now seen as a historically significant moment in the development of exobiology. [194] [195]

    Nakhla Edit

    The Nakhla meteorite fell on Earth on June 28, 1911, on the locality of Nakhla, Alexandria, Egypt. [196] [197]

    In 1998, a team from NASA's Johnson Space Center obtained a small sample for analysis. Researchers found preterrestrial aqueous alteration phases and objects [198] of the size and shape consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteria. Analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studied its high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 2000, and NASA scientists concluded that as much as 75% of the organic compounds in Nakhla "may not be recent terrestrial contamination". [193] [199]

    This caused additional interest in this meteorite, so in 2006, NASA managed to obtain an additional and larger sample from the London Natural History Museum. On this second sample, a large dendritic carbon content was observed. When the results and evidence were published in 2006, some independent researchers claimed that the carbon deposits are of biologic origin. It was remarked that since carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the Universe, finding it in curious patterns is not indicative or suggestive of biological origin. [200] [201]

    Shergotty Edit

    The Shergotty meteorite, a 4 kilograms (8.8 lb) Martian meteorite, fell on Earth on Shergotty, India on August 25, 1865, and was retrieved by witnesses almost immediately. [202] It is composed mostly of pyroxene and thought to have undergone preterrestrial aqueous alteration for several centuries. Certain features in its interior suggest remnants of a biofilm and its associated microbial communities. [193]

    Yamato 000593 Edit

    Yamato 000593 is the second largest meteorite from Mars found on Earth. Studies suggest the Martian meteorite was formed about 1.3 billion years ago from a lava flow on Mars. An impact occurred on Mars about 12 million years ago and ejected the meteorite from the Martian surface into space. The meteorite landed on Earth in Antarctica about 50,000 years ago. The mass of the meteorite is 13.7 kg (30 lb) and it has been found to contain evidence of past water movement. [203] [204] [205] At a microscopic level, spheres are found in the meteorite that are rich in carbon compared to surrounding areas that lack such spheres. The carbon-rich spheres may have been formed by biotic activity according to NASA scientists. [203] [204] [205]

    Ichnofossil-like structures Edit

    Organism-substrate interactions and their products are important biosignatures on Earth as they represent direct evidence of biological behaviour. [206] It was the recovery of fossilized products of life-substrate interactions (ichnofossils) that has revealed biological activities in the early history of life on the Earth,e.g., Proterozoic burrows, Archean microborings and stromatolites. [207] [208] [209] [210] [211] [212] Two major ichnofossil-like structures have been reported from Mars, i.e. the stick-like structures from Vera Rubin Ridge and the microtunnels from Martian Meteorites.

    Observations at Vera Rubin Ridge by the Mars Space Laboratory Rover Curiosity show millimetric, elongate structures preserved in sedimentary rocks deposited in fluvio-lacustrine environments within Gale Crater. Morphometric and topologic data are unique to the stick-like structures among Martian geological features and show that ichnofossils are among the closest morphological analogues of these unique features. [213] Nevertheless, available data cannot fully disprove two major abiotic hypotheses, that are sedimentary cracking and evaporitic crystal growth as genetic processes for the structures.

    Microtunnels have been described from Martian meteorites. They consist of straight to curved microtunnels that may contain areas of enhanced carbon abundance. The morphology of the curved microtunnels is consistent with biogenic traces on Earth, including microbioerosion traces observed in basaltic glasses. [214] [215] [212] Further studies are needed to confirm biogenicity.

    The seasonal frosting and defrosting of the southern ice cap results in the formation of spider-like radial channels carved on 1-meter thick ice by sunlight. Then, sublimed CO2 – and probably water – increase pressure in their interior producing geyser-like eruptions of cold fluids often mixed with dark basaltic sand or mud. [216] [217] [218] [219] This process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a growth rate rather unusual in geology – especially for Mars. [220]

    A team of Hungarian scientists propose that the geysers' most visible features, dark dune spots and spider channels, may be colonies of photosynthetic Martian microorganisms, which over-winter beneath the ice cap, and as the sunlight returns to the pole during early spring, light penetrates the ice, the microorganisms photosynthesize and heat their immediate surroundings. A pocket of liquid water, which would normally evaporate instantly in the thin Martian atmosphere, is trapped around them by the overlying ice. As this ice layer thins, the microorganisms show through grey. When the layer has completely melted, the microorganisms rapidly desiccate and turn black, surrounded by a grey aureole. [221] [222] [223] The Hungarian scientists believe that even a complex sublimation process is insufficient to explain the formation and evolution of the dark dune spots in space and time. [224] [225] Since their discovery, fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke promoted these formations as deserving of study from an astrobiological perspective. [226]

    A multinational European team suggests that if liquid water is present in the spiders' channels during their annual defrost cycle, they might provide a niche where certain microscopic life forms could have retreated and adapted while sheltered from solar radiation. [227] A British team also considers the possibility that organic matter, microbes, or even simple plants might co-exist with these inorganic formations, especially if the mechanism includes liquid water and a geothermal energy source. [220] They also remark that the majority of geological structures may be accounted for without invoking any organic "life on Mars" hypothesis. [220] It has been proposed to develop the Mars Geyser Hopper lander to study the geysers up close. [228]

    Planetary protection of Mars aims to prevent biological contamination of the planet. [229] A major goal is to preserve the planetary record of natural processes by preventing human-caused microbial introductions, also called forward contamination. There is abundant evidence as to what can happen when organisms from regions on Earth that have been isolated from one another for significant periods of time are introduced into each other's environment. Species that are constrained in one environment can thrive – often out of control – in another environment much to the detriment of the original species that were present. In some ways, this problem could be compounded if life forms from one planet were introduced into the totally alien ecology of another world. [230]

    The prime concern of hardware contaminating Mars derives from incomplete spacecraft sterilization of some hardy terrestrial bacteria (extremophiles) despite best efforts. [26] [231] Hardware includes landers, crashed probes, end-of-mission disposal of hardware, and the hard landing of entry, descent, and landing systems. This has prompted research on survival rates of radiation-resistant microorganisms including the species Deinococcus radiodurans and genera Brevundimonas, Rhodococcus, and Pseudomonas under simulated Martian conditions. [232] Results from one of these experimental irradiation experiments, combined with previous radiation modeling, indicate that Brevundimonas sp. MV.7 emplaced only 30 cm deep in Martian dust could survive the cosmic radiation for up to 100,000 years before suffering 10⁶ population reduction. [232] The diurnal Mars-like cycles in temperature and relative humidity affected the viability of Deinococcus radiodurans cells quite severely. [233] In other simulations, Deinococcus radiodurans also failed to grow under low atmospheric pressure, under 0 °C, or in the absence of oxygen. [234]

    Since the 1950s, researchers have used containers that simulate environmental conditions on Mars to determine the viability of a variety of lifeforms on Mars. Such devices, called "Mars jars" or "Mars simulation chambers", were first described and used in U.S. Air Force research in the 1950s by Hubertus Strughold, and popularized in civilian research by Joshua Lederberg and Carl Sagan. [235]

    On April 26, 2012, scientists reported that an extremophile lichen survived and showed remarkable results on the adaptation capacity of photosynthetic activity within the simulation time of 34 days under Martian conditions in the Mars Simulation Laboratory (MSL) maintained by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). [236] [237] [238] [239] [240] [241] The ability to survive in an environment is not the same as the ability to thrive, reproduce, and evolve in that same environment, necessitating further study. [27] [26]

    Although numerous studies point to resistance to some of Mars conditions, they do so separately, and none has considered the full range of Martian surface conditions, including temperature, pressure, atmospheric composition, radiation, humidity, oxidizing regolith, and others, all at the same time and in combination. [242] Laboratory simulations show that whenever multiple lethal factors are combined, the survival rates plummet quickly. [27]

    Water salinity and temperature Edit

    Astrobiologists funded by NASA are researching the limits of microbial life in solutions with high salt concentrations at low temperature. [243] Any body of liquid water under the polar ice caps or underground is likely to exist under high hydrostatic pressure and have a significant salt concentration. They know that the landing site of Phoenix lander, was found to be regolith cemented with water ice and salts, and the soil samples likely contained magnesium sulfate, magnesium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate, potassium perchlorate, sodium chloride and calcium carbonate. [243] [244] [245] Earth bacteria capable of growth and reproduction in the presence of highly salted solutions, called halophile or "salt-lover", were tested for survival using salts commonly found on Mars and at decreasing temperatures. [243] The species tested include Halomonas, Marinococcus, Nesterenkonia, and Virgibacillus. [243] Laboratory simulations show that whenever multiple Martian environmental factors are combined, the survival rates plummet quickly, [27] however, halophile bacteria were grown in a lab in water solutions containing more than 25% of salts common on Mars, and starting in 2019, the experiments will incorporate exposure to low temperature, salts, and high pressure. [243]

    Mars-2 Edit

    Mars-1 was the first spacecraft launched to Mars in 1962, [246] but communication was lost while en route to Mars. With Mars-2 and Mars-3 in 1971–1972, information was obtained on the nature of the surface rocks and altitude profiles of the surface density of the soil, its thermal conductivity, and thermal anomalies detected on the surface of Mars. The program found that its northern polar cap has a temperature below −110 °C (−166 °F) and that the water vapor content in the atmosphere of Mars is five thousand times less than on Earth. No signs of life were found. [247]

    Mariner 4 Edit

    Mariner 4 probe performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface in 1965. The photographs showed an arid Mars without rivers, oceans, or any signs of life. Further, it revealed that the surface (at least the parts that it photographed) was covered in craters, indicating a lack of plate tectonics and weathering of any kind for the last 4 billion years. The probe also found that Mars has no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic rays. The probe was able to calculate the atmospheric pressure on the planet to be about 0.6 kPa (compared to Earth's 101.3 kPa), meaning that liquid water could not exist on the planet's surface. [22] After Mariner 4, the search for life on Mars changed to a search for bacteria-like living organisms rather than for multicellular organisms, as the environment was clearly too harsh for these. [22] [248] [249]

    Viking orbiters Edit

    Liquid water is necessary for known life and metabolism, so if water was present on Mars, the chances of it having supported life may have been determinant. The Viking orbiters found evidence of possible river valleys in many areas, erosion and, in the southern hemisphere, branched streams. [250] [251] [252]

    Viking biological experiments Edit

    The primary mission of the Viking probes of the mid-1970s was to carry out experiments designed to detect microorganisms in Martian soil because the favorable conditions for the evolution of multicellular organisms ceased some four billion years ago on Mars. [253] The tests were formulated to look for microbial life similar to that found on Earth. Of the four experiments, only the Labeled Release (LR) experiment returned a positive result, [ dubious – discuss ] showing increased 14 CO2 production on first exposure of soil to water and nutrients. All scientists agree on two points from the Viking missions: that radiolabeled 14 CO2 was evolved in the Labeled Release experiment, and that the GCMS detected no organic molecules. There are vastly different interpretations of what those results imply: A 2011 astrobiology textbook notes that the GCMS was the decisive factor due to which "For most of the Viking scientists, the final conclusion was that the Viking missions failed to detect life in the Martian soil." [254]

    Norman Horowitz was the head of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory bioscience section for the Mariner and Viking missions from 1965 to 1976. Horowitz considered that the great versatility of the carbon atom makes it the element most likely to provide solutions, even exotic solutions, to the problems of survival of life on other planets. [255] However, he also considered that the conditions found on Mars were incompatible with carbon based life.

    One of the designers of the Labeled Release experiment, Gilbert Levin, believes his results are a definitive diagnostic for life on Mars. [22] Levin's interpretation is disputed by many scientists. [256] A 2006 astrobiology textbook noted that "With unsterilized Terrestrial samples, though, the addition of more nutrients after the initial incubation would then produce still more radioactive gas as the dormant bacteria sprang into action to consume the new dose of food. This was not true of the Martian soil on Mars, the second and third nutrient injections did not produce any further release of labeled gas." [257] Other scientists argue that superoxides in the soil could have produced this effect without life being present. [258] An almost general consensus discarded the Labeled Release data as evidence of life, because the gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer, designed to identify natural organic matter, did not detect organic molecules. [178] More recently, high levels of organic chemicals, particularly chlorobenzene, were detected in powder drilled from one of the rocks, named "Cumberland", analyzed by the Curiosity rover. [259] [260] The results of the Viking mission concerning life are considered by the general expert community as inconclusive. [22] [258] [261]

    In 2007, during a Seminar of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution (Washington, D.C., US), Gilbert Levin's investigation was assessed once more. [178] Levin still maintains that his original data were correct, as the positive and negative control experiments were in order. [182] Moreover, Levin's team, on April 12, 2012, reported a statistical speculation, based on old data—reinterpreted mathematically through cluster analysis—of the Labeled Release experiments, that may suggest evidence of "extant microbial life on Mars". [182] [262] Critics counter that the method has not yet been proven effective for differentiating between biological and non-biological processes on Earth so it is premature to draw any conclusions. [263]

    A research team from the National Autonomous University of Mexico headed by Rafael Navarro-González concluded that the GCMS equipment (TV-GC-MS) used by the Viking program to search for organic molecules, may not be sensitive enough to detect low levels of organics. [186] Klaus Biemann, the principal investigator of the GCMS experiment on Viking wrote a rebuttal. [264] Because of the simplicity of sample handling, TV–GC–MS is still considered the standard method for organic detection on future Mars missions, so Navarro-González suggests that the design of future organic instruments for Mars should include other methods of detection. [186]

    After the discovery of perchlorates on Mars by the Phoenix lander, practically the same team of Navarro-González published a paper arguing that the Viking GCMS results were compromised by the presence of perchlorates. [265] A 2011 astrobiology textbook notes that "while perchlorate is too poor an oxidizer to reproduce the LR results (under the conditions of that experiment perchlorate does not oxidize organics), it does oxidize, and thus destroy, organics at the higher temperatures used in the Viking GCMS experiment." [266] Biemann has written a commentary critical of this Navarro-González paper as well, [267] to which the latter have replied [268] the exchange was published in December 2011.

    Phoenix lander, 2008 Edit

    The Phoenix mission landed a robotic spacecraft in the polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008 and it operated until November 10, 2008. One of the mission's two primary objectives was to search for a "habitable zone" in the Martian regolith where microbial life could exist, the other main goal being to study the geological history of water on Mars. The lander has a 2.5 meter robotic arm that was capable of digging shallow trenches in the regolith. There was an electrochemistry experiment which analysed the ions in the regolith and the amount and type of antioxidants on Mars. The Viking program data indicate that oxidants on Mars may vary with latitude, noting that Viking 2 saw fewer oxidants than Viking 1 in its more northerly position. Phoenix landed further north still. [269] Phoenix's preliminary data revealed that Mars soil contains perchlorate, and thus may not be as life-friendly as thought earlier. [270] [271] [188] The pH and salinity level were viewed as benign from the standpoint of biology. The analysers also indicated the presence of bound water and CO2. [272] A recent analysis of Martian meteorite EETA79001 found 0.6 ppm ClO4 − , 1.4 ppm ClO3 − , and 16 ppm NO3 − , most likely of Martian origin. The ClO3 − suggests presence of other highly oxidizing oxychlorines such as ClO2 − or ClO, produced both by UV oxidation of Cl and X-ray radiolysis of ClO4 − . Thus only highly refractory and/or well-protected (sub-surface) organics are likely to survive. [273] In addition, recent analysis of the Phoenix WCL showed that the Ca(ClO4)2 in the Phoenix soil has not interacted with liquid water of any form, perhaps for as long as 600 Myr. If it had, the highly soluble Ca(ClO4)2 in contact with liquid water would have formed only CaSO4. This suggests a severely arid environment, with minimal or no liquid water interaction. [274]

    Mars Science Laboratory Edit

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission is a NASA project that launched on November 26, 2011, the Curiosity rover, a nuclear-powered robotic vehicle, bearing instruments designed to assess past and present habitability conditions on Mars. [275] [276] The Curiosity rover landed on Mars on Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater, near Aeolis Mons (a.k.a. Mount Sharp), [277] [278] [279] [280] on August 6, 2012. [281] [282] [283]

    On December 16, 2014, NASA reported the Curiosity rover detected a "tenfold spike", likely localized, in the amount of methane in the Martian atmosphere. Sample measurements taken "a dozen times over 20 months" showed increases in late 2013 and early 2014, averaging "7 parts of methane per billion in the atmosphere". Before and after that, readings averaged around one-tenth that level. [259] [260] In addition, low levels of chlorobenzene ( C
    6 H
    5 Cl ), were detected in powder drilled from one of the rocks, named "Cumberland", analyzed by the Curiosity rover. [259] [260] Mars 2020 rover Mars 2020 – The Mars 2020 rover is a Mars planetary rover mission by NASA, launched on 30 July 2020. It is intended to investigate an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars, investigate its surface geological processes and history, including the assessment of its past habitability and potential for preservation of biosignatures within accessible geological materials. [284]

    Future astrobiology missions Edit

      is a European-led multi-spacecraft programme currently under development by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Federal Space Agency for launch in 2016 and 2020. [286] Its primary scientific mission will be to search for possible biosignatures on Mars, past or present. A rover with a 2 m (6.6 ft) core drill will be used to sample various depths beneath the surface where liquid water may be found and where microorganisms or organic biosignatures might survive cosmic radiation. [41] – The best life detection experiment proposed is the examination on Earth of a soil sample from Mars. However, the difficulty of providing and maintaining life support over the months of transit from Mars to Earth remains to be solved. Providing for still unknown environmental and nutritional requirements is daunting, so it was concluded that "investigating carbon-based organic compounds would be one of the more fruitful approaches for seeking potential signs of life in returned samples as opposed to culture-based approaches." [287]

    Some of the main reasons for colonizing Mars include economic interests, long-term scientific research best carried out by humans as opposed to robotic probes, and sheer curiosity. Surface conditions and the presence of water on Mars make it arguably the most hospitable of the planets in the Solar System, other than Earth. Human colonization of Mars would require in situ resource utilization (ISRU) A NASA report states that "applicable frontier technologies include robotics, machine intelligence, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, 3-D printing/additive manufacturing, and autonomy. These technologies combined with the vast natural resources should enable, pre- and post-human arrival ISRU to greatly increase reliability and safety and reduce cost for human colonization of Mars." [288] [289] [290]


    Scientists may have found the earliest evidence of life on Earth

    When did life on Earth begin? Scientists have dug down through the geologic record, and the deeper they look, the more it seems that biology appeared early in our planet’s 4.5-billion-year history. So far, geologists have uncovered possible traces of life as far back as 3.8 billion years. Now, a controversial new study presents potential evidence that life arose 300 million years before that, during the mysterious period following Earth’s formation.

    The clues lie hidden in microscopic flecks of graphite—a carbon mineral—trapped inside a single large crystal of zircon. Zircons grow in magmas, often incorporating other minerals into their crystal structures of silicon, oxygen, and zirconium. And although they barely span the width of a human hair, zircons are nearly indestructible. They can outlast the rocks in which they initially formed, enduring multiple cycles of erosion and deposition.

    In fact, although the oldest rocks on Earth date back only 4 billion years, researchers have found zircons up to 4.4 billion years old. These crystals provide a rare glimpse into the first chapter of Earth’s history, known as the Hadean eon. “They are pretty much our only physical samples of what was going on on the Earth before 4 billion years ago,” says Elizabeth Bell, a geochemist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and lead author of the new study, published online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    In the study, Bell and her colleagues examined zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia, a site that has yielded more Hadean samples than anywhere else on Earth, searching for inclusions of carbon minerals like diamonds and graphite. The mere presence of these minerals does not prove biology existed when the zircons formed, but it does provide the opportunity to look for chemical signs of life. The team eventually found small bits of potentially undisturbed graphite in one 4.1 billion-year-old crystal. The graphite has a low ratio of heavy to light carbon atoms—called isotopes—consistent with the isotopic signature of organic matter. “On Earth today, if you were looking at this carbon, you would say it was biogenic,” Bell says. “Of course, that’s more controversial for the Hadean.”

    The authors list several nonbiological processes that could explain their findings, but they favor the idea that the graphite started out as organic matter in sediments that got dragged into the Earth’s mantle during the collision of tectonic plates. As the sediments melted to form magma, the elevated temperatures and pressures transformed the carbon into graphite, which eventually found its way into a zircon crystal.

    If this story is true, and life existed 4.1 billion years ago, Bell says that the new results would corroborate growing evidence of a more hospitable early Earth than scientists once imagined. “The traditional view of the Earth’s first few hundred million years was that this was a sterile, lifeless, hot planet that was constantly being bombarded by meteorites,” she says. But partly thanks to the wealth of information revealed by the Jack Hills zircons in recent years, scientists have come to see the early Earth as much milder and more amenable to life.

    “We know there was liquid water,” says Mark van Zuilen, a geomicrobiologist at the Paris Institute of Earth Physics. “There’s nothing that holds us back from assuming life was there.” However, van Zuilen and others say they’re not sure the new study provides compelling evidence that it was.

    Some of this circumspection has roots in recent history. In 2008, researchers announced that diamond-graphite inclusions in 4.3-billion-year-old zircons had potentially biological signatures, inspiring Bell and her team to start looking through UCLA’s own collection of Jack Hills crystals. But subsequent analysis showed the 2008 inclusions came from lab contamination, not early Earth. In the new study, the researchers took measures to prevent similar problems.

    “That one negative experience doesn’t mean nobody should try again,” says John Eiler, a geologist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. “But let’s just say, I’m cautious.” For one, he says, researchers need to settle some important debates, like whether the inclusions in Hadean zircons truly preserve original material, or if they’ve been altered, for example, during a later bout of metamorphism. He also questions whether organic matter can survive in magma chambers long enough to form graphite, casting doubt on the proposed mechanism.

    Those issues aside, most scientists—including the authors—agree that the data do not yet exclude nonbiological explanations. Many abiotic processes can produce carbon with isotopic signatures similar to organic matter. For instance, the graphite could contain carbon from certain kinds of meteorites, which have light isotopic compositions. Alternatively, some invoke chemical processes, like the so-called Fischer-Tropsch reactions, in which carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen react with a catalyst like iron to form methane and other hydrocarbons. Such reactions probably occurred near hydrothermal vents in the Hadean, van Zuilen says, and can impart isotopic signatures that are indistinguishable from biological materials.

    One way to settle the question that doesn’t rely on isotopes involves studying Mars, which, unlike Earth, still has rocks older than 4 billion years on its surface. “If we can find evidence for the existence of life on Mars at that time, then it will be easier to argue the case that it was also present on Earth,” says Alexander Nemchin, a geochemist at Curtin University in Bentley, Australia, and lead author of the 2008 study on diamond inclusions.

    For now, scientists must make do with zircons, the only materials that preserve any record—however cryptic—of the Hadean eon. Bell acknowledges the need to test her team’s hypothesis on additional samples. She says researchers must make a concerted effort to find more Hadean carbon in Jack Hills zircons and see if it too has potentially biological origins. “Hopefully we didn’t just chance on the one freak zircon that had graphite in it,” she says. “Hopefully there is actually a fair amount of it.”


    Contents

    The oldest meteorite fragments found on Earth are about 4.54 billion years old this, coupled primarily with the dating of ancient lead deposits, has put the estimated age of Earth at around that time. [40] The Moon has the same composition as Earth's crust but does not contain an iron-rich core like the Earth's. Many scientists think that about 40 million years after the formation of Earth, it collided with a body the size of Mars, throwing into orbit crust material that formed the Moon. Another hypothesis is that the Earth and Moon started to coalesce at the same time but the Earth, having much stronger gravity than the early Moon, attracted almost all the iron particles in the area. [41]

    Until 2001, the oldest rocks found on Earth were about 3.8 billion years old, [42] [40] leading scientists to estimate that the Earth's surface had been molten until then. Accordingly, they named this part of Earth's history the Hadean. [43] However, analysis of zircons formed 4.4 Ga indicates that Earth's crust solidified about 100 million years after the planet's formation and that the planet quickly acquired oceans and an atmosphere, which may have been capable of supporting life. [44] [45] [46]

    Evidence from the Moon indicates that from 4 to 3.8 Ga it suffered a Late Heavy Bombardment by debris that was left over from the formation of the Solar System, and the Earth should have experienced an even heavier bombardment due to its stronger gravity. [43] [47] While there is no direct evidence of conditions on Earth 4 to 3.8 Ga, there is no reason to think that the Earth was not also affected by this late heavy bombardment. [48] This event may well have stripped away any previous atmosphere and oceans in this case gases and water from comet impacts may have contributed to their replacement, although outgassing from volcanoes on Earth would have supplied at least half. [49] However, if subsurface microbial life had evolved by this point, it would have survived the bombardment. [50]

    The earliest identified organisms were minute and relatively featureless, and their fossils look like small rods that are very difficult to tell apart from structures that arise through abiotic physical processes. The oldest undisputed evidence of life on Earth, interpreted as fossilized bacteria, dates to 3 Ga. [51] Other finds in rocks dated to about 3.5 Ga have been interpreted as bacteria, [52] with geochemical evidence also seeming to show the presence of life 3.8 Ga. [53] However, these analyses were closely scrutinized, and non-biological processes were found which could produce all of the "signatures of life" that had been reported. [54] [55] While this does not prove that the structures found had a non-biological origin, they cannot be taken as clear evidence for the presence of life. Geochemical signatures from rocks deposited 3.4 Ga have been interpreted as evidence for life, [51] [56] although these statements have not been thoroughly examined by critics.

    Evidence for fossilized microorganisms considered to be 3.77 billion to 4.28 billion years old was found in the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt in Quebec, Canada, [16] although the evidence is disputed as inconclusive. [57]

    Biologists reason that all living organisms on Earth must share a single last universal ancestor, because it would be virtually impossible that two or more separate lineages could have independently developed the many complex biochemical mechanisms common to all living organisms. [59] [60]

    Independent emergence on Earth Edit

    Life on Earth is based on carbon and water. Carbon provides stable frameworks for complex chemicals and can be easily extracted from the environment, especially from carbon dioxide. [46] There is no other chemical element whose properties are similar enough to carbon's to be called an analogue silicon, the element directly below carbon on the periodic table, does not form very many complex stable molecules, and because most of its compounds are water-insoluble and because silicon dioxide is a hard and abrasive solid in contrast to carbon dioxide at temperatures associated with living things, it would be more difficult for organisms to extract. The elements boron and phosphorus have more complex chemistries, but suffer from other limitations relative to carbon. Water is an excellent solvent and has two other useful properties: the fact that ice floats enables aquatic organisms to survive beneath it in winter and its molecules have electrically negative and positive ends, which enables it to form a wider range of compounds than other solvents can. Other good solvents, such as ammonia, are liquid only at such low temperatures that chemical reactions may be too slow to sustain life, and lack water's other advantages. [61] Organisms based on alternative biochemistry may, however, be possible on other planets. [62]

    Research on how life might have emerged from non-living chemicals focuses on three possible starting points: self-replication, an organism's ability to produce offspring that are very similar to itself metabolism, its ability to feed and repair itself and external cell membranes, which allow food to enter and waste products to leave, but exclude unwanted substances. [63] Research on abiogenesis still has a long way to go, since theoretical and empirical approaches are only beginning to make contact with each other. [64] [65]

    Replication first: RNA world Edit

    Even the simplest members of the three modern domains of life use DNA to record their "recipes" and a complex array of RNA and protein molecules to "read" these instructions and use them for growth, maintenance and self-replication. The discovery that some RNA molecules can catalyze both their own replication and the construction of proteins led to the hypothesis of earlier life-forms based entirely on RNA. [66] These ribozymes could have formed an RNA world in which there were individuals but no species, as mutations and horizontal gene transfers would have meant that the offspring in each generation were quite likely to have different genomes from those that their parents started with. [67] RNA would later have been replaced by DNA, which is more stable and therefore can build longer genomes, expanding the range of capabilities a single organism can have. [67] [68] [69] Ribozymes remain as the main components of ribosomes, modern cells' "protein factories." [70] Evidence suggests the first RNA molecules formed on Earth prior to 4.17 Ga. [71]

    Although short self-replicating RNA molecules have been artificially produced in laboratories, [72] doubts have been raised about whether natural non-biological synthesis of RNA is possible. [73] The earliest "ribozymes" may have been formed of simpler nucleic acids such as PNA, TNA or GNA, which would have been replaced later by RNA. [74] [75]

    In 2003, it was proposed that porous metal sulfide precipitates would assist RNA synthesis at about 100 °C (212 °F) and ocean-bottom pressures near hydrothermal vents. Under this hypothesis, lipid membranes would be the last major cell components to appear and, until then, the protocells would be confined to the pores. [76]

    Metabolism first: Iron–sulfur world Edit

    A series of experiments starting in 1997 showed that early stages in the formation of proteins from inorganic materials including carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide could be achieved by using iron sulfide and nickel sulfide as catalysts. Most of the steps required temperatures of about 100 °C (212 °F) and moderate pressures, although one stage required 250 °C (482 °F) and a pressure equivalent to that found under 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) of rock. Hence it was suggested that self-sustaining synthesis of proteins could have occurred near hydrothermal vents. [77]

    Membranes first: Lipid world Edit

    It has been suggested that double-walled "bubbles" of lipids like those that form the external membranes of cells may have been an essential first step. [78] Experiments that simulated the conditions of the early Earth have reported the formation of lipids, and these can spontaneously form liposomes, double-walled "bubbles," and then reproduce themselves. [46] Although they are not intrinsically information-carriers as nucleic acids are, they would be subject to natural selection for longevity and reproduction. Nucleic acids such as RNA might then have formed more easily within the liposomes than they would have outside. [79]

    The clay hypothesis Edit

    RNA is complex and there are doubts about whether it can be produced non-biologically in the wild. [73] Some clays, notably montmorillonite, have properties that make them plausible accelerators for the emergence of an RNA world: they grow by self-replication of their crystalline pattern they are subject to an analog of natural selection, as the clay "species" that grows fastest in a particular environment rapidly becomes dominant and they can catalyze the formation of RNA molecules. [80] Although this idea has not become the scientific consensus, it still has active supporters. [81]

    Research in 2003 reported that montmorillonite could also accelerate the conversion of fatty acids into "bubbles," and that the "bubbles" could encapsulate RNA attached to the clay. These "bubbles" can then grow by absorbing additional lipids and then divide. The formation of the earliest cells may have been aided by similar processes. [82]

    A similar hypothesis presents self-replicating iron-rich clays as the progenitors of nucleotides, lipids and amino acids. [83]

    Life "seeded" from elsewhere Edit

    The Panspermia hypothesis does not explain how life arose in the first place, but simply examines the possibility of it coming from somewhere other than the Earth. The idea that life on Earth was "seeded" from elsewhere in the Universe dates back at least to the Greek philosopher Anaximander in the sixth century BCE. [84] In the twentieth century it was proposed by the physical chemist Svante Arrhenius, [85] by the astronomers Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe, [86] and by molecular biologist Francis Crick and chemist Leslie Orgel. [87]

    There are three main versions of the "seeded from elsewhere" hypothesis: from elsewhere in our Solar System via fragments knocked into space by a large meteor impact, in which case the most credible sources are Mars [88] and Venus [89] by alien visitors, possibly as a result of accidental contamination by microorganisms that they brought with them [87] and from outside the Solar System but by natural means. [85] [88]

    Experiments in low Earth orbit, such as EXOSTACK, demonstrated that some microorganism spores can survive the shock of being catapulted into space and some can survive exposure to outer space radiation for at least 5.7 years. [90] [91] Scientists are divided over the likelihood of life arising independently on Mars, [92] or on other planets in our galaxy. [88]

    Microbial mats are multi-layered, multi-species colonies of bacteria and other organisms that are generally only a few millimeters thick, but still contain a wide range of chemical environments, each of which favors a different set of microorganisms. [93] To some extent each mat forms its own food chain, as the by-products of each group of microorganisms generally serve as "food" for adjacent groups. [94]

    Stromatolites are stubby pillars built as microorganisms in mats slowly migrate upwards to avoid being smothered by sediment deposited on them by water. [93] There has been vigorous debate about the validity of alleged fossils from before 3 Ga, [95] with critics arguing that so-called stromatolites could have been formed by non-biological processes. [54] In 2006, another find of stromatolites was reported from the same part of Australia as previous ones, in rocks dated to 3.5 Ga. [96]

    In modern underwater mats the top layer often consists of photosynthesizing cyanobacteria which create an oxygen-rich environment, while the bottom layer is oxygen-free and often dominated by hydrogen sulfide emitted by the organisms living there. [94] It is estimated that the appearance of oxygenic photosynthesis by bacteria in mats increased biological productivity by a factor of between 100 and 1,000. The reducing agent used by oxygenic photosynthesis is water, which is much more plentiful than the geologically produced reducing agents required by the earlier non-oxygenic photosynthesis. [97] From this point onwards life itself produced significantly more of the resources it needed than did geochemical processes. [98] Oxygen is toxic to organisms that are not adapted to it, but greatly increases the metabolic efficiency of oxygen-adapted organisms. [99] [100] Oxygen became a significant component of Earth's atmosphere about 2.4 Ga. [101] Although eukaryotes may have been present much earlier, [102] [103] the oxygenation of the atmosphere was a prerequisite for the evolution of the most complex eukaryotic cells, from which all multicellular organisms are built. [104] The boundary between oxygen-rich and oxygen-free layers in microbial mats would have moved upwards when photosynthesis shut down overnight, and then downwards as it resumed on the next day. This would have created selection pressure for organisms in this intermediate zone to acquire the ability to tolerate and then to use oxygen, possibly via endosymbiosis, where one organism lives inside another and both of them benefit from their association. [18]

    Cyanobacteria have the most complete biochemical "toolkits" of all the mat-forming organisms. Hence they are the most self-sufficient of the mat organisms and were well-adapted to strike out on their own both as floating mats and as the first of the phytoplankton, providing the basis of most marine food chains. [18]

    Chromatin, nucleus, endomembrane system, and mitochondria Edit

    Eukaryotes may have been present long before the oxygenation of the atmosphere, [102] but most modern eukaryotes require oxygen, which their mitochondria use to fuel the production of ATP, the internal energy supply of all known cells. [104] In the 1970s it was proposed and, after much debate, widely accepted that eukaryotes emerged as a result of a sequence of endosymbiosis between prokaryotes. For example: a predatory microorganism invaded a large prokaryote, probably an archaean, but the attack was neutralized, and the attacker took up residence and evolved into the first of the mitochondria one of these chimeras later tried to swallow a photosynthesizing cyanobacterium, but the victim survived inside the attacker and the new combination became the ancestor of plants and so on. After each endosymbiosis began, the partners would have eliminated unproductive duplication of genetic functions by re-arranging their genomes, a process which sometimes involved transfer of genes between them. [107] [108] [109] Another hypothesis proposes that mitochondria were originally sulfur- or hydrogen-metabolising endosymbionts, and became oxygen-consumers later. [110] On the other hand, mitochondria might have been part of eukaryotes' original equipment. [111]

    There is a debate about when eukaryotes first appeared: the presence of steranes in Australian shales may indicate that eukaryotes were present 2.7 Ga [103] however, an analysis in 2008 concluded that these chemicals infiltrated the rocks less than 2.2 Ga and prove nothing about the origins of eukaryotes. [112] Fossils of the algae Grypania have been reported in 1.85 billion-year-old rocks (originally dated to 2.1 Ga but later revised [21] ), and indicates that eukaryotes with organelles had already evolved. [113] A diverse collection of fossil algae were found in rocks dated between 1.5 and 1.4 Ga. [114] The earliest known fossils of fungi date from 1.43 Ga. [115]

    Plastids Edit

    Plastids, the superclass of organelles of which chloroplasts are the best-known exemplar, are thought to have originated from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The symbiosis evolved around 1.5 Ga and enabled eukaryotes to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. [104] Three evolutionary lineages of photosynthetic plastids have since emerged in which the plastids are named differently: chloroplasts in green algae and plants, rhodoplasts in red algae and cyanelles in the glaucophytes. [116]

    Evolution of sexual reproduction Edit

    The defining characteristics of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes are meiosis and fertilization. There is much genetic recombination in this kind of reproduction, in which offspring receive 50% of their genes from each parent, [117] in contrast with asexual reproduction, in which there is no recombination. Bacteria also exchange DNA by bacterial conjugation, the benefits of which include resistance to antibiotics and other toxins, and the ability to utilize new metabolites. [118] However, conjugation is not a means of reproduction, and is not limited to members of the same species – there are cases where bacteria transfer DNA to plants and animals. [119]

    On the other hand, bacterial transformation is clearly an adaptation for transfer of DNA between bacteria of the same species. Bacterial transformation is a complex process involving the products of numerous bacterial genes and can be regarded as a bacterial form of sex. [120] [121] This process occurs naturally in at least 67 prokaryotic species (in seven different phyla). [122] Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes may have evolved from bacterial transformation. [123]

    The disadvantages of sexual reproduction are well-known: the genetic reshuffle of recombination may break up favorable combinations of genes and since males do not directly increase the number of offspring in the next generation, an asexual population can out-breed and displace in as little as 50 generations a sexual population that is equal in every other respect. [117] Nevertheless, the great majority of animals, plants, fungi and protists reproduce sexually. There is strong evidence that sexual reproduction arose early in the history of eukaryotes and that the genes controlling it have changed very little since then. [124] How sexual reproduction evolved and survived is an unsolved puzzle. [125]

    The Red Queen hypothesis suggests that sexual reproduction provides protection against parasites, because it is easier for parasites to evolve means of overcoming the defenses of genetically identical clones than those of sexual species that present moving targets, and there is some experimental evidence for this. However, there is still doubt about whether it would explain the survival of sexual species if multiple similar clone species were present, as one of the clones may survive the attacks of parasites for long enough to out-breed the sexual species. [117] Furthermore, contrary to the expectations of the Red Queen hypothesis, Kathryn A. Hanley et al. found that the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of mites was significantly higher in sexual geckos than in asexuals sharing the same habitat. [127] In addition, biologist Matthew Parker, after reviewing numerous genetic studies on plant disease resistance, failed to find a single example consistent with the concept that pathogens are the primary selective agent responsible for sexual reproduction in the host. [128]

    Alexey Kondrashov's deterministic mutation hypothesis (DMH) assumes that each organism has more than one harmful mutation and the combined effects of these mutations are more harmful than the sum of the harm done by each individual mutation. If so, sexual recombination of genes will reduce the harm that bad mutations do to offspring and at the same time eliminate some bad mutations from the gene pool by isolating them in individuals that perish quickly because they have an above-average number of bad mutations. However, the evidence suggests that the DMH's assumptions are shaky because many species have on average less than one harmful mutation per individual and no species that has been investigated shows evidence of synergy between harmful mutations. [117]

    The random nature of recombination causes the relative abundance of alternative traits to vary from one generation to another. This genetic drift is insufficient on its own to make sexual reproduction advantageous, but a combination of genetic drift and natural selection may be sufficient. When chance produces combinations of good traits, natural selection gives a large advantage to lineages in which these traits become genetically linked. On the other hand, the benefits of good traits are neutralized if they appear along with bad traits. Sexual recombination gives good traits the opportunities to become linked with other good traits, and mathematical models suggest this may be more than enough to offset the disadvantages of sexual reproduction. [125] Other combinations of hypotheses that are inadequate on their own are also being examined. [117]

    The adaptive function of sex today remains a major unresolved issue in biology. The competing models to explain the adaptive function of sex were reviewed by John A. Birdsell and Christopher Wills. [129] The hypotheses discussed above all depend on the possible beneficial effects of random genetic variation produced by genetic recombination. An alternative view is that sex arose and is maintained, as a process for repairing DNA damage, and that the genetic variation produced is an occasionally beneficial byproduct. [123] [130]

    Multicellularity Edit

    The simplest definitions of "multicellular," for example "having multiple cells," could include colonial cyanobacteria like Nostoc. Even a technical definition such as "having the same genome but different types of cell" would still include some genera of the green algae Volvox, which have cells that specialize in reproduction. [131] Multicellularity evolved independently in organisms as diverse as sponges and other animals, fungi, plants, brown algae, cyanobacteria, slime molds and myxobacteria. [21] [132] For the sake of brevity, this article focuses on the organisms that show the greatest specialization of cells and variety of cell types, although this approach to the evolution of biological complexity could be regarded as "rather anthropocentric." [22]

    The initial advantages of multicellularity may have included: more efficient sharing of nutrients that are digested outside the cell, [134] increased resistance to predators, many of which attacked by engulfing the ability to resist currents by attaching to a firm surface the ability to reach upwards to filter-feed or to obtain sunlight for photosynthesis [135] the ability to create an internal environment that gives protection against the external one [22] and even the opportunity for a group of cells to behave "intelligently" by sharing information. [133] These features would also have provided opportunities for other organisms to diversify, by creating more varied environments than flat microbial mats could. [135]

    Multicellularity with differentiated cells is beneficial to the organism as a whole but disadvantageous from the point of view of individual cells, most of which lose the opportunity to reproduce themselves. In an asexual multicellular organism, rogue cells which retain the ability to reproduce may take over and reduce the organism to a mass of undifferentiated cells. Sexual reproduction eliminates such rogue cells from the next generation and therefore appears to be a prerequisite for complex multicellularity. [135]

    The available evidence indicates that eukaryotes evolved much earlier but remained inconspicuous until a rapid diversification around 1 Ga. The only respect in which eukaryotes clearly surpass bacteria and archaea is their capacity for variety of forms, and sexual reproduction enabled eukaryotes to exploit that advantage by producing organisms with multiple cells that differed in form and function. [135]

    By comparing the composition of transcription factor families and regulatory network motifs between unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms, scientists found there are many novel transcription factor families and three novel types of regulatory network motifs in multicellular organisms, and novel family transcription factors are preferentially wired into these novel network motifs which are essential for multicullular development. These results propose a plausible mechanism for the contribution of novel-family transcription factors and novel network motifs to the origin of multicellular organisms at transcriptional regulatory level. [136]

    Fossil evidence Edit

    The Francevillian biota fossils, dated to 2.1 Ga, are the earliest known fossil organisms that are clearly multicellular. [39] They may have had differentiated cells. [137] Another early multicellular fossil, Qingshania, dated to 1.7 Ga, appears to consist of virtually identical cells. The red algae called Bangiomorpha, dated at 1.2 Ga, is the earliest known organism that certainly has differentiated, specialized cells, and is also the oldest known sexually reproducing organism. [135] The 1.43 billion-year-old fossils interpreted as fungi appear to have been multicellular with differentiated cells. [115] The "string of beads" organism Horodyskia, found in rocks dated from 1.5 Ga to 900 Ma, may have been an early metazoan [21] however, it has also been interpreted as a colonial foraminiferan. [126]

    Animals are multicellular eukaryotes, [note 1] and are distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls. [139] All animals are motile, [140] if only at certain life stages. All animals except sponges have bodies differentiated into separate tissues, including muscles, which move parts of the animal by contracting, and nerve tissue, which transmits and processes signals. [141] In November 2019, researchers reported the discovery of Caveasphaera, a multicellular organism found in 609-million-year-old rocks, that is not easily defined as an animal or non-animal, which may be related to one of the earliest instances of animal evolution. [142] [143] Fossil studies of Caveasphaera have suggested that animal-like embryonic development arose much earlier than the oldest clearly defined animal fossils. [142] and may be consistent with studies suggesting that animal evolution may have begun about 750 million years ago. [143] [144]

    Nonetheless, the earliest widely accepted animal fossils are the rather modern-looking cnidarians (the group that includes jellyfish, sea anemones and Hydra), possibly from around 580 Ma , although fossils from the Doushantuo Formation can only be dated approximately. Their presence implies that the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages had already diverged. [145]

    The Ediacara biota, which flourished for the last 40 million years before the start of the Cambrian, [146] were the first animals more than a very few centimetres long. Many were flat and had a "quilted" appearance, and seemed so strange that there was a proposal to classify them as a separate kingdom, Vendozoa. [147] Others, however, have been interpreted as early molluscs (Kimberella [148] [149] ), echinoderms (Arkarua [150] ), and arthropods (Spriggina, [151] Parvancorina [152] ). There is still debate about the classification of these specimens, mainly because the diagnostic features which allow taxonomists to classify more recent organisms, such as similarities to living organisms, are generally absent in the Ediacarans. However, there seems little doubt that Kimberella was at least a triploblastic bilaterian animal, in other words, an animal significantly more complex than the cnidarians. [153]

    The small shelly fauna are a very mixed collection of fossils found between the Late Ediacaran and Middle Cambrian periods. The earliest, Cloudina, shows signs of successful defense against predation and may indicate the start of an evolutionary arms race. Some tiny Early Cambrian shells almost certainly belonged to molluscs, while the owners of some "armor plates," Halkieria and Microdictyon, were eventually identified when more complete specimens were found in Cambrian lagerstätten that preserved soft-bodied animals. [154]

    In the 1970s there was already a debate about whether the emergence of the modern phyla was "explosive" or gradual but hidden by the shortage of Precambrian animal fossils. [154] A re-analysis of fossils from the Burgess Shale lagerstätte increased interest in the issue when it revealed animals, such as Opabinia, which did not fit into any known phylum. At the time these were interpreted as evidence that the modern phyla had evolved very rapidly in the Cambrian explosion and that the Burgess Shale's "weird wonders" showed that the Early Cambrian was a uniquely experimental period of animal evolution. [156] Later discoveries of similar animals and the development of new theoretical approaches led to the conclusion that many of the "weird wonders" were evolutionary "aunts" or "cousins" of modern groups [157] —for example that Opabinia was a member of the lobopods, a group which includes the ancestors of the arthropods, and that it may have been closely related to the modern tardigrades. [158] Nevertheless, there is still much debate about whether the Cambrian explosion was really explosive and, if so, how and why it happened and why it appears unique in the history of animals. [159]

    Deuterostomes and the first vertebrates Edit

    Most of the animals at the heart of the Cambrian explosion debate are protostomes, one of the two main groups of complex animals. The other major group, the deuterostomes, contains invertebrates such as starfish and sea urchins (echinoderms), as well as chordates (see below). Many echinoderms have hard calcite "shells," which are fairly common from the Early Cambrian small shelly fauna onwards. [154] Other deuterostome groups are soft-bodied, and most of the significant Cambrian deuterostome fossils come from the Chengjiang fauna, a lagerstätte in China. [161] The chordates are another major deuterostome group: animals with a distinct dorsal nerve cord. Chordates include soft-bodied invertebrates such as tunicates as well as vertebrates—animals with a backbone. While tunicate fossils predate the Cambrian explosion, [162] the Chengjiang fossils Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia appear to be true vertebrates, [30] and Haikouichthys had distinct vertebrae, which may have been slightly mineralized. [163] Vertebrates with jaws, such as the acanthodians, first appeared in the Late Ordovician. [164]

    Adaptation to life on land is a major challenge: all land organisms need to avoid drying-out and all those above microscopic size must create special structures to withstand gravity respiration and gas exchange systems have to change reproductive systems cannot depend on water to carry eggs and sperm towards each other. [165] [166] [167] Although the earliest good evidence of land plants and animals dates back to the Ordovician period ( 488 to 444 Ma ), and a number of microorganism lineages made it onto land much earlier, [168] [169] modern land ecosystems only appeared in the Late Devonian, about 385 to 359 Ma . [170] In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits (often found around hot springs and geysers) uncovered in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. [171] [172] In July 2018, scientists reported that the earliest life on land may have been bacteria living on land 3.22 billion years ago. [173] In May 2019, scientists reported the discovery of a fossilized fungus, named Ourasphaira giraldae, in the Canadian Arctic, that may have grown on land a billion years ago, well before plants were living on land. [174] [175] [176]

    Evolution of terrestrial antioxidants Edit

    Oxygen is a potent oxidant whose accumulation in terrestrial atmosphere resulted from the development of photosynthesis over 3 Ga, in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), which were the most primitive oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Brown algae accumulate inorganic mineral antioxidants such as rubidium, vanadium, zinc, iron, copper, molybdenum, selenium and iodine which is concentrated more than 30,000 times the concentration of this element in seawater. Protective endogenous antioxidant enzymes and exogenous dietary antioxidants helped to prevent oxidative damage. Most marine mineral antioxidants act in the cells as essential trace elements in redox and antioxidant metalloenzymes. [ citation needed ]

    When plants and animals began to enter rivers and land about 500 Ma, environmental deficiency of these marine mineral antioxidants was a challenge to the evolution of terrestrial life. [177] [178] Terrestrial plants slowly optimized the production of “new” endogenous antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, polyphenols, flavonoids, tocopherols, etc. A few of these appeared more recently, in last 200–50 Ma, in fruits and flowers of angiosperm plants. [ citation needed ]

    In fact, angiosperms (the dominant type of plant today) and most of their antioxidant pigments evolved during the Late Jurassic period. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species produced during photosynthesis. Animals are exposed to the same oxidants, and they have evolved endogenous enzymatic antioxidant systems. [179] Iodine in the form of the iodide ion I- is the most primitive and abundant electron-rich essential element in the diet of marine and terrestrial organisms, and iodide acts as an electron donor and has this ancestral antioxidant function in all iodide-concentrating cells from primitive marine algae to more recent terrestrial vertebrates. [180]

    Evolution of soil Edit

    Before the colonization of land, soil, a combination of mineral particles and decomposed organic matter, did not exist. Land surfaces would have been either bare rock or unstable sand produced by weathering. Water and any nutrients in it would have drained away very quickly. [170] In the Sub-Cambrian peneplain in Sweden for example maximum depth of kaolinitization by Neoproterozoic weathering is about 5 m, in contrast nearby kaolin deposits developed in the Mesozoic are much thicker. [181] It has been argued that in the late Neoproterozoic sheet wash was a dominant process of erosion of surface material due to the lack of plants on land. [182]

    Films of cyanobacteria, which are not plants but use the same photosynthesis mechanisms, have been found in modern deserts, and only in areas that are unsuitable for vascular plants. This suggests that microbial mats may have been the first organisms to colonize dry land, possibly in the Precambrian. Mat-forming cyanobacteria could have gradually evolved resistance to desiccation as they spread from the seas to intertidal zones and then to land. [170] Lichens, which are symbiotic combinations of a fungus (almost always an ascomycete) and one or more photosynthesizers (green algae or cyanobacteria), [183] are also important colonizers of lifeless environments, [170] and their ability to break down rocks contributes to soil formation in situations where plants cannot survive. [183] The earliest known ascomycete fossils date from 423 to 419 Ma in the Silurian. [170]

    Soil formation would have been very slow until the appearance of burrowing animals, which mix the mineral and organic components of soil and whose feces are a major source of the organic components. [170] Burrows have been found in Ordovician sediments, and are attributed to annelids ("worms") or arthropods. [170] [184]

    Plants and the Late Devonian wood crisis Edit

    In aquatic algae, almost all cells are capable of photosynthesis and are nearly independent. Life on land required plants to become internally more complex and specialized: photosynthesis was most efficient at the top roots were required in order to extract water from the ground the parts in between became supports and transport systems for water and nutrients. [165] [185]

    Spores of land plants, possibly rather like liverworts, have been found in Middle Ordovician rocks dated to about 476 Ma . In Middle Silurian rocks 430 Ma , there are fossils of actual plants including clubmosses such as Baragwanathia most were under 10 centimetres (3.9 in) high, and some appear closely related to vascular plants, the group that includes trees. [185]

    By the Late Devonian 370 Ma , trees such as Archaeopteris were so abundant that they changed river systems from mostly braided to mostly meandering, because their roots bound the soil firmly. [186] In fact, they caused the "Late Devonian wood crisis" [187] because:

    • They removed more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, reducing the greenhouse effect and thus causing an ice age in the Carboniferous period. [28] In later ecosystems the carbon dioxide "locked up" in wood is returned to the atmosphere by decomposition of dead wood. However, the earliest fossil evidence of fungi that can decompose wood also comes from the Late Devonian. [188]
    • The increasing depth of plants' roots led to more washing of nutrients into rivers and seas by rain. This caused algal blooms whose high consumption of oxygen caused anoxic events in deeper waters, increasing the extinction rate among deep-water animals. [28]

    Land invertebrates Edit

    Animals had to change their feeding and excretory systems, and most land animals developed internal fertilization of their eggs. [167] The difference in refractive index between water and air required changes in their eyes. On the other hand, in some ways movement and breathing became easier, and the better transmission of high-frequency sounds in air encouraged the development of hearing. [166]

    The oldest known air-breathing animal is Pneumodesmus, an archipolypodan millipede from the Middle Silurian, about 428 Ma . [189] [190] Its air-breathing, terrestrial nature is evidenced by the presence of spiracles, the openings to tracheal systems. [191] However, some earlier trace fossils from the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary about 490 Ma are interpreted as the tracks of large amphibious arthropods on coastal sand dunes, and may have been made by euthycarcinoids, [192] which are thought to be evolutionary "aunts" of myriapods. [193] Other trace fossils from the Late Ordovician a little over 445 Ma probably represent land invertebrates, and there is clear evidence of numerous arthropods on coasts and alluvial plains shortly before the Silurian-Devonian boundary, about 415 Ma , including signs that some arthropods ate plants. [194] Arthropods were well pre-adapted to colonise land, because their existing jointed exoskeletons provided protection against desiccation, support against gravity and a means of locomotion that was not dependent on water. [167] [195]

    The fossil record of other major invertebrate groups on land is poor: none at all for non-parasitic flatworms, nematodes or nemerteans some parasitic nematodes have been fossilized in amber annelid worm fossils are known from the Carboniferous, but they may still have been aquatic animals the earliest fossils of gastropods on land date from the Late Carboniferous, and this group may have had to wait until leaf litter became abundant enough to provide the moist conditions they need. [166]

    The earliest confirmed fossils of flying insects date from the Late Carboniferous, but it is thought that insects developed the ability to fly in the Early Carboniferous or even Late Devonian. This gave them a wider range of ecological niches for feeding and breeding, and a means of escape from predators and from unfavorable changes in the environment. [196] About 99% of modern insect species fly or are descendants of flying species. [197]

    Early land vertebrates Edit

    Tetrapods, vertebrates with four limbs, evolved from other rhipidistian fish over a relatively short timespan during the Late Devonian ( 370 to 360 Ma ). [200] The early groups are grouped together as Labyrinthodontia. They retained aquatic, fry-like tadpoles, a system still seen in modern amphibians.

    Iodine and T4/T3 stimulate the amphibian metamorphosis and the evolution of nervous systems transforming the aquatic, vegetarian tadpole into a "more evoluted" terrestrial, carnivorous frog with better neurological, visuospatial, olfactory and cognitive abilities for hunting. [177] The new hormonal action of T3 was made possible by the formation of T3-receptors in the cells of vertebrates. Firstly, about 600-500 million years ago, in primitive Chordata appeared the alpha T3-receptors with a metamorphosing action and then, about 250-150 million years ago, in the Birds and Mammalia appeared the beta T3-receptors with metabolic and thermogenetic actions. [201]

    From the 1950s to the early 1980s it was thought that tetrapods evolved from fish that had already acquired the ability to crawl on land, possibly in order to go from a pool that was drying out to one that was deeper. However, in 1987, nearly complete fossils of Acanthostega from about 363 Ma showed that this Late Devonian transitional animal had legs and both lungs and gills, but could never have survived on land: its limbs and its wrist and ankle joints were too weak to bear its weight its ribs were too short to prevent its lungs from being squeezed flat by its weight its fish-like tail fin would have been damaged by dragging on the ground. The current hypothesis is that Acanthostega, which was about 1 metre (3.3 ft) long, was a wholly aquatic predator that hunted in shallow water. Its skeleton differed from that of most fish, in ways that enabled it to raise its head to breathe air while its body remained submerged, including: its jaws show modifications that would have enabled it to gulp air the bones at the back of its skull are locked together, providing strong attachment points for muscles that raised its head the head is not joined to the shoulder girdle and it has a distinct neck. [198]

    The Devonian proliferation of land plants may help to explain why air breathing would have been an advantage: leaves falling into streams and rivers would have encouraged the growth of aquatic vegetation this would have attracted grazing invertebrates and small fish that preyed on them they would have been attractive prey but the environment was unsuitable for the big marine predatory fish air-breathing would have been necessary because these waters would have been short of oxygen, since warm water holds less dissolved oxygen than cooler marine water and since the decomposition of vegetation would have used some of the oxygen. [198]

    Later discoveries revealed earlier transitional forms between Acanthostega and completely fish-like animals. [202] Unfortunately, there is then a gap (Romer's gap) of about 30 Ma between the fossils of ancestral tetrapods and Middle Carboniferous fossils of vertebrates that look well-adapted for life on land. Some of these look like early relatives of modern amphibians, most of which need to keep their skins moist and to lay their eggs in water, while others are accepted as early relatives of the amniotes, whose waterproof skin and egg membranes enable them to live and breed far from water. [199]

    Dinosaurs, birds and mammals Edit

    Anapsids whether turtles belong here is debated [203]

    Amniotes, whose eggs can survive in dry environments, probably evolved in the Late Carboniferous period ( 330 to 298.9 Ma ). The earliest fossils of the two surviving amniote groups, synapsids and sauropsids, date from around 313 Ma . [204] [205] The synapsid pelycosaurs and their descendants the therapsids are the most common land vertebrates in the best-known Permian ( 298.9 to 251.902 Ma ) fossil beds. However, at the time these were all in temperate zones at middle latitudes, and there is evidence that hotter, drier environments nearer the Equator were dominated by sauropsids and amphibians. [206]

    The Permian–Triassic extinction event wiped out almost all land vertebrates, [207] as well as the great majority of other life. [208] During the slow recovery from this catastrophe, estimated to have taken 30 million years, [209] a previously obscure sauropsid group became the most abundant and diverse terrestrial vertebrates: a few fossils of archosauriformes ("ruling lizard forms") have been found in Late Permian rocks, [210] but, by the Middle Triassic, archosaurs were the dominant land vertebrates. Dinosaurs distinguished themselves from other archosaurs in the Late Triassic, and became the dominant land vertebrates of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods ( 201.3 to 66 Ma ). [211]

    During the Late Jurassic, birds evolved from small, predatory theropod dinosaurs. [212] The first birds inherited teeth and long, bony tails from their dinosaur ancestors, [212] but some had developed horny, toothless beaks by the very Late Jurassic [213] and short pygostyle tails by the Early Cretaceous. [214]

    While the archosaurs and dinosaurs were becoming more dominant in the Triassic, the mammaliaform successors of the therapsids evolved into small, mainly nocturnal insectivores. This ecological role may have promoted the evolution of mammals, for example nocturnal life may have accelerated the development of endothermy ("warm-bloodedness") and hair or fur. [215] By 195 Ma in the Early Jurassic there were animals that were very like today's mammals in a number of respects. [216] Unfortunately, there is a gap in the fossil record throughout the Middle Jurassic. [217] However, fossil teeth discovered in Madagascar indicate that the split between the lineage leading to monotremes and the one leading to other living mammals had occurred by 167 Ma . [218] After dominating land vertebrate niches for about 150 Ma, the non-avian dinosaurs perished in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event ( 66 Ma ) along with many other groups of organisms. [219] Mammals throughout the time of the dinosaurs had been restricted to a narrow range of taxa, sizes and shapes, but increased rapidly in size and diversity after the extinction, [220] [221] with bats taking to the air within 13 million years, [222] and cetaceans to the sea within 15 million years. [223]

    Flowering plants Edit

    The first flowering plants appeared around 130 Ma. [226] The 250,000 to 400,000 species of flowering plants outnumber all other ground plants combined, and are the dominant vegetation in most terrestrial ecosystems. There is fossil evidence that flowering plants diversified rapidly in the Early Cretaceous, from 130 to 90 Ma , [224] [225] and that their rise was associated with that of pollinating insects. [225] Among modern flowering plants Magnolia are thought to be close to the common ancestor of the group. [224] However, paleontologists have not succeeded in identifying the earliest stages in the evolution of flowering plants. [224] [225]

    Social insects Edit

    The social insects are remarkable because the great majority of individuals in each colony are sterile. This appears contrary to basic concepts of evolution such as natural selection and the selfish gene. In fact, there are very few eusocial insect species: only 15 out of approximately 2,600 living families of insects contain eusocial species, and it seems that eusociality has evolved independently only 12 times among arthropods, although some eusocial lineages have diversified into several families. Nevertheless, social insects have been spectacularly successful for example although ants and termites account for only about 2% of known insect species, they form over 50% of the total mass of insects. Their ability to control a territory appears to be the foundation of their success. [227]

    The sacrifice of breeding opportunities by most individuals has long been explained as a consequence of these species' unusual haplodiploid method of sex determination, which has the paradoxical consequence that two sterile worker daughters of the same queen share more genes with each other than they would with their offspring if they could breed. [228] However, E. O. Wilson and Bert Hölldobler argue that this explanation is faulty: for example, it is based on kin selection, but there is no evidence of nepotism in colonies that have multiple queens. Instead, they write, eusociality evolves only in species that are under strong pressure from predators and competitors, but in environments where it is possible to build "fortresses" after colonies have established this security, they gain other advantages through co-operative foraging. In support of this explanation they cite the appearance of eusociality in bathyergid mole rats, [227] which are not haplodiploid. [229]

    The earliest fossils of insects have been found in Early Devonian rocks from about 400 Ma , which preserve only a few varieties of flightless insect. The Mazon Creek lagerstätten from the Late Carboniferous, about 300 Ma , include about 200 species, some gigantic by modern standards, and indicate that insects had occupied their main modern ecological niches as herbivores, detritivores and insectivores. Social termites and ants first appear in the Early Cretaceous, and advanced social bees have been found in Late Cretaceous rocks but did not become abundant until the Middle Cenozoic. [230]

    Humans Edit

    The idea that, along with other life forms, modern-day humans evolved from an ancient, common ancestor was proposed by Robert Chambers in 1844 and taken up by Charles Darwin in 1871. [231] Modern humans evolved from a lineage of upright-walking apes that has been traced back over 6 Ma to Sahelanthropus. [232] The first known stone tools were made about 2.5 Ma , apparently by Australopithecus garhi, and were found near animal bones that bear scratches made by these tools. [233] The earliest hominines had chimpanzee-sized brains, but there has been a fourfold increase in the last 3 Ma a statistical analysis suggests that hominine brain sizes depend almost completely on the date of the fossils, while the species to which they are assigned has only slight influence. [234] There is a long-running debate about whether modern humans evolved all over the world simultaneously from existing advanced hominines or are descendants of a single small population in Africa, which then migrated all over the world less than 200,000 years ago and replaced previous hominine species. [235] There is also debate about whether anatomically modern humans had an intellectual, cultural and technological "Great Leap Forward" under 100,000 years ago and, if so, whether this was due to neurological changes that are not visible in fossils. [236]

    Life on Earth has suffered occasional mass extinctions at least since 542 Ma . Although they were disasters at the time, mass extinctions have sometimes accelerated the evolution of life on Earth. When dominance of particular ecological niches passes from one group of organisms to another, it is rarely because the new dominant group is "superior" to the old and usually because an extinction event eliminates the old dominant group and makes way for the new one. [37] [237]

    The fossil record appears to show that the gaps between mass extinctions are becoming longer and the average and background rates of extinction are decreasing. Both of these phenomena could be explained in one or more ways: [238]

    • The oceans may have become more hospitable to life over the last 500 Ma and less vulnerable to mass extinctions: dissolved oxygen became more widespread and penetrated to greater depths the development of life on land reduced the run-off of nutrients and hence the risk of eutrophication and anoxic events and marine ecosystems became more diversified so that food chains were less likely to be disrupted. [239][240]
    • Reasonably complete fossils are very rare, most extinct organisms are represented only by partial fossils, and complete fossils are rarest in the oldest rocks. So paleontologists have mistakenly assigned parts of the same organism to different genera, which were often defined solely to accommodate these finds—the story of Anomalocaris is an example of this. The risk of this mistake is higher for older fossils because these are often both unlike parts of any living organism and poorly conserved. Many of the "superfluous" genera are represented by fragments which are not found again and the "superfluous" genera appear to become extinct very quickly. [238]

    Biodiversity in the fossil record, which is ". the number of distinct genera alive at any given time that is, those whose first occurrence predates and whose last occurrence postdates that time" [241] shows a different trend: a fairly swift rise from 542 to 400 Ma a slight decline from 400 to 200 Ma , in which the devastating Permian–Triassic extinction event is an important factor and a swift rise from 200 Ma to the present. [241]


    Life may have originated on Earth 4 billion years ago, study of controversial fossils suggests

    In 1992, researchers discovered evidence of what was then potentially the earliest life on Earth: 3.5-billion-year-old microscopic squiggles encased in Australian rocks. Since then, however, scientists have debated whether these imprints truly represent ancient microorganisms, and even if they do, whether they’re really that old. Now, a comprehensive analysis of these microfossils suggests that these formations do indeed represent ancient microbes, ones potentially so complex that life on our planet must have originated some 500 million years earlier.

    The new work indicates these early microorganisms were surprisingly sophisticated, capable of photosynthesis and of using other chemical processes to get energy, says Birger Rasmussen, a geobiologist at Curtin University in Perth, Australia, who was not involved with the work. The study “will probably touch off a flurry of new research into these rocks as other researchers look for data that either support or disprove this new assertion,” adds Alison Olcott Marshall, a geobiologist at the University of Kansas in Lawrence who was not involved in the effort.

    In the new study, William Schopf, a paleobiologist at the University of California, Los Angeles—and the discoverer of the Australian microfossils—teamed up with John Valley, a geoscientist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. Valley is an expert in an analytical technique called secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), which can determine the ratio of different forms of carbon in a sample—key to gauging whether it’s organic.

    Schopf spent 4 months working with microscopes to find a thin slice of the rock that contains the fossils with specimens accessible enough to study with SIMS that sample contained 11 microfossils whose diversity of shapes and sizes suggested they represented five species of microbes. He also provided samples of rock containing no putative fossils for comparison.

    New evidence supports that these “squiggles” represent early life.

    The analysis detected several distinct carbon ratios in the material, Schopf, Valley, and colleagues report today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . Two types of microfossils had the same carbon ratio as modern bacteria that use light to make carbon compounds that fuel their activities—a primitive photosynthesis that did not involve oxygen. Two other types of microfossils had the same carbon ratios as microbes known as archaea that depend on methane as their energy source—and that played a pivotal role in the development of multicellular life. The ratio of a final type of microfossil indicated that this organism produced methane as part of its metabolism.

    That there are so many different carbon ratios strengthens the case that these are real fossils, Schopf says. Any inorganic processes that could have created the squiggles would be expected to leave a uniform carbon ratio signature, he says. The fact that microbes were already so diverse at this point in Earth’s history also suggests that life on our planet may date back to 4 billion years ago, he says. Other researchers have found signs of life dating back at least that far, but those findings are even more controversial than Schopf’s.

    “The new results add weight to the idea that the microstructures are biological,” Rasmussen agrees. But he is concerned that the microfossils may have been badly preserved. Olcott Marshall, who thinks the rock impressions are not fossils at all, but the product of geological processes, is even more critical: “The errors produced by this analytical technique are so large” that the data are not clear enough to say there are different types of microbes in rock, she says.

    But SIMS experts praise the work. “It was a really careful, well thought out experiment,” says Lara Gamble, a chemist at the University of Washington in Seattle who was not involved in the study. “They put in a lot of effort to try to make sure everything was calibrated properly.”

    Rasmussen hopes there will follow-up work that analyzes more microfossils. “It’s worth getting this right, given that we are looking at some of the oldest possible traces of life,” he says. “Honing our skills at recognizing ancient biosignatures on Earth is important as we cast our eyes to Mars and beyond.”


    The Four Civilizations That Existed on Earth Before Humans

    Ernst Rifgatovich Muldashev, a Russian surgeon has always been looking for traces of ancient civilizations that disappeared long before the rise of mankind on Earth.

    Muldashev strongly believes in the existence of a civilization more ancient than us, and all his suspicions are supported by archaeological finds and references, as well as backed by many UFO’s stories and legends.

    According to him, there were a total of four different civilizations that existed before us.

    ASURAS, THE NATIVES

    According to Muldashev, this was the first civilization that appeared on Earth more than 10 million years ago. They were very tall beings, up to 165 feet. They lived for more than ten thousand years and used telepathy to communicate. If we are to trust Muldashev, these creatures came from a planet called Phaethon.

    ATLANTEANS, THOSE BORN AFTER

    The Atlanteans are the result of a physical evolution undertaken by the Asuras. They were slightly smaller and had no bones at all. However, they had a third eye located between the eyebrows.

    LEMURIANS, THE BUILDERS OF THE SPHINX

    Lemurians appeared after the disappearance of the Atlanteans. These were very similar to humans, which means that they had a skeleton and were differentiated according to sex. They still possessed a third eye. They were about 26 feet tall and lived more than a thousand years. According to Muldashev, they were the ones who constructed the Sphinx and the Stonehenge.

    BOREI, THE MOST SIMILAR TO MAN

    These were very similar to man, more than the Lemurians were. The height did not exceed 13 feet. They fled from the Earth as a consequence of a nuclear catastrophe that occurred on our planet more than 25 thousand years ago.

    ARYANS, AFTER THE FALL OF ATLANTIS

    According to Muldashev, a new race has evolved right after the disappearance of Atlantis. These were the direct ancestors of humans. This race did not have a third eye and they lived approximately 12 thousand years ago.


    Contents

    The existence of Mars as a wandering object in the night sky was recorded by ancient Egyptian astronomers. By the 2nd millennium BCE they were familiar with the apparent retrograde motion of the planet, in which it appears to move in the opposite direction across the sky from its normal progression. [2] Mars was portrayed on the ceiling of the tomb of Seti I, on the Ramesseum ceiling, [3] and in the Senenmut star map. The last is the oldest known star map, being dated to 1534 BCE based on the position of the planets. [2]

    By the period of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Babylonian astronomers were making systematic observations of the positions and behavior of the planets. For Mars, they knew, for example, that the planet made 37 synodic periods, or 42 circuits of the zodiac, every 79 years. The Babylonians invented arithmetic methods for making minor corrections to the predicted positions of the planets. This technique was primarily derived from timing measurements—such as when Mars rose above the horizon, rather than from the less accurately known position of the planet on the celestial sphere. [4] [5]

    Chinese records of the appearances and motions of Mars appear before the founding of the Zhou Dynasty (1045 BCE), and by the Qin Dynasty (221 BCE) astronomers maintained close records of planetary conjunctions, including those of Mars. Occultations of Mars by Venus were noted in 368, 375, and 405 CE. [6] The period and motion of the planet's orbit was known in detail during the Tang Dynasty (618 CE). [7] [8] [9]

    The early astronomy of ancient Greece was influenced by knowledge transmitted from the Mesopotamian culture. Thus the Babylonians associated Mars with Nergal, their god of war and pestilence, and the Greeks connected the planet with their god of war, Ares. [10] During this period, the motions of the planets were of little interest to the Greeks Hesiod's Works and Days (c. 650 BCE) makes no mention of the planets. [11]

    The Greeks used the word planēton to refer to the seven celestial bodies that moved with respect to the background stars and they held a geocentric view that these bodies moved about the Earth. In his work, The Republic (X.616E–617B), the Greek philosopher Plato provided the oldest known statement defining the order of the planets in Greek astronomical tradition. His list, in order of the nearest to the most distant from the Earth, was as follows: the Moon, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the fixed stars. In his dialogue Timaeus, Plato proposed that the progression of these objects across the skies depended on their distance, so that the most distant object moved the slowest. [12]

    Aristotle, a student of Plato, observed an occultation of Mars by the Moon on 4 May 357 BCE. [13] From this he concluded that Mars must lie further from the Earth than the Moon. He noted that other such occultations of stars and planets had been observed by the Egyptians and Babylonians. [14] [15] [16] Aristotle used this observational evidence to support the Greek sequencing of the planets. [17] His work De Caelo presented a model of the universe in which the Sun, Moon, and planets circle about the Earth at fixed distances. A more sophisticated version of the geocentric model was developed by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus when he proposed that Mars moved along a circular track called the epicycle that, in turn, orbited about the Earth along a larger circle called the deferent. [18] [19]

    In Roman Egypt during the 2nd century CE, Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) attempted to address the problem of the orbital motion of Mars. Observations of Mars had shown that the planet appeared to move 40% faster on one side of its orbit than the other, in conflict with the Aristotelian model of uniform motion. Ptolemy modified the model of planetary motion by adding a point offset from the center of the planet's circular orbit about which the planet moves at a uniform rate of rotation. He proposed that the order of the planets, by increasing distance, was: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the fixed stars. [20] Ptolemy's model and his collective work on astronomy was presented in the multi-volume collection Almagest, which became the authoritative treatise on Western astronomy for the next fourteen centuries. [19]

    In the 5th century CE, the Indian astronomical text Surya Siddhanta estimated the angular size of Mars as 2 arc-minutes (1/30 of a degree) and its distance to Earth as 10,433,000 km (1,296,600 yojana, where one yojana is equivalent to eight km in the Surya Siddhanta). From this the diameter of Mars is deduced to be 6,070 km (754.4 yojana), which has an error within 11% of the currently accepted value of 6,788 km. However, this estimate was based upon an inaccurate guess of the planet's angular size. The result may have been influenced by the work of Ptolemy, who listed a value of 1.57 arc-minutes. Both estimates are significantly larger than the value later obtained by telescope. [21]


    Kepler's geocentric motions of Mars
    from Astronomia Nova (1609)

    Modern opposition computations
    These charts show the direction and distance of Mars relative to the Earth at the center, with oppositions and apparent retrograde motion approximately every 2 years and closest oppositions every 15–17 years due to Mars' eccentric orbit.

    In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus published a heliocentric model in his work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. This approach placed the Earth in an orbit around the Sun between the circular orbits of Venus and Mars. His model successfully explained why the planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were on the opposite side of the sky from the Sun whenever they were in the middle of their retrograde motions. Copernicus was able to sort the planets into their correct heliocentric order based solely on the period of their orbits about the Sun. [22] His theory gradually gained acceptance among European astronomers, particularly after the publication of the Prutenic Tables by the German astronomer Erasmus Reinhold in 1551, which were computed using the Copernican model. [23]

    On October 13, 1590, the German astronomer Michael Maestlin observed an occultation of Mars by Venus. [24] One of his students, Johannes Kepler, quickly became an adherent to the Copernican system. After the completion of his education, Kepler became an assistant to the Danish nobleman and astronomer, Tycho Brahe. With access granted to Tycho's detailed observations of Mars, Kepler was set to work mathematically assembling a replacement to the Prutenic Tables. After repeatedly failing to fit the motion of Mars into a circular orbit as required under Copernicanism, he succeeded in matching Tycho's observations by assuming the orbit was an ellipse and the Sun was located at one of the foci. His model became the basis for Kepler's laws of planetary motion, which were published in his multi-volume work Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (Epitome of Copernican Astronomy) between 1615 and 1621. [25]

    At its closest approach, the angular size of Mars is 25 arcseconds (a unit of degree) this is much too small for the naked eye to resolve. Hence, prior to the invention of the telescope, nothing was known about the planet besides its position on the sky. [26] The Italian scientist Galileo Galilei was the first person known to use a telescope to make astronomical observations. His records indicate that he began observing Mars through a telescope in September 1610. [27] This instrument was too primitive to display any surface detail on the planet, [28] so he set the goal of seeing if Mars exhibited phases of partial darkness similar to Venus or the Moon. Although uncertain of his success, by December he did note that Mars had shrunk in angular size. [27] Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius succeeded in observing a phase of Mars in 1645. [29]

    In 1644, the Italian Jesuit Daniello Bartoli reported seeing two darker patches on Mars. During the oppositions of 1651, 1653 and 1655, when the planet made its closest approaches to the Earth, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Riccioli and his student Francesco Maria Grimaldi noted patches of differing reflectivity on Mars. [28] The first person to draw a map of Mars that displayed terrain features was the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens. On November 28, 1659 he made an illustration of Mars that showed the distinct dark region now known as Syrtis Major Planum, and possibly one of the polar ice caps. [30] The same year, he succeeded in measuring the rotation period of the planet, giving it as approximately 24 hours. [29] He made a rough estimate of the diameter of Mars, guessing that it is about 60% of the size of the Earth, which compares well with the modern value of 53%. [31] Perhaps the first definitive mention of Mars's southern polar ice cap was by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini, in 1666. That same year, he used observations of the surface markings on Mars to determine a rotation period of 24 h 40 m . This differs from the currently-accepted value by less than three minutes. In 1672, Huygens noticed a fuzzy white cap at the north pole. [32]

    After Cassini became the first director of the Paris Observatory in 1671, he tackled the problem of the physical scale of the Solar System. The relative size of the planetary orbits was known from Kepler's third law, so what was needed was the actual size of one of the planet's orbits. For this purpose, the position of Mars was measured against the background stars from different points on the Earth, thereby measuring the diurnal parallax of the planet. During this year, the planet was moving past the point along its orbit where it was nearest to the Sun (a perihelic opposition), which made this a particularly close approach to the Earth. Cassini and Jean Picard determined the position of Mars from Paris, while the French astronomer Jean Richer made measurements from Cayenne, South America. Although these observations were hampered by the quality of the instruments, the parallax computed by Cassini came within 10% of the correct value. [33] [34] The English astronomer John Flamsteed made comparable measurement attempts and had similar results. [35]

    In 1704, Italian astronomer Jacques Philippe Maraldi "made a systematic study of the southern cap and observed that it underwent" variations as the planet rotated. This indicated that the cap was not centered on the pole. He observed that the size of the cap varied over time. [28] [36] The German-born British astronomer Sir William Herschel began making observations of the planet Mars in 1777, particularly of the planet's polar caps. In 1781, he noted that the south cap appeared "extremely large", which he ascribed to that pole being in darkness for the past twelve months. By 1784, the southern cap appeared much smaller, thereby suggesting that the caps vary with the planet's seasons and thus were made of ice. In 1781, he estimated the rotation period of Mars as 24 h 39 m 21.67 s and measured the axial tilt of the planet's poles to the orbital plane as 28.5°. He noted that Mars had a "considerable but moderate atmosphere, so that its inhabitants probably enjoy a situation in many respects similar to ours". [36] [37] [38] [39] Between 1796 and 1809, the French astronomer Honoré Flaugergues noticed obscurations of Mars, suggesting "ochre-colored veils" covered the surface. This may be the earliest report of yellow clouds or storms on Mars. [40] [41]

    At the start of the 19th century, improvements in the size and quality of telescope optics proved a significant advance in observation capability. Most notable among these enhancements was the two-component achromatic lens of the German optician Joseph von Fraunhofer that essentially eliminated coma—an optical effect that can distort the outer edge of the image. By 1812, Fraunhofer had succeeded in creating an achromatic objective lens 190 mm (7.5 in) in diameter. The size of this primary lens is the main factor in determining the light gathering ability and resolution of a refracting telescope. [42] [43] During the opposition of Mars in 1830, the German astronomers Johann Heinrich Mädler and Wilhelm Beer used a 95 mm (3.7 in) Fraunhofer refracting telescope to launch an extensive study of the planet. They chose a feature located 8° south of the equator as their point of reference. (This was later named the Sinus Meridiani, and it would become the zero meridian of Mars.) During their observations, they established that most of Mars' surface features were permanent, and more precisely determined the planet's rotation period. In 1840, Mädler combined ten years of observations to draw the first map of Mars. Rather than giving names to the various markings, Beer and Mädler simply designated them with letters thus Meridian Bay (Sinus Meridiani) was feature "a". [29] [43] [44]

    Working at the Vatican Observatory during the opposition of Mars in 1858, Italian astronomer Angelo Secchi noticed a large blue triangular feature, which he named the "Blue Scorpion". This same seasonal cloud-like formation was seen by English astronomer J. Norman Lockyer in 1862, and it has been viewed by other observers. [45] During the 1862 opposition, Dutch astronomer Frederik Kaiser produced drawings of Mars. By comparing his illustrations to those of Huygens and the English natural philosopher Robert Hooke, he was able to further refine the rotation period of Mars. His value of 24 h 37 m 22.6 s is accurate to within a tenth of a second. [43] [46]

    Father Secchi produced some of the first color illustrations of Mars in 1863. He used the names of famous explorers for the distinct features. In 1869, he observed two dark linear features on the surface that he referred to as canali, which is Italian for 'channels' or 'grooves'. [47] [48] [49] In 1867, English astronomer Richard A. Proctor created a more detailed map of Mars based on the 1864 drawings of English astronomer William R. Dawes. Proctor named the various lighter or darker features after astronomers, past and present, who had contributed to the observations of Mars. During the same decade, comparable maps and nomenclature were produced by the French astronomer Camille Flammarion and the English astronomer Nathan Green. [49]

    At the University of Leipzig in 1862–64, German astronomer Johann K. F. Zöllner developed a custom photometer to measure the reflectivity of the Moon, planets and bright stars. For Mars, he derived an albedo of 0.27. Between 1877 and 1893, German astronomers Gustav Müller and Paul Kempf observed Mars using Zöllner's photometer. They found a small phase coefficient—the variation in reflectivity with angle—indicating that the surface of Mars is smooth and without large irregularities. [50] In 1867, French astronomer Pierre Janssen and British astronomer William Huggins used spectroscopes to examine the atmosphere of Mars. Both compared the optical spectrum of Mars to that of the Moon. As the spectrum of the latter did not display absorption lines of water, they believed they had detected the presence of water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars. This result was confirmed by German astronomer Herman C. Vogel in 1872 and English astronomer Edward W. Maunder in 1875, but would later come into question. [51] In 1882, an article appeared in Scientific American discussing snow on the polar regions of Mars and speculation on the probability of ocean currents. [52]

    A particularly favorable perihelic opposition occurred in 1877. The English astronomer David Gill used this opportunity to measure the diurnal parallax of Mars from Ascension Island, which led to a parallax estimate of 8.78 ± 0.01 arcseconds . [53] Using this result, he was able to more accurately determine the distance of the Earth from the Sun, based upon the relative size of the orbits of Mars and the Earth. [54] He noted that the edge of the disk of Mars appeared fuzzy because of its atmosphere, which limited the precision he could obtain for the planet's position. [55]

    In August 1877, the American astronomer Asaph Hall discovered the two moons of Mars using a 660 mm (26 in) telescope at the U.S. Naval Observatory. [56] The names of the two satellites, Phobos and Deimos, were chosen by Hall based upon a suggestion by Henry Madan, a science instructor at Eton College in England. [57]

    During the 1877 opposition, Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli used a 22 cm (8.7 in) telescope to help produce the first detailed map of Mars. These maps notably contained features he called canali, which were later shown to be an optical illusion. These canali were supposedly long straight lines on the surface of Mars to which he gave names of famous rivers on Earth. His term canali was popularly mistranslated in English as canals. [58] [59] In 1886, the English astronomer William F. Denning observed that these linear features were irregular in nature and showed concentrations and interruptions. By 1895, English astronomer Edward Maunder became convinced that the linear features were merely the summation of many smaller details. [60]

    In his 1892 work La planète Mars et ses conditions d'habitabilité, Camille Flammarion wrote about how these channels resembled man-made canals, which an intelligent race could use to redistribute water across a dying Martian world. He advocated for the existence of such inhabitants, and suggested they may be more advanced than humans. [61]

    Influenced by the observations of Schiaparelli, Percival Lowell founded an observatory with 30-and-45 cm (12-and-18 in) telescopes. The observatory was used for the exploration of Mars during the last good opportunity in 1894 and the following less favorable oppositions. He published books on Mars and life on the planet, which had a great influence on the public. [62] The canali were found by other astronomers, such as Henri Joseph Perrotin and Louis Thollon using a 38 cm (15 in) refractor at the Nice Observatory in France, one of the largest telescopes of that time. [63] [64]

    Beginning in 1901, American astronomer A. E. Douglass attempted to photograph the canal features of Mars. These efforts appeared to succeed when American astronomer Carl O. Lampland published photographs of the supposed canals in 1905. [65] Although these results were widely accepted, they became contested by Greek astronomer Eugène M. Antoniadi, English naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace and others as merely imagined features. [60] [66] As bigger telescopes were used, fewer long, straight canali were observed. During an observation in 1909 by Flammarion with an 84 cm (33 in) telescope, irregular patterns were observed, but no canali were seen. [67]

    Starting in 1909 Eugène Antoniadi was able to help disprove the theory of Martian canali by viewing through the great refractor of Meudon, the Grande Lunette (83 cm lens). [68] A trifecta of observational factors synergize viewing through the third largest refractor in the World, Mars was at opposition, and exceptional clear weather. [68] The canali dissolved before Antoniadi's eyes into various "spots and blotches" on the surface of Mars. [68]

    Surface obscuration caused by yellow clouds had been noted in the 1870s when they were observed by Schiaparelli. Evidence for such clouds was observed during the oppositions of 1892 and 1907. In 1909, Antoniadi noted that the presence of yellow clouds was associated with the obscuration of albedo features. He discovered that Mars appeared more yellow during oppositions when the planet was closest to the Sun and was receiving more energy. He suggested windblown sand or dust as the cause of the clouds. [70] [71]

    In 1894, American astronomer William W. Campbell found that the spectrum of Mars was identical to the spectrum of the Moon, throwing doubt on the burgeoning theory that the atmosphere of Mars is similar to that of the Earth. Previous detections of water in the atmosphere of Mars were explained by unfavorable conditions, and Campbell determined that the water signature came entirely from the Earth's atmosphere. Although he agreed that the ice caps did indicate there was water in the atmosphere, he did not believe the caps were sufficiently large to allow the water vapor to be detected. [72] At the time, Campbell's results were considered controversial and were criticized by members of the astronomical community, but they were confirmed by American astronomer Walter S. Adams in 1925. [73]

    Baltic German astronomer Hermann Struve used the observed changes in the orbits of the Martian moons to determine the gravitational influence of the planet's oblate shape. In 1895, he used this data to estimate that the equatorial diameter was 1/190 larger than the polar diameter. [36] [74] In 1911, he refined the value to 1/192. This result was confirmed by American meteorologist Edgar W. Woolard in 1944. [75]

    Using a vacuum thermocouple attached to the 2.54 m (100 in) Hooker Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, in 1924 the American astronomers Seth Barnes Nicholson and Edison Pettit were able to measure the thermal energy being radiated by the surface of Mars. They determined that the temperature ranged from −68 °C (−90 °F) at the pole up to 7 °C (45 °F) at the midpoint of the disk (corresponding to the equator). [76] Beginning in the same year, radiated energy measurements of Mars were made by American physicist William Coblentz and American astronomer Carl Otto Lampland. The results showed that the night time temperature on Mars dropped to −85 °C (−121 °F), indicating an "enormous diurnal fluctuation" in temperatures. [77] The temperature of Martian clouds was measured as −30 °C (−22 °F). [78] In 1926, by measuring spectral lines that were redshifted by the orbital motions of Mars and Earth, American astronomer Walter Sydney Adams was able to directly measure the amount of oxygen and water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars. He determined that "extreme desert conditions" were prevalent on Mars. [79] In 1934, Adams and American astronomer Theodore Dunham Jr. found that the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere of Mars was less than one percent of the amount over a comparable area on Earth. [80]

    In 1927, Dutch graduate student Cyprianus Annius van den Bosch made a determination of the mass of Mars based upon the motions of the Martian moons, with an accuracy of 0.2%. This result was confirmed by the Dutch astronomer Willem de Sitter and published posthumously in 1938. [81] Using observations of the near Earth asteroid Eros from 1926 to 1945, German-American astronomer Eugene K. Rabe was able to make an independent estimate the mass of Mars, as well as the other planets in the inner Solar System, from the planet's gravitational perturbations of the asteroid. His estimated margin of error was 0.05%, [82] but subsequent checks suggested his result was poorly determined compared to other methods. [83]

    During the 1920s, French astronomer Bernard Lyot used a polarimeter to study the surface properties of the Moon and planets. In 1929, he noted that the polarized light emitted from the Martian surface is very similar to that radiated from the Moon, although he speculated that his observations could be explained by frost and possibly vegetation. Based on the amount of sunlight scattered by the Martian atmosphere, he set an upper limit of 1/15 the thickness of the Earth's atmosphere. This restricted the surface pressure to no greater than 2.4 kPa (24 mbar). [84] Using infrared spectrometry, in 1947 the Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper detected carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere. He was able to estimate that the amount of carbon dioxide over a given area of the surface is double that on the Earth. However, because he overestimated the surface pressure on Mars, Kuiper concluded erroneously that the ice caps could not be composed of frozen carbon dioxide. [85] In 1948, American meteorologist Seymour L. Hess determined that the formation of the thin Martian clouds would only require 4 mm (0.16 in) of water precipitation and a vapor pressure of 0.1 kPa (1.0 mbar). [78]

    The first standard nomenclature for Martian albedo features was introduced by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) when in 1960 they adopted 128 names from the 1929 map of Antoniadi named La Planète Mars. The Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) was established by the IAU in 1973 to standardize the naming scheme for Mars and other bodies. [86]

    The International Planetary Patrol Program was formed in 1969 as a consortium to continually monitor planetary changes. This worldwide group focused on observing dust storms on Mars. Their images allow Martian seasonal patterns to be studied globally, and they showed that most Martian dust storms occur when the planet is closest to the Sun. [87]

    Since the 1960s, robotic spacecraft have been sent to explore Mars from orbit and the surface in extensive detail. In addition, remote sensing of Mars from Earth by ground-based and orbiting telescopes has continued across much of the electromagnetic spectrum. These include infrared observations to determine the composition of the surface, [88] ultraviolet and submillimeter observation of the atmospheric composition, [89] [90] and radio measurements of wind velocities. [91]

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been used to perform systematic studies of Mars [92] and has taken the highest resolution images of Mars ever captured from Earth. [93] This telescope can produce useful images of the planet when it is at an angular distance of at least 50° from the Sun. The HST can take images of a hemisphere, which yields views of entire weather systems. Earth-based telescopes equipped with charge-coupled devices can produce useful images of Mars, allowing for regular monitoring of the planet's weather during oppositions. [94]

    X-ray emission from Mars was first observed by astronomers in 2001 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and in 2003 it was shown to have two components. The first component is caused by X-rays from the Sun scattering off the upper Martian atmosphere the second comes from interactions between ions that result in an exchange of charges. [95] The emission from the latter source has been observed out to eight times the radius of Mars by the XMM-Newton orbiting observatory. [96]

    In 1983, the analysis of the shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) group of meteorites showed that they may have originated on Mars. [97] The Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, discovered in Antarctica in 1984, is believed to have originated on Mars but it has an entirely different composition than the SNC group. In 1996, it was announced that this meteorite might contain evidence for microscopic fossils of Martian bacteria. However, this finding remains controversial. [98] Chemical analysis of the Martian meteorites found on Earth suggests that the ambient near-surface temperature of Mars has most likely been below the freezing point of water (0 C°) for much of the last four billion years. [99]


    Ancient ‘spacefaring aliens’ may have lived in our solar system billions of years before humans, scientist suggests

    THE SOLAR system humanity calls home may have once been inhabited by an extinct species of spacefaring aliens, a top scientist has suggested.

    An American space boffin has suggested ancient extraterrestrials could have lived on Mars, Venus or even Planet Earth before disappearing without a trace.

    In a fascinating academic paper about "prior indigenous technological species", Jason T. Wright from the Pennsylvania State University raised the fascinating possibility that evidence of these extinct aliens could exist somewhere in the solar system.

    Wright is an astronomer who received global attention after suggesting an "alien megastructure" had been spotted in orbit around a distant star.

    Now the stargazer has said advanced aliens may have left behind "technosignatures" for us to find - if only we knew where to look for them.

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    "A prior indigenous technological species might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars," he wrote.

    However, most of the archaeological evidence of an ancient civilisation would probably have been been lost.

    Earth's plate tectonics would have "erased" the traces of a civilisation that lived billions of years ago.

    Venus is in the grip of a severe greenhouse effect and also undergoes similar "resurfacing" which would scour its land clean of artefacts.

    This leaves just a handful of places where archaeologists might find traces of a lost extraterrestrial civilisation.

    "Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer Solar System," Wright added.

    He said alien evidence was likely to be buried beneath the ground, allowing it to survive asteroid impacts.

    "Structures buried beneath surfaces might survive and be discoverable as long as they do not suffer a collision so severe that their artificial nature is obliterated," Wright added.

    "Merely destroying them would render them nonfunctional, but they might still be recognisably technological.

    "We might conjecture that settlements or bases on these objects would have been built beneath the surface for a variety of reasons, and so still be discoverable today."

    The astronomer suggested that very old spaceships could still be lingering in the Asteroid Belt or Kuiper Belt, a disc at the very edge of the solar system that's made up of icy objects.

    These artefacts are likely to be the remains of ancient probes, space bases or industrial facilities.

    "In the case of a prior indigenous technological species, the artefacts might have had totally different purposes, such as asteroid mining operations or settlements on other planets and moons," Wright wrote.

    "Such structures would be expected to fall into disrepair, especially if its creators are absent."

    So where are these aliens likely to have come from?

    Wright suggested they may hailed from somewhere that's very close to home.

    The presence of intelligent life on Earth makes it more likely that ye olde aliens hailed from this solar system, rather than being descended from an "extraterrestrial species that crossed interstellar space", he concluded.


    Earth's Bombardment by Asteroids 3.9 Billion Years Ago May Have Enhanced Early Life, Says CU Study

    The bombardment of Earth nearly 4 billion years ago by asteroids as large as Kansas would not have had the firepower to extinguish potential early life on the planet and may even have given it a boost, says a new University of Colorado at Boulder study.

    Impact evidence from lunar samples, meteorites and the pockmarked surfaces of the inner planets paints a picture of a violent environment in the solar system during the Hadean Eon 4.5 to 3.8 billion years ago, particularly through a cataclysmic event known as the Late Heavy Bombardment about 3.9 million years ago. Although many believe the bombardment would have sterilized Earth, the new study shows it would have melted only a fraction of Earth's crust, and that microbes could well have survived in subsurface habitats, insulated from the destruction.

    "These new results push back the possible beginnings of life on Earth to well before the bombardment period 3.9 billion years ago," said CU-Boulder Research Associate Oleg Abramov. "It opens up the possibility that life emerged as far back as 4.4 billion years ago, about the time the first oceans are thought to have formed."

    A paper on the subject by Abramov and CU-Boulder geological sciences Professor Stephen Mojzsis appears in the May 21 issue of Nature.

    Because physical evidence of Earth's early bombardment has been erased by weathering and plate tectonics over the eons, the researchers used data from Apollo moon rocks, impact records from the moon, Mars and Mercury, and previous theoretical studies to build three-dimensional computer models that replicate the bombardment. Abramov and Mojzsis plugged in asteroid size, frequency and distribution estimates into their simulations to chart the damage to the Earth during the Late Heavy Bombardment, which is thought to have lasted for 20 million to 200 million years.

    The 3-D models allowed Abramov and Mojzsis to monitor temperatures beneath individual craters to assess heating and cooling of the crust following large impacts in order to evaluate habitability, said Abramov. The study indicated that less than 25 percent of Earth's crust would have melted during such a bombardment.

    The CU-Boulder researchers even cranked up the intensity of the asteroid barrage in their simulations by 10-fold -- an event that could have vaporized Earth's oceans. "Even under the most extreme conditions we imposed, Earth would not have been completely sterilized by the bombardment," said Abramov.

    Instead, hydrothermal vents may have provided sanctuaries for extreme, heat-loving microbes known as "hyperthermophilic bacteria" following bombardments, said Mojzsis. Even if life had not emerged by 3.9 billion years ago, such underground havens could still have provided a "crucible" for life's origin on Earth, Mojzsis said.

    The researchers concluded subterranean microbes living at temperatures ranging from 175 degrees to 230 degrees Fahrenheit would have flourished during the Late Heavy Bombardment. The models indicate that underground habitats for such microbes increased in volume and duration as a result of the massive impacts. Some extreme microbial species on Earth today -- including so-called "unboilable bugs" discovered in hydrothermal vents in Yellowstone National Park -- thrive at 250 F.

    Geologic evidence suggests that life on Earth was present at least 3.83 billion years ago, said Mojzsis. "So it is not unreasonable to suggest there was life on Earth before 3.9 billion years ago. We know from the geochemical record that our planet was eminently habitable by that time, and this new study sews up a major problem in origins of life studies by sweeping away the necessity for multiple origins of life on Earth."

    Most planetary scientists believe a rogue planet as large as Mars smacked Earth with a glancing blow 4.5 billion years ago, vaporizing itself and part of Earth. The collision would have created an immense vapor cloud from which moonlets, and later our moon, coalesced, Mojzsis said. "That event, which preceded the Late Heavy Bombardment by at least 500 million years, would have effectively hit Earth's re-set button," he said.

    "But our results strongly suggest that no events since the moon formation were capable of destroying Earth's crust and wiping out any biosphere that was present," Mojzsis said. "Instead of chopping down the tree of life, our view is that the bombardment pruned it."

    The results also support the potential for microbial life on other planets like Mars and perhaps even rocky, Earth-like planets in other solar systems that may have been resurfaced by impacts, said Abramov.

    "Exactly when life originated on Earth is a hotly debated topic," says NASA's Astrobiology Discipline Scientist Michael H. New, manager of the Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology program. "These findings are significant because they indicate life could have begun well before the Late Heavy Bombardment, during the so-called Hadean Eon of Earth's history 3.8 billion to 4.5 billion years ago."

    The research by Abramov and Mojzsis is sponsored by NASA Astrobiology Program's Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology Department and the NASA Postdoctoral Program. The Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology Program supports research into the origin, evolution and distribution of life on Earth and the potential for life elsewhere. Mojzsis is a member of the new NASA Lunar Science Institute through the Center for Lunar Origin and Evolution.