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Phoenician Religion Timeline



Timeline: Methodism in Black and White

John Wesley baptizes two "Negro slaves," at least one woman, thus setting the pattern for receiving people of color into the societies and the church. These two return to Antigua to start the Methodist society in the "new world."

1760s

Anne Schweitzer, a black woman, becomes a founding member of the first Methodist society in Maryland. Two years later, another black woman, known to us only as Bettye, is one of five persons to attend the Methodist services inaugurated by Philip Embury in New York City. When the John Street Church is built in 1768, the names of several black subscribers appear on its roster.

The Christmas Conference in Baltimore founds the Methodist Episcopal Church. Among those riding out to issue the call for the conference is "Black Harry" Hosier. Born a slave about 1750, Hosier receives a license to preach in 1785 and becomes one of the best preachers and most effective early circuit riders.

Drawn by the Methodist Episcopal Church's anti-slavery stand, blacks (slave and free) make up 20 percent of the 57,631 American Methodists.

John Wesley dies. His last letter is one written to anti-slavery crusader William Wilberforce, urging him to "Go on, in the name of God and in the power of his might, till even American slavery (the vilest that ever saw the sun) shall vanish away before it."

Increasing segregation within churches causes Richard Allen to form the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. In 1796, blacks walk out of John Street Church in New York and eventually build the Zion Chapel. Similar movements occur in other communities.

The African Union Church is formed.

The African Methodist Episcopal church is formed in Philadelphia. Richard Allen becomes its first bishop.

John Stewart is named as the first missionary to the Wyandot Indians. A black man converted in 1814, he was engaged in this ministry for several years before obtaining a license to preach in 1819.

The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church is formed in New York. James Varick is elected as first general superintendent.

Rising tensions over slavery come to a head in the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church when Bishop James O. Andrew of Georgia is told to desist from the exercise of his office until he frees slaves passed down from his wife's estate.

In a break along regional lines, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, is formed in Louisville, Ky.

The Liberia Conference elects Francis Burns as bishop. The first missionary bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, he had served as a missionary to Liberia for 24 years.

A group of black Methodists within the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, petition the General Conference for their orderly dismissal from that church.

Those former members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, found the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in Jackson, Tenn.

Susan Collins goes as a missionary to Angola where she is welcomed as "one of us" and serves 29 years.

The Methodist Episcopal Church elects Robert E. Jones and Matthew W. Clair Sr. as bishops.

The Methodist Episcopal Church the Methodist Episcopal Church, South and the Methodist Protestant Church unite to form The Methodist Church. Blacks are segregated into a separate Central Jurisdiction.

The General Conference, meeting in Minneapolis, Minn., adopts Amendment IX, allowing transfers of churches and conferences out of the Central Jurisdiction into geographical jurisdictions.

The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church unite to form The United Methodist Church. As part of the plan of union, the Central Jurisdiction is abolished and formal segregation ended.

Roy C. Nichols becomes the first African American to be elected bishop by a regional jurisdictional conference in the new United Methodist Church. Black Methodists for Church Renewal is organized. The General Commission on Religion and Race is formed, with Woodie White as the first African-American to head a United Methodist general agency.

Mai Gray becomes the first African-American president of the Women's Division, General Board of Global Ministries.

Trudie Kibbe Preciphs becomes the first African-American member of the secretariat of the General Commission on the Status and Role of Women.

Leontine T.C. Kelly becomes the first African-American woman to be elected bishop.

Charlotte Ann Nichols (Peninsula-Delaware Conference) and Joethel Jeannette Cooper Dicks (West Ohio) become the first African-American women district superintendents.

General Conference delegates participate in a service of repentance for racism within the denomination.

General Conference delegates celebrate the African-American witness and presence within The United Methodist Church and recognize "those who stayed" in spite of racism.

16.6 percent of the U.S. delegation to the 2008 General Conference are African-American.

African-American United Methodists speak at the inauguration of the first African-American U.S. president.

&mdashThis timeline first appeared in New World Outlook, May-June 1992. Adapted by permission and updated by United Methodist Communications. Photo courtesy of New World Outlook.


The Age of Dragons [ edit | edit source ]

  • In the mythic past, the world was one and the Progenitor Dragons, the first and greatest of dragon-kind, ruled all. The three most powerful (Siberys, Eberron, and Khyber) discovered (or created) the Draconic Prophecy. Khyber and Siberys disagreed over the Prophecy and battled with one another. Khyber was victorious over Siberys, and sought to take control of the Prophecy, only to be attacked by Eberron. Eberron wrapped his coils about Khyber, trapping the evil wyrm.

In the end, Siberys' shattered body became the Dragon Above - the glowing ring that surrounds the world. Khyber, still trapped in Eberron's coils, became the Dragon Below and the source for all great evils. Eberron healed the World Between by becoming one with it. Siberys called forth the next generation of dragons, Eberron created all manner of other living things, and Khyber spat out the fiends.


African Traditional Religion

Religion is an important part of millions of people's lives across the world. Thousands of African people are converted to Christianity every day and in Nigeria about 20 new religious sects or groups come into being every month. More than ten million Jews from all over the world observe the Sabbath every week and millions of Muslim pilgrims travel to Mecca in the Middle East every year. They do this because they have certain religious beliefs and because their religions guide their lives.

There are many different religions and some of them have been celebrating their faith, telling their stories and teaching their principles for thousands of years. People have looked to religion to answer questions like "Where did the world come from?", "Why are we here?", "Why do bad things happen to good people?" and "What happens to us when we die?" for as long as they've been in existence.

South Africa is called the rainbow nation because of its variety of people, cultures and religions. The people follow many spiritual traditions and religious faiths. In South Africa the constitution protects freedom of religion. Everyone is free to follow whatever faith they want to, or not to follow one at all.

People are also encouraged to learn about and respect different spiritual practices. This is part of democracy. The major faiths practiced in South Africa are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, traditional African religions and Judaism. European and other foreign settlers brought most of these religions. Traditional African religion is very popular and arrived here with our North and West African ancestors. It is often combined with elements of Christianity and Islam. The most important thing is that in the new South Africa religion and spirituality are used to create greater understanding and harmony rather than to divide people as was done in the past.

Traditional African Religion What is traditional African religion?

Most of the "traditional" groups of people living in South Africa arrived here from West and Central Africa about 1 500 years ago. Most of them were Bantu -speaking people and were the ancestors of many South Africans, especially the Nguni groups like the Zulu and Xhosa.

Traditional African religion and culture is passed on from parents to children through stories. Source: www.purdue.edu

Traditional African religion is based on oral traditions, which means that the basic values and way of life are passed from elders to younger generation. These traditions are not religious principles, but a cultural identity that is passed on through stories, myths and tales.

These traditions have been passed from one generation to the next. The elders are the final authority and are trusted completely.

What do the followers of this religion believe?

In traditional African religion the community is the most important part of someone's life. This community is made up of people who remember and share the same traditions. The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. A believer's family still has influence over him or her even if they live far away. Religion in most African societies also supports moral order. It creates a sense of security and order in the community. Followers believe in the guidance of their ancestors spirits.

There are spiritual leaders, kinds of priests or pastors in most traditional African religions. This person is essential in the spiritual and religious survival of the community. In the Zulu culture there are mystics or sangomas that are responsible for healing and 'divining' - a kind of fortune telling and counseling. These traditional healers have to be called by ancestors. They undergo strict training and learn many skills, including how to use herbs for healing and other, more mystical skills, like the finding of a hidden object without knowing where it is.

Sangomas are part of spiritual traditions and are responsible for healing and telling the future. Source: bingelela-africa.co.za

Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part of every major event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as less important ones such as getting a job and finishing university. During these events usually an offering is made to honour, please and thank the ancestors. A cow, sheep or chicken is slaughtered and the ancestors are called to receive the offering and bless the gathering.

Although traditional African religion recognises a Supreme God, followers do not worship him or her directly as they do not feel worthy enough. They therefore ask the ancestors to communicate on their behalf. The Supreme Being is called upon in times of great hardship and need, like drought or epidemic that may threaten the entire community. The Supreme Being is the connection between people and their environment.

Ancestor worship and belief is an extension of a belief in and respect for elders. Followers of traditional African religion believe that ancestors maintain a spiritual connection with their living relatives.

Most ancestral spirits are generally good and kind. The only negative actions taken by ancestral spirits is to cause minor illnesses to warn people that they have gotten onto the wrong path. To please these unhappy ancestors, usually offerings of beer and meat are made.


Phoenician Religion Timeline - History

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Mesopotamia was the setting for many ancient civilizations, including Sumeria, Babylon, and Israel. Find out all about these civilizations and much more.

An Introduction to the Ancient Middle East
Follow the rise and fall of several famous civilizations, from the Sumerians to the Persians. This fun, illustrated article examines each of the major peoples who lived in the Middle East in ancient times. Check out the cool timeline.

Religion in the Ancient Middle East
See how the major peoples of the ancient Middle East worshipped. You can see also how revolutionary the Hebrew religion really was.

Ancient Middle East Glossary
See the people, places, and things of the ancient Middle East come alive! Learn more about Mesopotamia, Assyria, and Israel.

Maps of the Ancient Middle East
Understand this place and time better by viewing maps!

Famous People of the Ancient Middle East Dropdown Menu
Choose a famous person listed here to find out more about him or her and his or her times.

Sumerians: First at Many Things
Ancient Sumeria was advanced beyond belief. Their achievements in agriculture, literature, business, and science are unparalleled in that time period. Unfortunately for them (and for us), their achievements in military matters left a little to be desired.

The Akkadians were an ancient civilization in Mesopotamia who were a rival of and then a conqueror of the Sumerians. The most famous Akkadian was Sargon, the world's first emperor.

Hammurabi
Hammurabi was an Amorite king who ruled much of Mesopotamia for a time and is famous for his famous set of laws, the Code of Hammurabi.

The Elamites
The Elamite civilization arose in what is now Iran in antiquity and was known to people who lived in Mesopotamia. The Elamites are known to have come into contact and conflict with the Sumerians and the Akkadians.

The Medes
The Medes were a people who lived in the Ancient Middle East, in a large part of what is now Iran and parts of what is now Iraq and Turkey.

The Lydians
The ancient kingdom of Lydia thrived in what is now Turkey for a couple of centuries before the coming of Persia, Macedon, and Rome.

The Phoenicians were a wide-ranging collection of city-states that dominated Mediterranean trade before the rise of the Roman Empire. Among the main centers of trade and civilization in Phoenician culture were Byblos, Carthage, Sidon, and Tyre.

The Story of Ancient Israel
Maps, facts, and much more about these ancient and enduring people.

The Assyrian Empire
The Assyrians were a warlike people who ruled most of the Middle East at one time or another during several centuries in ancient times.

The Mittani
The Mittani were an ancient people who lived in what is now northern Iraq and Syria and southeastern Turkey. At the time, they were northern neighbors to the powerful Assyrian Empire. Like other peoples of that time period, Mittani enjoyed ebbs and flows, conquered and were conquered, and traded and otherwise interacted with most other ancient civilizations.

The Hittites
The people who came to be known as the Hittites migrated from the east to the ancient land of Anatolia, which is now Turkey. They arrived before 2000 B.C. and encountered two other peoples already living there: the Hattians and Hurrians. The three peoples gradually merged, possibly through conquest by the Hittites.

Ancient Egypt
The Pyramids, the Sphinx, the Pharaohs, Cleopatra, Alexandria--all these things come alive in this study of the ancient civilization along the Nile.

Wars in the Ancient Middle East
The history of the Middle East is filled with wars, especially in ancient times. This site examine the geographical, religious, and other causes of these wars.

The Persian Empire
The Persian Empire was for many years the largest empire in the history of the world. Filled with famous characters, the line of Persian kings included Cyrus the Great, Darius the Great, and Xerxes the Great. They aimed to rule all that they possibly could and did so with considerable success. It was another Darius, King Darius III, who lost the empire to an avenging Macedonian army led by the Alexander the Great.

Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar was a Chaldean king who ruled much of Mesopotamia for a time. He also had built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World.

Ancient Babylon
One of the most famous names in ancient times, Babylon was ruled by a succession of leaders and civilizations.

The Hour in Ancient Babylon
The ancient Babylonians wanted to keep track of time, so they invented the sundial to help them do it. And they also divided the day into "hours." However, the hour wasn't always 60 minutes. Find out why. Daily Life of Mesopotamian Commoners
The common people far outnumbered the kings and elites.

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Phoenician Religion Timeline - History

Immigrants streamed into the halls of Ellis Island in the shadow of the Statue of Liberty, they crossed the nation, growing the cities of the east coast, taking part in land rushes, and adding to the experiment that was the United States of America.

More 1800s


Image below: Return of Casey's scouts from the battle of Wounded Knee, 1890-1891. Courtesy Library of Congress.

Image above: Mining camp at Bennet Lake, May 1898. Photo courtesy Woodside, H.J., 1858-1929. Library and Archives Canada. Right: Engraving of the immigrant scene at Ellis Island, New York harbor. Courtesy Library of Congress.

U.S. Timeline - The 1890s

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December 29, 1890 - The Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, occurs in the last major battle between United States troops and Indians. Hundreds of Indian men, women, and children are slain, along with twenty-nine soldiers.

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June 21, 1891 - Alternating current is transmitted for the first time by the Ames power plant near Telluride, Colorado by Lucien and Paul Nunn.

October 12, 1892 - The first recital of the Pledge of Allegiance in U.S. public schools is done to mark the 400th anniversary of Columbus Day.

November 8, 1892 - Grover Cleveland returns to the presidency with his victory in the presidential election over incumbent President Benjamin Harrison and People's Party candidate James Weaver. Weaver, who would receive over 1 million votes and 22 Electoral College votes, helped defeat Harrison, who garnered only 145 Electoral College votes to Cleveland's 277.

January 14-17, 1893 - The United States Marines, under the direction of U.S. government minister John L. Stevens, but no authority from the U.S. Congress, intervene in the affairs of the independent Kingdom of Hawaii, which culminated in the overthrow of the government of Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani.

November 7, 1893 - Women in Colorado are granted the right to vote.

April 14, 1894 - The first public showing of Thomas Edison's kinetoscope motion picture is held. Edison had invented the process seven years earlier.

April 29, 1894 - In a march of five hundred unemployed workers into Washington, D.C. that had begun on March 25 in Massillon, Ohio, leader James S. Coxey is arrested for treason.

May 11, 1894 - A wildcat strike of three thousand Pullman Palace Car Company factory workers occurs in Illinois.

September 7, 1894 - The fight between heavyweight boxing champ Gentleman Jim Corbett and Peter Courtney is caught on motion picture film by Thomas Edison at the Black Maria studio of his New Jersey laboratory.

February 20, 1895 - Frederick Douglass, the ex-slave who rose to prominence in national politics as a civil rights advocate and abolitionist during Civil War times died at his home in Washington, D.C.

May 18, 1896 - Plessy versus Ferguson decision by the Supreme Court states that racial segregation is approved under the "separate but equal" doctrine.

April 6-15, 1896 - The first modern Olympic Games is held in Athens, Greece. Thirteen nations participated, including the United States of America. It was held in Panathinaiko Stadium and had originated from an 1894 congress organized by Pierre de Coubertin who established the International Olympic Committee.

June 11, 1896 - Funds are appropriated by legislation signed into law by President Grover Cleveland to acquire the house across from Ford's Theatre. This home was the location where Abraham Lincoln died from his wounds in the theatre assassination by John Wilkes Booth.

April 27, 1897 - The tomb of Ulysses S. Grant is dedicated in New York City, twelve years after his death.

February 15, 1898 - The rallying cry, "Remember the Maine" is struck when the United States battleship Maine explodes and sinks under unknown causes in Havana Harbor, Cuba, killing two hundred and sixteen seamen. The sentiment becomes a rallying point during the coming Spanish-American War.

September 6, 1899 - The Open Door Policy with China is declared by Secretary of State John Hay and the U.S. government in an attempt to open international markets and retain the integrity of China as a nation.

History Photo Bomb


An immigrant family on Ellis Island, March 1917. Courtesy Library of Congress.

Chilkoot Pass, Klondike Gold Rush. Courtesy Library of Congress.

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Frederick Douglass. Courtesy National Archives.

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World's Fair History, 1890's

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Phoenician Religion Timeline - History

1914 : War Erupts

1871 - Following the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, Germany is unified as an Imperial federation of states, led by the King of Prussia (Kaiser Wilhelm I). This spurs a new era of population growth and rapid industrialization. The Germans also forcibly annex the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine from France.

1882 - Germany, Austria-Hungary (Hapsburg Empire) and Italy form the Triple Alliance.

1891 - The Russian Empire and France form their own alliance in reaction to the Triple Alliance.

1898 - Germany begins to build up its navy to challenge the British Navy's long-standing global supremacy.

January 1902 - Britain and Japan form a naval alliance.

April 1904 - The British reach a strategic agreement with France which includes mutual military support in the event of war.

January 1905 - Troops of Russian Czar Nicholas II fire upon peaceful demonstrators in St. Petersburg killing hundreds in what comes to be known as Bloody Sunday.

May 1905 - Russia suffers a military defeat at sea by newly industrialized Japan, thwarting Russia's territorial ambitions toward Manchuria and Korea.

October 1905 - Continuing political unrest in Russia, including a general strike, results in the creation of a national legislative assembly (Duma) by the Czar.

February 1906 - H.M.S. Dreadnought is launched by Britain, marking the advent of a new class of big-gun battleships. The Germans follow suit and begin building similar battleships as an all-out arms race ensues between Germany and Britain.

August 1907 - The British reach a strategic agreement with Russia.

October 1908 - Austria-Hungary, backed by Germany, annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina. Neighboring Serbia, with the backing of Russia, voices its objection in support of the Serbian minority living in Bosnia.

March 1909 - Germany forces Russia to endorse the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary.

1910 - Germany surpasses Britain as the leading manufacturing nation in Europe. The United States remains the world leader, surpassing all of the European manufacturing nations combined.

October 1912 - The Balkan War erupts in southern Europe as Serbia leads an attack by members of the Balkan League (Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece) against the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire to drive the Turks out of Europe.

May 1913 - The Balkan War ends with the Turks driven out of southern Europe. A peace settlement is then drawn up by the major European powers that divides up the former Turkish areas in southern Europe among the Balkan League nations. However, the peace is short-lived as Bulgaria, desiring a bigger share, attacks neighboring Greece and Serbia. Romania then attacks Bulgaria along with the Turks. This Second Balkan War results in Bulgaria losing territory and the Serbians becoming emboldened, leaving the Balkan region of southern Europe politically unstable.

June 28, 1914 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, and his wife, visit Sarajevo in Bosnia. A bomb is thrown at their auto but misses. Undaunted, they continue their visit only to be shot and killed a short time later by a lone assassin. Believing the assassin to be a Serbian nationalist, the Austrians target their anger toward Serbia.

July 23, 1914 - Austria-Hungary, with the backing of Germany, delivers an ultimatum to Serbia. The Serbs propose arbitration as a way to resolve dispute, but also begin mobilization of their troops.

July 25, 1914 - Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic ties with Serbia and begins to mobilize its troops.

July 26, 1914 - Britain attempts to organize a political conference among the major European powers to resolve the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. France and Italy agree to participate. Russia then agrees, but Germany refuses.

July 28, 1914 - The Austro-Hungarian Empire declares war on Serbia.

July 29, 1914 - Britain calls for international mediation to resolve the worsening crisis. Russia urges German restraint, but the Russians begin partial troop mobilization as a precaution. The Germans then warn Russia on its mobilization and begin to mobilize themselves.

July 30, 1914 - Austrian warships bombard Belgrade, capital of Serbia.

July 31, 1914 - Reacting to the Austrian attack on Serbia, Russia begins full mobilization of its troops. Germany demands that it stop.

August 1, 1914 - Germany declares war on Russia. France and Belgium begin full mobilization.

August 3, 1914 - Germany declares war on France, and invades neutral Belgium. Britain then sends an ultimatum, rejected by the Germans, to withdraw from Belgium.

August 4, 1914 - Great Britain declares war on Germany. The declaration is binding on all Dominions within the British Empire including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and South Africa.

August 4, 1914 - The United States declares its neutrality.

August 4-16, 1914 - The Siege of Liege occurs as Germans attack the Belgian fortress city but meet resistance from Belgian troops inside the Liege Forts. The twelve forts surrounding the city are then bombarded into submission by German and Austrian howitzers using high explosive shells. Remaining Belgian troops then retreat northward toward Antwerp as the German westward advance continues.

August 6, 1914 - The Austro-Hungarian Empire declares war on Russia.

August 6, 1914 - French and British troops invade the German colony of Togo in West Africa. Twenty days later, the German governor there surrenders.

August 7, 1914 - The first British troops land in France. The 120,000 highly trained members of the regular British Army form the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) commanded by Field Marshal John French.

August 7-24, 1914 - The French desire to score a quick victory ignites the first major French-German action of the war. The French Army invades Alsace and Lorraine according to their master strategy known as Plan XVII. However, the French offensive is met by effective German counter-attacks using heavy artillery and machine-guns. The French suffer heavy casualties including 27,000 soldiers killed in a single day, the worst one-day death toll in the history of the French Army. The French then fall back toward Paris amid 300,000 total casualties.

August 8, 1914 - Britain enacts the Defense of the Realm Act (DORA) granting unprecedented powers to the government to control the economy and daily life.

August 12, 1914 - Great Britain and France declare war on Austria-Hungary. Serbia is invaded by Austria-Hungary.

August 17, 1914 - Russia invades Germany, attacking into East Prussia, forcing the outnumbered Germans there to fall back. This marks the advent of the Eastern Front in Europe in which Russia will oppose Germany and Austria-Hungary.

August 20, 1914 - German troops occupy undefended Brussels, capital of Belgium. Following this, the main German armies continue westward and invade France according to their master strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. It calls for a giant counter-clockwise movement of German armies wheeling into France, swallowing up Paris, and then attacking the rear of the French armies concentrated in the Alsace-Lorraine area. Under the overall command of Helmuth von Moltke, Chief of the German General Staff, the Germans seek to achieve victory over France within six weeks and then focus on defeating Russia in the East before Russia's six-million-man army, the world's largest, can fully mobilize.

August 23, 1914 - Japan declares war on Germany. The Japanese then prepare to assist the British in expelling the Germans from the Far East. German possessions in the South Pacific include a naval base on the coast of China, part of New Guinea, Samoa, and the Caroline, Marshall and Mariana Islands.

Battle of Tannenberg

August 26, 1914 - On the Eastern Front, German troops in East Prussia under the new command of Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff oppose the Russian 2nd Army. Aided by aerial reconnaissance and the interception of uncoded Russian radio messages, the Germans effectively reposition their troops to counter the initial Russian advance. Five days later, after surrounding the Russians, the battle ends with a German victory and the capture of 125,000 Russians. Following this success, the Germans drive the Russians out of East Prussia with heavy casualties. The impressive victory elevates Hindenburg and Ludendorff to the status of heroes in Germany.

August 30, 1914 - German possessions in the Far East are attacked as New Zealand troops occupy German Samoa. Three days later, Japanese forces land on the coast of China, preparing to attack the German naval base at Tsingtao (Qingdao). A month later, the Japanese begin their occupation of the Caroline, Marshall and Mariana Islands.

Battle of the Marne

September 5-12, 1914 - On the Western Front, Paris is saved as French and British troops disrupt the Schlieffen Plan by launching a major counter-offensive against the invading German armies to the east of Paris. Six hundred taxi cabs from the city help to move French troops to the Front. Aided by French aerial reconnaissance which reveals a gap has developed in the center of the whole German advance, the French and British exploit this weakness and press their advantage. The Germans then begin a strategic withdrawal northward as the Allies pursue. Each side repeatedly tries to outmaneuver the other and gain a tactical advantage as they move northward in what becomes known as the Race to the Sea.

September 7, 1914 - In the Far East, a German naval squadron, commanded by Graf von Spee severs the British Pacific communications cable.

September 8, 1914 - The French government enacts nationwide State of War regulations which include total control over the economy and national security, strict censorship, and suspension of civil liberties.

September 17, 1914 - On the Eastern Front, Austrian forces steadily retreat from the advancing Russian 3rd and 8th armies fighting in southern Poland and along the Russian-Austrian border. The Germans then send the newly formed 9th Army to halt the Russians. This marks the beginning of a pattern in which the Germans will aid the weaker Austro-Hungarian Army.

September 22, 1914 - The first-ever British air raid against Germany occurs as Zeppelin bases at Cologne and Düsseldorf are bombed.

First Battle of Ypres
October 19-November 22, 1914

October 19, 1914 - Still hoping to score a quick victory in the West, the Germans launch a major attack on Ypres in Belgium. Despite heavy losses, British, French and Belgian troops fend off the attack and the Germans do not break through. During the battle, the Germans send waves of inexperienced 17 to 20-year-old volunteer soldiers, some fresh out of school. They advance shoulder-to-shoulder while singing patriotic songs only to be systematically gunned down in what the Germans themselves later call the "massacre of the innocents." By November, overall casualties will total 250,000 men, including nearly half of the British Regular Army.

October 29, 1914 - The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) enters the war on the side of the Germans as three warships shell the Russian port of Odessa. Three days later, Russia declares war on Turkey. Russian and Turkish troops then prepare for battle along the common border of the Russian Caucasus and the Ottoman Empire.

October-November, 1914 - Germans and Austrians launch a combined offensive against the Russians on the Eastern Front. The German 9th Army targets Warsaw, Poland, but is opposed by six Russian armies and withdraws. The Austrians attack the Russians in Galicia (a province in northeast Austria) with indecisive results. However, the Russians fail to press their advantage at Warsaw and instead begin a split counter-offensive moving both southward against the Austrians in Galicia and northward toward Germany. The German 9th Army then regroups and cuts off the Russians at Lodz, Poland, halting their advance and forcing an eastward withdrawal by the Russians.

November 1, 1914 - Austria invades Serbia. This is the third attempt to conquer the Serbs in retaliation for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. This attempt fails like the two before it, at the hands of highly motivated Serbs fighting on their home ground. The Austrians withdraw in mid-December, after suffering over 220,000 casualties from the three failed invasions.

November 1, 1914 - The British Navy suffers its worst defeat in centuries during a sea battle in the Pacific. Two British ships, the Monmouth and Good Hope, are sunk with no survivors by a German squadron commanded by Admiral Graf von Spee.

November 3, 1914 - Kaiser Wilhelm appoints Erich von Falkenhayn as the new Chief of the German General Staff, replacing Helmuth von Moltke who is sacked due to the failure of the Schlieffen Plan.

November 5, 1914 - France and Britain declare war on the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire.

November 6, 1914 - In the Persian Gulf, a major British offensive begins as the 6th Indian Division invades Mesopotamia. The objective is to protect the oil pipeline from Persia. Two weeks later they capture the city of Basra.

November 7, 1914 - In the Far East, the German naval base at Tsingtao is captured by the Japanese, aided by a British and Indian battalion.

Trench Warfare Begins

December 1914 - The Western Front in Europe stabilizes in the aftermath of the First Battle of Ypres as the Germans go on the defensive and transfer troops to the East to fight the Russians. The 450-mile-long Western Front stretches from the Channel Coast southward through Belgium and Eastern France into Switzerland. Troops from both sides construct opposing trench fortifications and dugouts protected by barbed wire, machine-gun nests, snipers, and mortars, with an in-between area called No Man's Land. The Eastern Front also sees its share of trenches as troops dig in after the Russians hold off the Germans in Poland and the Austrians hold off the Russians at Limanowa. The 600-mile Eastern Front stretches from the Baltic Sea southward through East Prussia and Austria to the Carpathian Mountains.

December 8, 1914 - The Battle of Falkland Islands occurs as British Navy warships destroy the German squadron of Admiral Graf von Spee in the South Atlantic off the coast of Argentina. Von Spee and two sons serving in his squadron are killed.

December 10, 1914 - The French begin a series of attacks along the Western Front against the Germans in the Artois region of northern France and Champagne in the south. Hampered by a lack of heavy artillery and muddy winter conditions, the French fail to make any significant gains and both offensives are soon suspended.

December 16, 1914 - Britain suffers its first civilian casualties at home in the war as the German Navy bombards the coastal towns of Whitby, Hartlepool and Scarborough, killing 40 persons and wounding hundreds.

December 25, 1914 - A Christmas truce occurs between German and British soldiers in the trenches of northern France. All shooting stops as the soldiers exit their trenches, exchange gifts, sing carols and engage in a soccer game. This is the only Christmas truce of the war, as Allied commanders subsequently forbid fraternization with orders to shoot any violators.


Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II


German Youth and Military


Germans Cheer Declaration


The Mighty Russian Army


French Infantry in Action


Austrians Attack Russians

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Gospel music is a product of the religion, culture, and history that constitute the African American experience. Below is a representative, but by no means complete, historic timeline chronicling major events in the development of gospel music.

1619 &ndash The first Africans are brought to the British colony of Jamestown as indentured servants. The African&rsquos emphasis on musical elements such as call and response, improvisation, polyrhythms, and percussive affinities will form the basis of gospel and all other forms of African American musical expression.

1674 &ndash Hymnist and theologian Isaac Watts (1674-1748) is born in England. The writer of more than 750 hymns, his songs will become so popular among African Americans that they are simply referred to as &ldquoan old Dr. Watts.&rdquo

1730&rsquos &ndash The Great Awakening, a religious revival in British North America, signals the first major effort to Christianize enslaved Africans.

1777 &ndash George Leile establishes the First African Baptist Church of Savannah, Georgia, the oldest Black church in North America.

1780 &ndash John Wesley&rsquos A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People Called Methodist is published. Songs such as &ldquoThere is a Fountain Filled with Blood&rdquo and &ldquoFather I Stretch My Hands to Thee&rdquo quickly become standards of the African American sacred music tradition.

1787 &ndash With the establishment of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first independent African American Christian denomination in the United States is created.

1800&rsquos &ndash African American innovation in Christian-centered sacred music begins to distinguish itself in the forms of spirituals, shouts, lined-hymns, and anthems.

1865 &ndash Slavery legally abolished with the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

1871 &ndash The Fisk Jubilee Singers set out on their inaugural tour to raise money to help save Fisk University from closure. Eventually becoming an international tour, the choir brings the sacred music of African Americans the attention of the world. The Jubilee Singers also provide a model a tight, four part harmony-centered, choral singing that will continue for generations within the African American community.

1901 &ndash Songwriter and religious leader Charles Albert Tindley begins publishing songs in Philadelphia. Classic compositions by Tindley include &ldquoStand By Me,&rdquo &ldquoWe&rsquoll Understand it Better By and By,&rdquo and &ldquoSome Day (Beams of Heaven).&rdquo

1906 &ndash The Azusa Street Revival begins in Los Angeles under the direction of the African American religious pioneer William Seymour. In addition to giving rise to modern-day Pentecostalism, the music of the revival recaptures the energy of the pre-emancipation shouts and is one of the key events in the development of gospel music.

1920&rsquos &ndash American recording companies begin producing &ldquorace records&rdquo to market to the African American consumer. In addition to blues, ragtime, and early jazz, African American preachers and gospel artists such as Arizona Dranes, Blind Willie Johnson, and Washington Phillips will also be highlighted in part because of the fresh, raw sound. This music is also referred to as the gospel blues and the holy blues.

1921 &ndash The National Baptist Convention publishes the songbook Gospel Pearls, the first hymnal from a major African American denomination to include selections of the new music that would become known as gospel.

1931 &ndash Theodore Frye and Thomas A. Dorsey create the first gospel chorus. Dorsey would go on to co-found the National Convention of Gospel Choirs and Choruses. Included among Dorsey&rsquos more than 400 compositions are the gospel standards &ldquoPrecious Lord,&rdquo &ldquoPeace in the Valley,&rdquo and &ldquoHighway to Heaven.&rdquo

1938 &ndash Sister Rosetta Tharpe scores the first million-selling gospel record with the hit single &ldquoThis Train.&rdquo Tharpe was the dominant gospel music performer of the late 1930&rsquos and 1940&rsquos, mixing soulful guitar licks and big band accompaniment with sacred lyrics.

1945-1965 &ndash The Golden Age of Gospel&mdashdue to its unprecedented popularity&mdashwas dominated by soloists such as Mahalia Jackson and groups like Swan Silvertones, the Caravans, and the Original Gospel Harmonettes. Perhaps the most important group to this expansion beyond the church walls was the Clara Ward Singers.

1967 &ndash &ldquoOh Happy Day&rdquo is recorded by the Northern California State Youth Choir (later dubbed the Edwin Hawkins Singers). This one song almost single-handedly creates the genre known as contemporary gospel. Key groups, soloists, and composers in this movement include Walter Hawkins, Tramaine Hawkins, Andraé Crouch and the Disciples, the Winans, and the Clark Sisters. Reverend James Cleveland and Mattie Moss Clark helped give rise to the movement by their tireless work composing, arranging, and recording for large choirs.

1997 &ndash &ldquoStomp. &rdquo from &ldquoGod&rsquos Property From Kirk Franklin&rsquos Nu Nation,&rdquo is released, blowing open the doors of the church and demanded that it make room for urban culture.


Important Psychology Events: 1900 to 1950

The first half of the 20th century was dominated by two major figures: Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. It was a time when the foundation of analysis was built, including Freud's examination of psychopathology and Jung's analytic psychology.

  • 1900: Sigmund Freud publishes his landmark book, "Interpretation of Dreams."
  • 1901: The British Psychological Society is established.
  • 1905: Mary Whiton Calkins is elected the first woman president of the American Psychological Association. Alfred Binet introduces the intelligence test.
  • 1906: Ivan Pavlov publishes his findings on classical conditioning. Carl Jung publishes "The Psychology of Dementia Praecox."
  • 1911: Edward Thorndike publishes "Animal Intelligence," which leads to the development of the theory of operant conditioning.
  • 1912: Max Wertheimer publishes "Experimental Studies of the Perception of Movement," which leads to the development of Gestalt psychology.
  • 1913: Carl Jung begins to depart from Freudian views and develops his own theories, which he refers to as analytical psychology. John B. Watson publishes "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views" in which he establishes the concept of behaviorism.
  • 1915: Freud publishes work on repression.
  • 1920: Watson and Rosalie Rayner publish research on classical conditioning of fear with their subject, Little Albert.
  • 1932: Jean Piaget becomes the foremost cognitive theorist with the publication of his work "The Moral Judgment of the Child."
  • 1942: Carl Rogers develops the practice of client-centered therapy, which encourages respect and positive regard for patients.

History

The Chesapeake region has been around for a very long time. Many tend to begin its history with the establishment of Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. But the story of the Bay began millions of years before that.

African Americans in the Chesapeake

Discover how African-American history shaped the culture and economy of the Chesapeake Bay, from the 1600s to today.

Captain John Smith

Travel along on the voyage of Captain John Smith, an English explorer who journeyed through the Chesapeake Bay.

Civil War

Study how the Bay and its rivers and streams played a pivotal role in many Civil War battles—both on land and water.

Indigenous Peoples of the Chesapeake

Learn about the culture and day-to-day life of the Chesapeake Bay region’s earliest human residents.

Pirates

Climb aboard the ship of a pirate to learn how Blackbeard, the Davis trio and others carved out their own slice of Bay history.

Shipwrecks

Look back at the way people lived, worked and traveled on the Bay by uncovering the details of historic sunken ships.


Watch the video: Der Nahostkonflikt einfach erklärt (January 2022).