Information

How is the oldest bank in Mongolia only 24 years old?


According to Wikipedia, the Trade and Development Bank of Mongolia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_and_Development_Bank_of_Mongolia) is the oldest bank in Mongolia. This is further supported by a 2013 article on Mongolian bond yields. Yet it was founded less than a quarter century ago. However, Mongolia itself is over 100 years old.

What happened to all the Mongolian banks? I understand this is around the time of the Soviet collapse, but I find it hard to believe that every single bank in the nation crumbled. Herman, what happened?!


The Wikipedia article is inexact. The TDB is the oldest existing commercial bank in Mongolia. Before 1990 all the banks in Mongolia (and the Soviet Union in general) were state-owned banks.

The first bank in Mongolia was the Trade and Industry Bank of Mongolia, opened in June 1924. This bank became a possession of the Mongolian government in 1954 and was renamed the State Bank of Mongolia at that time. Since then it has been renamed the Bank of Mongolia, which is how it is known today. It is a central bank, owned by the government of Mongolia.


You are referring to 2 Mongolias.

The State of Mongolia was formerly called the Mongolian People's Republic. Formerly a part of China, it proclaimed independence with the support of Russia. On March 13th 1921 a Provisional People's Government was established, and then on November 26th, 1924 the government proclaimed the Mongolian People's Republic. This was a Soviet satellite state.

A referendum took place on October 20, 1945, when Mongolia voted for independence.

After the breakdown of communist regimes in Europe in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own democratic revolution in early 1990; it led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.

(From Wikipedia.)

So what you are referring to in 1990 is the "modern" Mongolia. And the banks of modern state of Mongolia would be from 1990 onwards logically.

But coins have been issued by the "Mongolian People's Republic" since at least 1925. Example: KM#1, 9, 21 and 27 as per Catalogue each of denomination 1 MONGO and KM#2, 10 and 16 of denomination 2 MONGO. "State" (modern) Decimal Coinage seems to start from 1994 with KM#122 of denomination 20 TUGRIK. This seems to correspond with the idea of the new state and its Banks starting off around 1990.

Note that I referred to the 2008 catalogue rather than the 2015 linked above.


HISTORY

🔊 Przeczytaj na głos Piekary Śląskie is a dynamic community, with a culture and tradition which has been forged during a 700 years history. At present Piekary Śląskie is a city with the status of a Polish township district and is a part of the Silesian Voivodeship. With the size (3967 ha/ 9 802,67 a) and the number of inhabitants (61 thousands) Piekary Śląskie is a medium sized city. It lies in the northern pa

The oldest mention of the city dates from the 11th century when Piekary was a servant village to the Bytom settlement. The city of Piekary Śląskie, as such, was formed in 1934 when the neighbouring communities of Piekary and Szarlej were combined. The present shape of Piekary Śląskie is only 24 years old. The administrative reform of 1975 attached the neighbouring Dąbrówka Wielka, Brzeziny Śląskie, Brzozowice-Kamień and Kozłowa Góra to Piekary Śląskie.

In the years 1303-1318 the first church was built, and the first parish formed, on the territory of Piekary Śląskie. The 15th century, together with the development of zinc and lead ore mining, marked the beginning of the development of the settlement’s evolution. In the 12th-14th centuries the city belonged to the germanised Silesian princes. Only after the brief visit of King John III Sobieski on his way to the Siege of Vienna in 1683 did the memory of the severed ties with Poland stir among the local population. In the coming years many peasant rebellions were directed at the German magnates. In 1697 King August II Wettyn came to Piekary and in its church confirmed his accession to the catholic church and vowed the pacta conventa.

The 18th century is a century of colonisation and germanization of Piekary, activities answered with a fervent defence of everything Polish. In 1842 the Piekary rector – priest Alojzy Fiecek started the construction of the St. Mary and Bartholomew church. In the church the 17th century replica of the miraculous painting of Our Lady of Piekary was placed – the original had already been sent to the Holy Cross church in Opole and would never return to Piekary.

Today, Piekary is the spiritual capital of Upper Silesia, and also the destination and meeting place of many religious pilgrimages. All the traditions are strictly bound with the miraculous picture that became famous in 1676 when in the nearby city of Tarnowskie Góry a plague broke out only to subside after the citizens vowed a yearly pilgrimage to Piekary.

In the 7th Decade of the 19th century next to the Basilica the miners and steel factory workers of the Upper Silesia raised the Calvary of Piekary, patterned on the Calvary mountain in Jerusalem.

The city of Piekary, together with a part of Silesia, returned to Poland only in 1922. On the 20th of June 1937, to mark the 250th anniversary of the Siege of Vienna and the 15th anniversary of the Polish Army entering Silesia on the Kocie Górki hills a 333 meters (1092,52 feet) high “Liberation Mound” was raised. The location of the mound marks the place where the Insurgents took an oath before the 3rd Silesian Uprising (1921). The leader of the Silesian Insurgents and the Commissary of the Upper Silesia Plebiscite Wojciech Korfanty also took part in the mound’s construction. The soil from battlefields and graveyards of the fallen heroes, from all over Poland was brought in urns to build the mound.

Piekary Śląskie is a part of Upper Silesia – in the past a place full of patriotic, publishing and singing initiatives and at present the area of great ambitions and prospects. The history and the dynamics of the present development of the city of Piekary Śląskie owes much to the resourcefulness and attitude of the past and present generations. New houses are being built and new enterprises, including both trade and service companies are constantly being opened within the boundaries of the city. Despite the strong bounds of Piekary with the mining industry the city is green – 48 ha (118,61 a) of green are under constant care of the Piekary community. The degraded territories are constantly reclaimed, the housing green is cultivated, new parks, squares and lawns are created. The location of Piekary Śląskie enables good access to the European market. The city is developing in all spheres of economic and everyday life. The Trauma Surgery Hospital in Piekary Śląskie, built in the period between the wars, is today one of the top healthcare units in Poland.


The World's Ten Oldest Billionaires

What's more impressive, being worth $4.3 billion or living past age 100?

That's what you have to ask yourself when you consider Walter Haefner, the oldest billionaire in the world. At age 101, Haefner is the only centenarian on the Forbes 2012 Billionaires list. He's also a software mogul worth billions of dollars.

Well, he's not designing software anymore. Haefner is the largest individual shareholder of IT software maker CA (formerly Computer Associates). He sold the data processing firm way back in 1968 to University Computing, which was eventually bought by Computer Associates. Haefner has branched out since then, though. His family now owns Automobil-und Motoren AG, Switzerland's main importer of Volkswagen, Seat, Skoda and Audi. He also owned the Moyglare Stud horse breeding farm in Ireland before transferring ownership to to his daughter last year.

They say money can't buy you love, but perhaps in Haefner's case, the best medical advice money can buy is all he needs.

Though he’s the only one who’s lived more than a century, there are 16 other spry billionaires living into their nineties and 145 total at age 80 and above.

David Rockefeller Sr., 96, the grandson of oil baron John D. Rockefeller, who turned $4,000 in oil refining into Standard Oil, the energy giant that fueled America's industrial revolution, is the oldest American billionaire and one of only 24 tycoons to qualify for every single billionaires list in our 25 year history.

Worth $2.5 billion, he is now working to give away his fortune to organizations such as New York's Museum of Modern Art, Harvard University, and the Council on Foreign Relations. He has a vast trove of contemporary and modern art which he has been collecting for more than 70 years. Rockefeller, who carries around a glass jar with him to collect bugs, is also an insect enthusiast, with one of the largest beetle collections in the world.

The stories of some of these old-timers still fascinate. The tale of Albert Ueltschi, 94, goes all the way back to a Kentucky farm in 1927, where he developed a passion for airplanes after listening to a radio broadcast of Charles Lindbergh's 1927 transatlantic flight. Ueltschi later dropped out of the University of Kentucky to give flying lessons and barnstorm around the country before becoming a pilot for Pan Am. He would eventually found the pilot training firm FlightSafety International, which he took public in 1968 and eventually sold to Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway for $1.5 billion in cash and stock in 1996.

Casino magnate Kirk Kerkorian is still involved in his business at the age of 94. He stepped down from the board of MGM Resorts International in June to become a senior adviser and the first director emeritus. His $8.5 billion gamble, City Center, opened in Las Vegas in December 2009. The casino was the most expensive privately funded real estate deal in U.S. history. Way back in the day, as an eighth-grade dropout, he trained World War II fighter pilots.

Other big billionaire names in their ninth decade include father of 'fracking' George Mitchell and media heiress Anne Cox Chambers.


While attending school at the University of Pennsylvania, Donald Trump worked for his father’s business Elizabeth Trump & Son Co in the year 1968. In 1970, Donald’s father made him the president of their company while Frederick Trump served as the chairman of the board.

The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where Donald got his bachelor’s degree has produced hundreds of successful individuals. Trump shares an Alma mater with Sundar Pichai (CEO of Google), Warren Buffett (CEO of Berkshire Hathaway), Alex Gorsky (CEO of Johnson & Johnson), Elon Musk (CEO of Tesla Motors), Robert Crandall (CEO of American Airlines), and John Sculley (former CEO of Apple and Pepsi).


New photos of verdenstjernens 38 years younger gf

17 June 2020 Wednesday 01:19

the 62-year-old Hollywood actor Dolph Lundgren last year was the girlfriend of the only 24-year-old Norwegian fitness trainer Emma Krokdal he knew well that it required a slightly difficult conversation, when he had to explain to his two daughters about his new girlfriend.

Dolph Lundgrens new gf is only a year older than his oldest daughter Ida Lundgren, who also has a little sister 18 years old by the name of Greta.

There are also more new images of the new pair of Dolph Lundgren and Emma Krokdal, since it is at the end of last year was published, that they are lovers:

the article continues under the picture

Here is smiling 62-year-old Dolph Lundgren for his 24-year-old girlfriend in a picture taken on the 17th. march of this year. Photo: Ritzau Scanpix.

For Norwegian TV2 has Dolph Lundgren explained the following:

- When I met Emma I knew immediately that it would be a bit special to talk with my daughters about my new girlfriend, explained to Dolph Lundgren, who then added that his oldest daughter had already taken her a year older-new 'stepmother'.

On Instagram, has the 23-year-old Ida Lundgren proven repeatedly that she is now bypassed and is seen with his father almost peers girlfriend Emma.

On the Instagram Story has Ida Lundgren among other things, put an ad out, where she is seen together with Emma Krokdal and his father. They sit in a larger company around a table at a restaurant, as the Swedish newspaper Expressen believes is a restaurant at the Bank Hotel in Stockholm.

the article continues under the picture

Here is Dolph Lundgren on the red carpet with his young girlfriend Emma in the month of January to a film festival in The Dominican Republic. Photo: .

Dolph Lundgren is probably best known for his many roles in various action movies, like 'Rocky 4', 'Creed 2' and 'The Expendables'. He made his debut as an actor in the James Bond film 'A View to a Kill' in 1985, when singer Grace Jones also starred. Rolph Lundgren was in a period of gf with Grace Jones.

Before he kicked the time in the play, he was a skilled athlete, which among other things threw the EM-gold in karate in both 1980 and 1981.

On his Instagram has the Ida Lundgren, incidentally, also posted a picture of his father, Dolph Lundgren, where he poses naked with the singer Grace Jones, at the time they were lovers.

Show this posting on Instagram

A spread shared by Ida Lundgren (@idaslundgren) the

below you can see a picture of Ida Lundgren along with his father.

Show this posting on Instagram

A spread shared by Ida Lundgren (@idaslundgren) the

below you can see Ida Lundgren, along with his sister Greta.

Show this posting on Instagram

Happy birthday to my bestest friend and my biggest love I love you more than you know (actually you know) happy 18th to my baby sis who is not a baby anymore you deserve the best day sissy you rock thanks for being you @gretalundgren party timeeee

A spread shared by Ida Lundgren (@idaslundgren) the


C omparing NMR s W ith O ther A nimal M odels of E xtended L ongevity

NMRs share several features in common with the various mice models of extended longevity (e.g., CR or dwarf mice) ( Tables 2 and 3). In all of these mice models, life-span extension is moderate (20%–65%) when compared to the 500% difference in NMR life span to that predicted for a similar sized rodent ( Table 1) ( 54). It is interesting that all these animal models show lower metabolic rates than predicted by mass, with a concomitant ∼2°C lower body temperatures than those of shorter-lived mice. All these models appear cold-intolerant and show pronounced thermolability when cold challenged. Another common set of traits among these models of prolonged longevity are low concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormone ( Table 3). These mice models, however, have severe defects that would threaten their survival in the wild, and generally are infertile ( 54). Although most NMRs within a colony also do not reproduce, this characteristic does not hold true for breeders. Whereas MLSP of captive animals does not differ with breeding status, in the wild it is the reproductively fecund animals that exhibit the longest life span.

CR causes an increase in rodent longevity: It attenuates most of the chronic diseases of aging, reduces the number of tumors, and upregulates the immune system ( 59). CR increases MLSP in many but not all species ( 60). We do not know if life span of NMRs will be extended by CR. This may indeed be a very long-term study that would need the recruitment of young scientists and possibly their grandchildren. However, I do not believe that CR, per se, holds the key to extended longevity. For even “obese” NMRs in captive zoo populations that weigh nearly 3 times more than expected by mass live more than 22 years in captivity and nevertheless share many similar physiological features with mice subjected to CR. Similarly, dwarf mice become obese with age, yet nevertheless live about 50% longer than other laboratory mice.

NMRs, dwarf mutant mice, and CR mice all show markedly reduced incidence of cancers. Indeed, to date we have not found a single incidence of cancer in more than 250 necropsies of NMRs undertaken in animals ranging from 2 to 25 years and have not noticed any tumors in living animals (our unpublished observations based on animals at CCNY and three zoos). This is all the more surprising, as vitamin D metabolites have been implicated as potent anti-mitogenic agents, and NMRs are naturally deficient in this prohormone ( 61). Human epidemiological studies have established a link between high circulating insulin-like growth factor levels and the risk of developing prostate cancer ( 62), and it is possible that low insulin-like growth factor levels in rodents with extended longevity may induce resistance to cancer. Resistance to cancer and other age-related pathology may provide unique insights into how NMRs are able to live so long.


History Highlights - Founding of the Church

January 2014 - Another year has passed and now we are only 24 months away from the start of the 275th Anniversary year in 2016. The committee is hard at work planning events for each month of that year. We will begin and end the anniversary year with a New Year's Eve Event to "Ring in the New Year." This is similar to a a Pennsylvania German holiday tradition that included food, drink, merriment and noise (makers). We will carry on this tradition when we gather at the church on both December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2016. That is just a preview of many more events to come in the anniversary year.

Shooting in the New Year - Painting by Gladys Lutz - Courtesy of the Lynn-Heidelberg Historical Society. Painting is on display at the Pennsylvania German Heritage Center at Kutztown University

2016 marks the church's 275th Anniversary, because the year of 1741 is our founding date. The oldest Lutheran Church Register contains the information regarding this date, recorded for us almost 20 years later by Rev. Daniel Schumacher, the itinerant Lutheran minister:

Anno Domini 1741
Ist die Kirche Gebaut Worden
In Diesem lieben Gottes Haus
Soll Jesus gehen ein un aus,
Un Gott soll hochgelobet werden
Von uns, sein Volk auf dieser Erden,
Das wer hir hoehret Gottes wort
Moeg selig werden hir und dort.
Amen.
Alles was Odem hat, Lobe den Herrn,
Hallelujah.

The English translation of the above entry is as follows (translation by Richard L. Musselman):

In the year of our Lord 1741
The church has been built
In this dear God's house
Jesus goes in and out,
And God should be highly praised
By us, his people on this earth,
He who, hears God's word,
Would be saved here and there.
Amen
All who are here, praise the Lord.
Hallelujah.

The Lutheran Church Register in which this is written is priceless treasure, for it also contains the oldest Lutheran baptisms. In the future, it is my hope that the church can restore and preserve this oldest Lutheran register, as well as the oldest Reformed Church register.

Our first church was built of logs, 35 years before the signing of the Declaration of Independence. We know very little about that first log church. Known as the "Schmaltzgass Kirche" (Lard Valley Church), Rev. Myron O. Rath, one of our Lutheran pastors, stated that "it was crudely built of logs, under whose ministry it was not known the floor was covered with stones, there was no stove, nor benches, only logs cut for sitting." Very plain indeed, but a place where the Word of God was preached to those early pioneers, to whom religion was central in their life. Two years later, a deed for two acres of land, on which the church had already been built, was secured for the congregation. Rev. William Rath recorded the story of this transaction in Skizzen aus dem Lecha Thale (Scenes of the Lehigh Valley) on page 72 (translated from the original German by Richard L. Musselman):

"An enthusiastic oral buying and selling had been done and closed between Heinrich Roth and Johann Martin Bamberger of one part and Johann Wilhelm Straub, preacher here on the Little Lehigh, and his elders. We give to ourselves this little place (2 acres for 20 shillings), with all rights and freedoms of the land, on which is already built an Evangelical Reformed and Lutheran Church, to honor our God and (provide) our souls [and those who follow] with holy Grace and Righteousness."

Heinrich Roth (1688 - 1754) is buried in our Old Cemetery in the Roth family plot, the oldest family plot on the cemetery. Besides deeding the first two acres of land to the church, Heinrich also attended the first Reformed Coetus in Philadelphia in 1747. Organized by Rev. Michael Schlatter, this was the first meeting of representatives from the Reformed Churches that had been established up to that time. Heinrich Roth was sent to Philadelphia by the congregation with a bag of money in order to try and secure a pastor. Unfortunately it would still be some years before a pastor was secured.

We are truly thankful that despite humble beginnings in 1741, the church has continued nearly 275 years. The log church gave way to a larger frame structure in 1769, and finally an even larger stone structure in 1819 (our current sanctuary, which will celebrate its 200th Anniversary in 2019). All these many years, the church has continued to be a union church, with members of both Lutheran and Reformed (now United Church of Christ) congregations worshiping in the same building. We now further God's ministry in this place in the Union Church tradition with our Shared Ministry, for our church is more than our building. The two congregations now work more closely together than ever before, doing much good ministry by working side by side. Many things would not be accomplished if the two congregations were separate we are so much stronger together than apart. Also, our church can draw on the resources of both the wider Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the United Church of Christ, and feel connected to the millions of other Lutheran and UCC members worldwide.


Grimshaw Origins and History

The Grimshaw arms, a black left-facing griffin, is depicted in Gawthorpe Hall

Anne Grimshaw was the fifth child of Thomas and Margaret (Harrington) Grimshaw of Clayton Hall. In 1540 she married Hugh Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe, located about four miles northeast of Clayton Hall. The descendants of Hugh and Anne (Grimshaw) Shuttleworth comprise one of the more distinguished family lines of Lancashire. Gawthorpe Hall, a significant historical landmark in the region, was built by the sons of Hugh and Anne between 1600 and 1604.

Contents

Webpage Credit

Thanks go to Michael P. Conroy for his extensive research on the Shuttleworth family. Much of the information on this webpage is taken from his 1996 booklet 1 , “The Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe.” Thanks to Deborah Nouzovsky for bringing out the fact that Winston Churchill is descended from Hugh and Anne Shuttleworth.

Who Was Anne Grimshaw?

Anne was a member of the earliest known Grimshaw family line. As shown in the descendant chart in Whitaker2 (v. II, p. ___), Anne was in the ll th generation after Walter Grimshaw, the originator of this ancient line of Grimshaws (see Figure 1 below.) It is described in a companion webpage. Anne was buried in Padiham in 1597. Annes brother, Nicholas, may have been the progenitor of the Pendle Forest line of Grimshaws, which is also described on a companion webpage, although it appears to be more likely that the Nicholas who was her grandfather’s brother (living in 1481) is the Pendle Forest progenitor. By the time Gawthorpe Hall was built in 1604 (seven years after Annes death), Clayton Hall had passed from her brother, Richard, to her grand-nephew, Nicholas.

Figure 1. Portion of descendant chart of Walter Grimshaw, head of the oldest known line of Grimshaws, showing Anne Grimshaw in the 11 th generation (center of bottom of figure) after Walter. Figure is from Whitaker 2 , v. II, p. __.

Shuttleworth Origins and Descendant Chart

The earliest Shuttleworth on record was “Henry de Shotilworth” who was “living in the hamlet of Shuttleworth in Hapton in 1218” (Conroy 1 , p. 65.) Henrys great-grandson, also Henry, was granted the Shuttleworth coat of arms, with three weavers shuttles, in 1329. This Henrys son, again also Henry, was living at Shuttleworth Hall near Hapton (Figure 2) in 1325 – 1326. Shuttleworth Hall (Figure 2) is located southwest of Gawthorpe, about halfway to Clayton Hall, where the Grimshaw family resided (Figure 3.)

Figure 2. Shuttleworth Hall, location of the oldest recorded family of the same name. Photo taken May 1999.

Figure 3. “The Environs of Gawthorpe,” showing the location of Gawthorpe near Padiham. Note also the locations of Shuttleworth Hall and Clayton (Hall) to the southwest of Gawthorpe Hall. From Conroy 1 , Fig. 2.

Henry Shuttleworths son, Ughtred, was the first Shuttleworth at the Gawthorpe location. Ughtred was living in 1388 – 1389. Just before, or during, Ughtreds life, a square watchtower of the Norman style was constructed at the Gawthorpe location (Figure 4.)

Figure 4. Artists impression drawing of the watchtower constructed at Gawthorpe in the first half of the 14 th Century. From Conroy 1 , Fig. 3

An excellent summary of the Shuttleworth family history, including the earliest period, is presented in Conroy 1 (p. 1-4):

THE SHUTTLEWORTHS OF THE TOWER

Ightenhill Manor was situated between Padiham and Burnley in North East Lancashire. In the time of the Plantagenets it was the administrative centre for an area stretching from Padiham to Marsden. When Edward the Second stayed there in 1323 he would find his equitium or horse breeding establishment there had been decimated by the raid that same year by the Constable of Skipton Castle. Coming some nine years after his disaster at Bannockburn he would certainly be looking at the defences in the area and a watch tower (fig 3) at Gawthorpe would doubtless receive his attention, situated by the river Calder at the western end of 1ghtenhill Manor Park. Certainly horses were again being reared there in 1342 according to the diary of the Keeper of the King’s horse breeding establishments, Edmund de Thedmersshe.

It is open to conjecture whether the watch tower was already in existence in 1323 or whether Edward decided to extend his defences in that direction after the raid. We do know that William of Gawthorpe gave up the nine and a half acres there in 1333 and the new tenant did not start farming it until 1342, could this have been because the tower was being built during the intervening time? Certainly the new tenant paid a reduced rental, perhaps this was due to the loss of acreage covering the area taken up by the tower and its environs?

During his visitation the King would probably meet the local gentry which included Henry de Shuttleworth from neighbouring Shuttleworth Hall (see page 65) whose son, Henry married Agnes the heiress of William de Hacking of Hacking Hall. (fig 1). It was Ughtred, one of their younger sons, who was the first Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe (fig 23). He arrived there during the period when John of Gaunt was Duke of Lancaster and, consequently the owner of the Manor of Ightenhill.

It would appear that the palisade that surrounded the park was now not necessary, which suggests that the horses and deer were no longer being bred there by this time. This was shortly before Ughtred Shuttleworth arrived at Gawthorpe. He was living there in 1389 and grew corn there during the following forty years. A Parchmcnt document, one of the earliest written in English with an East Lancashire dialect was found in the old estate office (fig 8). Written in the early 1400’s it testifies that Ughtred had then been at Gawthorpe some 40 years and had been sending his corn to Padiham Mill during this period. This petition had been written because John Parker at Ightenhill (and there was a John Parker at Ightenhill in 1425) had accused Ughtred of not sending his corn to the mill at Burnley. Ughtred prayed that he might continue to send his corn to the mill at Padiham, stating that as both mills were owned by the king (Henry VI.) the king would not lose by this. It would appear that Ughtred must have been producing a substantial amount of corn to warrant the attention of the steward of the Manor, eager to claim his ‘millsoke’ or tithe from the grain if it went to the corn mill in Burnley.

From the time of Ughtred’s descendant Hugh, who was living in 1463, we have a clearer picture of the family’s fortune for Hugh’s son Lawrence, the first name on the wooden plaque at Gawthorpe (fig 44) and with the date 1443 by his name (which could be his birth date) had married Elizabeth Worsley of Twiston, the grand-daughter of Henry Towneley of Bamside (Laneshawbridge). She was the co-heiress of her father Richard Worsley of Mearley and Twiston and shared these estates with her sisters. In 1507 Henry the Seventh had abandoned his policy of reserving land for the breeding and chasing of deer, thus great acres of deer forests were granted out for fixed rents parts of these, including West Close, south of Higham, were released to Lawrence during this period.

Descendant Chart and Coat of Arms

The earliest known Shuttleworth was a Henry, who was living at Hapton in 1218. Conroy 1 (p. 65) presents a descendant chart for “Henry de Shotilworth” (Figure 5a,) which extends for six generations and shows Ughtred as the “first Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe.”

Figure 5a. Descendant Chart of the earliest known Shuttleworth (Henry de Shotilworth), showing six generations.

Conroy 1 (front matter) picks up this descendant chart at the 5 th generation (Henry, m. Agnes de Hacking, heiress of Hacking Hall) in another descendant chart that extends for another 20 generations (Figure 5b, in two parts.) Hugh Shuttleworth, the 6 th generation descendant of Henry and Agnes, is shown as the spouse of Anne, daughter of Thomas Grimshaw. A more complete version of the Shuttleworth descendant chart from Whitaker 2 is provided further down on this webpage.

Figure 5b. “Pedigree of the Gawthorpe Shuttleworths” from Conroy 1 (Front Matter.) Note Hugh and Anne (Grimshaw) Shuttleworth, married 1540, in the middle of the upper part of the figure.

As noted above, a coat of arms was granted to the Shuttleworth family – to Henry Shuttleworth, 4 th generation descendant – in 1319. This Henry was the father of the Henry who was living at Shuttleworth Hall in 1325 – 1326. The Shuttleworth coat of arms is characterized by Whitaker 2 as shown below a rendition of it is provided by Conroy 1 and is provided in Figure 6.

. Argent, three weavers shuttles sable, tipped and furnished, or.

Crest. On a wreath of the colours a cubit arm in armour, the hand in a gauntlet proper grasping a shuttle, as in the arms.

Motto. Prudentia et Justicia.

Figure 6. “Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe Coat of Arms, 1604” as presented in Conroy 1 (frontispiece), who notes that it is “Situated on the overmantel in the Huntroyde Room” (of Gawthorpe Hall.)

Gawthorpe Hall

Gawthorpe Hall was built in 1600 – 1604 by Lawrence, second son of Hugh and Anne (Grimshaw) Shuttleworth. The hall was constructed from plans that had been drawn up by Lawrences older brother, Richard, who died before he could implement the plans. Gawthorpe Hall was constructed by incorporating the previously existing watchtower, which had been build 250 hears earlier (Figure 7.) Details of the construction of the hall are provided further down on this webpage.

Figure 7. Gawthorpe Hall, eastward view. Note the extension (by more than two stories) of the watchtower, around which the hall was built, above the main structure of the edifice. Photo taken from the internet at the website shown below the figure.

http://www.bronte-country.com/gawth1.html

Hugh and Anne (Grimshaw) Shuttleworth and Family

Hugh and Anne and their family apparently started the Shuttleworth family down the path of distinction. They had three sons – Richard, Lawrence and Thomas (Figure 8a.)

Figure 8a. “The Tudor Shuttleworths.” From Conroy 1 , p. 10.

Gawthorpe Hall was planned by Hugh and Anne’s oldest son, Richard, but was actually built by their second son, Lawrence. Plaster figures of Richard and his wife still exist in Gawthorpe Hall and are shown in Figure 8b. An image of Lawrence Shuttleworth is presented in Figure 9. The Grimshaw arms is depicted in Gawthorpe Hall with the arms of other families that “married into” the Shuttleworth family (Figure 10.)

Figure 8b. Plaster figures of Sir Richard and Margaret (Legh Barton) Shuttleworth. The figures are “to be found above the Drawing room” according to Conroy 1 (Figs 24 and 25.)

Figure 9. Reverend Lawrence Shuttleworth. From a painting in Conroy 1 (Fig 26.) Note the Shuttleworth coat of arms in the upper right corner.

Figure 10. The Grimshaw arms, a black griffin facing left, is presented (along with the arms of nine other families) at the main entrance to the Long Gallery of Gawthorpe Hall. From Conroy 1 , Fig 52.

Conroy 1 (p. 5-7) provides a great deal of information on Hugh and Anne Grimshaw and their descendants it is provided below (underlines added by website author):

Lawrence’s son Nicholas married Ellen Parker of Bowland daughter of Christopher Parker of Radholme Park in Bolland (Bowland), another notable t3mily in the area. (It was her cousin, Edmund, who built Browsholme Hall in 1507 where the Parkers still reside.). Nicholas’s date on the plaque is 1473. He it was who covenanted with the Towneleys and others for the rebuilding of Burnley parish church in 1532. Their son, Hugh was twenty-eight by this time having been born in 1504. He married Anne Grimshaw of Clayton Hall in 1540. The Grimshaws held the manor of Clayton and had important connections, Anne’s mother Margaret being a member of the Stanley family. Hugh and Anne had three sons, Richard born 1542, Lawrence born 1545 and Thomas born about 1546. Hugh Shuttleworth was now affluent enough to provide 28 soldiers in the muster of 1574. In the next decade his son, Richard received the honour of Knighthood, probably when he was elevated in the judicial bench. In 1580 the Shuttleworths acquired the lease of Ightenhill Manor Park, some 690 acres to the east of Gawthorpe (the Manor House by then in ruins and had been since the 1500’s). Now the family had control of most of the land in the Padiham, Simonstone, Higham, Ightenhill and Habergham area. Thus the Towneleys and Shuttleworths were the most influential gentry in the area at this time, so much so that they were ‘chosen’ by Queen Elizabeth to lend money to the crown in the year of the Armada 1588, and again in 1597.

The house and farm accounts of the Shuttleworths for the years 1580 to 1620 have been preserved and give a fascinating insight to the building of Gawthorpe Hall and the life of its inhabitants during that period in which the old Tower was transformed into the new Hall (fig 5).

THE BUILDERS OF THE ELIZABETHAN HALL.

The forty years 1580-1620 include the last twenty three of Elizabeth’s reign and the first seventeen of the Stuart Dynasty in the person of James I (fig 48). They were years that saw the defeat of the Spanish Armada and the many struggles involved in the conquest and settlement of Ireland while, during James reign, Lancashire was “honoured” by a royal visit.

In her excellent paper on the Gawthorpe records, Miss E. Foster stated that …the four Shuttleworths of this period whom we must know in order to follow the story of the building of the Elizabethan Gawthorpe (fig 6) represent four distinct stages in growth of the family fortunes. First came Mr. Hugh Shuttleworth, of Gawthorpe, already 78 years old in 1582, but destined to live to the ripe old age of 92 before he was buried in Padiham. The chief feature of the Gawthorpe of his day was the “peel” tower (fig 4).

There were many such strongholds in the hilly districts of the Northern counties in the Middle Ages, consisting of little more than a square stone tower, uncomfortable dwellings of local gentry and temporary refuges for their tenants during periods of rebellion and border raids, for Scottish inroads sometimes penetrated as far south as Lancashire. The original tower was late incorporated in the Hall but one should think of the building at first as something very much like a square Norman keep and of the family as landowners on the Ightenhill side of Burnley, already connected by marriage, in one or other of their branches, with the Worsleys of Mearley and Twiston, the Towneleys, and the Parkers of Radholme and Bolland (Bowland).

It was under Hugh Shuttleworth’s eldest son, Richard, that the wealth and prestige of the family increased even more with his acquisition of estates at Inskip, Barbon and Forcett. He was a successful barrister, who became a Sergeant at Law in 1584, when he was about 43 years of age. Later he was created Chief Justice of Chester, and also held an appointment in the House of Lords, some professional position involving legal knowledge in the preparation and revision of Bills. He was knighted for his services seven years after the commencement of the published Accounts. His Parliamentary and professional duties must have made him a busy man. Often kept in London, either at the House or Westminster Hall and regularly on circuit in Cheshire, he must have spent little time in Lancashire, and less at Gawthorpe, for when he married the widow of Mr. Robert Barton, of Smithills, he lived on her property at Smithills, near Bolton, adding considerably to that and to his own Gawthorpe lands by purchasing other estates. His mode of life was scarcely altered by his inheritance of Shuttleworth lands on his father’s death in 1596. Smithills remained the business centre of his property, his agents living there. (They were his brother, Thomas, until his death in 1593 and then his other brother, Lawrence.) It was unlikely that such a successful man as Sir Richard would neglect his ancestral home entirely. Indeed, during the latter part of his life he was planning a restoration and extension of Gawthorpe, which was, however, not destined to be accomplished till after his death in 1599. It has been suggested by Dr. Mark Girouard that the architect was Robert Smythson, architect of Longleat.

Sir Richard did not have any children. Smithills reverted to the Barton family and Gawthorpe passed to his brother, Lawrence Shuttleworth, B.D., a man in his middle fifties. For seventeen years he had been Rector of Whichford in Warwickshire, a living in the gift of the Earl of Derby, which he owed very probably to his brother’s influence. Although he remained in the Church, and died and was buried at Whichford eight or nine years later much of his time must have been diverted from his calling, for he had succeeded to his brother Thomas’ stewardship on the latter’s death in 1593. His clerical training stood him in good stead, for the Gawthorpe and Smithills accounts were kept much more methodically by him than by his younger unclerical brother.

During this phase of his life his time must have been divided between Smithills and Whichford, and later between Whichford and Gawthorpe and the fact that he lost so little time carrying out his brother’s plans shows how intimately he had been associated with them. It is with him that we enter on the third of the four phases. Under Mr. Hugh Shuttleworth we saw the old Gawthorpe of the Middle Ages then, under Sir Richard, came a time of increasing wealth, with plans to extend the family home until it should become a fit setting for their greater prestige. The third phase sees the re-modelling of Gawthorpe so that it becomes very much as we know it now. The bulk of the building was accomplished between the years 1600 and 1604, though the completion of the interior took longer so the Rev. Lawrence Shuttleworth’s ownership coincides with the most absorbing period in the whole of the history of Gawthorpe Hall. Together with this, Lawrence extended the estate by buying more land in the areas of Padiham, Sabden and Burnley.

The fourth and last phase in this survey shows the head of the family in even greater prominence than any of his ancestors, for the name of Colonel Richard Shuttleworth is known to many who probably scarcely remember having heard of either Sir Richard or the Rev. Lawrence Shuttleworth. The nephew of both (the son of Thomas, one time steward), Colonel Shuttleworth became high Sheriff of Lancashire (1618 and 1638), and long after the time when the accounts close, he was destined to take an important part in the stirring events of the revolutionary struggle between Charles Stuart and his people. He represented Preston In the long Parliament, and was one of a special commission to organise Lancashire for war against the King.

It will be as well to mention that Gawthorpe was re-built at a period that saw the erection of many of England’s stately homes. The age of turbulent rebellions, characterised by the building of defensive stone castles, was over, peace, good government and commercial expansion under the Tudor monarchs led to a rapid increase in the number of country houses at a time when timber, used so long for houses, ship building, and fuel, was becoming scarce. Hence the greater use of stone for building in localities where it was quarried, and in others the erection of the brick and timber houses of the Midland and Southern counties.

Construction of Gawthorpe Hall and Life at the Hall

Conroy, taking extensively from Harland 3 , provides a lot of detail on how Gawthorpe Hall was constructed. Much interesting insight in how life was lived at the hall is also included. This interesting detail is shown below (p. 7-10):

Gawthorpe is built from local stone, quarried in the early part of 1600 and throughout the period of building, as it was required from “Ye stone delff at Gawthorpe”, Scholebank (Lowerhouse), Ryeclifft: (High Whitaker), and Padiham Moor. For getting stones at Ryecliffe a quarryman was paid at the rate of 6d a day. His work included squaring and rough-dressing or scappling the stones with a hammer, not a chisel, while the skilled mason who dressed window stones, lintels, etc., had 7d or 8d. Labourers received 2d or 2-½d. Wallers seem to have been paid at varying rates, sometimes by the day, sometimes by the yard. In connection with masonary it may be noted that it was a joiner, not a mason, who carved the coat of arms over the main door.

During August there is an entry in the Accounts “Roger Cockshotte, for 6 days fecings (Levelling?) the ground works for the new hall at Gawthorpe, le day, 2d.” and a further entry verifies the preparation of foundations, while on August 26, 1600, the first stone was laid, the occasion was celebrated by giving each workman, including six masons and ten labourers, the housekeeper, two maids and eight male work-servants. including the cowboy, money to buy a pair of gloves.

Meanwhile, the supply of timber had to keep pace with the requirements of building, for scaffolding, for a temporary stable to accommodate cart horses for flooring boards, for beams and for roofing. Most of the timber seems to have been got from Mytton and Read woods, and prices of trees and labour constantly occur in the accounts.

Lime for mortar and for manuring the lands was brought from Clitheroe, iron in square bars from Halifax to be worked by smiths at Gawthorpe into window bars, “dower neles”, locks and keys while in November, 1602, there is an interesting entry that seems to point to Derbyshire as the source of the lead supply for interior and exterior plumbing and roofing.

These must have been years of bustling activity, for not only was building going on apace, but all sorts of subsidiary crafts were necessary. Sometimes there was a wheel-wright repairing carts and barrows, a smith shoeing horses, a saddler attending to harness, while carters were constantly employed in the transport of materials for building as well as farm necessities, food and clothing.

Rearing day (i.e. when the new Hall had been raised or reared so far as the roof), June 19, 1602, is marked by a special payment of 6d to a “pypper” who must have added his music to the general celebration. While the rooting of hall, barn (fig 14) and outbuildings was occupying a slater at 4d a day, a “Burnley smyth” was paid 3s.8d. “for one great locke for the haldower”, and a Clitheroe glazier was at work on the windows. 1603 saw the completion of a good deal of the interior plastering, including chimney pieces, friezes and ceilings and in 1604 the supply of cupboards, tables, beds, and other furniture was begun.

In addition to re-building, the Rev. Lawrence Shuttleworth purchased lands in the neighbourhood of Padiham and Sabden, and seems to have developed his estate. His steward is a certain Edward Sherburne, who received 16s.8d. a quarter for his services. Farm accounts figure largely there are men ditching, hedging, ploughing, sowing corn, weeding, reaping, and haymaking women weeding and shearing sheep (3d a day), and a boy is paid 2d a day” for keeping crowes furth of wheat in Whittaker Ises”. A draught ox is bought for £3.3.4d. a ‘fat cowe’ in Colne for £4.4.0d, and amongst other purchases of farm materials are ropes and whipcords, riddles, sickles, scythes, reaping hooks, ploughs, ox yokes, leather for “flaylles”, lanterns, seeds and fodder, and tar to mark sheep.

The size of the household was already mentioned at the time when the foundation stone was laid. It included the housekeeper, two maid servants, and eight male servants (fig 20). Later it would be increased, for it is thought that Mrs. Thomas Shuttleworth, widow of the former steward and mother of the future Colonel Shuttleworth, lived at Gawthorpe in the absence of the Rector of Whichford. During the early days of building, the house-keeper was Jane Hodgkinson. She was succeeded in 1603 by Elizabeth Russelle, both of whom received 6s.8d., as a quarter’s wage. It was part of the house-keeper’s business to control the food and some of the clothing and we find her responsible for numerous purchases. She buys three stones of butter for 10s from “a wiffe in Symondstone”, honey by the quart, ten cheeses at a time, and barrels of herrings from Preston, barrels of ale, a load of malt from Halifax, hops, a peck of wheat, half a mutton, a fat cow, a fat bull, a fat ox from Clitheroe, a fat “stage” (Blackburn), and numerous spices about Michaelmas.

They burnt “colles”, but not so much as wood, and many white candles, though an item showing the purchase of candle “rishes” suggests that they also made some of their own. Household utensils include pewter and wooden spoons, baskets, bottles, drinking glasses, wash tubs, wooden vessels, metal pots or skillets, while a travelling tinker is employed to mend pots and pans.

Canvas is bought for making sacks and towels for workmen, and the cowboy is evidently fed and clothed, for on one occasion there is an entry showing the purchase of two calf skins and two “shippe skines” for doublet and breeches for the cow boy, 4s. They were lined with canvas, and the cost of making them, apart from the thread and buttons, was 6d. Two shirts were made for him for 2d, and his cloth stockings were cut and sewn for 2d. Miss or Mrs. Jane Hodgkinson earned her £1.6.8d. a year!

When we turn to such topics as dress, festivals and holidays, taxes, illness, doctors and burials, to mention only a few of the subjects that could be developed from a study of the accounts, what happens at Gawthorpe is typical of country houses throughout the land.

Of the fashions and materials of Elizabethan days, it is possible to find endless illustrations. The bodices of ladies’ gowns were very stiffly cut, and made on a lining of canvas, linen buckram, or even pasteboard. Grograine or grogram, velvet cloth, satin, “taffatie”, and damask were the materials used, and fur, ribbons and lace formed trimmings. Imagine Mrs. Richard Shuttleworth in such a gown, with full skirt and long hanging sleeves.

There are visits by “Lord Darbie his plaires”, and by the Queen’s Players, who on one occasion played at Gawthorpe. The sum of 3d was on one occasion paid to a poor piper. There are also payments in connection with the sports of hawking, and stag, deer and buck hunting, There are records of gifts to “poor scholars” and to poor men and women, and widows in their sickness.

Some idea of the methods of taxation can be gleaned from the Accounts. The common tax was the 15th part of the value of a man’s moveable goods. Originally it was levied by the monarch with Parliamentary consent, but in Tudor days it was applied to local taxation also. In 1620 Mr. Shuttleworth pays “two-fifteenths towards the Burnley clock”, which amount was fifteen pence. Fifteenths and multiples of fifteenths were levied for repairing churches, bridges and highways, for poor relief, for the provision of a cuck stool (ducking stool) for Burnley, and a house of correction for Blackburn, and for prison maintenance’.

Probably the wealth of detail relating to the vicinity of Gawthorpe that is included in the Shuttleworth documents has never been realised by the local communities of Burnley and Padiham. Small snippets of unrelated information connected only by their relevance to affairs at Gawthorpe are probably best understood by a glossary of details taken from the accounts. These items form a fascinating in-sight to the period between 1580 and 1620 and can be found as an appendix to this book.

The five important Shuttleworths mentioned in the ‘Accounts’ were all born in the Tudor era, the father Hugh in 1504, his three sons Sir Richard, Lawrence and Thomas in the 1540’s and Thomas’s son Colonel Richard in 1587. (See also Fig. 46). As influential members of the gentry they had many connections both in the vicinity of Gawthorpe and further afield. A number of these are mentioned in their accounts.

Evidence of Grimshaws in Gawthorpe Hall Artifacts

The Grimshaw connections to the Shuttleworth family is evidenced by artifacts that can still be found in Gawthorpe Hall. The most significant of these artifacts is the Entrance Hall Panel, which was installed by Lawrence Shuttleworth in 1604 when he build Gawthorpe Hall. The panel is shown and discussed in Figure 11 below it depicts records of Hugh and Anne (Grimshaw) Shuttleworth and their three sons, Richard, Lawrence, and Thomas as well as later descendants. Reference is also made to the Grimshaw heir then living at Clayton Hall – Nicholas and his wife, Ellen (Rishworth) Grimshaw.

Figure 11a. The Entrance Hall Panel in Gawthorpe Hall (from Conroy 1 , Figure 44).

Figure 11b. Conroys interpretation of the initials and dates on the Entrance Hall Panel.

Figure 11c. Significance of the dates included in the Entrance Hall Panel.

Shuttleworth Connections to the Pendle Witches

The unfortunate story of the Pendle witches, in which seven people (six women and one man) were put to death by hanging in 1612, is described in a companion webpage. The person who accused the women of being witches was Robert Nutter, the servant of Sir Richard Shuttleworth (oldest son of Hugh and Anne.) The accused witches, Chattox (Anne Whittle) and her daughter, Anne Redfearn, lived in West Close, which was owned by the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe. The following excerpt from Conroy 1 descirbes the events and connections. Figure 12 shows the pedigrees of the Pendle witches.

Robert Nutter from Greenhead Farm was a servant of Sir Richard who travelled with him when he went on his judiciary circuit in the area. As they returned through Cheshire after one of their visits to Chester in 1595 Robert complained to Richard that he had been bewitched by Chattox (the nickname
of Anne Whittle, one of the Pendle witches) just as his father Christopher Nutter had been bewitched by Chattox’s daughter Anne Redfearn in 1593, two years previously. Robert died in Cheshire and in 1612 Chattox was executed at Lancaster Castle for his murder, and Anne Redfearn, her daughter, was executed for the murder of his father Christopher. As Chattox and her family lived on Shuttleworth lands, at West Close, the Shuttleworths had to pay 6d as landowners for the transporting of Bess Whittle’s clothes to Lancaster in 1613. Bess was Chattox’ other daughter but she was not convicted of witchcraft. The clothes were her downfall for Bess had broken into Malkin Tower and stolen the best linen apparel from the Demdike brood, then was foolish enough to wear items of it at church on Sunday! She had been seen by Alison Device, granddaughter of Old Demdike (the nickname of Elisabeth Southernms) who reported her to Roger Nowell, the magistrate.

Figure 12 Pedigrees of the Pendle witches families (from Conroy 1 , p. 15.)

Detailed Pedigree Information from Harland

Conroy 1 quotes extensively from Harland 3 to provide additional information on the Shuttleworth family line. This information is provided below.

PEDIGREE OF THE FAMILY OF GAWTHORPE

(Quoting John Harland’s Notes In ‘The Shuttleworth Accounts.)

Henry Shuttleworth married Agnes, daughter and heiress of William de Hacking, (who was the great grandson of Bernard de Hacking) and thus brought those “states to the Shuttleworths, of whom a branch settled at Hacking A William de Hacking had a grant of Billington Mill from Henry de Lacy, prior to 1311, and was living early in the reign of Edward III. This Henry Shuttleworth was living 19th Edward II (1325-6). His younger son was:

Ughtred the first of that name on record, and Whitaker says (on what proof does not appear) the first of the family, of Gawthorpe. That a Ughtred was living l2th Richard 11 (1388/9) is shown by the entry from the court rolls of Clitheroe, which also shows that the Shuttleworths of that early period were holding land at Ightenhill, the Ightenhill so often referred to in the Shuttleworth Accounts.

Hugh of Gawthorpe, the name of whose wife has not been preserved, but he was living in the 3rd Edward 4th (1463/4) and his son and heir was

Lawrence of Gawthorpe who married Elizabeth, second daughter of Richard Worsley, Esq., of Mearley or Merley, and also of Twiston, by Isabel, daughter of Henry Townley, Esq., of Barnside. The son and heir of Lawrence Shuttleworth was

Nicholas of Gawthorpe, who married Ellen (or Helen as some of the pedigrees give it) daughter of Christopher Henry Parker, Esq., of Radholme Park and Bolland. (Bowland). The second panel at Gawthorpe gives the initial of this couple as H. & E.S. in 1473. The children of Nicholas Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe and Ellen his wife, were three sons and one daughter, viz .

1. Hugh. 2. Bernard. 3. Richard. 4. Elizabeth.

The 2nd son Bernard, married on the 13th September 1574, at Padiham Church, Jenitta Whitaker (fig 52). Bernard appears to have survived his elder brother for Hugh, who died in December 1596, left him a legacy of £3 which was paid at twice, and at the payment of the second installment in 1597, Bernard Shuttleworth is stated to be living with John Ree, of the Crosse-banke. In 1602 Copthurst is described as” late Mr. Bernard Shuttleworths”. The third son, Richard, Succeeded to Hacking and it was Anne, his only daughter and heiress, who carried that estate, with her marriage, to Sir Thomas Walmesley the Judge. It is to this Richard that reference is made in the Shuttleworth Accounts where the writer, probably Thomas, third son of 11ugh, who was the elder brother of Richard -calls him “my uncle Richard” so that he was living in November 1582. The eldest son and heir of Nicholas Shuttleworth,

Hugh of Gawthorpe married Anne, daughter of Thomas Grimshaw of Clayton who died (says Whitaker) in 1539. Their panel has H. & A. S. 1577: They were married at Whalley on the 26th October 1540. She was a sister of Richard Grimshaw, who died in 1575, aged 66, and she was buried at Padiham, January 23rd 1597. Hugh Shuttleworth was born in 1504, and he died in December, 1596, aged 92. He was buried at Padiham on the 26th December 1596. In the spandrels of two arched entrances to the dining room at Gawthorpe are four small shields, all bearing the date of 1605 (fig 46), and commemorating Hugh Shuttleworth and his three sons. The first of these has the initials H. S. and below a G. for Hugh Shuttleworth, Gentleman. The second R. S. and below a K. for Richard Shuttleworth, Knight, the third L. S. and below a P. for Lawrence Shuttleworth, Presbyter or priest, and the fourth T. S. and below a G. for Thomas Shuttleworth, Gentleman

The children of the Hugh Shuttleworth and Anne his wife, were three sons and a daughter, viz

1. Sir Richard Shuttleworth, Sergeant- at- law and chief Justice of Chester.

2. Lawrence (B.D.)

3. Thomas.

4. Ellen, or Ellinor, who, married Nowell of Merlay Parva, or Little Mearley. The eldest son and heir of Hugh was

Richard (fig 24) afterwards Sir Richard, Kt. who was a sergeant at law (receiving the coif on the 4th July 1584) and afterwards the Justice of Chester. He married Margaret (fig 25) youngest daughter of Sir Piers or Peter Legh of Lyme Cheshire, and of Hadock and Bradley, Lancashire: she being the widow of Robert Barton, Esq., of Smithills Hall near Bolton-le-Moors. They seem to have been married before 1582 and to have resided at Smithills where Lady Shuttleworth died in April 1592. Sir Richard survived her until about 1599, (their panel being R. S. K. & M. S. 1599): and, dying without issue, he was Succeeded in the family estates by his next brother.

Lawrence B.D.

(fig 26) Rector of Whichford (A parish of Co. Warwick in the diocese of Worcester) who erected the present Hall at Gawthorpe. His panel states L. S. 1545 and beneath P. N. This Lawrence does not appear to have been married, at least he left no issue and he was succeeded to the estates by Richard eldest son of his younger brother, Thomas. This Thomas who for the first 11 years of the period embraced in the Shuttleworth Accounts acted as the steward of his brother Sir Richard and kept the house and farm accounts married about September 1586 Anne, daughter of Richard Lever of Little Lever, Esq. their panel bears the date the year of their marriage T. A. S. 1586. They had six children. 1. Richard, who succeeded his uncle Lawrence.

2. Nicholas who in 1611 was living in Chambers in Gray’s Inn.

3. Ughtred also of Gray’s Inn, Barrister at Law, whose panel has V. S. 1604.

4. Anne the wife of James Anderton of Clayton, Esq.

5. Ellinor or Ellen who was married at Padiham, March 6th 1609/10 to Sir Ralph Assheton, Bart., according to Burke, being his second wife.

6. Elizabeth wife of Sir Matthew Whitfield of Whitfield.

Anne the wife of Thomas Shuttleworth survived her husband for many years dying in May 1637, aged 68. Thomas died before either of his elder brothers in December 1593 and the accounts for his funeral expenses will be found in the accounts (Anne married, secondly, a Mr. Underhill).

Richard (fig 27) born 1587 succeeded his uncle Lawrence in the estates about February 1608 and married Fleetwood (fig 29) daughter and heir of Richard Barton of Barton in Amounderness, by Mary daughter of Robert Hesketh of Rufford. There is no panel at Gawthorpe of this Richard Shuttleworth and Fleetwood his wife, but only one probably placed by his uncle Lawrence when he and his brothers were young, inscribed R. S. N. S, for Richard and Nicholas the two eldest sons of Thomas. This panel flanks the one already noted to their younger brother Ughtred dated 1604 at which time probably both panels were placed shortly after finishing the new Hall. The children of Richard Shuttleworth were:

1. Richard (M.P. for Clitheroe) who married Jane daughter of Mr. John Kirk citizen of London, by who he had three children.

2. Nicholas who married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Standish, Esq. of Busbury (bishop Shuttleworths Pedigree). This Nicholas was said to be of Clitheroe. His son Ralph married Susanna, daughter of Richard Grimshaw, who died 1575. (Whitakers Whalley).

3. Ughtred baptised 12th October 1617 (Padiham Reg.) who married Jane, daughter of Radcliffe Assherton of Cuerdale, Esq.

4. Barton baptised 7th February 1618 (Padiham Reg.) who married Elizabeth, daughter of Col. John Assheton in the service of Chas. 1. (Whitaker’s Whalley). They had a daughter which would appear from the following entry (Burnley Reg.) Fleetwood, daughter of Major Barton Shuttleworth, baptised at Gawthorpe August 20th 1657″.

5. John of Gawthorpe, Gentleman. He married 20th August 1652 Elizabeth Sherbourne (Padiham Reg.) and had four children. Fleetwood, baptised 28th June 1653 (Padiham Reg.) Catherine, John and Richard (Bishop Shuttleworth’s Pedigree).

6. Edward of whom nothing further is known.

7. William baptised 10th November 1622 (Padiham Reg.) and who is stated to have become a Captain in the Parliamentary Army and to have been slain at Lancaster.

8. Thomas.

9. A daughter died an infant and was buried February 1st 1615.

10. Margaret, baptised 28th December 1623. She was married to Nicholas Townley of Royle. (The Townleys of Royle are descended from Nicholas, third son of John Townley, living 1450 and Isobel his wife, daughter of Richard Sherbourne Esq., of Stoneyhurst).

11. Anne, baptised 24th June 1620, married first John son of Radcliffe Assheton of Cuerdale and second Richard Townley of Barnside and Carr, Esq., who was killed by a bull baited at Gisburn about 1655.

Of these children Nicholas, Barton, John, Edward, Anne, Margaret and Elinor were classified as natural sons and daughters in Richard’s will. (In Dugdale’s Visitation of 1664, the year of Fleetwoods death, Richard stated that he had a second wife, Judith Thorpe, by whom he had the nine younger children j

To return to the eldest of the eleven children

Richard (fig 31) he died during his father’s life and was buried at Padiham, 23rd January 1648 (Padiham Register) leaving three children, Richard, Nicholas, and Fleetwood, a daughter who married William Lambton. The second son Nicholas, of the City of Durham, born before 1664 married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Moore, of Berwick on Tweed, by whom he had three sons, the youngest of whom, Humphrey, married on 1774 Anna only daughter of Phillip Hoghton Esq., by whom he had five children of whom the second son Philip Nicholas became Bishop of Chichester. This branch of the family settled in Co. Durham, and its pedigree has been compiled by the Bishop.

To return to the eldest son: –

Richard (fig 32) of Gawthorpe, Esq., Born 1644. He was also of Forcett in Gilling, Yorkshire, he married 28th July 1664 Margaret, daughter of John Tempest of Durham and was buried at Forcett 5th March 1680, leaving only one son.

Sir Richard (fig 33) The second Knight of that name in the family who was baptised at Forcett 13th October 1666. He was knighted at Windsor Castle 15th June 1684 and he died 27th July 1687 and was buried at Padiham. A flat
slab in Padiham Church near the communion rail marks the last resting place of this Sir Richard Shuttleworth. At the head of the stone in a sunk circle is an Heraldic shield bearing quarterly 1st and 4th the 3 shuttles for Shuttleworth 2nd and 3rd the three boars for Barton. (the stone has now been moved to the side altar.) Below is the simple inscription “Sir Richard Shuttleworth died 27th July 1687”.

By his wife Catherine, “the Infantor” only child and heir of Henry Clerke, M.D., President of Magdalen College, Oxford, he left a younger son Clerke Shuttleworth of Nottingham, a daughter Catherine and his son and heir :-

James Kay-Shuttleworth

Janet Shuttleworth, daughter and heiress of Robert Shuttleworth, married James Kay on February 24, 1842. James assumed the name and arms of Shuttleworth by royal license when he married Janet. They had four sons and one daughter. James Kay-Shuttleworth worked very hard throughout his life on efforts to improve the public health and education of the poor in England. His biography appears as shown below in the 1993 “Dictionary of National Biography 6 .” James and Janet Kay-Shuttleworth apparently had Gawthorpe extensively remodeled during their lives at the hall.

KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH, Sir JAMES PHILLIPS (1804-1877), founder of the English system of popular education, born at Rochdale, Lancashire, on 20 July 1804, was son of Robert Kay, and was brother of Joseph Kay, Q .C. [ q.v.], and of the Right Hon. Sir Edward Kay, lord justice of appeal in the supreme court. As a youth he was engaged in the bank of his relative, Mr. Fenton, at Rochdale, but in his twenty-first year, November 1824, entered the university of Edinburgh as a student of medicine. Before long he became prominent as one of the most earnest, able, and brilliant students in the university, and as an impressive speaker at the meetings of the Royal Medical Society, of which he was elected senior president at the commencement of his second session. While a student he acted as clinical assistant to Dr. Alison and Dr. Graham during an epidemic of typhus, and he resided for a year at the Royal Infirmary as clerk of the medical wards. He also spent an autumn studying anatomy in Dublin. Both there and in Edinburgh he had opportunities of observing the condition of the poor. He was admitted to the degree of M.D. at Edinburgh in August 1827, his thesis being ‘Do Motu Musculorum.’ Shortly afterwards he settled at Manchester as a physician. Although an unsuccessful candidate for the post of physician at the Manchester Infirmary, he obtained for some years an ample field of medical experience as medical officer of the Ancoats and Ardwick Dispensary mainly instituted through his own and exertions, in a poor and populous district of Manchester. He was also secretary to the board of health at Manchester, and during the terrible first outbreak of cholera in 1832 was most devoted in his attendance on the sufferers at the cholera hospital. He thus became painfully alive to the insanitary surroundings of the poor, and in 1832 published a valuable pamphlet on ‘The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester,’ which drew attention to the evil conditions of life among the operative population, and was followed by the local adoption of measures tending to sanitary and educational reform. In a paper read before the Manchester Statistical Society in 1834 on The Defects in the Construction of Dispensaries, and by the steps which he took, in conjunction with William Langton [q. v.], to establish the Manchester District Provident Society, he made further endeavours to benefit the poorer classes of society.

In 1831 he had anonymously published ‘A Letter to the People of Lancashire concerning the Future Representation of the Commercial Interest’ and he threw himself heartily into the reform and anti-corn law movements.

During the early period of his residence at Manchester he resumed experimental researches on asphyxia, which he had begun at Edinburgh, and in 1834 he published his treatise on The Physiology, Pathology, and Treatment of Asphyxia (London, 352 pages), which secured for him some years later the Fothergillian gold medal of the Royal Humane Society. The work remains the standard text-book on the subject. ‘

His philanthropic efforts on behalf of the poor, his experience among them, and his grasp economic science, brought him to the notice of the government as one specially well fitted to locally introduce the new poor law of 1834. He became in 1835 an assistant poor-law commissioner, and spent some years in that capacity, first in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and afterwards in the metropolitan district, including Middlesex and Surrey. His valuable reports on the training of pauper children were published by the government in 1841.

From that time forward his life was devoted to the introduction and development of a national system of education. In 1839 a committee of the privy council was nominated to administer such a grant as the House of Commons might annually vote for public education in Great Britain, and he was appointed the first secretary of the committee or department, retaining for a time the superintendence of the metropolitan schools for pauper children under the poor-law board.

Jointly with his friend Mr. E. Carleton Tufnell, and from their private resources, he established the first training college for teachers at Battersea in 1839-40. Pupil-teachers were transferred from the Norwood pauper school and became the first students in the college. He at first lived in the house and superintended the whole working of the institution. The experiment proved eminently successful, and the plan was afterwards adopted and its working extended by government aid. The existing system of public education rests wholly on Kay’s methods and principles. Trained teachers, public inspection, the pupil-teacher system, the combination of religious with secular instruction and with liberty of conscience, and the union of local and public contributions were all provided for or foreseen by him. Matthew Arnold, speaking of his suggestions and their results, says that when at last the system of that education comes to stand full and fairly formed, Kay-Shuttleworth will have a statue. Owing to a serious though, as it proved, temporary breakdown of health from extreme overwork, he resigned his office of secretary to the committee of council in 1849, and on 22 Dec. that year was created a baronet.

The history of his measures must be sought in the minutes and reports of the committee of council, and in the pamphlets published on the subject between 1839 an 1870. His own pamphlets on education and other a social questions are numerous. The chief of them he collected in the following owing volumes: 1. ‘Public Education as affected by the Minutes of the Committee of Privy Council from 1846 to 1852,’ London, 1853, 8 vo 500 pp. 2. ‘Four Periods of Public Education, as reviewed in 1832, 1839, 1846, and 1862,’ London, 1862, 8vo, 644 pp. 3. ‘Thoughts and Suggestions on certain Social Problems, contained chiefly in Addresses to Meetings of Workmen in Lancashire,’ London, 1873, 346 pp. He also wrote two novels, entitled ‘Scarsdale, or Life on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Border Thirty Years Ago,’ 1860, 3 vols., and ‘Ribblesdale, or Lancashire Sixty Years Ago,’ 1874, 3 vols. To the Fortnightly Review for May 1876 he contributed a paper on the Results of the Education Act.’

During the terrible distress caused by the cotton famine in Lancashire (1861-5) Kay-Shuttleworth threw himself with fervour into the administrative work of relieving the sufferings of the operatives while guarding against the risk of pauperising them, and he acted as vice-chairman, under Lord Derby, of the great organisation at Manchester known as the central relief committee. In 1863 he was high sheriff of Lancashire, and in 1870 received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford. He took an active part in the organisation of the liberal party in Lancashire for many years, and in 1874 contested North-east Lancashire unsuccessfully, with Lord Edward Cavendish as his colleague. He served on the royal commission on scientific instruction and the advancement of science, presided over by the Duke of Devonshire, from 1870 to 1873. He was also occupied in his later years with the reform of the administration of some local grammar schools, especially those of Giggleswick and Burnley. He died at his London residence, 68 Cromwell Road, on 26 May 1877.

He married, on 24 Feb. 1842, Janet, daughter and heiress of Robert Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe Hall, near Burnley, Lancashire, whose name and arms he assumed by royal license on his marriage. Lady Kay-Shuttleworth died on 14 Sept. 1872, leaving four sons and one daughter. The eldest son, Sir Ughtred James Kay-Shuttleworth, M.P., was created Baron Shuttleworth in 1902.

[Information from Sir Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth, including a manuscript memoir by Dr. W. C. Henry, and notes by Lord Lingen, Lord Justice Kay, and Mr. Ericlisen, besides manuscript notes by Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth Matthew Arnold’s article on Schools in The Reign of Queen Victoria, ed. by T. Humphrey Ward, 1887, vol. ii. Manchester Guardian, 28 May 1877 Dr. Watts’s Facts of the Cotton Famine, 1886 Foster’s Lancashire Pedigrees: Graphic, 9 June 1877 (portrait) another and better portrait is given in McLachlan’s photographic picture of the Cotton Relief Committee.]

C W S

Shuttleworth and Gawthorpe Hall History by Tori Martinez

Tori Martinez has written a very informative summary of Gawthorpe Hall and the Shuttleworth family, which can be found at the following address:

Tori’s article is largely derived from previous works by Conroy and Harland (with full credit to sources) and is presented below:

Gawthorpe Hall — Legacy of the Shuttleworths

by Tori V. Martínez

Starting in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and ending in that of Queen Elizabeth II, Gawthorpe Hall embosomed the lives of one family — the Shuttleworths — for nearly 400 years. Today, this marvel of late Elizabethan architecture seems to emote the history and legacy of a family that came from relatively modest origins, built a fortune, overcame civil wars and tragedy, entertained royalty and, finally, left a palpable modern legacy.

Located between Padiham and Burnley near the Pennines in northeast Lancashire, Gawthorpe Hall is not the rambling palace of English aristocracy, but rather the stately home of an upwardly mobile family with deep roots in the local community. The sprawling rolling hills on which Gawthorpe stands was once part of a permanent Anglo-Saxon settlement that eventually became home to the royal Ightenhill Manor and the surrounding Pendle Forest, where the king’s deer grazed. Around the time of King Edward II’s visit to Ightenhill in 1323, a four-story square pele (or peel) tower with walls eight feet thick was erected at the western end of Ightenhill Manor to serve as a lookout for invading Scots.

In 1388, Ughtred de Shuttleworth acquired 25.5 acres of land on the banks of the River Calder, including the land surrounding the tower. As a younger son of Henry de Shuttleworth of Shuttleworth Hall in neighboring Hapton,
Ughtred would certainly have been considered a member of the landed gentry and, by growing corn on the Gawthorpe estate, was also a gentleman farmer. But as respectable as the Shuttleworth name was in Ughtred’s time, a series of fortunate marriage alliances by his descendents over the next 200 years helped to make the Shuttleworths one of the pre-eminent families of the area.

Within six generations, Ughtred’s descendent, Sir Richard Shuttleworth, was a wealthy and successful London barrister who had been made a Serjeant-at-Law — an English barrister of the highest rank — in 1584 and Chief Justice of Chester in 1589. The wealth and landholdings of the Shuttleworth family had increased so much they were asked to lend money to Queen Elizabeth I in 1588 and 1597. Despite the rise in the family’s fortunes and the addition of further lands at Gawthorpe, the major landmark on the property was still the peel tower. After Sir Richard inherited the Gawthorpe lands on the death of his father in 1596, he began making plans to expand the old tower into a residence, and it’s believed that he hired Robert Smythson, the architect of Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire and Longleat in Wiltshire, to design the new hall. Sir Richard died in November 1599 before he could carry out his plans, but the project was continued by his younger brother, the Reverend Lawrence Shuttleworth, who laid the foundation stone of Gawthorpe Hall on August 26, 1600.

For nearly two years, the exterior of the new hall was built using sandstone quarried in Padiham and incorporating the old tower, which was raised more than two stories and can still be seen rising up from the center of the structure. After the exterior was completed in mid 1602, it took another four years to fit out and furnish the interior. Finally, near the end of 1606, Gawthorpe Hall was complete. Although Sir Richard had not lived to see the culmination of his vision, he was not forgotten within its walls. In 1605, two Yorkshire plasterers, Francis and Thomas Gunby, created an ornate plasterwork frieze in the dining room (repurposed in 1816 as the drawing room) that included plaster figures of Sir Richard and his wife Margaret, which alternate with half-human and animal figures. Amazingly, the frieze is still in excellent condition today, 400 years after it was painstakingly created.

Although the new Hall was technically complete, it’s considered unlikely that Lawrence ever actually lived there, since he died in February 1608. Like his brother before him, Lawrence didn’t have any children, so Gawthorpe passed to his nephew, Colonel Richard Shuttleworth — the first official resident of Gawthorpe Hall and also one of the most celebrated early members of the Shuttleworth family. Richard (b. 1587) lived at Gawthorpe Hall for more than 60 years, along with his wife and their 11 children, who were all born there. During that time, he served as High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1618 and 1638, was elected MP for Preston in 1641, and, most significantly, was made a colonel of the parliamentary army when the English Civil War started in 1642. Richard’s responsibility as colonel was to defend northeast Lancashire from the royalists, which meant that Gawthorpe Hall soon became a meeting place for local parliamentarian leaders and forces. During the war, Richard won a critical victory over the royalists when 400 of his men defeated 4,000
royalist troops at Read Bridge. In the process, he may also have saved Gawthorpe from possible capture and destruction, as the royalist troops had been advancing toward Padiham at the time.

Despite fighting against the royalists in the Civil War, Richard continued to thrive after the Restoration and left his substantial estates to his eldest grandson, another Richard (b. 1644), who had been brought up in Yorkshire. When the younger Richard died at the age of 36, his son — yet another Richard — inherited Gawthorpe Hall. This Richard (b. 1666) seemed to have a promising future when he inherited the Hall in 1681. He married a young heiress in 1682 and was knighted by King Charles II at Windsor on June 15, 1684 — the second of his family to be so honored. But tragedy struck in 1687 when his father-in-law died, followed only weeks later by Richard himself, with both deaths occurring at Gawthorpe. For three generations, the Shuttleworth family lived elsewhere until, finally, in early 1816, Robert Shuttleworth (b. 1784) made Gawthorpe Hall his home.

In November of 1816, Robert married the daughter of a Scottish baronet, who bore him a daughter, Janet, in late 1817. Once again, it seemed that prosperity and a happy family would again fill the halls of Gawthorpe Hall. Sadly, tragedy again struck the Shuttleworth family in March 1818 when Robert died following a carriage accident. The infant Janet, now heiress to Gawthorpe, was brought up in the south of England, but returned to Gawthorpe after her marriage to Dr. James Phillips Kay, a renowned educationalist, in 1842. Janet’s new husband added the Shuttleworth name and arms to his own, thus changing the family name to Kay-Shuttleworth, and the couple set to work refurbishing Gawthorpe Hall. In April 1849, James commissioned Sir Charles Barry, the architect of the Houses of Parliament, to carefully restore the
house following the original style. Sir Charles also restored the grounds of Gawthorpe Hall to more consistently conform to the Elizabethan style, and the north parterre is probably very similar today to what it was when he created it in 1851. Just as Sir Charles was renewing Gawthorpe Hall to its former glory, so were the Kay-Shuttleworths breathing new life into it. Already members of high society, the family’s status was elevated on December 22, 1849, when James was created a baronet. In March 1850, James and Janet played host to Charlotte Bront, who had anonymously published “Jane Eyre” only three years before. Charlotte visited Gawthorpe again in January 1855, just two months before her death on March 31, and her association with the Hall makes it a popular stop on the Bronte Way to this day.

The story of Gawthorpe Hall seemed to come full circle following the death of Janet in 1872, when her eldest son, Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth — named for his 14th century ancestor — inherited his mother’s estates. The Victorian-era Ughtred lived at Gawthorpe Hall with his wife and six children and had a thriving political career that saw him serve as Liberal MP for Hastings from 1869 to 1880, and for Clitheroe from 1885 to 1902, when he was elevated to the peerage as Baron Shuttleworth (1st Lord Shuttleworth) for his political services. Between 1908 and 1928, he was Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire and it was in this capacity that he entertained King George V and Queen Mary at Gawthorpe Hall in 1913.

For all Ughtred’s seeming good fortune up to time of the royal visit, the following years saw great tragedy for the Shuttleworth family. In 1917, both of Ughtred’s sons were killed in action during the First World War, with each leaving behind a young family. Following these two tragedies, Ughtred retired to his estate in Barbon, where he died — blind and bedridden — at the age of 95 in 1939. Barely a year after becoming the 2nd Lord Shuttleworth, Ughtred’s eldest grandson Richard was killed in the Second World War. He was succeeded by his younger brother, but he too died in the war in 1942. The title then passed to a cousin, Charles Kay-Shuttleworth, who became the 4th Lord Shuttleworth and came to live at Gawthorpe Hall following the end of the war.

Lord Charles had been badly injured in the war, suffering the loss of one leg and the paralyzation of another, and, after marrying in 1947, it was decided that the house was not a practical environment considering his disabilities. The family moved to Leck Hall near Kirkby Lonsdale in Cumbria and left Gawthorpe Hall in the care of Lord Charles’ aunt, the Honorable Rachel Kay-Shuttleworth. The daughter of Ughtred, Rachel was born in 1886 and had lived most of her life at Gawthorpe. She was also the last member of the family to live at the Hall and it seems appropriate that she also died there in 1967. Just five years later, Lord Charles passed ownership of Gawthorpe and the surrounding lands to the National Trust and Leck Hall officially became the Shuttleworth family seat.

Today, Gawthorpe Hall is not only a jewel of Elizabethan exterior architecture and Jacobean interior design, but also a living monument to the Shuttleworth family. Much of the Hall’s original Jacobean and Victorian furniture is currently on display and does much to give it the sense of a historic home truly captured in time. The Hall is also the home of the finest collection of textiles outside the Victoria & Albert Museum in London — the legacy of Rachel Kay-Shuttleworth. The addition of a number of 17th century paintings from the National Portrait Gallery on display throughout the Hall beautifully round out the interior attractions, while outside, the extensive grounds offer plenty of room for exploration, starting with the old gate house at the entrance.

Gawthorpe Hall is open March 25 to March 31 from 1 and 5 pm all week, and from April 2 to November 2 from 1 to 5 pm, except on Mondays and Fridays. The gardens are open all year round from 10 am to 6 pm.

More Information:

Gawthorpe Hall

http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/hbcache/property158.htm

The Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe, by Michael P. Conroy (1999)

Backcloth to Gawthorpe, by Michael P. Conroy (1996)

Charlotte Bronte at Gawthorpe Hall

As a side note to Shuttleworth and Gawthorpe Hall history, Charlotte Bronte spent time at Gawthorpe Hall in 1850. Barker and Birdsall 2 (p. 83-84) describe her visit as follows:

In March 1850 Charlotte went to stay with Sir James and Lady Kay-Shuttleworth at Gawthorpe Hall. The magnificent hall lies near Padiham in Lancashire, just off the present A671. The visit was a surrender to a sort of war of attrition waged by Sir James in an effort to get to know Currer Bell. He was a remarkable man, a great social reformer in his younger days, as a doctor in Manchester, he had battled against problems of hygiene among the poor and was instrumental in opening schools in workhouses. He lobbied tirelessly for free libraries and free education, and suffered a series of nervous breakdowns throughout his life due to overwork He also had an artistic streak, which drew him to the company of writers. His interest had been aroused by the radical nature of Charlottes novel Shirley.

The publicity-shy Charlotte found Sir James uncomfortably overpowering, but the romantic in her was captivated by the monumental Jacobean hall with its reminiscences of her beloved Walter Scott, gray, antique, castellated and stately. She failed to warm to his wife, whom she found graceless and without dignity. Whether or not she felt that lady Kay-Shuttleworths 200-year-old ancestry and her familys stately home (Sir James had taken her name, Shuttleworth, as the price of the inheritance) should have lent her aristocratic aloofness and condescension is not clear, but Charlotte found her hostesss kind attempts to be friendly painful and trying. Their pressing invitation to stay with them in London over the season she described as a menace hanging over my head. The truth was that, apart from her appalling nervousness in strange company, Charlotte had a deep dread of being patronized. Though never completely at ease, she was to thaw somewhat in her attitude to the Kay-Shuttleworths in later years.

James Kay and his wife, Janet Shuttleworth, are shown in the lower-right corner of the Shuttleworth pedigree in the figure at the bottom of this webpage. Another, equally remote, connection of the Grimshaws to the Brontes occurred at Haworth and is described on the webpage on WilliamGrimshaw of Haworth.

Gawthorpe Hall, Now a British National Trust Property

Gawthorpe Hall was apparently donated to the British National Trust in about 1970, after the death of Rachel Kay-Shuttleworth, the last Shuttleworth descendant to live at the hall. It has become a major tourist attraction of Lancashire. It is described as shown below on the following webpage:

Home of the Kay-Shuttleworths, friends of Charlotte Bronte

Gawthorpe Hall, the home of the Kay-Shuttleworths in Padiham, near Burnley in Lancashire was frequently visited by Charlotte Bronte, author of Jane Eyre, and other classics.

Now a National Trust property managed by Lancashire County Council, Gawthorpe Hall, a fine 17th Century house with 19th Century restoration, is set in riverside woods, and includes the following:

  1. 17th Century National Portrait Gallery paintings
  2. Jacobean and Victorian furnishings
  3. The Rachel Kay-Shuttleworth Textile Collections
  4. Elaborate ceilings and panellings

With a special programme of events planned for 2001, Gawthorpe Hall brings history alive in East Lancashire’s Bronte Country. Please contact Gawthorpe Hall on +44 (0)1282 771004 quoting ref. BHA for a special preview.

The Shuttleworth family has been associated with the Padiham area since the 14th Century. As their wealth, influence and social standing increased, Sir Richard Shuttleworth decided to build a hall, calling it “Gawthorpe” (meaning “the place of the cuckoo”). Work was started in 1600, and the building was completed in 1605.

Gawthorpe Hall has associations with the English Civil War, as Colonel Sir Richard Shuttleworth commanded the parliamentary forces in the “Blackburn Hundred”. In April 1642, within only 24 hours, Shuttleworth mustered 400 men and routed Prince Rupert’s 4000 strong army at Read Bridge, thus effectively ending the Royalist cause in Lancashire.

In 1842, Janet Shuttleworth married Sir James Kay of Rochdale, and between 1850 and 1852 the Hall was restored and improved “in a sympathetic Elizabethan style” at the request of Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, Sir Charles Barry, famous as architect for the Houses of Parliament in London, was chosen to undertake this work.

In March 1850 Charlotte Bronte visited Sir James and Lady Janet Kay-Shuttleworth at the hall, followed later in the same year by visits to their houses in London and the Lake District. Although Charlotte Bronte’s feelings about her
visits were mixed, by this time she was famous and attracting the attention of the establishment. The Kay-Shuttleworths were instrumental in introducing Charlotte Bronte to society, and also to Elizabeth Gaskell, who subsequently became her friend and biographer.

Gawthorpe Hall is also of particular interest for the Rachel Kay-Shuttleworth textile collections, which are housed here. Of national importance, the collections represent the finest examples of embroidery and lacework to be seen outside the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.

Murray Shuttleworths Website on the Shuttleworth Family

Murray Shuttleworth of New Zealand maintains a very interesting website on the Shuttleworths. It includes a lot of information on Shuttleworth family history, numerous photos of Gawthorpe Hall from various sources, and several pages of other photos. The introduction shown below is from Murrays website, which can be found at:

A big Welcome to these web pages.

I am not a professional genealogist, but I have been researching the Shuttleworth family surname for over 20 years as a hobbie and would like to share information and knowledge that I have learnt over the years.

The WWW has opened up a whole lot of new doors for people that is researching and made it a easier task for finding and contacting people with the same interest.

So here we are through these pages and others like it, to link and help researchers of the Shuttleworth family around the world.

Over the next few months I will add new links and genealogy data base on the Shuttleworth family that I have and also that others have and would like to share.

Below you will find links to the history of the Shuttleworth name and what it means (Some of this information has been recorded or written before, and can be found in such books as Burkes Peerage & Baronetage, some information was also supplied by family members), family/relations photos (more will be added over time), other researchers, some Global Shuttleworth pages and some worth while links/sites to have a look at etc.

Any links you find not working please let me know, or if you have a good link that might be helpfull or would like to add your homepage please also let me know and a link can be added.

I would like to thank extended Shuttleworth family members around the World that have contributed info, images for these pages. By sharing our info helps us all for our common goal and makes our research a little easier..

Winston Churchill, 11th Generation Great-Grandson of Anne Grimshaw and Hugh Shuttleworth

According to Deborah Nouzovsky, in an e-mail of November 10, 2005, Winston Churchill is descended from Ann and Hugh Shuttleworth her e-mail is shown below. Thanks go to Deborah for making this interesting connection known to the “Grimshaw researcher community”.

Hi,

Anne Grimwhaw and Hugh Shuttleworth are the 11th great grandparents of Winston Churchill.

Hugh and Anne Grimshaw Shuttleworth had son Thomas Shuttleworth who married Anne Lever.

Thomas and Anne Lever Shuttleworth had son Richard Shuttleworth who married Fleetwood Barton.

Richard and Fleetwood Barton Shuttleworth had son Richard Shuttleworth who married Jane Kirke.

Richard and Jane Kirke Shuttleworth had son Richar d who married Margaret Tempest.

Richard and Margaret Tempest Shuttleworth had son Richard who married Catherine Clerke

Richard and Catherine Clerke Shuttleworth had son Richard Shuttleworth who married Emma Tempest.

Richard and Emma Tempest Shuttleworth had daughter Frances Shuttleworth who married John Tempest.

John and Frances Shuttleworth Tempest had daughter Frances Tempest who married Sir Henry Vane. Sir Henry Vane added Tempest to his name upon inheriting Tempest estates.

Sir Henry and Frances Tempest Vane Tempest had son Sir Henry Vane Tempest who married Anne Catherine MacDonnell, Countess of Antrim.

Sir Henry and Anne Catherine MacDonnell Vane Tempest had daughter Frances Anne Emily Vane Tempest who married Charles William Stewart, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry. Added Vane Tempest to the name.

Charles William and Frances Anne Emily Vane Tempest Vane Tempest Stewart had daughter Lady Frances Anne Emily Vane or Vane Tempest Stewart who married Sir John Winston Spencer Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough.

Sir John Winston and Lady Frances Anne Emily Vane Tempest Stewart Spencer Churchill who had son Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill who married Jeanette Jerome.

Lord Randolph Henry and Jeannette Jerome Spencer Churchill had son Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill.

So Hugh and Anne Grimshaw Shuttleworth are the 11th great grandparents of Winston Churchill.

Regards,

Deborah (Nouzovsky)

References

1 Conroy, Michael P., 1999, The Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe: Lancashire Family History and Heraldry Society, 80 p.

2 Whitaker, Thomas Dunham, 1872, An History of the Original Parish of Whalley, and Honor of Clitheroe (Revised and enlarged by John G. Nichols and Ponsonby A. Lyons): London, George Routledge and Sons, 4th Edition v. I, 362 p. v. II, 622 p. Earlier editions were published in 1800, 1806, and 1825.

3 1830 Harland, John, 1856-1858, The House and Farm Accounts of the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe Hall, in the County of Lancaster at Smithills and Gawthorpe – from September 1582 to October 1621: Manchester, Lancashire, Chetham Society, v. 35, 41, 43, 46.

4 1820 Selleck, R.J.W., 1993, James Kay-Shuttleworth – Journey of an Outsider: Portland, OR, Woburn Press, 494 p.

5 Barker, Paul, and James Birdsall, 1996, The World of the Brontes: London, Pavilion Books Ltd., 144 p.

6 Stephen, Sir Leslie and Sir Sidney Lee, 1993, The Dictionary of National Biography, volume X, Howard – Kenneth: Oxford University Press, p1138-1140.

Detailed Shuttleworth Descendant Chart From Whitaker

Whitaker 2 (v. II, p. 183-185) presents a very complete descendant chart of the Shuttleworth family with details on many of the individuals. The chart is presented in Figure 13 below. Anne Grimshaw (circled in blue) is shown as the wife of Hugh, 5 th generation descendant of Henry Shuttleworth: Ann, dau of Thomas Grimshaw of Clayton, cop. Lanc. Bur. At Padiham 1597.” Whitakers descendant chart begins with Henry (m. Agnes de Hacking.) who is a 5 th generation descendant of the earliest known Shuttleworth, “Henry de Shotilworth.”

Figure 13. Whitaker’s Descendant Chart for the Shuttleworth family, with Anne Grimshaw shown in blue circle.

Images from John Harland’s “The House and Farm Accounts of the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe Hall”

Two images are presented as frontispieces of the first two volumes of Harland’s 4-volume work 3 , published in the 1850s. The first volume (v. 35) has an engraving of Shuttleworth Hall (Figure 14), and the second volume (v. 41) has a line drawing of Lawrence Shuttleworth (Figure 15 below,) son of Anne (Grimshaw) Shuttleworth and builder of Gawthorpe Hall. Figure 16 is a high-resolution closeup of the Shuttleworth arms from the upper right corner of Figure 15.

Figure 14. Engraving of Gawthorpe Hall from Harland 3 .
Note the detail provided in the engraving.

Figure 15. Sketch of Lawrence Shuttleworth, including his signature below the drawing. The coat of arms in the upper right corner is shown in greater detail in Figure 16. It appears likely that this sketch was made from the painting presented in Figure 9 above.

Figure 16. High-resolution closeup of the Shuttleworth arms from the sketch in Figure 15.

Webpage History

Webpage posted August 2000, updated September 2000, April 2002, July 2002. Updated November 2005 with addition of sections on Shuttleworth history by Tori Martinez and on Winston Churchill by Deborah Nouzovsky.


14 Won’t Win: Alex Noren

Michael Madrid-USA TODAY Sports

Next on our (probably) won’t win list we have Swede Alex Noren, who has been floating in the top-20 of the Official World Golf Rankings for seemingly forever.

Noren recently jumped up to no. 14 with his win at the HNA Open de France (European Tour), but we don’t see a Major Championship in the future for Noren.

The fact that Noren is 35 years old doesn’t help his quest of a Major, and when you couple that with his relative lack of success at Majors thus far—he’s played in 20 Major tournaments and finished top-10 just twice while missing the cut or withdrawing 10 times—a Major for Noren doesn’t feel imminent.


Languages with more than 30,000,000Speakers as of 2005, classifiedby Civilization

The "cultural spheres of influence" of India , China , Europe , and Islâm are founded on the World Civilizations of their central or foundational regions, which may be defined by religion or culture but most precisely by the possession of an ancient Classical language attended by a large literature in that language. In India this language is Sanskrit , , which is first of all the sacred language of Hinduism but otherwise contains extensive secular literature and occurs as a principal language of Buddhism also. In China, Classical Chinese not only possesses literature back to the Spring and Autumn Period, but it was extensively used until even the modern period by educated writers in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam -- people who otherwise did not even speak Chinese.

LanguageSpeakersLanguage
Family
Location
1993
all
2005
first
MANDARIN
CHINESE
952 M873 MSino-TibetanCHINA
English470 M309 MIndo-EuropeanEurope/
America/
Asia/
Africa/
Oceania/
Australia
HINDI 418 M180 MIndo-EuropeanINDIA
Spanish381 M322 MIndo-EuropeanEurope/
America
Russian288 M145 MIndo-EuropeanEurope/
Central Asia
Arabic219 M206 MAfro-Asiatic,
Semitic
Middle East/
N Africa
BENGALI 196 M171 MIndo-EuropeanINDIA
Portuguese182 M177 MIndo-EuropeanEurope/
America
Malay --
Bahasa Malaysia/
Indonesia
155 M46 MAustronesian,
Malayo-
Polynesian
Malaya/
Indonesia
Japanese126 M122 MAltaic (?)Japan
French124 M64 MIndo-EuropeanEurope/
America/
Africa/
Oceania
German121 M103 MIndo-EuropeanEurope
URDU 100 M60 MIndo-EuropeanINDIA
PUNJABI 94 M87 MIndo-EuropeanINDIA
Korean75 M67 MAltaic (?)Korea
TELUGU 73 M69 MDravidianINDIA
MARATHI 70 M68 MIndo-EuropeanINDIA
TAMIL 69 M66 MDravidianINDIA
CANTONESE
CHINESE
66 M54 MSino-TibetanCHINA
SHANGHAI
CHINESE
65 M77 MSino-TibetanCHINA
Javanese64 M75 MAustronesian,
Malayo-
Polynesian
Indonesia
Vietnamese64 M67 MAustro-Asiatic,
Mon-Khmer (?)
Indo-China
Italian63 M61 MIndo-EuropeanEurope
Turkish (Azeri,
Turkmen)
59 M
(18 M)
50 M
(37 M)
AltaicWest &
Central Asia
Tagalog53 M15 MAustronesian,
Malayo-
Polynesian
Philippines
MIN
CHINESE
50 M67 MSino-TibetanCHINA
Thai & Lao50 M49 MTai-KadaiS.E. Asia
Swahili48 M5-10 MNiger-
Kordofanian
East Africa
HUNAN
CHINESE
(Xiang)
48 M36 MSino-TibetanCHINA
Ukrainian47 M39 MIndo-EuropeanEurope
KANARESE
(Kannada)
44 M35 MDravidianINDIA
Polish44 M42 MIndo-EuropeanEurope
BIHARI
(Bhojpuri)
42 M26 MIndo-EuropeanINDIA
GUJARATI 41 M46 MIndo-EuropeanINDIA
Hausa38 M24 MAfro-Asiatic,
Chadic
West Africa
MALAYALAM 35 M35 MDravidianINDIA
Persian & Tajiki34 M35 MIndo-EuropeanIran/
Central Asia
HAKKA
CHINESE
34 M29 MSino-TibetanCHINA
ORIYA
(Odia)
32 M31 MIndo-EuropeanINDIA
Burmese31 M32 MSino-TibetanBurma
In Europe, there is only one Classical language common to the whole area, and that is Greek . In a large and dominant subdivision of Europe, we also find Latin as the Classical language. Historically, that region can be distinguished as "Francia." It can also be called simply "Latin" Europe, although some might think that this would only apply to areas with languages, like French and Spanish, that are actual descendants of Latin. "Latin" Europe, however, would mean everywhere that Latin was used as the language of religion or scholarship. That would include Germany, Britain, Scandinavia, and Eastern European states like Poland and Hungary.

The youngest civilization and cultural area would be that of Islâm, whose language, Classical Arabic , represents a large body of secular and religious literature from the Middle Ages down to the present.

With all Classical languages, other languages within their sphere of influence tend to borrow vocabulary, and sometimes even grammar, extensively from the defining language of the civilization. Along with that come references to particular items of literature, history, and religion. Thus, Arabic words frequently occur in Persian, Turkish, Hindi-Urdu, Malay, Swahili, etc., even as Greek and Latin words are regularly and easily found in English, or Chinese words in Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Educated Europeans can be expected to know about Thermopylae, while educated Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese would be expected to know about the Three Kingdoms, and Muslims about the Bloody Shirt of 'Uthmân.

These numbers are from The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1995 [Funk & Wagnalls, 1994, pp. 598-599] and The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2008 [World Almanac Education Group, Readers Digest, 2008, pp. 728-729]. The 1995 edition reports data from 1993, and the 2008 edition data from 2005.

The treatment of the languages is awkwardly different in the two editions. In 1995, the languages were listed alphabetically and all speakers were given for each language. In 2008, however, the languages are listed by country and only numbers for those who speak them as first languages are given. This results in some dramatic changes in the numbers. Languages widely spoken as second languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, English, Hindi, Russian, Arabic, Malay, French, and Swahili, thus seem to have lost millions of speakers by 2005.

Indeed, the 2008 edition does not list Swahili at all -- a very grave and strange oversight, especially when the list claims to include all languages with at least 2 million speakers. Swahili, which has a large Arabic component, may have ten million or fewer speakers as a first language but it is a national language in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and the Congo and is even used by the United Nations. It has the reputation among some of being the common language of all of Africa, but it is actually not spoken in the West or South.

Arabic also receives odd treatment in the 2008 edition, since it is broken up by dialect (16 of them) for various Arabic speaking states. In general, these are not separate languages, although North African Arabic, Maghribî , is rather different from the Middle Eastern dialects. Nevertheless, this overlooks the written language (the dialects are explicitly identified as "spoken"), which is the much more unified language of literary Arabic. Since Arabic is the language of Islâm, Moslems around the world, as far afield as Indonesia (which is over 90% Moslem), learn it it for religious reasons as a second language (which is not reflected in the 2005 data). The treatment of Arabic in the 2008 Almanac means that, while it was given on a short list as one of the "principle languages of the world" in 1995, Arabic disappears from the corresponding 2008 short list of "languages spoken by the most people." Certainly, speakers of any dialect of Arabic would find this development annoying, misrepresentative, ahistorical, and perhaps insulting.

By some estimates, up to a billion people could have some competence in English. But even the figure for Mandarin shrinks when we leave out other Chinese (perhaps a hundred million) who have learned Mandarin as a second language. Some languages, like Swahili, , and Malay, , started out as trade languages which soon were essentially second languages. They continue to have a far smaller number of speakers as first languages than as second. Malay is the first language of less than 50 million people. But as a trade language which has become a national language of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore (called Bahasa Malaysia, Bahasa Indonesia, and Bahasa Melayu respectively), Malay, a Malayo-Polynesian language, is one of the major languages of the world. One would not know this from the 2005 data.

Apart from Malay and Swahili, some languages on the list drop below 30 million in the 2005 data for reasons that are less obvious. Thus, Tagalog, Bihari, Hausa, and Hakka all lose millions of speakers from 1993 to 2005. With Tagalog this may reflect its use as a national language of the Philippines and so as a second language for many speakers of other Philippine languages. Hakka, as a language of traders, and with a geographical distribution that is very scattered, also may have a significant population who use it as a trade language. With Bihari the problem may have been the unreliability of census data (perhaps a problem with other Indian and Chinese languages). Other languages on the list probably have lost numbers because of an actual shrinkage in the number of speakers, as with Japanese, German, Polish, and Ukrainian, where populations have been aging without a replacement level of births. It does surprise me some that no new languages have grown to have more than 30 millions speakers between 1993 and 2005.

LanguageSpeakersLanguage
Family
Location
1993
all
2005
first
2006,
Katzner
Sundanese26 M27 M30 MAustronesian,
Malayo-Polynesian
Indonesia
However, there is one possibility. Sundanese, which is spoken on Java by the Sunda Strait, was reported with 26 million speakers in 1993 and 27 million in 2005, but Kenneth Katzner (see below) gives the population of speakers at 30 million. So I add an entry for this just in case.

Mandarin Chinese has been expanding against the other Chinese languages because of its political, cultural, and demographic dominance and the peculiar relationship of these languages to each other (they are written with the same Classical Chinese characters). In India no language has a status comparable to Mandarin in China. Indian states have their own official languages, recognized by the Constitution but the plan to make Hindi, which is common in the North, the only official national language, eliminating English, actually set off riots. Various Indian languages are certain to continue and thrive, while English continues for purposes of neutral national communication -- with the interesting feature that it is the English version of laws that is authoritative, while the Supreme Court of India deliberates in English. The list of languages in the 1995 Almanac overlooked Bihari in India and Hunan in China, so I had to use numbers from other sources. The 2008 Almanac, on the other hand, has a rather full list of Chinese and Indian languages.

Hindi and Urdu are really the same language (Hindi-Urdu or Hindustani), with Hindi spoken by Hindus and Urdu spoken by Moslems. On the literary level these languages now diverge in vocabulary, with Hindi borrowing from Sanskrit [ Sãskṛta , ] and Urdu borrowing from Arabic and Persian. Hindi-Urdu, however, because it grew up under the Moslem Moghul Emperors, had a Persian and Arabic component from the beginning, which survives even in Hindi. "Hindi" [ Hyndi , or -- with the "n" written as a nasalization] itself is from Arabic Hindî [], though that is ultimately from Sanskrit sindhu [], meaning a river, the Indus River, or the Sindh region of India. "Urdu" [ Wrdu , ] is from Persian ordu , meaning a camp, or Turkish ordu , meaning an army. Both are derived from Mongolian orda (which had both meanings), as does the English word "horde," which came through the Polish rendering, horda . The name "Urdu" commemorates the circumstance that the language developed in the army camps of the Moghul Emperors, where the originally Turkish and Afghani forces of the Moghuls interacted with the locals. As such, Hindustani was written in the Arabic alphabet and it is an innovation that Hindi is now written in Devanagari. Both Hindi and Urdu have borrowed from English and other modern languages [note].

While Hindi and Urdu are widely spoken in the North of India, regional languages dominate elsewhere, and linguistic politics can rise to serious levels of conflict. Thus, the English name of the city of Bombay has become a casualty, as people have come to insist that the "real" name of the city be used. It has become a mark of sophistication, or political correctness, to shun "Bombay." However, most people outside India using Mumbai may be at a loss to identify the language to which this name belongs. Hindi might be a good guess, but that would be wrong. Bombay in Hindi is Bambai , (an anomalous spelling in terms of Sanskrit, since Hindi is missing a vowel that Sanskrit would pronounce -- we might expect , , , etc.). This is phonetically not much different from the name in English. Instead, the Indian State of Maharashtra, where Marathi is the official language, decided, in a surge of nationalism, to officially stop using "Bombay." Maharashtra, unlike several other Indian States, does not have English as an additional official language. When we consider that English is the only politically and religiously neutral language in India, the change reflects, not so much an antipathy towards English or the British -- although the change is sometimes expressed in those terms -- but towards other Indians. Thus, where the politically correct American may think that the change from "Bombay" is some sort of statement about imperialism, it is instead part of the fierce and often hostile internal politics of India, in this case on behalf of the Marathi language. Nevertheless, although many residents of the very city themselves still say "Bombay," we now find "Mumbai," , used even in Hindi.

In 1950, the new Constitution of the Republic of India anticipated that the Government of India would stop using English in 1965, relying only on Hindi as the national language. This development was forestalled by the Official Language Act of 1963, which allowed for the continued use of English. However, in 1964, proposals were made to phase out English, and this resulted in actual riots in States were Hindi was not used, especially those whose Dravidian languages were unrelated to Hindi, but also including Maharashtra. The Official Language Act was amended in 1967 so that English could not be replaced without the consent of every single State where Hindi was not an official language. Meanwhile, the authoritative text of all National statutes and enactments is the English version of the same, and the deliberations of the Supreme Court of India are in English. At the same time, citizens of India are entitled to address the Government in any language native to India, even if it is not an official language anywhere.

I remembered hearing about the riots in 1964 but was long under the false impression that they were over Hindi being made the official language of India. I was latter puzzled to learn that it was already the national language. So, as it happens, the complaint was over English being removed , not over Hindi being instituted. Knowledge of English is widespread enough in India that Americans often have the experience of their customer service calls to American companies being answered by people in India. And Indian immigrants to the United States have the advantage of already speaking the language. This may be a factor in people of Indian derivation being the most economically successful ethnic group identified by the United States Census. My first clue about the success of people from India was finding an Indian run motel in remote Artesia, New Mexico, in 1982. Later, a hotelier told me the saying, "Hotel, Motel, Patel."

The sentiment that "Bombay" should not be used just because it is not the name in the local language is a notion immediately forgotten when people say "Rome" in English or French, or Rom in German. They apparently do not reflect that the city has been Roma in the local language, Latin and Italian, for more than two thousand years. Are they not now insulting Italians by using some mangled version of the name in foreign languages? Of course, one point about foreign languages is that it may be impossible to pronounce the local name in the local manner. We see this as Beijing , , has replaced "Peking," where not only is the word commonly pronounced as though it were French rather than Chinese, people who do not speak Chinese have little chance of pronouncing it within shouting distance of actual Mandarin phonology. People who give the name a French pronunciation often seem positively unaware that this mangles the phonology to a considerably greater extent than "Rome" does "Roma." Traditional English versions of foreign place names are usually due to the unavoidable challenges of pronunciation and spelling, which persist despite any level of cultural sensitivity or anti-imperialist sentiment. We also get curious grammatical scrimages, such as over the use of the article in English with the name of the Ukraine.

An interesting case in such controversies is the Kingdom of Navarra in Spain. "Navarra" its name in Spanish. However, heiresses of Navarra repeatedly married French Royalty or Nobility, namely King Philip IV of France (by Juana/Jeanne I), Philip Count of Evreux (by Juana/Jeanne II), Gaston IV Count of Foix (by Leonora), John d'Albret (by Catherine), and Anthony Duke of Vendôme (by Juana/Jeanne III). Anthony became the heir of Boubon, and his son, by Jeanne III, Henry III of Navarre, was then Duke of Bourbon and finally King of France, as Henry (Henri) IV of Bourbon. Navarra in French is "Navarre." Thus, it cannot be decided without a great deal of casuistry whether "Navarra" or "Navarre" are the "correct" names for the Kingdom at a given time for a given person. The heiresses I have introduced first as "Juana" are almost never known by that Spanish name, since they lived with their French husbands in France. They are figures mainly of French history. On the other hand, Navarra was ethnically and linguistically a domain of the Basques, who have their own language, in which the name of the Kingdom is "Nafarroa" -- "Juana" or "Jeanne" in Basque is "Jone" -- all names one really never sees used in historical literature. So, as with most of these controversies, the disputes seem foolish and pointless, and behind them one usually finds some political axe being ground.

I have given Turkish, meaning the Osmanlı () language of Turkey, with other languages, Azeri and Turkmen, which are so closely related as to sometimes be considered one language (Oghuz Turkish, in the family of Altaic languages). However, both Almanacs, and most other sources, list them all separately, mostly for political, nationalistic reasons. Similarly, I have given Persian and Tajiki together because the latter really is a dialect of Persian -- though I notice some sources confuse it with the nearby Turkic languages.

Only two Sub-Saharan African languages -- Hausa and Swahili -- appear on the list. This reflects the circumstance that a large number of languages are spoken in Africa, and many areas are not densely populated. The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria, with over 100,000,000 people, contains many languages. Of its principal languages, Hausa, Ibo (or Igbo), Yoruba, and Fulani (or Fula), only Hausa makes the list. As of 1993, Ibo had 17 million speakers, Yoruba 20, and Fulani 13 (many of them outside Nigeria). The 2008 Almanac gives only 24 million speakers for Hausa, 18 for Ibo, 19 for Yoruba, and skips, in the peculiar way of its treatment, Fulani altogether -- 22 million is given by Kenneth Katzner, in the book cited below. Hausa evidently is widely used as a second language, which may account for the drop of over 10 million in speakers from one list to the other. Katzner gives an estimate of a total of 55 million Hausa speakers.

The languages with the largest number of speakers in South Africa, Zulu and Xhosa, have about 9 million and 8 million speakers, respectively -- 9 and 7 in the 2005 data. Both Hausa and Swahili are identified as part of the culture area of Islam, because Hausa is predominately spoken by Muslims and because Swahili, although an African language spoken by many non-Muslims, grew up as a trade language under Islamic influence. Thus, the name Swahili itself is Arabic, , Sawâḥilî , from , sâḥil , "coast," and , sawâḥil , "coasts" (in Arabic a "broken" or irregular plural). The Swahili word for "book," kitabu , is Arabic (, kitâb ) but since many nouns in Swahili begin with ki- and form their plurals by changing that to vi- , "books" is vitabu , which is not at all like Arabic, where the plural is the irregular or "broken" plural , kûtûb .

Lost in the vast extent of the World Civilizations is a culture with a claim to be a civilization in its own right. That is Ethiopia . As a Christian nation, Ethiopia shares in a sub-Roman civilization, but it is otherwise related to the language, alphabet, and culture of South Arabia. South Arabia itself, of course, became part of Oecumene of Islâm, which spread around Ethiopia and cut it off from most contact with the outer world -- even while its suriving connection, through the Coptic Patriarchate in Egypt (which appointed the Primate of Ethiopia until 1945), was compromised by the difficulties of travel, the alienation of the Coptic Church from Greek and Latin Orthodoxy, and, of course, the Arab Conquest and occupation of Egypt. This left Ethiopia as its own kind of Island Universe in world history. It even possesses its own Classical Language, Ethiopic or Ge'ez . But the major modern descendant of Ethiopic, Amharic, is only spoken by 17 million people -- so it did not make the cut for the table above.

A legend arose in Europe in the Middle Ages that there was a lost Christian kingdom, ruled by the saintly "Prester John," somewhere in Africa or Asia. Although it is hard to know if there was any factual basis for this legend at the time (there may have been rumors of Nestorian rulers of Black Cathay), when the Portuguese arrived in the Indian Ocean, they soon discovered that there was indeed just such a Christian kingdom in Africa. The Portuguese then helped the Ethiopians fight off attacks from Islamic allies of the Ottoman Turks, who had advanced down to Yemen. Later, the French arms helped Ethiopia fight off the Italians in 1896 but then no one helped when the Italians returned in 1936.

Even now, it is hard to know just how to classify the place. The Mediterranean world of Rome, to which Ethiopia was connected, is long gone, but it doesn't sound even remotely correct to then include Ethiopia in the European civilization that is Rome's successor. So Ethiopia remains an anomaly, economically one of the poorest countries in the world, but historically and culturally ancient, unique, and extraordinary in its mountain fastness. It is also where coffee comes from.

The following map adjusts the size of the areas of the earth to their population. We see why so many of the languages of India and China belong to the 40 languages with over 30 million speakers. I have adapted this from the Fontana Pocket Atlas [Fontana Books, William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd., 1969, p.114-115]. Since I bought the book in 1970 (in Beirut, of all places), the proportions may not be entirely up to date -- it looks like the population of Africa has doubled in the meantime. The book completely overlooked the Philippines, whose population now is about four times that of Taiwan (Luzon has about twice the population of Taiwan). So I have tried to produce a likely estimate. The languages in the table above are identified on the map either by language (Swahili) or by country (Nigeria for Hausa). Some places are identified for interest or clarity (Cyprus, Bali).

General information about world languages may be found in The Languages of the World , by Kenneth Katzner [Routledge & Kegan Paul, revised 1986, Third Edition, 1995, 2002, 2006] and The World's Major Languages , edited by Bernard Comrie [Oxford University Press, 1987]. There is a lot of uncertainty about the populations for Chinese "dialects." The separate discussion for Chinese dialects should be consulted. Thorough treatments of Chinese may be found in The Chinese Language, Fact and Fantasy , by John DeFrancis (University of Hawaii Press, 1984) and The Languages of China , by S. Robert Ramsey (Princeton University Press, 1987).


Watch the video: The History of Mongolia 1911-2020 (January 2022).