(DD-373: dp. 1,450; 1. 341'4''; b. 34'8"; dr. 17'; s. 35
k.; cpl. 204; a. 5 4'', 12 21" tt., 2 dct.; cl. Mahan)
The second Shaw (DD-373) was laid down on 1 October 1934 at the United States Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa.; launched on 28 October 1935; sponsored by Miss Dorthy L. Tinker; and commissioned on 18 September 1936, Lt. Comdr. E.A. Mitchell in command.
Following comm,ssioning, Shaw remained at Philadelphia until April 1937 when she crossed the Atlantic on her shakedown cruise. Returning to Philadelphia on 18 June, she commenced a year of yard work to correct deficiencies before completing acceptance trials in June 1938. Shaw conducted training exercises in the Atlantic for the remainder of the year. She then transited to the Pacific and underwent overhaul at Mare Island from 8 January to 4 April 1939.
Shaw remained on the west coast until April 1940 participating in various exercises and providing services to carriers and submarines operating in the area. In April she sailed for Hawaii where she participated in Fleet Problem XXI, an eight phased operation for the defense of the Hawaiian area. She remained in the Hawaiian area until November when she returned to the west coast for overhaul.
Back in the Hawaiian area by mid-February 1941, Shaw operated in those waters until November when she entered the Navy Yard at Pearl Harbor for repairs, drydocking in YFD-2.
On 7 December, Shaw was still drydocked. During the Japanese attack, she took three hits: two bombs through the forward machine gun platform, and one through the port wing of the bridge. Fires spread through the ship. By 0925, all fire fighting facilities were exhausted, and the order to abandon ship was given. Efforts to flood the dock were only partially successful; and, shortly after 0930, Shaw's forward magazine blew up.
Temporary repairs were made at Pearl Harbor during December 1941 and January 1942. On 9 February, Shaw sailed for San Francisco where she completed repairs, including the installation of a new bow, at the end of June. Following training in the San Diego area, Shaw returned to Pearl Harbor on 31 August. For the next two months, she escorted convoys between the west coast and Hawaii. In mid-October, as a unit of a carrier force centered on Enterprise, she departed Pearl Harbor and headed west. Rendezvousing with a carrier force centered on Hornet, the two carrier groups amalgamated as T,ask Force 61 and moved north of the Santa Cruz Islands to intercept enemy forces headed for Guadalcanal.
By mid-morning on the 26th, both carrier groups were under attack. As an accompanying ship, Porter
(DD-356), stopped to pick up survivors from a downed torpedo plane, she was torpedoed. Shaw went to Porter's assistance. Half an hour later, she was ordered to take off Porter's crew and sink the disabled destroyer. Periscope sightings followed by depth charge attacks delayed execution of the mission. By noon, however, the transfer wa.s completed. An hour later Porter was gone, and Shaw left the scene to rejoin tee task force.
Two days later, Shaw headed for the New Hebrides where she commenced escorting ships moving men and supplies to Guadalcanal. She continued that duty through November and December and into January
1943. On 10 January, while entering Noumea harbor, New Caledonia, Shaw grounded on Sournois Reef. She was freed on the 15th, but extensive damage to her hull, propellers, and sound gear necessitated temporary repairs at Noumea followed by lengthy repairs and rearrangement at Pearl Harbor which took her through September.
On 6 October Shaw headed west again, reaching Noumea on the 18th and Milne Bay New Guinea, on the 24th. Now a unit of the 7th amphibious Force, Shaw escorted reinforcements to Lae and Finsehhafen for the remainder of October and during November. Following an unsuccessful diversionary assault by Army troops against Umtingalu, New Britain, on 15 December, Shaw recovered survivors from two rubber boats and escorted Westralia and Carter Hall back to Buna, New Guinea.
On 25 December, Shaw escorted units engaged in the assault against Cape Gloucester, where she provided gunfire support and served as fighter director ship. On the 26th, Shaw sustained casualties and damage when attacked by two "Vals." Thirty-six men were injured, three of whom later died of their wounds. Shaw returned to Cape Sudest, New Guinea, on the 27th; transferred her wounded and dead to shore facilities there, and continued on to Milne Bay for temporary repairs. Permanent repairs were completed at Hunter's Point, San Francisco, on 1 May 1944.
Shaw returned to Pearl Harbor on the 10th, joined the 5th Fleet there, and sailed for the Marshalls on the 15th. She got underway from the Marshalls on 11 June with TF-52 to engage in the assault on Saipan. Four days later, the attack began. For the next three and one-half weeks, the destroyer rotated between
screening and call fire support duties. In mid-July, she was back in the Marshalls. On the 18th, Shaw got underway to return to the Marianas with the Guam assault force. During the action that followed, she performed escort and patrol duties.
Shaw departed the Marianas on 23 September. Following a tender repair availability at Eniwetok, she rejoined the 7th Amphibious Force on 20 October and headed for Leyte Gulf on the 25th. Convoy escort duties between the Philippines and New Guinea involved Shaw until the invasion of Luzon took place at Lingayen Gulf on 9 January 1945. From the 9th to the 15th, she performed screening, call fire support, night illumination, and shore bombardment missions. Following this operation, Shaw was involved in the recapture of Manila Bay. After the Luzon operations, she supported the assault and occupation of Palawan during the period from 28 February to 4 March.
In early April, she operated in the Visayans, setting two Japanese barges on fire off Bohol on 2 April. Damaged soon thereafter on an uncharted pinnacle, she underwent temporary repairs. On the 25th, she sailed for the United States. Shaw arrived in San Francisco on 19 May. Repairs and alterations took her into August. The work was accomplished on the 20th. She then departed for the east coast. On arrival at Philadelphia, she was routed to New York for deactivation. Decommissioned on 2 October 1945, her name was struck from the Navy list two days later. Her hulk was scrapped in July 1946.
Shaw earned eleven battle stars during World War II.
The Children of Pearl Harbor
Seventy-five years ago at dawn, more than 150 ships and service craft of the United States’ Pacific fleet lay at anchor, alongside piers, or in dry dock in Pearl Harbor on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. By late morning, the surprise Japanese air and mini-submarine attack had left 19 vessels sunk or badly damaged and destroyed hundreds of airplanes.
Death was everywhere. The toll that day among military personnel is widely known. Of the 2,335 servicemen killed in the attack, nearly half died on the USS Arizona when a Japanese bomb blew up the battleship’s forward gunpowder magazine, ripping the ship apart. Hundreds also died aboard other stricken naval vessels and in bombing and strafing attacks at nearby airfields.
But few people realize that 68 civilians were also killed in the attack. Japanese fighters strafed and bombed a small number. Most, however, died in friendly fire when shells from Coast Guard ships and anti-aircraft batteries on shore aimed at the Japanese fell into Honolulu and elsewhere on the island. Eleven of the dead were children ages 16 and younger.
The Hirasaki family suffered some of the worst losses that terrible morning. The Japanese-American mother, father and their three children. ages 2, 3 and 8, together with a 14-year-old cousin, sheltered in the family’s downtown Honolulu restaurant. An errant shell struck the building. Only the mother survived. Seven other patrons taking cover there also died in the blast.
1941: Fighting the Shadow War: A Divided America in a World at War
In "1941: Fighting the Shadow War, A Divided America in a World at War," historian Marc Wortman thrillingly explores the little-known history of America’s clandestine involvement in World War II before the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Countless children throughout Oahu also witnessed the attack, perhaps none more closely than 8-year-old Charlotte Coe. I got to know Charlotte four years ago when I interviewed her for a book I wrote about the period before the Pearl Harbor attack. Charlotte, whose married name was Lemann, would die of cancer two years later, but when we spoke she recounted her experiences that fateful morning as if they were a film that had been running continuously in her mind ever since.
Charlotte lived with her parents and five-year-old brother, Chuckie, in one of the 19 tidy bungalows lining a loop road in an area known as Nob Hill, on the northern end of Ford Island. That island served as home to a naval air station in the middle of Pearl Harbor. Their father, Charles F. Coe, was third in command there. The Nob Hill mothers watched over their 40 or so young “Navy juniors” while their fathers went off to the air station’s hangars, operations buildings and aircraft operating from the island. The Coe family’s house looked out on the harbor’s South Channel and the double row of moorings known as Battleship Row.
The air station and Pacific fleet defined the children's days and nights. Charlotte, Chuckie and their friends often ran out the nearby dock to meet officers disembarking from the ships. Lying in bed at night, Charlotte could hear voices from the movies being shown to sailors on board. Until the Pearl Harbor attack, she recalled that she and the other children lived “free as birds” on Ford Island, taking a daily boat to school on the Oahu mainland. At home, Pearl Harbor’s lush tropical shoreline served as their playground.
But Ford Island was something else: a target. The eight battleships moored along Battleship Row were the Japanese attackers’ primary objective when they flew toward Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941.
The first explosion at 7:48 that morning woke Charlotte from a sound sleep. “Get up!" she remembered her father shouting. "The war’s started.” The family and the men, women and children from the other houses raced for shelter in a former artillery emplacement dug beneath a neighboring house. As they ran, a khaki-colored airplane with red circles under its wings zoomed past so low that Charlotte saw the pilot’s face.
The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor – The Lost Photos
The attack on Pearl Harbor ushered the US into World War II overnight. In the decades since the attack it has been determined that the Japanese didn’t intend for the attack to be a complete surprise. The Japanese Declaration of War was supposed to be delivered but the Japanese ambassador failed to deliver the message in time before the attack was received.What were the results from that afternoon?
U.S.losses were: Casualties
USA : 218 KIA, 364 WIA.
USN: 2,008 KIA, 710 WIA.
USMC: 109 KIA, 69 WIA.
Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA.
TOTAL: 2,403 KIA, 1,178 WIA.
USS Arizona (BB-39) – total loss when a bomb hit her magazine.
USS Oklahoma (BB-37) – Total loss when she capsized and sunk in the harbor.
USS California (BB-44) – Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired.
USS West Virginia (BB-48) – Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired.
USS Nevada – (BB-36) Beached to prevent sinking. Later repaired.
USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) – Light damage.
USS Maryland (BB-46) – Light damage.
USS Tennessee (BB-43) Light damage.
USS Utah (AG-16) – (former battleship used as a target) – Sunk.
USS New Orleans (CA-32) – Light Damage..
USS San Francisco (CA-38) – Light Damage.
USS Detroit (CL-8) – Light Damage.
USS Raleigh (CL-7) – Heavily damaged but repaired.
USS Helena (CL-50) – Light Damage.
USS Honolulu (CL-48) – Light Damage..
USS Downes (DD-375) – Destroyed. Parts salvaged.
USS Cassin – (DD-372) Destroyed. Parts salvaged.
USS Shaw (DD-373) – Very heavy damage.
USS Helm (DD-388) – Light Damage.
USS Ogala (CM-4) – Sunk but later raised and repaired.
USS Curtiss (AV-4) – Severely damaged but later repaired.
USS Vestal (AR-4) – Severely damaged but later repaired.
USS Sotoyomo (YT-9) – Sunk but later raised and repaired.
188 Aircraft destroyed (92 USN and 92 U.S Army Air Corps.)
Briefing for Japanese flight crews about the Pearl Harbor raid. A diagram of Pearl Harbor and the aircraft’s attack plan is chalked on the deck. 6 Dec 1941
The Guadalcanal Campaign
The Guadalcanal Campaign of 1942–43 became a crucial victory by Allied forces in the Pacific.
Summarize the strategy and Allied victory of the Guadalcanal Campaign
- After the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan significantly expanded its control over multiple territories in the Pacific region. By securing the southern Solomon Islands, the Japanese aimed to destroy supply and communication routes between the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand.
- Allied forces achieved a decisive victory in November 1942 at the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. In February 1943, the Japanese forces completed their evacuation from Guadalcanal.
- This campaign ended all Japanese expansion attempts and placed the Allies in a position of military and psychological supremacy.
- Battle of the Coral Sea: A major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval and air forces from the United States and Australia, fought May 4–8, 1941. Although a tactical victory for the Japanese in terms of ships sunk, the battle would prove to be a strategic victory for the Allies.
- Battle of Midway: A decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Between June 4 and 7, 1942, the United States Navy decisively deflected an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet.
- Tulagi: A small island in the Solomon Islands, just off the south coast of Florida Island. The Japanese occupied it on May 3, 1942, with the intention of setting up a seaplane base nearby however, the Japanese ships were raided by planes from the USS Yorktown the following day in a prelude to the Battle of the Coral Sea.
- Solomon Islands: A sovereign state in Oceania, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly 1,000 islands. Some of the most intense fighting of World War II occurred there, particularly the most significant of the Allied forces’ operations against the Japanese Imperial Forces, which were launched on August 7, 1942, with simultaneous naval bombardments and amphibious landings on the Florida Islands at Tulagi and Red Beach on Guadalcanal.
- Guadalcanal: A tropical island in the Southwestern Pacific. During 1942–43, it was the scene of bitter fighting between Japanese and American troops the American forces were ultimately victorious.
The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and code-named Operation Watchtower, was a military campaign fought between August 7, 1942, and February 9, 1943, on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific Theater of World War II. It was the first major offensive by Allied forces against the empire of Japan.
The 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor crippled much of the U.S. battleship fleet and precipitated an open and formal state of war between the two nations. The initial goals of Japanese leaders were to neutralize the United States Navy, seize possessions rich in natural resources, and establish strategic military bases to defend Japan’s empire in the Pacific Ocean and Asia. To further those goals, Japanese forces captured the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Wake Island, Gilbert Islands, New Britain, and Guam. Joining the U.S. in the war against Japan were the rest of the Allied powers, several of whom, including the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Netherlands, had also been attacked by Japan.
Further attempts by the Japanese to continue their strategic initiative and offensively extend their outer defensive perimeter in the south and central Pacific were thwarted at the naval battles of the Coral Sea (May 1941) and Midway (June 1941) respectively. Up to this point, the Allies had been on the defensive in the Pacific, but these strategic victories provided them an opportunity to seize the initiative from Japan.
The Allies chose the Solomon Islands (a protectorate of the United Kingdom), specifically the southern Solomon Islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi and Florida Island, as the first target. The Imperial Japanese Navy had occupied Tulagi in May 1942, and had constructed a seaplane base nearby. Allied concern grew when, in early July 1942, the IJN began constructing a large airfield at Lunga Point on nearby Guadalcanal—from such a base, Japanese long-range bombers would threaten the sea lines of communication from the West Coast of the Americas to the populous East Coast of Australia. By August 1942, the Japanese had about 900 naval troops on Tulagi and nearby islands and 2,800 personnel on Guadalcanal.
On August 7, 1942, Allied forces, predominantly American, landed on the islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida in the southern Solomon Islands, with the objective of denying their use by the Japanese to threaten the supply and communication routes between the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. The Allies also intended to use Guadalcanal and Tulagi as bases to support a campaign to eventually capture or neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain. The Allies overwhelmed the outnumbered Japanese defenders, who had occupied the islands since May 1942, and captured Tulagi and Florida as well as an airfield (later named Henderson Field) that was under construction on Guadalcanal. Powerful U.S. naval forces supported the landings.
Surprised by the Allied offensive, the Japanese made several attempts between August and November of 1942 to retake Henderson Field. Three major land battles, seven large naval battles, and continual, almost daily aerial battles, culminated in the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in early November 1942. The last Japanese attempt to bombard Henderson Field from the sea and land with enough troops to retake it was defeated. In December 1942, the Japanese abandoned further efforts to retake Guadalcanal and evacuated their remaining forces by February 7, 1943, in the face of an offensive by the U.S. Army’s XIV Corps, conceding the island to the Allies.
The Guadalcanal Campaign was a significant strategic combined arms victory by Allied forces over the Japanese in the Pacific Theater. The Japanese had reached the high-water mark of their conquests in the Pacific, and Guadalcanal marked the transition by the Allies from defensive operations to the strategic offensive in that theater and the beginning of offensive operations, including the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, and Central Pacific campaigns, that resulted in Japan’s eventual surrender and the end of World War II.
Perhaps as important as the military victory for the Allies was the psychological victory. On a level playing field, the Allies had beaten Japan’s best land, air, and naval forces. After Guadalcanal, Allied personnel regarded the Japanese military with much less fear and awe than previously. In addition, the Allies viewed the eventual outcome of the Pacific War with greatly increased optimism.
Pacific Theater Areas: Japanese control of the western Pacific area between May and August 1942. Guadalcanal is located in the lower right center of the map.
1. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. “Many children of Japanese ancestry attended Raphael Weill public school, Geary and Buchanan Streets, prior to evacuation. This scene shows first-graders during flag pledge ceremony. Evacuees will be housed for the duration in War Relocation Authority centers. Provision will be effected for continuance of education.” Dorothea Lange, photographer. War Relocation Authority Photograph. April 20, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
2. http://memory.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: American Memory. Naval dispatch from the Commander in Chief Pacific (CINCPAC) announcing the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941. (John J. Ballentine Papers).
3. http://www.archives.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration. USS Shaw (DD-373) exploding during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor. Unknown navy photographer. December 7, 1941. General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947. (80-G-16871) [VENDOR # 91].
4. http://memory.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: American Memory. President Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan. December, 1941. Office of War Information photograph. Farm Security Administration and Office of War Information Collection (The Library of Congress). No.17109-ZD. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-15185 DLC (b&w film copy neg.) Digital ID: cph 3a17434.
5. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. “In Los Angeles' "Little Tokyo," news of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor left shocked silence yesterday. There was no demonstration, little comment. Pictured here are two youths selling the Examiner and the local Japanese paper. Approximately 20,000 Japanese live in city, mostly Nisei, or second generation, born in America."--caption on photograph. December 7, 1941. Owning Institution: University of Southern California, Library. Dept. of Special Collections, Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-2-07.
6. http://www.library.northwestern.edu. Northwestern University Library: World War II Posters Collection. Avenge December 7. Bernard Perlin, Artist. 1942. Publisher: Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.: Distributed by Division of Public Inquiries, Office of War Information. "War Information Office"--Monthly catalog 1943, p. 95. Object no. IIIE.11. Call Number: Pr32. 5015: 15.
7. http://www.loc.gov. The Library of Congress Online exhibit “Women Come to the Front: Journalists, Photographers, and Broadcasters During World War II”. Prelude to the Japanese Exodus: Civilian Executive Order No. 5. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. April 1942.
8. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California. Husbands of these two women are being held as dangerous enemy aliens. Wives and children were evacuated with other persons of Japanese ancestry, and will spend the duration at War Relocation Authority centers. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. San Francisco, California, April 25, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
9. http://www.library.northwestern.edu. Northwestern University Library: World War II Posters Collection. Remember December 7th! Allen Saalburg, Artist. 1943. Publisher: Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.: Distributed by Division of Public Inquiries, Office of War Information. "War Information Office"--Monthly catalog 1943, p. 95. Object no. IIIE.5. Call Number: Pr32. 5015: 14/3.
10. http://www.archives.gov. The National Archives. Merchandise Sale in San Francisco, California. Customers buy merchandise in a store operated by a proprietor of Japanese ancestry during a pre-evacuation sale. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration of the war. ARC Identifier: 536042.
11. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Following evacuation orders, this store, at 13th and Franklin Streets, was closed. The owner, a University of California graduate of Japanese descent, placed the I AM AN AMERICAN sign on the store front on December 8, the day after Pearl Harbor. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Oakland, California, March 13, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
12. http://www.archives.gov. The National Archives. Thank You Note in "Little Tokyo" in Los Angeles, California. Mr. and Mrs. K. Tseri have closed their drugstore in preparation for the forthcoming evacuation from their home and business. ARC Identifier: 536001.
13. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California.Headlines of newspapers, in stand at 14th and Broadway, presaged on February 27, 1942, the evacuation of persons of Japanese ancestry from military areas. On February 19, President Roosevelt delegated to the Secretary of War power to exclude any person, alien, or citizen, from any area which might be required, on the grounds of military necessity. Evacuees of Japanese descent will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Oakland, California, February 27, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
14. http://americanhistory.si.edu. The Smithsonian National Museum of American History: Behring Center. Online gallery: A More Perfect Union Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution. Warning! Our Homes Are In Danger Now! Our Job -- Keep 'Em Firing! 1942. General Motors Corporation.
15. http://www.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: Prints and Photographs Division. Interrupted Lives: Residents of Japanese ancestry awaiting the bus. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. April 1942.
16. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California. Los Angeles, Calif.-- Evacuees of Japanese ancestry entraining for Manzanar, Calif., 250 miles away, where they now are housed in a War Relocation Authority center. Clem Albers, Photographer. Los Angeles, California, April 1, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
17. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. The Little Jap is a Big Job. Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services.
18. http://lcweb2.loc.gov. The Library of Congress. American Memory: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945. The evacuation of Japanese-Americans from West Coast areas under U.S. Army war emergency order. Japanese-American child who is being evacuated with his parents to Owens Valley. Russell Lee, Photographer. Los Angeles, California, April, 1942. Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (The Library of Congress) Call Number: LC-USF33- 013296-M5. Reproduction Number: LC-USF33-013296-M5 DLC (b&w film nitrate neg.), LC-USZ62-129127 DLC (b&w film copy neg. from file print).
19. http://lcweb2.loc.gov. The Library of Congress. American Memory: American Memory: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945. Untitled Image. Created between 1935 and 1942. Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (The Library of Congress) Call Number: LC-USF33- 013286-M4. Reproduction Number: LC-USF33-013286-M4 DLC (b&w film nitrate neg.)
20. http://www.archives.gov. The National Archives: Powers of Persuasion Poster Art from World War II. Keep These Hands Off. G.K. Odell, artist. NARA Still Picture Branch (NWDNS-44-PA-97).
21. http://lcweb2.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: Prints and Photographs Online Catalogue. Bainbridge Island (Wash.) evacuation - [Japanese-American] mother and sleeping baby ready to leave their island home. March 30, 1942. Photograph by Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Call Number: LOT 10617, v. 3, p. 246 [item] [P&P]. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-88338 (b&w film copy neg.)
22. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. "Jap. You're Next! We'll Finish the Job!” James Montgomery Flagg, artist. U.S. Army Official Poster.
23. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Calif.--Two children of the Mochida family who, with their parents, are awaiting evacuation bus. The youngster on the right holds a sandwich given her by one of a group of women who were present from a local church. The family unit is kept intact during evacuation and at War Relocation Authority centers where evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed for the duration. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Hayward, California, May 8, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
24. http://bss.sfsu.edu. Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II. This is the Enemy. Anonymous Artist. 1942. Design entry, Poster Contest.
25. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Turlock, Calif.--These young evacuees of Japanese ancestry are waiting their turn for baggage inspection upon arrival at this Assembly Center. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Turlock, California, May 2, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
26. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Calif.--These people of Japanese ancestry are awaiting the special bus which will take them, and other evacuees, to the Tanforan Assembly Center. The father of this small family is attending to their luggage and bed rolls. They will spend the duration at a War Relocation Authority. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Turlock, California, May 2, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
27. http://bss.sfsu.edu. Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II. Attack on a Caucasian Woman. Anonymous Caricature.
28. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Calif.--A young member of an evacuee family awaiting evacuation bus. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Hayward, California, May 8, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
29. http://www.library.northwestern.edu. Northwestern University Library: World War II Posters Collection. No Loyal Citizen of the United States. 1943. Publisher: Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.: Distributed by the Division of Public Inquiries, Office of War Information. Object no. VII.6.
30. http://bss.sfsu.edu. Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II. Japanese Type. "How to tell Japs from the Chinese." December, 1941. Life Magazine.
31. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California. [postcard] [Our concentration camp in Topaz, Utah. The barbed wire fence and guard towers are not visible.] [On verso:] Dec 16, 1944. Mr. and Mrs. Uchida. Our lifes memory. Topaz city Utah. Looking down frm 1/2 million gl water tank (Daily usege of amount 150,000 gls.) Hight 130 ft. R. Kasai. Owning Institution: Bancroft Library.
32. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California. Manzanar, Calif.--Grandfather and grandson of Japanese ancestry at this War Relocation Authority center. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Manzanar, California, July 2, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
33. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. One of the young Heart Mountain school children is enjoying a swing on the center's play ground. Iwasaki Hikaru, Photographer. Heart Mountain, Wyoming, November 24, 1943. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
34. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. Keep talking I'm all ears. Office for Emergency Management, Office of War Information, Domestic Operations Branch, Bureau of Special Services.
35. http://www.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: Women Come to the Front: Journalists, Photographers, Broadcasters during world war II. This is America: Keep it Free. Propaganda Poster Based on Dorothea Lange Photograph. Chicago: Sheldon-Claire, 1942.
36. http://content.cdlib.org. California Digital Library. Manzanar, Calif.--Evacuee boy waiting at the entrance of the Recreational Hall at this War Relocation Authority center. He is anxious for the baseball team to assemble. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Manzanar, California, July 1, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
37. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Boundary sign, "Stop - Area Limits." Charles E. Mace, Photographer. Tule Lake Center, Newell, California, September 28, 1943. Courtesy of National Archives.
38. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Boy behind barbed wire fence, Tule Lake. "Mr. George Oni and his daughter Georgette Chize Oni biding farewell to brother Henry Oni." Jack Iwata, photographer. Tule Lake Center, Newell, California, February 7, 1946. Courtesy of National Archives.
39. http://timmer.org. Online Readings: History 20 Primary Documents and Essays. Untitled. Archie Miyatake, photographer. Manzanar Relocation Camp, California, circa 1942-1945.
40. http://bss.sfsu.edu. Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II. Keep This Horror From Your Home.
41. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Young children at Jerome Relocation Center. Gretchen Denson Van Tassel, photographer. Arkansas, January 18, 1944. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
42. http://snuffy.lib.umn.edu. University of Minnesota University Libraries: “A Summons to Comradeship” World War I and II Posters and Postcards. Material Conservation. Jack Campbell, creator. Record Number: msp04425.
43. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Guards atop guard tower. "Arcadia, California. Military police on duty in watch-tower at Santa Anita Park assembly center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. Evacuees are transferred later to War Relocation Authority centers for the duration." Clem Albers, photographer. April 6, 1942. Courtesy of National Archives.
44. http://www.archives.gov. l The National Archives: Powers of Persuasion Poster Art from World War II. Ours. to fight for--Freedom From Fear. Norman Rockwell, artist. ©1943 SEPS: The Curtis Publishing Co. Printed by the Government Printing Office
for the Office of War Information. NARA Still Picture Branch. (NWDNS-208-PMP-46).
45. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Jap Hunting License. David P. Bailey, creator. January 9, 1942.
46. http://content.cdlib.org. c Online Archive of California. "They're Japanese -- but loyal Americans. In 1917, Kaytaro Tsukamoto served with the United States Army. Now a San Francisco businessman, he is commander of the Japanese American Legion Post. Here he shows his 11-year-old son Wilmer pictures of himself when he was an American doughboy of '17. Tsukamoto was born in this country."--caption on photograph. February 20, 1942. Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-1-35.
47. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. 8 University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. Stop Him and the Job’s Done. 1945. Harry Horst Meyers, Artist.
Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services.
48. http://faculty.rmwc.edu. Japanese-American Internment Camp. A white man pointing the sign at the store saying "We don't want Japs”.
49. http://orpheus.ucsd.edu. UC San Diego, Mandeville Special Collections Library: Dr. Seuss Went to War: A Catalog of Political Cartoons by Dr. Seuss. Waiting for the Signal from Home. Theodor Seuss Geisel, artist. February 13, 1942. PM.
50. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Young boy and guard with rifle, Seattle. "Two-and-one-half-year-old Masura Shibayana is too young to know that his ancestral country is at war with his adopted country, so he shows only polite interest in the US Army sentry with his rifle and fixed bayonet at the left. The youngster and his Japanese parents are among those facing evacuation from the Seattle war area." AP/Wide World Photo, Seattle Bureau. March 28, 1942.
51. http://www.authentichistory.com. The Authentic History Center: Primary Sources from American Popular Culture. Strike ‘em Dead Remember Pearl Harbor Matchbook.
52. http://content.cdlib.org. a Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. "Jap Repatriates -- This is the Hiyarama family and friends, on of the groups of Japanese repatriates who boarded the liner Matsonia in Seattle for removal to Japan. Most came from Texas internment camp."--caption on photograph. December 8, 1945. Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-8-15.
53. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. "Jap Civilians Leave Shanghai in Crowded Ship -- Jap repatriates, who had led a life of comparative ease in China during the war, find themselves a bit crowded together in the holds of the S.S. Meiyu Maru, which is carrying them back to Nippon."--caption on photograph. December 12, 1945. Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-8-11.
54. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. Stop This Monster That Stops at Nothing. Produce to the Limit. This is Your War. Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services.
55. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. "A Man in Four Million -- This pouting little man is one of more than four million Japanese repatriates who have been transported to the Japanese homeland from Far Eastern ports and Pacific Islands in a gigantic passenger-carrying operation by the U.S. Navy. A million more such passengers will be repatriated before the end of the year, when the program will be completed. The Navy used Liberty Ships, former naval vessels of Japan and U.S. Navy amphibious craft in carrying out the big job. All costs of the repatriation operation are borne by the Japanese government."--caption on photograph. August 24, 1946. Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-8-06.
Like the USS Hammann , there was nothing particular special about the USS Shaw (DD-373). Just one destroyer in a fleet with dozens similar to her, really.
Laid down in 1934 as the tenth of the Mahan -class of destroyers, she weighed in around 1500 tons. Armed with five 5"/38 guns and a whopping 12 torpedo tubes, there was no question that she was quite able to fight other ships her size, and with a top speed of 35kts she could outrun many of the ships she couldn't stand toe-to-toe with. None of these numbers, however, made her different than any other destroyer in the US Navy. She joined the Pacific fleet in 1940 after her shakedown cruise, training and overhaul. In November of 1941, she found herself at Pearl Harbor, in a floating drydock for the sort of repairs that any ship needs after a while.
It wasn't until December 7th, 1941 that she became famous, thanks to one picture. The Shaw , hit by three bombs probably meant for the USS Nevada , was set ablaze. While the crew attempted to extinguish the fires, it was quickly realized that the attempt was doomed to failure and abandon ship was called at 0925. Five minutes later, her forward magazines exploded.
After seeing this photograph, one could be excused for thinking that the Shaw was destroyed, in much the same way as the USS Arizona . Indeed, for some 30 years I just assumed that was the case. In fact, it wasn't.
The explosion severed the Shaw 's bow completely and to be honest, fairly neatly. at least as far as that sort of thing goes. It also sank the floating drydock she was in ( YFD-2 , in case you were wondering), which went a long way towards extinguishing her fires.
If you'll direct your attention towards the top of this picture, you'll see just how dramatically she was truncated. as if an axe amputated everything forward of her bridge structure. If you look at the bottom of the picture, you'll see the Cassin and the Downes just forward of the battleship Pennsylvania . In fact, the sole Pearl Harbor survivor I've met served on the Downes . But I digress.
Someone had the bright idea that the Shaw , bifurcated though she was, could be repaired. Refloated, fitted with a wooden bow and fixed up enough to be able to sail on her own, she steamed off to San Francisco. There, she was "placed under the anchor" and refit with a replacement bow.
By the end of August, 1942, 68 years ago, the USS Shaw returned to Pearl Harbor, a ship whole again. She served through the rest of the war in the Pacific, making her presence felt at Guadalcanal, Cape Gloucester, Saipan, and Luzon. She was decommissioned on October 2nd, 1945 and stricken from the Navy List two days later. She was scrapped in 1946, ending what could only be called an eventful life.
Posted by: Wonderduck at 09:49 PM | Comments (2) | Add Comment
Post contains 514 words, total size 5 kb.
1 At that point in the war, they were willing to jump through hoops to save any hull that could be saved, just because they were desperately short.
A ship damaged that badly in 1944 they would have written off in an instant. But by that point brand new destroyers were pouring off the blocks in the US at a rate of dozens per month.
Posted by: Steven Den Beste at August 24, 2010 11:38 PM (+rSRq)
The US probably also still had the drydock capacity to do the installation and repairs at that time. In 1944, US drydocks would have been crowded to capacity both with American and Allied ships needing overhaul and repairs.
Of course, we are talking about a US that in 1941, before it entered the war, laid down 85 destroyers, taking an average of 6 months to complete each one (And depending on which yard you are talking about, a destroyer would be completed in 4 months.). That is slightly under half the destroyers built by Japan between 1921 and 1945.
What really mystifies me is why Cassin and Downes had their machinery reused in new hulls. I can understand reusing the reduction gears, but the rest of the engineering plant would not have been identical to what the likely hulls would have been designed for.
1850 – Oak Ridge Male Institute was conceived on April 7th by 43 local citizens who, being desirous of promoting the cause of education, contributed a total of $629 and appointed five trustees to bring the Institute to fruition.
1852 – The founding year of Oak Ridge Male Institute. Within two years the name was changed to Oak Ridge Institute and females were admitted. Girls attended Oak Ridge Institute until 1929.
1861-1866 – The school was closed because of the Civil War. Scores of eligible aged students (probably about 100) enlisted or were conscripted into Southern units. (These units included the Guilford Guards, Stonewall Boys, Wilkes Guards, 11th Regiment of N.C. Volunteers, Madison Greys, Confederate Guards, Troublesome Boys, Guilford Men, 21st Regiment, 57th Regiment, 48th Regiment, 22nd Regiment, 45th Regiment, 29th Regiment, and many other regiments of N.C. troops).
1875 – 1914 – John Allen Holt and his brother Martin Hicks Holt, operated the school. The Chapel & Holt Hall are constructed, and was said to be the “finest school structure” in the state of North Carolina.
1895 – George Stephens, an 1891 graduate of Oak Ridge Institute, is credited with having caught the first forward pass thrown in football in a game between UNC and Georgia. In the crowd was John W. Heisman, who later relayed the incident to Walter Camp (the “Father of American Football”).
1914 – Professor Thomas E. Whitaker becomes President of Oak Ridge Institute. After the devastating fire that destroyed the main schoolhouse and the Chapel on January 14, 1914, Mr. Whitaker rebuilds Oak Ridge out of the ashes and into a military academy. During his 15 year administration the following buildings were constructed – Alumni Hall, Linville Chapel, King Gymnasium, as well as Holt, Brooks and Whitaker Hall Dormitories.
1917 – The school became military and the boys uniformed under the supervision of the War Department. The school trained and graduated men who served in World War I.
1919 – George Parrott, a 1905 graduate of Oak Ridge Institute, was an officer in the US Navy during World War I. A recipient of the Navy Cross, he was killed during the accidental collision between the USN Shaw (DD-68) and the British transport, HMS Aquitania, on October 9, 1918. On July 23, 1919, George Parrott was honored by his naming on the Clemson-class destroyer, USS Parrott (DD-218), which later saw significant service during World War II.
1926 – Oak Ridge was designated a Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps unit.
1929 – The name was changed to Oak Ridge Military Institute and limited to males only.
1932 – A two-year junior college was established and continued until 1966.
1946 – A monument on campus and various tributes memorialized the 42 ORMI alumni who lost their lives in World War II. During the Second World War, 127 of the academy’s alumni were awarded a Purple Heart during the conflict, while another 27 alumni earned the Silver Star.
1952 – Hollywood film legend Ava Gardner makes a surprise visit to campus to see her nephew, Cadet Robert S. Creech, Class of 1953.
1971 – Girls were admitted again and the name was changed to Oak Ridge Academy.
1975 – Keith Cokely, a 1975 graduate of Oak Ridge Academy, becomes the first African-American Cadet to hold the position of Battalion Commander and Commander of the Corps of Cadets.
1981 – The name changed again to its present name, Oak Ridge Military Academy. Both boys and girls are now uniformed.
1988 – Dale Earnhardt Jr. attends Oak Ridge Military Academy.
1991 – Oak Ridge was named the “Official Military Academy of North Carolina” by the State Legislature.
1992 – Jennifer Childers, a 1992 graduate of Oak Ridge Military Academy, becomes the first female Cadet to hold the position of Battalion Commander and Commander of the Corps of Cadets.
1995 – Nancy Mellette, a 1996 graduate, submits her application for admission into The Citadel and attempts to enter the Military College of South Carolina as one of its first female cadets. Nancy’s plight for enrollment brings positive public attention nationally to herself and ORMA, featuring articles in People Magazine (click here for article) and culminating with a cover story by NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw.
1996 – Oak Ridge Military Academy Drill Team (The Lady Cadet’s), an all female drill team, won the National Drill Team Championship in Daytona Beach, Florida. Coached by Carl T. Lloyd.
2002 – The Academy celebrated its sesquicentennial anniversary.
2002 – Academy builds the largest building on campus. 33,000+ square foot, three level Academic building.
Shaw II DD- 373 - History
November and the Continuing Buildup (continued)
The buildup on Guadalcanal continued, by both sides. On 11 November, guarded by a cruiser-destroyer covering force, a convoy ran in carrying the 182d Infantry, another regiment of the Americal Division. The ships were pounded by enemy bombers and three transports were hit, but the men landed. General Vandegrift needed the new men badly. His veterans were truly ready for replacement more than a thousand new cases of malaria and related diseases were reported each week. The Japanese who had been on the island any length of time were no better off they were, in fact, in worse shape. Medical supplies and rations were in short supply. The whole thrust of the Japanese reinforcement effort continued to be to get troops and combat equipment ashore. The idea prevailed in Tokyo, despite all evidence to the contrary, that one overwhelming coordinated assault would crush the American resistance. The enemy drive to take Port Moresby on New Guinea was put on hold to concentrate all efforts on driving the Americans off of Guadalcanal.
|Native guides lead 2d Raider Battalion Marines on a combat/reconnaissance patrol behind Japanese lines. The patrol lasted for less than a month, during which the Marines covered 150 miles and fought more than a dozen actions. Department of Defense (USMC) Photo 51728|
On 12 November, a multifaceted Japanese naval force converged on Guadalcanal to cover the landing of the main body of the 38th Division. Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan's cruisers and destroyers, the close-in protection for the 182d's transports, moved to stop the enemy. Coastwatcher and scout plane sightings and radio traffic intercepts had identified two battleships, two carriers, four cruisers, and a host of destroyers all headed toward Guadalcanal. A bombardment group led by the battleships Hiei and Kirishima, with the light cruiser Nagura, and 15 destroyers spearheaded the attack. Shortly after midnight, near Savo Island, Callaghan's cruisers picked up the Japanese on radar and continued to close. The battle was joined at such short range that each side fired at times on their own ships. Callaghan's flagship, the San Francisco, was hit 15 times, Callaghan was killed, and the ship had to limp away. The cruiser Atlanta (CL-104) was also hit and set afire. Rear Admiral Norman Scott, who was on board, was killed. Despite the hammering by Japanese fire, the Americans held and continued fighting. The battleship Hiei, hit by more than 80 shells, retired and with it went the rest of the bombardment force. Three destroyers were sunk and four others damaged.
The Americans had accomplished their purpose they had forced the Japanese to turn back. The cost was high. Two antiaircraft cruisers, the Atlanta and the Juneau (CL-52), were sunk four destroyers, the Barton (DD-599), Cushing (DD-376), Monssen (DD-436), and Laffey (DD-459), also went to the bottom. In addition to the San Francisco, the heavy cruiser Portland and the destroyers Sterret (DD-407), and Aaron Ward (DD-483) were damaged. One one destroyer of the 13 American ships engaged, the Fletcher (DD-445), was unscathed when the survivors retired to the New Hebrides.
With daylight came the Cactus bombers and fighters they found the crippled Hiei and pounded it mercilessly. On the 14th the Japanese were forced to scuttle it. Admiral Halsey ordered his only surviving carrier, the Enterprise, out of the Guadalcanal area to get it out of reach of Japanese aircraft and sent his battleships Washington (BB-56) and South Dakota with four escorting destroyers north to meet the Japanese. Some of the Enterprise's planes flew in to Henderson Field to help even the odds.
|In the great naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 12-15 November, RAdm Daniel J. Callaghan was killed when his flagship, the heavy cruiser San Francisco (CA-38) took 15 major hits and was forced to limp away in the dark from the scene of action. Department of Defense (Navy) Photo 80-G-20824 and 80-G-G-21099|
On 14 November Cactus and Enterprise flyers found a Japanese cruiser-destroyer force that had pounded the island on the night of 13 November. They damaged four cruisers and a destroyer. After refueling and rearming they went after the approaching Japanese troop convoy. They hit several transports in one attack and sank one when they came back again. Army B-17s up from Espiritu Santo scored one hit and several near misses, bombing from 17,000 feet.
Moving in a continuous pattern of attack, return, refuel, rearm, and attack again, the planes from Guadalcanal hit nine transports, sinking seven. Many of the 5,000 troops on the stricken ships were rescued by Tanaka's destroyers, which were firing furiously and laying smoke screens in an attempt to protect the transports. The admiral later recalled that day as indelible in his mind, with memories of "bombs wobbling down from high-flying B-17s of carrier bombers roaring towards targets as though to plunge full into the water, releasing bombs and pulling out barely in time, each miss sending up towering clouds of mist and spray, every hit raising clouds of smoke and fire." Despite the intensive aerial attack, Tanaka continued on to Guadalcanal with four destroyers and four transports.
Japanese intelligence had picked up the approaching American battleship force and warned Tanaka of its advent. In turn, the enemy admirals sent their own battleship-cruiser force to intercept. The Americans, led by Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee in the Washington, reached Sealark Channel about 2100 on the 14th. An hour later, a Japanese cruiser was picked up north of Savo. Battleship fire soon turned it away. The Japanese now learned that their opponents would not be the cruisers they expected.
The resulting clash, fought in the glare of gunfire and Japanese searchlights, was perhaps the most significant fought at sea for Guadalcanal. When the melee was over, the American battleships' 16-inch guns had more than matched the Japanese. Both the South Dakota and the Washington were damaged badly enough to force their retirement, but the Kirishima was punished to its abandonment and death. One Japanese and three American destroyers, the Benham (DD-796), the Walke (DD-416), and the Preston (DD-379), were sunk. When the Japanese attack force retired, Admiral Tanaka ran his four transports onto the beach, knowing they would be sitting targets at daylight. Most of the men on board, however, did manage to get ashore before the inevitable pounding by American planes, warships, and artillery.
The Japanese Model 89 (1929)
50mm Heavy Grenade Discharger
Born out of the need to bridge the gap in range between hand grenades and mortars, the grenade discharger evolved in the Imperial Japanese Army from a special purpose weapon of infantry assault and defense to an essential item of standard equipment with all Japanese ground forces.
Commonly called Juteki by the Japanese, this weapon officially was designated Hachikyu Shiki Jutekidarto, or 1189 Model Heavy Grenade Discharger, the term "heavy" being justified by the powerful 1-pound, 12-ounce high explosive shell it was designed to fire, although it also fired the standard Model 91 fragmentation grenade.
To the American Marines and soldiers who first encountered this weapon and others of its kind in combat they were known as "knee mortars," likely so named because they generally were fired from a kneeling position. Typically, the discharger's concave baseplate was pressed firmly into the surface of the ground by the firer's foot to support the heavy recoil of the fired shell, but unfortunately the term "knee mortar" suggested to some untutored captors of these weapons that they were to be fired with the baseplate resting against the knee or thigh. When a Marine fired on of these dischargers from his thigh and broke his upper leg bone, efforts were swiftly undertaken in the field to educate all combat troops in the safe and proper handling of these very useful weapons.
The Model 89 (1929) 50mm Heavy Grenade Discharger is a muzzle-loaded, high-angle-of-fire weapon which weighs 10-1/4 pounds and is 24 inches in overall length. Its design is compact and simple. The discharger has three major components: the rifled barrel, the supporting barrel pedestal with firing mechanism, and the base plate. Operation of the Model 899 was easy and straightforward, and with practice its user could deliver accurate fire registered quickly on target.
Encountered in all major battles in the Pacific War, the Model 89 Grenade Discharger was an uncomplicated, very portable, and highly efficient weapon operated easily by one man. It was carried in a cloth or leather case with a sling, and its one-piece construction allowed it to be brought into action very quickly. This grenade discharger had the advantage over most mortars in that it could be aimed and fired mechanically after a projectile had been placed in the barrel, projectile firing not being dependent upon dropping down the barrel against a stationary firing pin as with most mortars, where barrel fouling sometimes caused dangerous hangfires. Although an instantaneous fuze employed on the Model 89 high explosive shell restricted this shell's use to open areas, the Model 91 fragmentation grenade with its seven-second fuze made this discharger effective in a jungle or forest setting, with complete safety for the user from premature detonation of projectiles by overhanging foliage. Smoke and signal shells, and an incendiary grenade, were special types of ammunition used with this versatile and effective weapons which won the respect of all who came to know it. Edwin F. Libby
Ten thousand troops of the 38th Division had landed, but the Japanese were in no shape to ever again attempt a massive reinforcement. The horrific losses in the frequent naval clashes, which seemed at times to favor the Japanese, did not really represent a standoff. Every American ship lost or damaged could and would be replaced every Japanese ship lost meant a steadily diminishing fleet. In the air, the losses on both sides were daunting, but the enemy naval air arm would never recover from its losses of experienced carrier pilots. Two years later, the Battle of the Philippine Sea between American and Japanese carriers would aptly be called the "Marianas Turkey Shoot" because of the ineptitude of the Japanese trainee pilots.
|A Japanese troop transport and her landing craft were badly damaged by the numerous Marine air attacks and were forced to run aground on Kokumbona beach after the naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Many enemy troops were killed in the attacks. Department of Defense (USMC) Photo 53510|
The enemy troops who had been fortunate enough to reach land were not immediately ready to assault the American positions. The 38th Division and the remnants of the various Japanese units that had previously tried to penetrate the Marine lines needed to be shaped into a coherent attack force before General Hyakutake could again attempt to take Henderson Field.
General Vandegrift now had enough fresh units to begin to replace his veteran troops along the front lines. The decision to replace the 1st Marine Division with the Army's 25th Infantry Division had been made. Admiral Turner had told Vandegrift to leave all of his heavy equipment on the island when he did pull out "in hopes of getting your units re-equipped when you come out." He also told the Marine general that the Army would command the final phases of the Guadalcanal operation since it would provide the majority of the combat forces once the 1st Division departed. Major General Alexander M. Patch, commander of the Americal Division. would relieve Vandegrift as senior American officer ashore. His air support would continue to be Marine-dominated as General Geiger, now located on Espiritu Santo with 1st Wing headquarters, fed his squadrons forward to maintain the offensive. And the air command on Guadalcanal itself would continue to be a mixed bag of Army, Navy, Marine, and Allied squadrons.
The sick list of the 1st Marine Division in November included more than 3,200 men with malaria. The men of the 1st still manning the frontline foxholes and the rear areasif anyplace within Guadalcanal's perimeter could properly be called a rear areawere plain worn out. They had done their part and they knew it.
On 29 November, General Vandegrift was handed a message from the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The crux of it read: "1st MarDiv is to be relived without delay . and will proceed to Australia for rehabilitation and employment." The word soon spread that the 1st was leaving and where it was going. Australia was not yet the cherished place it would become in the division's future, but any place was preferable to Guadalcanal.
-- Table of Contents --
CHAPTER I -
Sections of an Act Erecting
Montgomery County -
CHAPTER II - Part I
Ores, Minerals, Geology and Lime.
CHAPTER II - Part II
Ores, Minerals, Geology and Lime.
Early Voyagers and Traders.
The First Swedish Settlement.
Chapter V -Part II
The First Swedish Settlement. (cont.)
William Penn.- "The Holy Experiment,
a Free Colony for All Mankind."
Penn's Arrival in America -
His Colony Founded
on the Delaware.
No Associated Illustrations.
No Associated Illustrations.
No Associated Illustrations.
The Colonial Era.
The War Of 1812 And The Mexican War.
Chapter XVI - Part I
The Great Rebellion.
The Fourth and Fifty-First Regiments.
Chapter XVI - Part II
The Great Rebellion.
Roster of the Fifty-First Regiment.
No Associated Illustrations.
Chapter XVI - Part III
The Great Rebellion.
The Fifty-Third and Sixty-Eighth Regiments.
No Associated Illustrations.
Chapter XVI - Part IV
The Great Rebellion.
The 93rd, 95th, 106th, 129th & 138th Regiments.
No Associated Illustrations.
Chapter XVI - Part V
The Great Rebellion.
The 160th & 162th (17th Cavalry) Regiments.
No Associated Illustrations.
Chapter XVI - Part VI
The Great Rebellion.
The 175th, 179th, 11th, 17th & 19th Regiments
plus other independent units.
The Grand Army of the Republic.
Redemptioners - Slavery -
The Underground Railroads
Graduates of the United States Military
and Naval Academies
Montgomery County Established -
Municipal Government - The "Country Squire."
Manners and Customs - Sports and Pastimes -
Local Superstitions - Inns.
Shaw II DD- 373 - History
This collection has access restrictions. For details, please see the restrictions.
This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.
Expand/collapse Collection Overview
|Size||About 11,300 items (24.0 linear feet).|
|Abstract||Ruth Faison Shaw was an artist, teacher, and art therapist who lived in North Carolina, New York, and Rome, finally settling in Chapel Hill, N.C. She was a proponent of using finger painting in education and therapy work. The collection contains personal and professional correspondence, writings, subject files, photographs, materials related to the use of art therapy for disturbed children and military veterans, original art work including nine finger paintings attributed to Shaw, and other items. Most of the correspondence dates after 1940. Many of the letters were written by friends and relatives to Shaw, but there are several letters she wrote. Letters discuss activities of friends and family, art and art therapy, theater, and various business activities and also contain references to finger painting as therapy in the rehabilitation of World War II soldiers. Also included are Shaw and Faison family history materials, financial and legal documents dating from 1919 to 1968, articles and other writings by or about Shaw or her areas of interest, printed materials, and clippings. Subject files compiled by Shaw reflect her interests especially finger painting, hospitals, and psychiatric treatment. Photographs depict Shaw family members, Shaw demonstrating fingerpainting techniques, and Shaw's finger paintings. Photograph albums document Shaw's travels in France and the Middle East immediately after World War I and her years spent in Rome and in New York.|
|Creator||Shaw, Ruth Faison, 1887-1969.|
Expand/collapse Information For Users
Expand/collapse Subject Headings
The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.
Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.
- Art therapy for children.
- Art therapy--United States.
- Chapel Hill (N.C.)--Social life and customs.
- Faison family.
- Finger painting.
- France--Description and travel.
- New York (N.Y.)--Social life and customs.
- Rome (Italy)--Description and travel.
- Rome (Italy)--Photographs.
- Rome (Italy)--Social life and customs.
- Shaw family.
- Shaw, Ruth Faison, 1887-1969.
- Veterans--Mental health services.
- Women artists.
- Women travelers--History--20th century.
- World War, 1914-1918--France--Photographs.
Expand/collapse Biographical Information
Ruth Faison Shaw was born in 1887 near Wilmington, N.C. She worked as a school teacher in North Carolina before World War I, but in 1918 she traveled to France to travel and support the war effort in a volunteer position through the Young Men's Christian Association. After a brief return to North Carolina, Shaw went back to Europe in 1920 and worked as a teacher for British and American children in Rome. During this time, she published several books: Offerings and Offsprings , The Old Shoe , and The Second Old Shoe . She also developed her interest in finger-painting. In 1932, Shaw left Rome to teach finger painting at the Mac Jennet School in Paris. Soon after, she moved to New York, where she opened the Shaw Finger Paint Studio and published two more books: Finger Painting and Finger Painting and How I Do It . She retired in 1959 and moved to Chapel Hill, N.C., where she conducted research on the use of finger painting in psychiatric therapy at the Department of Psychiatry at North Carolina Memorial Hospital. Ruth Faison Shaw died on 3 December 1969.
Expand/collapse Scope and Content
The collection contains personal and professional correspondence, writings, subject files, photographs, materials related to the use of art therapy for disturbed children and military veterans, original art work including nine finger paintings attributed to Shaw, and other items. Most of the correspondence dates after 1940. Many of the letters were written by friends and relatives to Shaw, but there are several letters she wrote. Letters discuss activities of friends and family, art and art therapy, theater, and various business activities and also contain references to finger painting as therapy in the rehabilitation of World War II soldiers. Also included are Shaw and Faison family history materials, financial and legal documents dating from 1919 to 1968, articles and other writings by or about Shaw or her areas of interest, printed materials, and clippings. Subject files compiled by Shaw reflect her interests especially finger painting, hospitals, and psychiatric treatment. Photographs depict Shaw family members, Shaw demonstrating fingerpainting techniques, and Shaw's finger paintings. Photograph albums document Shaw's travels in France and the Middle East immediately after World War I and her years spent in Rome and in New York.
Note that because the original order as received has, for the most part, been retained, there is some subject and form of materials overlap among the series.