Born in Hartland Township, Ohio, 5 May 1915, Davis Elliott Chaffee enlisted in the Navy 4 January 1941. He was appointed Ensign 6 September 1941, and naval aviator 1 October 1941. While serving with Bomber Squadron 5 based on Yorktown (CV-5), he was killed in action during the Battle of the Coral Sea 8 May 1942. He was posthumously awarded a Navy Cross for his courage in participating in an attack in which an enemy carrier was sunk.
(DE-230: dp. 1,450, 1. 306'; b. 36'10", dr. 9'8", s. 24 k.;
epL 186; a. 2 5", 3 21" tt., 8 dep., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 act.;
Chaffee (DE-230) was launched 27 November 1943 by Charleston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. L. C. Chaffee; and commissioned 9 May 1944, Lieutenant Commander A. Jones, USNR, in command.
After operating on the east coast as a target ship in submarine training, and as a training ship for prospective escort vessel crews, Chaffee cleared Bayonne, N.J. 14 October 1944. She arrived at Hollandia 21 November for operations in the New Guinea area screening LSTs in gunnery and anti torpedo exercises, and on patrol at the entrance to Aitape.
Chaffee began her role in the liberation of the Philippines when she sailed from Hollandia 17 December 1944 to escort landing craft to Leyte. She cleared Hollandia again 8 January 1945 with reinforcements for the recently landed San Fabian Attack Force at Lingayen where she arrived 21 January. Assigned to patrol in Lingayen Gulf, Chaffee underwent a unique experience 23 January, when a Japanese aerial torpedo passed through her bow without exploding, or causing any injuries to her crew. By 2 February, temporary repairs had been completed, and Chaffee returned to patrol duties. She continued to escort convoys in the Philippines, as well. as conduct patrols, in support of the Mindanao operation until 29 April, when she cleared Parang for Morotai. She returned to the southern Philippines for escort duty 2 May. A week later, she guarded the landing of reinforcements at Davao.
Chaffee arrived at Morotai from the Philippines 19 June 1945 to train for the Borneo operation, and cleared on 28 June to escort reinforcements which landed at Balikpapan 3 July. For the remainder of the war, Chaffee escorted convoys between Morotai and Hollandia and the Philippines She aided in the establishment of the base in Subic Bay, conducted local patrols and escort missions, and escorted a troop ship to Okinawa in September, then returned to Philippine operations until 10 January 1946, when she cleared Subic Bay for home. She arrived at San Francisco 5 February, where she was decommissoned 15 April 1946. She was sold 29 June 1948.
Chaffee received two battle stars for World War II service.
Light Tank M24 Chaffee
The M24 Chaffee, the replacement for the M3/M5 Stuarts, was a leap forward in light tank design, improving the concept in all directions. It had modern torsion bar suspensions, completely revised welded steel armor, improved protection and, more importantly, a much more potent lightweight 75 mm (2.95 in) main gun. Although late in the game (just in time for the Battle of the Bulge, winter 1944), the Chaffee was so successful, being efficient, simple, reliable and rugged, that that it was largely exported after the war and stayed in service with many armies until the 1980s and beyond, encompassing most of the Cold War.
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CDA 230: Legislative History
The first case involved CompuServe, which in the early days of the Internet hosted "an on-line general information service" through which subscribers could access thousands of outside sites and around 150 special-interest forums. When a columnist for one of the special-interest forums posted defamatory comments about a competitor, the competitor sued CompuServe for libel. But the court, in the 1991 case Cubby, Inc. v. CompuServe, Inc, found CompuServe could not be held liable as the columnist’s distributor because CompuServe did not review any of the content on the forums before it was posted. Without knowledge of the libel, CompuServe could not be held responsible for it.
Four years later, in 1995, another New York court took a different approach in Stratton Oakmont, Inc. v. Prodigy Servs. Co. Prodigy was a web services company with two million subscribers that hosted online bulletin boards, including the popular site MoneyTalk. Because Prodigy moderated its online message boards and deleted some messages for "offensiveness and 'bad taste,'" the court found that it had become akin to a publisher with responsibility for defamatory postings that made it onto the site. At the time, Prodigy received 60,000 postings a day—far too many to review in their entirety. But the decision in Stratton Oakmont meant that just for attempting to moderate some posts, Prodigy took on liability for all posts. To avoid liability, the company would have to give up moderating all together and simply act as a blind host, like CompuServe.
In Congress, several legislators reacted to the Stratton Oakmont decision with alarm. Instead of imposing liability on companies that tried to police their sites, these legislators wanted to leave Internet companies like Prodigy free to develop new and innovative services—including moderator tools, as the market dictated—to ensure the Internet could continue to flourish. The prospect of liability for users' posts would have a chilling effect, resulting in severe restrictions on what and where Internet users could post.
The Communications Decency Act
In February of 1995, Senator James Exon (D-NE) introduced the Communications Decency Act (CDA) in an attempt to regulate obscenity and indecency online. The CDA amended telecommunications law by making it illegal to knowingly send to or show minors obscene or indecent content online. Despite the CDA's vague language, threats of pornography and children's safety were enough to let it pass. It was tacked on to the Telecommunications Act, a sweeping bill to update a sixty-year-old law.
The Cox-Wyden Amendment: Section 230
Worried about the future of free speech online and responding directly to Stratton Oakmont, Representatives Chris Cox (R-CA) and Ron Wyden (D-OR) introduced an amendment to the Communications Decency Act that would end up becoming Section 230. The amendment specifically made sure that "providers of an interactive computer service" would not be treated as publishers of third-party content. Unlike publications like newspapers that are accountable for the content they print, online services would be relieved of this liability. Section 230 had two purposes: the first was to "encourage the unfettered and unregulated development of free speech on the Internet," as one judge put it the other was to allow online services to implement their own standards for policing content and provide for child safety. Seeing the crucial importance of the amendment, the House passed it 420-4.
CDA Struck Down, Section 230 Survives
With Section 230 in the bill, the Telecommunications Act was signed into law on February 8, 1996. That same day, the ACLU filed a legal challenge for a temporary restraining order on the bill's indecency provisions.
The online community was outraged by the passage of the bill. EFF decried CDA's overly broad language and launched a Blue Ribbon Campaign, urging sites to "wear" a blue ribbon and link back to EFF's site to raise awareness. Several sites chose to black out their webpages in protest.
The ACLU's case, which several civil liberties organizations like the EFF as well as other industry groups joined, reached the Supreme Court. On June 26, 1997, in a 9-0 decision, the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment by striking down the anti-indecency sections of the CDA. Section 230, the amendment that promoted free speech, survived.
Why do some people want to change the law?
In recent years, Washington has begun to sour on the tech industry after a series of complaints about privacy and the growing power of a few key players. As politicians and the general public have awakened to the vast power of the large tech companies, they've begun to see Section 230 as a key contributor to that power.
Lawmakers on both sides of the aisle have publicly questioned the broad scope of Section 230. Once a way to protect upstart tech firms, the law now provides a legal shield to some of the most valuable companies in the world. Some fear tech companies lack the incentives to combat misinformation on their platforms as technology that makes it easier to fake video and voices becomes more advanced.
Some conservatives believe Section 230 has aided tech companies' ability to censor speech they don't agree with. There's little evidence mainstream tech firms systematically discriminate against certain ideologies, but they have at points removed politically charged posts, sometimes in error, only to apologize and reinstate them later.
Such claims of bias inspired Missouri Republican Sen. Josh Hawley's proposed revision to Section 230 that would tie the law's promise of immunity to a regular audit proving tech companies' algorithms and content-removal practices are "politically neutral."
Total of Positive Chaffee COVID-19 Cases Rises to More Than 230
Due mainly to a recent surge of COVID-19 cases at the Buena Vista Correctional Complex (BVCC), the total number of coronavirus cases (counted from the beginning of the pandemic) for Chaffee County has soared. The totals include 128 inmates infected, up sharply from the 85 reported on Friday, July 17 and three staff members reported earlier.
Also included in the totals, and unchanged recently were 56 cases at Columbine Manor Care Center, including 44 residents and 12 staff members. The totals also include 32 community cases detected in testing.
The combined 230 total does not reflect 14 additional cases from testing of nonresidents, who, health officials noted, could represent tourists or people who reside in another county and were tested here.
Andrea Carlstrom, Chaffee County Public Health (CCPH) Director reported most of the results from testing last week were still being awaited.
“Last week, CCPH tested 96 people. As of 3 p.m. on July 20th, we have received just 12 results back, all of which are negative,” she stated. “We will update with the positivity rate once all results have been received.” Governor Jared Polis announced a Statewide Mask Order on Thursday, July 16, directing the public to wear a face-covering while inside public, indoor spaces.
CCPH hosts two free testing clinics each week on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 9:30 a.m. to noon at the Touber Building (448 East First Street in Salida). Testing is by appointment only. Appointments must be scheduled by close of business the day before the testing clinic will be held.
Carlstrom also announced a COVID-19 panel discussion online at noon, Friday, July 24 on Zoom for updates on the disease as well as ways to boost the immune system response to the virus. The event will be co-sponsored by Heart of the Rockies Regional Medical Center (HRRMC) and CCPH. According to the CCPH, studies have shown that improving your immune system can improve your response to the virus.
Presenters will include Erika Gelgand MD, HRRMC Infection Control Sam Van De Velde MS, HRRMC Exercise Physiologist Jon Fritz CDCES, HRRMC Diabetes Educator Savanna Klimesh BA, HRRMC Health Promotion Specialist Andrea Carlstrom MBA, CCPH Director.
Participants can watch on Facebook Live, YouTube Live, or Zoom. Meeting ID: 957 2677 3396, or can just call in with no video.
For more information visit the Chaffee County Public Health website. Visit https://hrrmc.zoom.us/j/95726773396.
Note: Featured image: An aerial view of the Buena Vista Correctional Complex. Courtesy of CDOC.
Also note, as of July 14, Chaffee County Public Health has set up a regular began a regular Tuesday — Thursday morning testing at the Touber Center. The AVV story about this testing option is available here.
TWA flight 800
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TWA flight 800, flight of a Trans World Airlines (TWA) jumbo jet airliner that broke up over the Atlantic Ocean and went down about 8 miles (13 km) off the coast of Long Island, near East Moriches, New York, on the evening of July 17, 1996. All 230 people on board died in the crash. A U.S. government inquiry determined that a mixture of fuel and air had ignited accidentally within a fuel tank, but some independent investigators maintained that the flight had fallen victim to a missile.
The ill-fated flight 800 was a scheduled overnight flight from New York City to Paris of a Boeing 747-131 airliner, registration number N93119. The plane took off from John F. Kennedy International Airport at 8:19 pm . The cockpit voice recorder ceased to function 12 minutes later, just before the aircraft explosion occurred at an altitude of about 13,700 feet (4,200 metres). The centre section of the airplane fell first, then the forward fuselage, and finally the wings and the remainder of the fuselage.
Because the event took place close to the shoreline of heavily populated Long Island, there were many witnesses. In an investigation of possible criminal activity, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) interviewed 736 people who claimed to have seen or heard the crash from the ground, from watercraft, or from other aircraft. Meanwhile, divers worked for more than 10 months, in water about 120 feet (37 metres) deep, until remains of all 230 victims—212 passengers and 18 crew—had been recovered. More than 95 percent of the aircraft was recovered as well. Investigators pieced the centre portion of the fuselage back together in a hangar in Calverton, New York.
The National Transportation Safety Board inquiry determined that the cause of the crash was an explosion of a combustible mixture of fuel and air in the centre wing fuel tank. The investigators believed that the explosion was caused by an electrical short circuit that affected fuel gauge wiring within the tank. Traces of explosives were found in the cabin, but it was suggested that they were residue from an explosive detection training exercise that had recently been staged on the airplane. Among the FBI’s witnesses were 258 people who claimed to have seen a streak of light approaching the airplane just before the crash. According to investigators, these witnesses actually saw a stream of burning fuel leaking from the crippled craft.
On January 27, 1967, tragedy struck the Apollo program when a flash fire occurred in command module 012 during a launch pad test of the Apollo/Saturn space vehicle being prepared for the first piloted flight, the AS-204 mission. Three astronauts, Lt. Col. Virgil I. Grissom, a veteran of Mercury and Gemini missions Lt. Col. Edward H. White, the astronaut who had performed the first United States extravehicular activity during the Gemini program and Roger B. Chaffee, an astronaut preparing for his first space flight, died in this tragic accident.
A seven-member board, under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center Director, Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, conducted a comprehensive investigation to pinpoint the cause of the fire. The final report, completed in April 1967 was subsequently submitted to the NASA Administrator. The report presented the results of the investigation and made specific recommendations that led to major design and engineering modifications, and revisions to test planning, test discipline, manufacturing processes and procedures, and quality control. With these changes, the overall safety of the command and service module and the lunar module was increased substantially. The AS-204 mission was redesignated Apollo I in honor of the crew.
In addition, Mary C. White (no relation to Ed White) has written detailed biographies of the three crew members. Click here for her introduction, Roger Chaffee biography, Gus Grissom biography, Ed White biography, or Epilogue.
Il Dottore (Doctor of Everything)
This is the mask of Il Dottore, the pedant from Bologna (site of the oldest European university). Il Dottore professes to know everything, but actually knows nothing. He loves to hear himself speak and expounds on answers, whether asked or not (but he is always wrong). He claims to be a doctor of medicine, philosophy, science, law, language, literature, art, politics, or the classics, or all of them. He is a delightfully pretentious bag of wind.
His mask covers the forehead and nose, signifying his heady thoughts and nosy intrusions.
His sense of space is broad, like his girth. He bounces when he walks and uses his hands expressively to clarify his vivid ideas and descriptions. When Il Dottore enters a room, he demands attention and respect through his non-stop orations engaging non-sensical Latin and Greek sounding phrases, signifying nothing.
WHAT PEOPLE ARE SAYING
"We've been to Castle Farms a few times. EVERY time has been a truly wonderful experience! The food is second to none in the Lexington area. Most of the food is locally sourced and much of it is grown in the garden at Castle Farms itself. The wait staff are knowledgeable and the service is prompt without being overbearing. The menu is seasonal and the food is prepared and presented on par with that of the two Michelin chefs (one in London, one in Los Angeles) whose fare we've had the pleasure of experiencing. However, unlike the aforementioned locations with Michelin chefs, the atmosphere and "vibe" is very much central Kentucky. No pretenses. they just deliver on what they advertise, and they do so in a very unpresumptuous manner. In other words, no need to worry about which fork to use. there are no "fork police" and, frankly, the food tastes great no matter which utensil you choose to use!
Go here. Have an aperitif. Enjoy an appetizer and meal with (or without) wine from their impressive list. Save some room for a dessert or a digestif. It is absolutely worth the drive and your time!"
"Absolutely an amazing experience! Beautiful architecture and the nicest people I ever met. We spent the night and had dinner in the restaurant. We explored the grounds, and I got to play with some goats. We will definitely be going back. Worth every penny!"
The Apollo 1 tragedy
One of the worst tragedies in the history of spaceflight occurred on January 27, 1967 when the crew of Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee were killed in a fire in the Apollo Command Module during a preflight test at Cape Canaveral. They were training for the first crewed Apollo flight, an Earth orbiting mission scheduled to be launched on 21 February. They were taking part in a "plugs-out" test, in which the Command Module was mounted on the Saturn 1B on the launch pad just as it would be for the actual launch, but the Saturn 1B was not fueled. The plan was to go through an entire countdown sequence.
At 1 p.m. on Friday, 27 January 1967 the astronauts entered the capsule on Pad 34 to begin the test. A number of minor problems cropped up which delayed the test considerably and finally a failure in communications forced a hold in the count at 5:40 p.m. At 6:30 p.m., Grissom said "How are we going to get to the Moon if we can't talk between three buildings?". At 6:31 p.m. a surge was recorded in the AC bus 2 voltage readings, possibly indicating a short-circuit. The cockpit recording is difficult to interpret in places but a few seconds later one of the astronauts (probably Chaffee) is heard to say what sounds like "Flames!". Two seconds after that White was heard to say, "We've got a fire in the cockpit." The fire spread throughout the cabin in a matter of seconds. Chaffee said, "We have a bad fire!", followed by shouting. The last crew communication ended 17 seconds after the first indication of the start of the fire, followed by loss of all telemetry. The Apollo hatch could only open inward and was held closed by a number of latches which had to be operated by ratchets. It was also held closed by the interior pressure, which was higher than outside atmospheric pressure and required venting of the command module before the hatch could be opened. It took at least 90 seconds to get the hatch open under ideal conditions. Because the cabin had been filled with a pure oxygen atmosphere at normal pressure for the test and there had been many hours for the oxygen to permeate all the material in the cabin, the fire spread rapidly and the astronauts had no chance to get the hatch open. Nearby technicians tried to get to the hatch but were repeatedly driven back by the heat and smoke. By the time they succeeded in getting the hatch open roughly 5 minutes after the fire started the astronauts had already perished, probably within the first 30 seconds, due to smoke inhalation and burns.
The Apollo program was put on hold while an exhaustive investigation was made of the accident. It was concluded that the most likely cause was a spark from a short circuit in a bundle of wires that ran to the left and just in front of Grissom's seat. The large amount of flammable material in the cabin in the oxygen environment allowed the fire to start and spread quickly. A number of changes were instigated in the program over the next year and a half, including designing a new hatch which opened outward and could be operated quickly, removing much of the flammable material and replacing it with self-extinguishing components, using a nitrogen-oxygen mixture at launch, and recording all changes and overseeing all modifications to the spacecraft design more rigorously.
The mission, originally designated Apollo 204 but commonly referred to as Apollo 1, was officially assigned the name "Apollo 1" in honor of Grissom, White, and Chaffee. The first Saturn V launch (uncrewed) in November 1967 was designated Apollo 4 (no missions were ever designated Apollo 2 or 3). The Apollo 1 Command Module capsule 012 was impounded and studied after the accident and was then locked away in a storage facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The changes made to the Apollo Command Module as a result of the tragedy resulted in a highly reliable craft which, with the exception of Apollo 13, helped make the complex and dangerous trip to the Moon almost commonplace. The eventual success of the Apollo program is a tribute to Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee, three fine astronauts whose tragic loss was not in vain.