Information

United States Army: 1939-45


Before the outbreak of the Second World War the US Army was a small professional force of 175,000 men. After the German Army invaded Poland in September 1939, General George Marshall, the new Chief of Staff, embarked on an attempt to rapidly improve the ability of the army to wage war. This included the decision to order modern tanks such as the Grant M3.

In 1940 the United States introduced selective conscription and by the following year the US Army had grown to 1,400,000 men. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor resulted in a further expansion of the American armed forces. Over the next three years 100 divisions were raised. Of these, 76 were infantry, 16 armoured, 5 airbourne and 2 cavalry.

The US Army's first major combat experience was against General Erwin Rommel in Tunisia. However, most action during the war was in the South-West Pacific area under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. In the summer of 1942 fighting in the Pacific was concentrated around Rabaul, the key Japanese military and air base in the Soloman Islands. On 7th August there were landings at Guadalcanal. Over the next eight months there were ten major land battles and seven major naval engagements in this area.

In 1944 General Dwight Eisenhower was put in charge of what became known as Operation Overlord, the planned landing of Allied troops in France. Eisenhower had the task of organizing around a million combat troops and two million men involved in providing support services.

The plan, drawn up by George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Bernard Montgomery, Omar Bradley, Bertram Ramsay, Walter Bedell-Smith, Arthur Tedder and Trafford Leigh-Mallory, involved assaults on five beaches west of the Orne River near Caen (codenamed Sword, Juno, Gold, Omaha and Utah) by the British 2nd Army and the American 1st Army. Follow-up forces included the Canadian 1st Army and the American 3rd Army under Lt. General George Patton.

On 6th June, 1944, 2,727 ships sailed to the Normandy coast and on the first day landed 156,000 men on a front of thirty miles. It was the largest and most powerful armada that has ever sailed.

The Allied invasion was faced by 50 divisions of the German Army under General Erwin Rommel. At Omaha, steep cliffs favoured the defenders and the US Army suffered 2,500 casualties.

The Allies also sent in three airborne divisions, two American and one British, to prepare for the main assault by taking certain strategic points and by disrupting German communications. Of the 23,000 airborne troops, 15,500 were Americans and of these, 6,000 were killed or seriously wounded. Over the next couple of days 156,215 troops were landed from sea and air in Normandy, at a cost of some 10,300 casualties.

In 1944 General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Southwest Pacific, developed what became known as his island hopping tactics. This strategy involved amphibious landings on vulnerable islands, therefore bypassing Japanese troop concentrations on fortified islands. This had the advantage of avoiding frontal assaults and thus reducing the number of American casualties.

On 20th October, 1944, General Walter Krueger and the US 6th Army landed on Leyte. This was followed by Leyte Gulf, the largest naval engagement in history. It was a decisive victory for the Allies with the Japanese Navy lost four carriers, three battleships and ten cruisers. Japan also had 48,000 men killed on Leyte.

US forces returned to the Philippines when they landed on Luzon on 15th December, 1944. On the beach MacArthur announced: "People of the Philippines: I have returned. Rally to me." The Japanese Army, under General Tomoyuki Yamashita, fought a vigorous rearguard action and progress was steady but slow during 1945.

It was now decided to try and capture the small volcanic island of Iwo Jima that was defended by 20,000 veterans of the Japanese Special Naval Landing Force. During February, 1945, the Japanese, who had created a fortress on Mount Suribachi, faced an immense air and sea bombardment launched by the 5th Fleet under Admiral Raymond Spruance.

On 19th February, American soldiers began landing on the island. Over 250,000 men and 900 ships were involved in thisamphibious operation. The main objective was to capture the island's three airstrips and to to obtain a forward air base for the planned Allied attack on the Japanese home territories.

The US Army managed to capture Mount Suribachi in three days but strong resistance from the Japanese meant that the second airstrip at Motoyama was not won until 28th February, 1945. The final stage of the fighting took place in the fortified hills and these last defensive positions were not taken until 10th March.

Small groups of Japanese soldiers carried on fighting and the three airfields were not ready to receive the vast fleets of B-29 Superfortress bombers until the end of March. Of the 23,000 Japanese soldiers defending Iwo Jima, only 216 were taken alive. The American forces also suffered during the bitter fighting on the island with 5,391 Marines killed and 17,400 wounded.

The United States Army Air Force was now able to use the island to launch bombing attacks on Japan. The large number of Japanese buildings made of wood made it easy for the bombers to create firestorms. On the 9th and 10th March 1945, a raid on Tokyo devastated the city. This was followed by attacks on Nagoya, Kobe, Oska and Yokohama. An estimated 260,000 were killed and 9.2 million left homeless.

MacArthur's last amphibious operation was at Okinawa. Lying just 563km (350 miles) from the Japanese mainland, it offered excellent harbour, airfield and troop-staging facilities. It was a perfect base from which to launch a major assault on Japan, consequently it was well-defended, with 120,000 troops under General Mitsuru Ushijima. The Japanese also committed some 10,000 aircraft to defending the island.

After a four day bombardment the 1,300 ship invasion forced moved into position off the west coast of Okinawa on 1st April 1945. The landing force, under the leadership of Lieutenant-General Simon Buckner, initially totalled 155,000. However, by the time the battle finished, more than 300,000 soldiers were involved in the fighting.

On the first day 60,000 troops were put ashore against little opposition at Haguushi. The following day two airfields were captured by the Americans. However when the soldiers reached Shuri they came under heavy fire and suffered heavy casualties.

Reinforced by the 3rd Amphibious Corps and the 6th Marine Division the Americans were able to repel a ferocious counter-attack by General Mitsuru Ushijima on 4th May. At sea off Okinawa a 700 plane kamikaze raid on 6th April sunk and damaged 13 US destroyers. The giant battleship, Yamato, lacking sufficient fuel for a return journey, was also sent out on a suicide mission and was sunk on 7th May.

On 11th May, Lieutenant-General Simon Buckner, ordered another offensive on the Shuri defences, and the Japanese were finally forced to withdraw. Buckner was killed on 18th June and three days later his replacement, General Roy Geiger, announced that the island had finally been taken. When it was clear that he had been defeated, Mitsuru Ushijima committed ritual suicide (hari-kiri).

The capture of Okinawa cost the Americans 49,000 in casualties of whom 12,520 died. More than 110,000 Japanese were killed on the island.

While the island was being prepared for the invasion of Japan, a B-29 Superfortress bomber dropped an atom bomb on Hiroshima on 6th August 1945. Japan did not surrender immediately and a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki three days later. On 10th August the Japanese surrendered and the war was over.

The US Army employed 10,420,000 men and women during the Second World War. Overall casualties were 234,874 dead, 701,385 wounded and 124,079 imprisoned.

The Americans attacked with zest, and had a keen sense of mobile action, but when they came under heavy artillery fire they usually fell back-even after they had made a successful penetration. By contrast, once the British had got their teeth in, and had been in a position for twenty-four hours, it proved almost impossible to shift them. To counter-attack the British always cost us very heavy losses. I had many opportunities to observe this interesting difference in the autumn of 1944, when the right half of my corps faced the British, and the left half the American.

My respect for the men of my country mounts daily. The soldiers are educated men on the whole and seem intelligent. They lack international information, but they are a fine lot of men and I'm proud. I like so many things about my countrymen - their informality. Everybody talks with everybody else, every one makes jokes about each other. A very respectable woman with me, one of the lousy rich Mellons, became my chum. She was about my own age and fine looking and before long she dropped all her high-nosed attitude and joined in with the soldiers. She and I just prowled about talking with them, arguing and debating about this and that, and we were soon joined bya serious, handsome WAAC woman about 30 years of age returning to her camp in Des Moines. A Negro girl joined us - the wife of a Negro soldier - so we were four. One night we started singing folk songs in a group and soon we had the whole lounge car, and groups of soldiers who came in, singing at the top of their voices. We sang our way right through the history of America.

All of a sudden, we spotted a group of German soldiers down by the slope of this hill, perhaps fifty. We were strung out, a couple of platoons. We would be on the ground, get up on command, and start firing right into this group of Germans. We did catch them by surprise. They responded quickly, firing back, machine guns and rifles. We had them well outnumbered, our company, about 240. We did the march-and-fire. It was a new maneuver we'd never done in training. We learned. I noticed that some of our guys were getting hit. It was all in a few minutes. We killed most of the Germans. A few might have gotten away, but we wiped them out. Our guys were getting killed, too. Irony again, the first one killed was our platoon sergeant.

You have to understand the culture of our company. Most of our privates were college types. They had been dumped en masse into these infantry divisions. The cadre of noncommissioned officers were old-timers. They were mostly uneducated country types, many of them from the South. There was a rather healthy mutual contempt between the noncoms and the privates. This sergeant was the most hated man. One of the nineteen-year-olds, during maneuvers, was at the point of tears in his hatred of this man who was so unreasonable and so miserable. He'd say, "If we ever get into combat, I'm gonna kill 'im. First thing I'll do." Who's the first one killed? This sergeant. I'm sure it was enemy fire. I would bet my life on it. I'm sure the guys who said they would kill him were horrified that their wish came true.


Tôjô Hideki

Wartime leader of Japan’s government, General Tôjô Hideki (1884-1948), with his close-cropped hair, mustache, and round spectacles, became for Allied propagandists one of the most commonly caricatured members of Japan’s military dictatorship throughout the Pacific war. Shrewd at bureaucratic infighting and fiercely partisan in presenting the army’s perspective while army minister, he was surprisingly indecisive as national leader.

Known within the army as “Razor Tôjô” both for his bureaucratic efficiency and for his strict, uncompromising attention to detail, he climbed the command ladders, in close association with the army faction seeking to upgrade and improve Japan’s fighting capabilities despite tight budgets and 𠇌ivilian interference.” Tôjô built up a personal power base and used his position as head of the military police of Japan’s garrison force in Manchuria to rein in their influence before he became the Kwantung Army’s chief of staff in 1937. He played a key role in opening hostilities against China in July. Tôjô had his only combat experience later that year, leading two brigades on operations in Inner Mongolia.

Seeing the military occupation of Chinese territory as necessary to force the Nationalist Chinese government to collaborate with Japan, he continued to advocate expansion of the conflict in China when he returned to Tokyo in 1938 as army vice minister, rising to army minister in July 1940. He pushed for alliance with Germany (where he had served in 1920-1922) and Italy, and he supported the formation of a broad political front of national unity. In October 1941 he became prime minister.

Although Tôjô supported last-minute diplomatic efforts, he gave final approval to the attacks on the United States, Great Britain, and the Dutch East Indies in December 1941. Japan’s early victories greatly strengthened his personal prestige and his assertion that there were times when statesmen had to “have faith in Victory.”

When the war intensified, Japan’s losses mounted, and its fragile industrial foundations threatened to collapse. Tôjô characteristically sought to gather administrative levers into his own hands. Serving as both prime minister and army minister, at various times he also held the portfolios of home affairs (giving him control of the dreaded “thought police”), education, munitions, commerce and industry, and foreign affairs. In February 1944, he even assumed direct command of army operations as chief of the Army General Staff. Yet despite all his posts, Tôjô was never able to establish a dictatorship on a par with those wielded by Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin. He served constitutionally at the behest of the emperor, without support of a mass party, while crucial power centers, such as the industrial combines (known as zaibatsu), the navy, and the court, remained beyond his control. After the island of Saipan fell to American forces in July 1944, he was forced from power, despite arguments raised by some officials close to the throne that Tôjô should be left in office to the end to accept responsibility for the loss of the war so that a court official could “step in” to deliver peace.

After Japan’s surrender the next year, Tôjô attempted suicide when threatened with arrest by occupation authorities, but he was tried and hanged as a war criminal on December 23, 1948. At his trial, he asserted his personal responsibility for the war and attempted to deflect attention from the emperor. In 1978, despite the protest of many citizens opposed to honoring the man they felt had brought disaster on Japan, Tôjô’s name, along with those of thirteen other 𠇌lass A” war criminals, was commemorated at Yasukuni, the shrine in Tokyo dedicated to the memory of warriors fallen in service to the imperial family.

The Reader’s Companion to Military History. Edited by Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker. Copyright © 1996 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


Contents

The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U.S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: [20] [21]

  • Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States
  • Supporting the national policies
  • Implementing the national objectives
  • Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States

In 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028. [22] While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. [22] Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, and Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028. [22]

The Army's five core competencies are prompt and sustained land combat, combined arms operations (to include combined arms maneuver and wide–area security, armored and mechanized operations and airborne and air assault operations), special operations, to set and sustain the theater for the joint force, and to integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land. [23]

Origins Edit

The Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress [24] as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. [15] [25] [26] [27] The army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills.

The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780 and 1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British.

After the war, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The Regular Army was at first very small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, [28] where more than 800 Americans were killed, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, which was established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796.

In 1798, during the Quasi-War with France, Congress established a three-year "Provisional Army" of 10,000 men, consisting of twelve regiments of infantry and six troops of light dragoons. By March 1799 Congress created an "Eventual Army" of 30,000 men, including three regiments of cavalry. Both "armies" existed only on paper, but equipment for 3,000 men and horses was procured and stored. [29]

19th century Edit

Early wars on the Frontier Edit

The War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. The U.S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U.S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U.S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U.S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, which was defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however, proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the previously rejected terms of a status quo antebellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed (but not ratified), Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, and became a national hero. U.S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane, Levant and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides (the United States and Great Britain) returned to the geographical status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict.

The army's major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars (1818–1858) to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma. The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians' winter food supply, but that was no use in Florida where there was no winter. The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes, but that too was useless because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida in the late eighteenth century. [30]

The U.S. Army fought and won the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which was a defining event for both countries. [31] The U.S. victory resulted in acquisition of territory that eventually became all or parts of the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico.

American Civil War Edit

The American Civil War was the costliest war for the U.S. in terms of casualties. After most slave states, located in the southern U.S., formed the Confederate States, the Confederate States Army, led by former U.S. Army officers, mobilized a large fraction of Southern white manpower. Forces of the United States (the "Union" or "the North") formed the Union Army, consisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state, north and south, except South Carolina. [32]

For the first two years, Confederate forces did well in set battles but lost control of the border states. [33] The Confederates had the advantage of defending a large territory in an area where disease caused twice as many deaths as combat. The Union pursued a strategy of seizing the coastline, blockading the ports, and taking control of the river systems. By 1863, the Confederacy was being strangled. Its eastern armies fought well, but the western armies were defeated one after another until the Union forces captured New Orleans in 1862 along with the Tennessee River. In the Vicksburg Campaign of 1862–1863, General Ulysses Grant seized the Mississippi River and cut off the Southwest. Grant took command of Union forces in 1864 and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties, he had General Robert E. Lee under siege in Richmond as General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and the Carolinas. The Confederate capital was abandoned in April 1865 and Lee subsequently surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House. All other Confederate armies surrendered within a few months.

The war remains the deadliest conflict in U.S. history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 men on both sides. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6.4% in the North and 18% in the South. [34]

Later 19th century Edit

Following the Civil War, the U.S. Army had the mission of containing western tribes of Native Americans on the Indian reservations. They set up many forts, and engaged in the last of the American Indian Wars. U.S. Army troops also occupied several Southern states during the Reconstruction Era to protect freedmen.

The key battles of the Spanish–American War of 1898 were fought by the Navy. Using mostly new volunteers, the U.S. Army defeated Spain in land campaigns in Cuba and played the central role in the Philippine–American War.

20th century Edit

Starting in 1910, the army began acquiring fixed-wing aircraft. [35] In 1910, during the Mexican Revolution, the army was deployed to U.S. towns near the border to ensure the safety of lives and property. In 1916, Pancho Villa, a major rebel leader, attacked Columbus, New Mexico, prompting a U.S. intervention in Mexico until 7 February 1917. They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until 1918.

World wars Edit

The United States joined World War I as an "Associated Power" in 1917 on the side of Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the other Allies. U.S. troops were sent to the Western Front and were involved in the last offensives that ended the war. With the armistice in November 1918, the army once again decreased its forces.

In 1939, estimates of the Army's strength range between 174,000 and 200,000 soldiers, smaller than that of Portugal's, which ranked it 17th or 19th in the world in size. General George C. Marshall became Army chief of staff in September 1939 and set about expanding and modernizing the Army in preparation for war. [36] [37]

The United States joined World War II in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Some 11 million Americans were to serve in various Army operations. [38] [39] On the European front, U.S. Army troops formed a significant portion of the forces that landed in French North Africa and took Tunisia and then moved on to Sicily and later fought in Italy. In the June 1944 landings in northern France and in the subsequent liberation of Europe and defeat of Nazi Germany, millions of U.S. Army troops played a central role.

In the Pacific War, U.S. Army soldiers participated alongside the United States Marine Corps in capturing the Pacific Islands from Japanese control. Following the Axis surrenders in May (Germany) and August (Japan) of 1945, army troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two defeated nations. Two years after World War II, the Army Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States Air Force in September 1947. In 1948, the army was desegregated by order 9981 of President Harry S. Truman.

Cold War Edit

1945–1960 Edit

The end of World War II set the stage for the East–West confrontation known as the Cold War. With the outbreak of the Korean War, concerns over the defense of Western Europe rose. Two corps, V and VII, were reactivated under Seventh United States Army in 1950 and U.S. strength in Europe rose from one division to four. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops remained stationed in West Germany, with others in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, until the 1990s in anticipation of a possible Soviet attack. [40] : minute 9:00–10:00

During the Cold War, U.S. troops and their allies fought communist forces in Korea and Vietnam. The Korean War began in June 1950, when the Soviets walked out of a UN Security Council meeting, removing their possible veto. Under a United Nations umbrella, hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops fought to prevent the takeover of South Korea by North Korea and later to invade the northern nation. After repeated advances and retreats by both sides and the Chinese People's Volunteer Army's entry into the war, the Korean Armistice Agreement returned the peninsula to the status quo in July 1953.

1960–1970 Edit

The Vietnam War is often regarded as a low point for the U.S. Army due to the use of drafted personnel, the unpopularity of the war with the U.S. public and frustrating restrictions placed on the military by U.S. political leaders. While U.S. forces had been stationed in South Vietnam since 1959, in intelligence and advising/training roles, they were not deployed in large numbers until 1965, after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. U.S. forces effectively established and maintained control of the "traditional" battlefield, but they struggled to counter the guerrilla hit and run tactics of the communist Viet Cong and the People's Army Of Vietnam (NVA). Revisionist historians contend that on a tactical level, U.S. soldiers (and the U.S. military as a whole) did not lose a sizable battle. [41] [42]

During the 1960s, the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. [43] In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara decided that 15 combat divisions in the Army National Guard were unnecessary and cut the number to eight divisions (one mechanized infantry, two armored, and five infantry), but increased the number of brigades from seven to 18 (one airborne, one armored, two mechanized infantry and 14 infantry). The loss of the divisions did not sit well with the states. Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them. Under the proposal, the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base. However, no reduction in total Army National Guard strength was to take place, which convinced the governors to accept the plan. The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December 1967 and 1 May 1968.

1970–1990 Edit

The Total Force Policy was adopted by Chief of Staff of the Army General Creighton Abrams in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and involved treating the three components of the army – the Regular Army, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve as a single force. [44] General Abrams' intertwining of the three components of the army effectively made extended operations impossible without the involvement of both the Army National Guard and Army Reserve in a predominately combat support role. [45] The army converted to an all-volunteer force with greater emphasis on training to specific performance standards driven by the reforms of General William E. DePuy, the first commander of United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. Following the Camp David Accords that was signed by Egypt, Israel that was that was brokered by president Jimmy Carter in 1978, as part of the agreement, both the United States and Egypt agreed that there would be a joint military training led by both countries that would usually take place every 2 years, that exercise is known as Exercise Bright Star.

The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified, geographically organized command structures. The army also played a role in the invasions of Grenada in 1983 (Operation Urgent Fury) and Panama in 1989 (Operation Just Cause).

By 1989 Germany was nearing reunification and the Cold War was coming to a close. Army leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength. By November 1989 Pentagon briefers were laying out plans to reduce army end strength by 23%, from 750,000 to 580,000. [46] A number of incentives such as early retirement were used.

1990s Edit

In 1990, Iraq invaded its smaller neighbor, Kuwait, and U.S. land forces quickly deployed to assure the protection of Saudi Arabia. In January 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced, a U.S.-led coalition which deployed over 500,000 troops, the bulk of them from U.S. Army formations, to drive out Iraqi forces. The campaign ended in total victory, as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army. Some of the largest tank battles in history were fought during the Gulf war. The Battle of Medina Ridge, Battle of Norfolk and the Battle of 73 Easting were tank battles of historical significance. [47] [48] [49]

After Operation Desert Storm, the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities. In 1990 the Department of Defense issued guidance for "rebalancing" after a review of the Total Force Policy, [50] but in 2004, Air War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is an "essential ingredient to the successful application of military force". [51]

21st century Edit

On 11 September 2001, 53 Army civilians (47 employees and six contractors) and 22 soldiers were among the 125 victims killed in the Pentagon in a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 commandeered by five Al-Qaeda hijackers slammed into the western side of the building, as part of the September 11 attacks. [52] In response to the 11 September attacks and as part of the Global War on Terror, U.S. and NATO forces invaded Afghanistan in October 2001, displacing the Taliban government. The U.S. Army also led the combined U.S. and allied invasion of Iraq in 2003 it served as the primary source for ground forces with its ability to sustain short and long-term deployment operations. In the following years, the mission changed from conflict between regular militaries to counterinsurgency, resulting in the deaths of more than 4,000 U.S. service members (as of March 2008) and injuries to thousands more. [53] [54] 23,813 insurgents were killed in Iraq between 2003 and 2011. [55]

Until 2009, the army's chief modernization plan, its most ambitious since World War II, [56] was the Future Combat Systems program. In 2009, many systems were canceled, and the remaining were swept into the BCT modernization program. [57] By 2017, the Brigade Modernization project was completed and its headquarters, the Brigade Modernization Command, was renamed the Joint Modernization Command, or JMC. [58] In response to Budget sequestration in 2013, Army plans were to shrink to 1940 levels, [59] although actual Active-Army end-strengths were projected to fall to some 450,000 troops by the end of FY2017. [60] [61] From 2016 to 2017, the Army retired hundreds of OH-58 Kiowa Warrior observation helicopters, [62] while retaining its Apache gunships. [63] The 2015 expenditure for Army research, development and acquisition changed from $32 billion projected in 2012 for FY15 to $21 billion for FY15 expected in 2014. [64]

Planning Edit

By 2017, a task force was formed to address Army modernization, [65] which triggered shifts of units: RDECOM, and ARCIC, from within Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC, respectively, to a new Army Command (ACOM) in 2018. [66] The Army Futures Command (AFC), is a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and AMC, the other ACOMs. [67] AFC's mission is modernization reform: to design hardware, as well as to work within the acquisition process which defines materiel for AMC. TRADOC's mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army, and to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM. [68] : minutes 2:30–15:00 [40] AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs) are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future. [69] In order to support the Army's modernization priorities, its FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years. [70] The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations. [70]

Army components Edit

The task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775. [72] In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army.

By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S. Volunteers on four occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. During World War I, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. Volunteers. [73] It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps and the state militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed. [74]

In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight World War II. The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve. The Army of the United States was re-established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft. [74]

Currently, the Army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard. [73] Some states further maintain state defense forces, as a type of reserve to the National Guard, while all states maintain regulations for state militias. [75] State militias are both "organized", meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces, or "unorganized" simply meaning that all able-bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service.

The U.S. Army is also divided into several branches and functional areas. Branches include officers, warrant officers, and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area. However, officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases, as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia. Some branches, such as Special Forces, operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army branch. Careers in the Army can extend into cross-functional areas for officer, [76] warrant officer, enlisted, and civilian personnel.

U.S. Army branches and functional areas
Branch Insignia and colors Branch Insignia and colors Functional Area (FA)
Acquisition Corps (AC) Air Defense Artillery (AD) Information Network Engineering (FA 26)
Adjutant General's Corps (AG)
Includes Army Bands (AB)
Armor (AR)
Includes Cavalry (CV)
Information Operations (FA 30)
Aviation (AV) Civil Affairs Corps (CA) Strategic Intelligence (FA 34)
Chaplain Corps (CH)
Chemical Corps (CM) Space Operations (FA 40)
Cyber Corps (CY) Dental Corps (DC) Public Affairs Officer (FA 46)
Corps of Engineers (EN) Field Artillery (FA) Academy Professor (FA 47)
Finance Corps (FI) Infantry (IN) Foreign Area Officer (FA 48)
Inspector General (IG) Logistics (LG) Operations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49)
Judge Advocate General's Corps (JA) Military Intelligence Corps (MI) Force Management (FA 50)
Medical Corps (MC) Medical Service Corps (MS) Acquisition (FA 51) [76]
Military Police Corps (MP) Army Nurse Corps (AN) Simulation Operations (FA 57)
Psychological Operations (PO) Medical Specialist Corps (SP) Army Marketing (FA 58) [77]
Quartermaster Corps (QM) Staff Specialist Corps (SS)
(USAR and ARNG only)
Health Services (FA 70)
Special Forces (SF) Ordnance Corps (OD) Laboratory Sciences (FA 71)
Veterinary Corps (VC) Public Affairs (PA) Preventive Medicine Sciences (FA 72)
Transportation Corps (TC) Signal Corps (SC) Behavioral Sciences (FA 73)
Special branch insignias (for some unique duty assignments)
National Guard Bureau (NGB) General Staff U.S. Military Academy Staff
Chaplain Candidate Officer Candidate Warrant Officer Candidate
Aide-de-camp
Senior Enlisted Advisor (SEA)

Before 1933, members of the Army National Guard were considered state militia until they were mobilized into the U.S. Army, typically on the onset of war. Since the 1933 amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916, all Army National Guard soldiers have held dual status. They serve as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and as reserve members of the U.S. Army under the authority of the president, in the Army National Guard of the United States.

Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Army commands and army service component commands Edit

Army Commands Current commander Location of headquarters
United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) GEN Michael X. Garrett Fort Bragg, North Carolina
United States Army Futures Command (AFC) GEN John M. Murray Austin, Texas
United States Army Materiel Command (AMC) GEN Edward M. Daly Redstone Arsenal, Alabama
United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) GEN Paul E. Funk II Fort Eustis, Virginia
Army Service Component Commands Current commander Location of headquarters
United States Army Central (ARCENT)/Third Army LTG Terry R. Ferrell Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina
United States Army Europe and Africa (USAREUR-AF)/Seventh Army GEN Christopher G. Cavoli [78] Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, Germany
United States Army North (ARNORTH)/Fifth Army LTG Laura J. Richardson Joint Base San Antonio, Texas
United States Army Pacific (USARPAC) GEN Paul LaCamera Fort Shafter, Hawaii
United States Army South (ARSOUTH)/Sixth Army MG Daniel R. Walrath Joint Base San Antonio, Texas
Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) [79] MG Heidi J. Hoyle [80] Scott AFB, Illinois
United States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) [81] [82] [83] LTG Stephen G. Fogarty Fort Belvoir, Virginia [84]
United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/United States Army Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) LTG Daniel L. Karbler Redstone Arsenal, Alabama
United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) LTG Francis M. Beaudette Fort Bragg, North Carolina
Operational Force Headquarters Current commander Location of headquarters
Eighth Army (EUSA) [85] LTG Willard M. Burleson III Camp Humphreys, South Korea
Direct reporting units Current commander Location of headquarters
Arlington National Cemetery and Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery [86] Katharine Kelley [87] (civilian) Arlington, Virginia
United States Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC) [88] Craig A. Spisak [89] (civilian) Fort Belvoir, Virginia
United States Army Civilian Human Resources Agency (CHRA) [90] Carol Burton [91] (civilian) Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) LTG Scott A. Spellmon [92] Washington, D.C.
United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) MG Donna W. Martin Quantico, Virginia
United States Army Human Resources Command (HRC) [93] MG Joseph. R. Calloway Fort Knox, Kentucky
United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) MG Gary W. Johnston Fort Belvoir, Virginia
United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) LTG R. Scott Dingle Joint Base San Antonio, Texas
United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW) MG Omar J. Jones IV Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.
United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) MG James J. Gallivan [94] Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
United States Army War College (AWC) [95] MG Stephen J. Maranian Carlisle, Pennsylvania
United States Military Academy (USMA) LTG Darryl A. Williams West Point, New York

Source: U.S. Army organization [96]

Structure Edit

The U.S. Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month – known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs) – and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under Title 32. While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors. However, the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U.S. president, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes. [97]

The U.S. Army is led by a civilian secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the secretary of defense. [98] The chief of staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the president of the United States, the secretary of defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. [99] [100] In 1986, the Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the president to the secretary of defense directly to the unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility, thus the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the secretary of defense. [101]

By 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (CCMD):

    headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas headquartered at Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, Germany headquartered at Fort Shafter, Hawaii headquartered at Vicenza, Italy

The army also transformed its base unit from divisions to brigades. Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of brigade combat teams are:

    brigades, with a strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014. brigades, with a strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014. brigades, with a strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.

In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery) and expeditionary military intelligence brigades. Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.

Combat maneuver organizations Edit

The U.S. Army currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent units. The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth. In June 2013, the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active brigade combat teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active-duty strength to 490,000 soldiers. Army chief of staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army was to shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army Reserve" by 2018. [102] However, this plan was scrapped by the new administration and now the Army plans to grow by 16,000 soldiers to a total of 476,000 by October 2017. The National Guard and the Army Reserve will see a smaller expansion. [103] [104]

Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve, there are a further 8 divisions, over 15 maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer and support battalions. The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.

Direct reporting units Current commander Location of headquarters
I Corps LTG Randy A. George Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington
III Corps LTG Robert "Pat" White Fort Hood, Texas
V Corps LTG John S. Kolasheski Fort Knox, Kentucky
XVIII Airborne Corps LTG Michael E. Kurilla Fort Bragg, North Carolina
First Army [105] LTG Thomas S. James Jr. Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois
United States Army Reserve Command (USARC) [106] LTG Jody J. Daniels Fort Bragg, North Carolina

For a description of U.S. Army tactical organizational structure, see: a U.S. context and also a global context.

Special operations forces Edit

The Army's Talent Management Task Force (TMTF) has deployed IPPS-A, [116] the Integrated Personnel and Pay System - Army, an app which serves the National Guard, and in 2021 the Army Reserve and Active Army. Soldiers are reminded to update their information using the legacy systems to keep their payroll and personnel information current by December 2021. IPPS-A is the Human Resources system for the Army, is now available for download for Android, or the Apple store. [117] It will be used for future promotions and other personnel decisions. Among the changes are:

  • BCAP, the Battalion Commander Assessment Program. In January 2020, over 800 majors and lieutenant colonels from all over the Army converged on Fort Knox to take part in a five day program to select the next battalion commanders for the Army (beginning in FY2021). This process replaces the former selection process which was based solely on rank and individual reviews of past performance. From now on, more consideration will be given to an individual officer's personal preference, as part of 25 other selection criteria. [118] "Promotion boards will now be able to see almost all substantiated adverse information". [119] The promotion boards will be able to see anything in an officer’s human resource record. Officers are encouraged to become familiar with their human resource record, and to file rebuttals to adverse information. [119]
  • Depending on the success of this initiative, other assessment programs could be instituted as well, for promotion to sergeants major, [120] and for assessment of colonels for command. [121]

Below are the U.S. Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations. Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime.

Commissioned officers Edit

There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer [122] including the United States Military Academy, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Officer Candidate School, and Direct commissioning. Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same. Certain professions including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers and chaplains are commissioned directly into the Army.

Most army commissioned officers (those who are generalists) [123] are promoted based on an "up or out" system. A more flexible talent management process is underway. [123] The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for the timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time.

Army regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as "General (last name)" regardless of the number of stars. Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as "Colonel (last name)" and first and second lieutenants as "Lieutenant (last name)". [124]

Combat maneuver units aligned under FORSCOM
Name Headquarters Subunits Subordinate to
US DoD Pay Grade O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10 Special grade [125]
NATO Code OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9 OF-10
Insignia
Service Green
Uniform Insignia
Title Second lieutenant First lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant colonel Colonel Brigadier general Major general Lieutenant general General General of the Army
Abbreviation 2LT 1LT CPT MAJ LTC COL BG MG LTG GEN GA

Warrant officers Edit

Warrant officers [122] are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the secretary of the Army, but receive their commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two (CW2).

By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as "Mr. (last name)" or "Ms. (last name)" by senior officers and as "sir" or "ma'am" by all enlisted personnel. [124] However, many personnel address warrant officers as "Chief (last name)" within their units regardless of rank.

US DoD Pay Grade W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5
NATO Code WO-1 WO-2 WO-3 WO-4 WO-5
Insignia
Title Warrant officer 1 Chief warrant officer 2 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 5
Abbreviation WO1 CW2 CWO CW4 CW5

Enlisted personnel Edit

Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers. [122] [126] This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists who have the same pay grade but do not exercise leadership responsibilities. Beginning in 2021, all corporals will be required to conduct structured self-development for the NCO ranks, completing the basic leader course (BLC), or else be laterally assigned as specialists. Specialists who have completed BLC and who have been recommended for promotion will be permitted to wear corporal rank before their recommended promotion as NCOs. [127]

Privates and privates first class (E3) are addressed as "Private (last name)", specialists as "Specialist (last name)", corporals as "Corporal (last name)" and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class and master sergeants all as "Sergeant (last name)". First sergeants are addressed as "First Sergeant (last name)" and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as "Sergeant Major (last name)". [124]

U.S. DoD Pay grade E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9
NATO Code OR-1 OR-2 OR-3 OR-4 OR-5 OR-6 OR-7 OR-8 OR-9
Service Green
Uniform Insignia
No insignia
Title Private Private
[128]
Private
first class
Specialist Corporal Sergeant Staff
Sergeant
Sergeant
first class
Master
sergeant
First
sergeant
Sergeant
major
Command
sergeant major
Sergeant major
of the Army
Senior enlisted
advisor to the chairman [129]
Abbreviation PV1 ¹ PV2 ¹ PFC SPC ² CPL SGT SSG SFC MSG 1SG ³ SGM CSM SMA SEAC
¹ PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished. [130]
² SP4 is sometimes encountered instead of SPC for specialist. This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at pay grades E-5 to E-7.
³ First sergeant is considered a temporary and lateral rank and is senior to master sergeant. A first sergeant can revert to master sergeant upon leaving assignment.

Training Edit

Training in the U.S. Army is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective. Because of COVID-19 precautions, the first two weeks of basic training — not including processing & out-processing — incorporate social distancing and indoor desk-oriented training. Once the recruits have tested negative for COVID-19 for two weeks, the remaining 8 weeks follow the traditional activities for most recruits, [131] followed by Advanced Individualized Training (AIT) where they receive training for their military occupational specialties (MOS). Some individual's MOSs range anywhere from 14 to 20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT. The length of AIT school varies by the MOS. The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier. Certain highly technical MOS training requires many months (e.g., foreign language translators). Depending on the needs of the army, Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the Infantry School, both at Fort Benning, Georgia. Sergeant Major of the Army Dailey notes that an infantrymen's pilot program for One Station Unit Training (OSUT) extends 8 weeks beyond Basic Training and AIT, to 22 weeks. The pilot, designed to boost infantry readiness ended in December 2018. The new Infantry OSUT covered the M240 machine gun as well as the M249 squad automatic weapon. [132] The redesigned Infantry OSUT started in 2019. [133] [134] Depending on the result of the 2018 pilot, OSUTs could also extend training in other combat arms beyond the infantry. [133] One Station Unit Training will be extended to 22 weeks for Armor by Fiscal Year 2021. [22] Additional OSUTs are expanding to Cavalry, Engineer, and Military Police (MP) in the succeeding Fiscal Years. [135]

A new training assignment for junior officers was instituted, that they serve as platoon leaders for Basic Combat Training (BCT) platoons. [136] These lieutenants will assume many of the administrative, logistical, and day-to-day tasks formerly performed by the drill sergeants of those platoons and are expected to "lead, train, and assist with maintaining and enhancing the morale, welfare and readiness" of the drill sergeants and their BCT platoons. [136] These lieutenants are also expected to stem any inappropriate behaviors they witness in their platoons, to free up the drill sergeants for training. [136]

The United States Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) was introduced into the Army, beginning in 2018 with 60 battalions spread throughout the Army. [137] The test is the same for all soldiers, men or women. It takes an hour to complete, including resting periods. [138] The ACFT supersedes the Army physical fitness test (APFT), [139] [140] [141] as being more relevant to survival in combat. [137] Six events were determined to better predict which muscle groups of the body were adequately conditioned for combat actions: [138] three deadlifts, [142] a standing power throw of a ten-pound medicine ball, [143] hand-release pushups [144] (which replace the traditional pushup), a sprint/drag/carry 250 yard event, [145] three pull-ups with leg tucks (or a plank test in lieu of the leg tuck), [146] [147] a mandatory rest period, and a two-mile run. [148] On 1 October 2020 all soldiers from all three components (Active Army, Reserve, and National guard) [149] are subject to this test. [150] [151] The ACFT now tests all soldiers in basic training as of October 2020. The ACFT becomes the official test of record 1 October 2020 before that day every Army unit is required to complete a diagnostic ACFT [152] (All Soldiers with valid APFT scores can use them until March 2022. The Holistic Health and Fitness (H2F) System is one way that soldiers can prepare.). [153] [154] The ACFT movements directly translate to movements on the battlefield. [134]

Following their basic and advanced training at the individual level, soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an "additional skill identifier" (ASI). The ASI allows the army to take a wide-ranging MOS and focus it on a more specific MOS. For example, a combat medic, whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency treatment, may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist, or even a licensed practical nurse. For commissioned officers, training includes pre-commissioning training, known as Basic Officer Leader Course A, either at USMA or via ROTC, or by completing OCS. After commissioning, officers undergo branch-specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course B, (formerly called Officer Basic Course), which varies in time and location according to their future assignments. Officers will continue to attend standardized training at different stages of their careers. [155]

Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers (CTC) the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana and the Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels and Grafenwöhr, [156] Germany. ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment, at unit level and for other echelons as required by the mission. Individual-level replenishment still requires training at a unit level, which is conducted at the continental U.S. (CONUS) replacement center (CRC) at Fort Bliss, in New Mexico and Texas before their individual deployment. [157]

Chief of Staff Milley notes that the Army is suboptimized for training in cold-weather regions, jungles, mountains, or urban areas where in contrast the Army does well when training for deserts or rolling terrain. [158] : minute 1:26:00 Post 9/11, Army unit-level training was for counter-insurgency (COIN) by 2014–2017, training had shifted to decisive action training. [159]

The chief of staff of the Army has identified six modernization priorities, in order: artillery, ground vehicles, aircraft, network, air/missile defense, and soldier lethality. [160]

Weapons Edit

Individual weapons Edit

The United States Army employs various weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. The most common weapon type used by the army is the M4 carbine, a compact variant of the M16 rifle, [161] along with the 7.62×51mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army Rangers. The primary sidearm in the U.S. Army is the 9 mm M9 pistol the M11 pistol is also used. Both handguns are to be replaced by the M17 [162] through the Modular Handgun System program. [163] Soldiers are also equipped with various hand grenades, such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade.

Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the squad level. [164] Indirect fire is provided by the M320 grenade launcher. The M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for door breaching and close-quarters combat. The M14EBR is used by designated marksmen. Snipers use the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle, the M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle.

Crew-served weapons Edit

The army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons.

The M240 is the U.S. Army's standard Medium Machine Gun. [165] The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun. In the same way, the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units. [166]

The U.S. Army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level. [167] At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars. [168] The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized units. [169]

Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm M119A1 [170] and the 155 mm M777. [171]

The U.S. Army utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti-Armor Capability. The AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. The FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile. The FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles.

Vehicles Edit

U.S. Army doctrine puts a premium on mechanized warfare. It fields the highest vehicle-to-soldier ratio in the world as of 2009. [172] The army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the Humvee, which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform and ambulance, among many other roles. [173] While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles. The M1A2 Abrams is the army's main battle tank, [174] while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle. [175] Other vehicles include the Stryker, [176] the M113 armored personnel carrier [177] and multiple types of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles.

The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer [178] and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), [179] both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units.

While the United States Army Aviation Branch operates a few fixed-wing aircraft, it mainly operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. These include the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, [180] the UH-60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopter [181] and the CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter. [182] Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types. [183]

Under the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966, the Army agreed to limit its fixed-wing aviation role to administrative mission support (light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions). For UAVs, the Army is deploying at least one company of drone MQ-1C Gray Eagles to each Active Army division. [184]

Uniforms Edit

The Army Combat Uniform (ACU) currently features a camouflage pattern known as Operational Camouflage Pattern (OCP) OCP replaced a pixel-based pattern known as Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) in 2019.

On 11 November 2018, the Army announced a new version of 'Army Greens' based on uniforms worn during World War II that will become the standard garrison service uniform. [185] The blue Army Service Uniform will remain as the dress uniform. The Army Greens are projected to be first fielded in the summer of 2020. [185]

Berets Edit

The beret flash of enlisted personnel displays their distinctive unit insignia (shown above). The U.S. Army's black beret is no longer worn with the ACU for garrison duty, having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap. After years of complaints that it was not suited well for most work conditions, Army chief of staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011. Soldiers who are currently in a unit in jump status still wear berets, whether the wearer is parachute-qualified or not (maroon beret), while members of Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) wear brown berets. Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (tan beret) and Special Forces (rifle green beret) may wear it with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions. Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools.

Tents Edit

The Army has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment (Force Provider Expeditionary (FPE)). [160] : p.146 The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities), [186] forward operating bases (FOBs), after-action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare and recreation (MWR) facilities, as well as security checkpoints. Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier Systems Center. Each FPE contains billeting, latrines, showers, laundry and kitchen facilities for 50–150 Soldiers, [160] : p.146 and is stored in Army Prepositioned Stocks 1, 2, 4 and 5. This provisioning allows combatant commanders to position soldiers as required in their Area of Responsibility, within 24 to 48 hours.


A History of the Army Air Corps

The Army Air Corps were the U.S. military service dedicated to aerial warfare between 1926 and 1941. It coalesced as aviation evolved from a component of ground-based infantry tactics into its own branch of the military. It became the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) on June 20, 1941 to signify greater autonomy from the Army’s command structure. It remained as a combat arm of the Army until 1947, when the Department of the Air Force was established.

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Army Air Corps of the U.S. Military

By the end of 1941 the army air forces had grown substantially but had a long way to go. General Henry H. Arnold commanded a service of twenty-five thousand officers and men, with four thousand aircraft. That year President Franklin Roosevelt called for production of fifty thousand planes, Hermann Göering reportedly laughed at the notion, yet American industry in fact delivered ninety-six thousand to the U.S. services and Allied nations in 1944 alone. At war’s end the army air corps comprised seventy-five thousand planes and 2.5 million men—in four years, a hundred-fold increase in personnel and nearly nineteen-fold in aircraft.

Eighth U.S. Army Air Force

In 1942 the ‘‘Mighty Eighth’’ came to Britain, where it experienced a lengthy, painful gestation period. Its mission of conducting precision daylight bombing of German industry was hampered, as bomber and fighter groups originally assigned to Gen. Ira Eaker’s fledgling force were constantly siphoned off to support the North African and Mediterranean theaters. Additionally, a period of heavy bomber losses threatened morale during 1943, causing doubt whether the daylight air offensive could be sustained. However, by the start of 1944 the Eighth had evolved into a powerful striking arm and was growing stronger. Increasingly capable long-range fighter escorts reduced bomber losses to acceptable levels. It was among the best of the army air corps.

The composition of USAAF units was standardized by 1943. A heavy bombardment group with B-17s or B-24s had four squadrons, each of which typically put up nine planes per mission. Fighter groups had three squadrons, divided into three or four flights of four each. Thus, full-strength bomb groups flew about thirty-six aircraft, while fighter units launched thirty-six to forty-eight planes. The number of planes dispatched on a specific mission depended on maintenance, crew availability, and the nature of the target.

At the time of D-Day the Eighth Air Force numbered forty-one bomb groups, fifteen fighter groups, two special-mission groups, two photo-recon groups, and several independent units. Eighth Bomber Command operated three air divisions: the First, with a dozen B-17 groups the Third, comprising eleven B-17 Flying Fortress and three B-24 Liberator groups and the all-Liberator Second Division, with fourteen B-24 groups.

Fighter Command comprised six P-47 Thunderbolt groups, five P-51 Mustang groups, and four still-flying P-38 Lightnings. All the Lightnings were gone within months, replaced by Mustangs. By VE-Day only one Eighth Fighter Command group still flew Thunderbolts.

Bombers of the Mighty Eighth launched 2,362 sorties on 6 June, with merely three Liberators shot down. Most targets were German coastal defenses or transport systems, but poor weather (a widespread undercast) hampered bombing efforts.

Ninth U.S. Army Air Force

The U.S. Army had two army air corps based in Great Britain, with operations after D-Day expected on the continent. The Ninth was the tactical air force, trained and equipped to support Allied ground forces. Originally established and based in northwest Africa, the Ninth moved to England in August 1943 and built up to its June 1944 strength of forty-five groups deployed in eleven combat wings.

The Ninth’s eighteen fighter groups (plus two reconnaissance groups) operated under the Ninth and Nineteenth Tactical Air Commands, with three and two wings, respectively. Probably the most influential tactical air commander was Maj. Gen. Elwood R. Quesada of the Ninth TAC. At the time of D-Day by far the most widely flown fighter was the Republic P-47, which was extremely well suited to the fighter-bomber role. Thirteen groups flew Thunderbolts, while three were equipped with Lockheed P-38s and two with North American’s P-51. A photo group and a tactical reconnaissance group flew ‘‘recce’’ versions of the P-38 and P-51—the F-5 and F-6, respectively.

Eleven tactical bomb groups constituted Ninth Bomber Command, under Brig. Gen. Samuel E. Anderson. He controlled three bomb wings of three or four groups each: eight groups with Martin’s sleek B-26 Marauder and three with Douglas A-20 Havocs. As with the Eighth Air Force, bomb groups comprised four squadrons, fighter groups three.

Of direct importance to Overlord was Ninth Troop Carrier Command, with fourteen Douglas C-47/C-53 groups in three wings. Both types were military versions of the enormously successful DC-3 airliner the C-47 Skytrain was capable of towing gliders as well as delivering parachutists, while C-53 Skytroopers carried only troops. Seventeen Skytrains were shot down on D-Day.

On 6 June the Ninth Air Force lost only twenty-two combat aircraft from 3,342 sorties: seven P-47s, six B-26s, five A-20s, two P-38s, and two F-6s.

Airborne Units of the Army Air Corps

In the fifteenth century Leonardo Da Vinci envisioned airborne soldiers, and in the nineteenth century Napoleon Bonaparte pondered invading Britain with French troops in hot-air balloons. But not until the 1940s did the technology exist to transport large numbers of specially trained soldiers behind enemy lines and deliver them by parachute, glider, or transport aircraft.

German army airborne units included paratroops and glider and transport-lifted infantry, all controlled by the Luftwaffe. Eventually nine parachute divisions were established, but few Fallschirmjaeger (literally ‘‘parachute hunters’’) made combat jumps. Nonetheless, Germany led the way in combat airborne operations, seizing Belgium’s Fort Eben Emael in 1940. The Luftwaffe also made history in the first aerial occupation of an island—the costly Crete operation in 1941. However, Germany’s Pyrrhic victory proved so costly that no Fallschirmjaeger division was again involved in a major airborne operation. Thereafter, the Luftwaffe parachute forces were employed as light infantry in every theater of operation. Two German airborne divisions, the Third and Fifth, responded to the Allied invasion in Normandy but were hampered by inadequate ground transport.

The British army authorized small army airborne units in 1940 but did not form the Parachute Regiment until 1942. That unit served as a training organization, producing seventeen battalions, of which fourteen were committed to combat. The battalions were formed into the First and Sixth Airborne Divisions, the latter involved in Operation Overlord. Both divisions were committed to the Arnhem assault, Operation Market-Garden, in September 1944.

The U.S. Army formed five army airborne units and divisions during World War II, of which three (the Eighty-second, 101st, and Seventeenth) saw combat in the Mediterranean or the European Theater of Operations. The Eleventh served in the Pacific the Thirteenth went to Europe in 1945 but was not committed to combat.

Apart from isolated uses of airborne battalions, the first Allied army airborne units operation of note occurred during Operation Husky, the Anglo-American invasion of Sicily in July 1943. Subsequent operations on the Italian mainland perfected doctrine and techniques so that by 1944 the United States and Britain could integrate three airborne divisions into the plan for Overlord. By isolating the vulnerable beachheads from German reinforcements during the critical early hours of 6 June, the airborne troopers gained valuable time for the amphibious forces.

Later uses of British and American army airborne units included the Arnhem operation in September 1944 and the Rhine crossing in March 1945.

Airborne operations were considered high-risk undertakings, requiring commitment of large numbers of valuable assets—elite troops and airlift—and incurring the danger of assault troops being isolated and overwhelmed. The latter occurred on a large scale only once, when supporting Allied ground forces were unable to reach British paratroopers at Arnhem, Holland, in September 1944.

Army Airborne Units in D-Day

Because they were by definition light infantry—without armored vehicles or heavy artillery—paratroopers were laden with enormous personal burdens. Many D-Day troopers carried nearly two hundred pounds of equipment, including their main and reserve chutes, life preserver, primary and secondary weapons and ammunition, water and rations, radios or mines, and other gear. It could take as much as five minutes for a trooper to pull on his parachute harness over his other equipment, and if they sat on the ground many men needed help standing up.

Normal parameters for dropping paratroopers were six hundred feet of altitude at ninety miles per hour airspeed. Owing to weather and tactical conditions, however, many troopers were dropped from 300 to 2,100 feet and at speeds as high as 150 miles per hour.

American paratroopers had to make five qualifying jumps to earn their wings, after which they received a hazardous-duty bonus of fifty dollars per month, ‘‘jump pay.’’

The U.S. Eighty-second and 101st Airborne Divisions dropped 13,400 men behind Utah Beach on the west end of the Allied landing areas, while nearly seven thousand men of the British Sixth Division secured bridges behind Sword Beach to the east. The primary objective of the airborne troops was to isolate the beachhead flanks from substantial German reinforcement the British were more successful than the Americans in doing so. The Sixth Division’s seizure of the Orne River bridges became a classic airborne operation.

The elite of the elite among paratroopers were the pathfinders, who were first on the ground. Preceding the main force by nearly an hour, the pathfinders were responsible for guiding troop-carrier aircraft to the landing zones and for marking the target areas. Specialized navigational equipment included the Eureka/Rebecca radar beacon, which transmitted to the lead aircraft in each C-47 formation, and automatic direction-finder (ADF) radios. Holophane lights were laid in T patterns on the ground to mark each drop zone.

Owing to fog, enemy action, and the confusion common to warfare, in Overlord only one of the eighteen U.S. pathfinder teams arrived at the correct drop zone. One entire eight-man team was dropped into the English Channel.

Because of wide dispersion over the Cotentin Peninsula, only about one-third of the American paratroopers assembled themselves under organized leadership, and many landed in the wrong divisional areas. One battalion commander roamed alone for five days, killing six Germans without finding another American. While some troopers sought cover or got drunk on Calvados wine, many others displayed the initiative expected of elite troops. In Normandy the airborne was especially effective in disrupting German communications.

Glider-borne infantry regiments were part of every airborne division, and though they did not originally receive ‘‘jump pay,’’ these soldiers were still part of an elite organization. Gliders possessed the dual advantages of delivering a more concentrated force to the landing zone and providing certain heavy equipment unavailable to paratroopers—especially light artillery and reconnaissance vehicles. Gliders were usually flown by noncommissioned pilots, who, once on the ground, took up personal weapons and fought as part of the infantry units they had delivered to the target.

Army Air Corps and their British Counterpart

Avro Lancaster

The Lancaster evolved from the Avro firm’s ill-fated Manchester to become one of the great bombers of World War II. With two Rolls-Royce Vulture engines, the Manchester lacked reliability for combat operations and was abandoned after limited production. However, to retrieve as much of the investment as possible, Avro extended the Manchester’s wings and put four Merlins on its airframe pilots were delighted with the result.

The Lancaster Mark I could carry a maximum load of fourteen thousand pounds, and though the average operational loadout was much less, the potential was easily recognized. Stable, easy to fly, and capable of 280 mph at altitudes above most other RAF bombers, the ‘‘Lanc’’ was loved by its aircrews.

Though not built in the variety of its Halifax stablemate, the Lancaster nevertheless demonstrated its versatility. The most famous Lancaster mission occurred in 1943, when No. 617 Squadron’s modified Avros made low-level attacks on the Rhine dams using Dr. Barnes Wallis’s revolutionary skip bombs. The same squadron later used Wallis’s awesome eleven-ton ‘‘earthquake’’ bombs. On 6 June 1944 Lancasters participated in saturation bombing of German coastal batteries to suppress opposition on the beaches, as well as in attacks on the Le Havre river bridges.

From 1941 to 1945 some eighty Lancaster squadrons flew 156,000 sorties over Occupied Europe, dropping 681,000 tons of bombs—an average of 4,300 pounds of bombs per sortie. The Lanc’s peak strength occurred in August 1944 with forty-two operational squadrons, including four Royal Canadian Air Force, two Australian, and one Polish manned. Attrition was heavy, especially during the ‘‘Battle of Berlin’’ in early 1944, but production exceeded 7,300 aircraft (87 percent were Mark I and III) from six manufacturers, including Victory Aircraft in Canada.

Bristol Beaufighter

German defenses and coastal shipping. The type also was deployed against Japan, and 364 of the total 5,928 were built under license in Australia.

DeHavilland Mosquito

The plywood Mosquito was a serious challenger for the title of most versatile aircraft of World War II. It performed virtually every mission asked of a land-based aircraft: day and night fighter, light bomber and nocturnal intruder, antishipping and photo-reconnaissance aircraft. The ‘‘Mossie’’ accomplished each task with excellent results and was so successful that Germany attempted to build its own Moskito.

Like Bristol’s Beaufighter, the Mosquito was conceived as an in-house project by the DeHavilland Company. In 1938 the lightweight, twin-engine DH-98 was regarded as a fast, unarmed bomber. The molded plywood airframe gave rise to the nickname ‘‘Wooden Wonder,’’ but the RAF was slow to warm to the concept. However, work progressed, and the prototype first flew in November 1940.

Mosquitos were produced in startling variety, with approximately twenty fighter and thirty bomber variants from 1941 onward. Throughout the type’s life it was powered by two Rolls-Royce Merlins rated between 1,230 and 1,700 horsepower. Exceptionally fast, some marks were capable of 425 miles per hour at altitude, and during the V-1 ‘‘Buzz Bomb’’ campaign of 1944–45, Mosquitos were among the most successful aircraft at intercepting and destroying the speedy robot bombs.

Entering squadron service in 1942, Mosquitos proved ideal for the pathfinder mission, marking target areas for multi-engine bombers. They also performed low-level strikes against precision targets, such as Gestapo headquarters in Oslo and the Nazi prison at Amiens.

RAF Coastal Command valued the Mosquito as a partner to the Bristol Beaufighter in the antishipping role. Long-range missions against German-controlled shipping in Scandinavian waters were flown with rockets and heavy cannon armament. Mosquitos also logged combat in the Middle East and the Pacific, while American reconnaissance squadrons flew them in Europe and Africa.

During the Normandy campaign, RAF squadrons committed a monthly average of not quite three hundred Mosquitos. From June through August, seventy were shot down and twenty-eight damaged beyond repair—33 percent of the total available.

Mosquito production approached seven thousand, built in Britain, Canada, and Australia, with the last aircraft delivered in 1948. Mosquito pilots and navigators were proud of their machine, knowing they flew one of the most capable combat aircraft of its generation.

Fairey Swordfish

One of the most remarkable military aircraft of all time, the Swordfish was a biplane designed in 1933 and was still in combat in 1945. It was conceived as a carrier-based torpedo plane powered by a Pegasus radial engine of some six hundred horsepower, with a nominal crew of three: pilot, observer, and gunner.

The Mark I entered Royal Navy service in 1936 and appeared little different from most carrier planes of its day—an open-cockpit biplane. Already regarded as obsolete when war began three years later, the ‘‘Stringbag’’ had, however, the priceless advantage of availability. It proved its worth repeatedly over the next few years, including a stunningly successful night torpedo and bombing attack on the Italian fleet in Taranto Harbor in 1940. The example set by Fleet Air Arm Swordfish so impressed the Japanese navy that the Pearl Harbor operation was based in part on the Taranto strike.

In 1941 Swordfish off HMS Ark Royal torpedoed the German battleship Bismarck in the North Atlantic, leading to her destruction by surface forces. That same year Swordfish attacked Italian ships in the Mediterranean battle off Cape Matapan. In 1942 the land-based Swordfish attempted to stop the ‘‘Channel Dash’’ by German battle cruisers and were nearly all destroyed by German fighters.

Perhaps the Swordfish’s greatest contribution during its long service was in the realm of antisubmarine warfare. Flying from escort carriers, late-model aircraft with radar persistently hunted U-boats in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and northern waters. During D-Day, land-based Swordfish conducted antisubmarine patrols in the Channel and its approaches.

Nearly 2,400 of the type were constructed, and one of the many ironies of the Swordfish’s career is that it outlived its intended replacement, Fairey’s closed-cockpit Albacore. Even when the more advanced Barracuda monoplane arrived in fleet squadrons, the ‘‘Stringbag’’ soldiered on, in its own way irreplaceable.

Handley-Page Halifax

The four-engine, twin-tail Halifax bore a general resemblance to its more famous counterpart, the Avro Lancaster, and shared the ‘‘Lanc’s’’ rags-to-riches story. The Lancaster evolved from the Avro Manchester similarly, the Halifax began life on the drawing board as a twin-engine bomber but was altered to the multi-engine configuration. Originally powered by four 1,280 hp Rolls-Royce Merlins, the Halifax Mark I first flew in October 1939, barely a month after the war began. However, developmental problems delayed its combat debut until March 1941. The original version, as well as the Mark II and V, retained Merlins until increased demand for Lancasters, Spitfires, and Mosquitos mandated an engine change.

The most common Halifax variants were the Mark III, VI, and VII, all powered by Bristol Hercules air-cooled radials of 1,600 to 1,800 horsepower. The later models also had a different silhouette, with the original front turret deleted in favor of a more streamlined nose to improve top speed. The Mark III was rated at 277 mph.

Halifaxes dominated RAF Bomber Command’s No. 4 and 6 Groups but also flew in Coastal Command and Transport Command. Like most British bombers, the Halifax was a single-pilot aircraft, with six other men completing the crew: flight engineer, bombardier (bomb aimer in the RAF), navigator, and gunners. In four years of RAF Bomber Command operations, Halifaxes logged 75,500 sorties with an average bomb load of three thousand pounds.

Extremely versatile, the Handley-Page bomber doubled as a maritime patrol plane, electronic countermeasures platform, paratroop transport, and glider tug. The latter duty was an especially important aspect of the Halifax’s contribution to Overlord. In June 1944 at least twenty Halifax squadrons flew from the UK with Bomber Command while others served in the Mediterranean theater.

Total production was 6,176 aircraft, including some postwar manufacture. The type remained in RAF service until 1952.

Hawker Typhoon

The 1938 replacement design for the Hawker Hurricane was the Typhoon, probably the heaviest and potentially the most powerful singleseat fighter proposed until that time. Originally called the Tornado, following a series of engine changes it emerged as the Typhoon in early 1940.However, a difficult development period occupied the next year and a half before engine and airframe problems were resolved.

The first production Typhoon was tested in May 1941 with the 2,200 hp Sabre IIA engine. The new fighter was committed to combat sooner than it should have been, but by late 1942 it was successfully defending British airspace from Luftwaffe hit-and-run raids. Maximum speed was 417 mph at 20,500 feet.

The ‘‘Tiffy’’ earned a hard-won reputation as an excellent tactical support aircraft. Distinctive with its chin-mounted radiator, its rugged airframe was able to withstand considerable battle damage and still return home. The Typhoon’s armament was optimized for ground attack, with four 20 mm cannon and underwing rails for eight rockets as well as two five hundred-pound bombs.

These rugged British planes were ideally suited for the ground-attack role, and Typhoons took a major toll on German armor and transport during the Normandy campaign.

During the Normandy and Falaise campaigns, Typhoons perfected ‘‘cab rank’’ tactics and reported a heavy toll of German transport and armor (one thousand tanks and twelve thousand other vehicles were claimed) but sustained heavy losses. From June through August, 243 Typhoons were lost in action and 173 damaged beyond repair, the heaviest loss rate of any RAF aircraft in the campaign. Hawker produced 3,300 Typhoons before the type was phased out in favor of the bigger, faster Tempest in 1944. Tempests played a limited role in the Normandy campaign, with an average monthly availability of fifty-fifty aircraft.

Short Sunderland

The Short Brothers company gained considerable prewar experience with its ‘‘Empire’’ series of transoceanic airliners, so it was no surprise that the Sunderland became Britain’s premier flying boat of the Second World War. The prototype, first flown in October 1937, was powered by four 1,065 hp Pegasus radial engines. The Mark V, delivered in 1943, used American Pratt and Whitney radials of 1,200 horsepower. With as many as a dozen crewmen, the big boat had enormous range (nearly three thousand miles) and could remain airborne for more than thirteen hours, cruising at about 135 mph.

Most Sunderlands in Great Britain were assigned to RAF Coastal Command general reconnaissance squadrons, conducting patrol and antisubmarine missions. Various marks had different armament, but all included at least bow and tail turrets a dorsal turret also was added. On rare occasions when aerial opposition was encountered, the seemingly ungainly Sunderland could protect itself against enemy twin-engine aircraft.

Prior to D-Day, Sunderlands covered the Bay of Biscay on a daily basis, suppressing U-boats and tracking coastal convoys. It was tedious, unglamorous work but an important part of the Allied effort.

The Sunderland remained in production until war’s end, by which time 739 had been delivered, and it was kept in service until 1958.

Supermarine Spitfire

No single aircraft has so captured the world’s imagination as the Royal Air Force’s sleekly elegant Spitfire. Tracing its ancestry to a successful line of racers, the Spitfire was designed by Supermarine’s chief engineer, Reginald J. Mitchell, who had produced the Schneider Trophy champions of the 1930s. First flown in March 1936, the prototype was powered by the Rolls-Royce Merlin, a liquid-cooled V-12 of one thousand horsepower.

Production Spitfires were delivered in June 1938, and they equipped eleven RAF squadrons when war broke out in September 1939. Over the next year their strength increased nineteen squadrons were available at the start of the Battle of Britain. The 199 Spitfire Ia models constituted not quite one-third of the RAF’s frontline fighter strength.

By 1944 the most significant types were the Mark IX fighter and the Mark XI, a high-altitude photo-reconnaissance platform. ‘‘PR’’ Spitfires were flown by U.S. Army Air Forces units as well. The Mark IX featured a Merlin 60 engine, two 20 mm cannon, and four .303 caliber machine guns its top speed was 400 mph at twenty thousand feet. Though considered an interim ‘‘anti Focke-Wulf ’’ design, the Mark IX proved itself versatile and long-lived, accounting for one-quarter of total production of the type.

One unusual aspect of the Spitfire’s career involved training U.S. Navy pilots to fly the British fighter. Realizing that naval gunfire spotting would be an important part of Overlord, cruiser-based aviators were qualified in Spitfires on the theory that it was easier to transition a trained spotter to fighters than to train a fighter pilot in gunfire support. Because the spotters had to fly over hostile territory, the Curtiss SOC biplanes ordinarily used would have been highly vulnerable to German flak.

During the Normandy campaign nearly half of all RAF fighters were Spitfires, which roamed almost at will over northern France, attacking German transport and lines of communications. Despite its potentially vulnerable liquid-cooled engine, the Spitfire was well suited as a tactical support aircraft owing to its speed, armament, and dive-bombing capability. Some 365 Spitfires were shot down from June through August, with nearly three hundred written off—41 percent of the nearly two thousand available.

Later in the war, more powerful Griffin engines were mated to the Spitfire airframe, resulting in even better performance. Additionally, both modified and specially built Supermarines were flown off British aircraft carriers as Seafires, bringing a degree of fighter performance previously unknown to the Royal Navy.

Total Spitfire and Seafire production reached twenty-two thousand units, in at least forty marks.

Westland Lysander

The gull-wing Lysander established a notable record on RAF special operations during World War II. Originally received as Army Co-Operation Command’s first monoplane in 1938, it was powered by a Bristol Mercury or Perseus radial engine of 870 to 905 horsepower. Top speed was rated at 219 miles per hour. Its two-man crew comprised a pilot and observergunner, with room for a passenger in the middle cockpit.

The Lysander was designed to land in confined spaces, affording liaison between army units or the army and air force. With aerodynamically activated slats and flaps, it could be flown down to airspeeds as slow as 65 mph. Though the seemingly ungainly machine carried three machine guns and could drop small bombs, it was seldom used offensively. It was more often employed in liaison and tactical reconnaissance missions as well as target towing and air-sea rescue.

In support of D-Day, Lysanders were often the machine of choice in delivering British, French, and other Allied intelligence operatives and agents into Occupied Europe. Lysanders succored resistance forces as well.

Total production was 1,425 aircraft.

Army Air Corps and Operation Torch

Until late 1942 much of northwestern Africa (Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) was under control of the Vichy French government, totaling 125,000 soldiers in the territories, along with 210 tanks, 500 aircraft, and coastal artillery. Victory would mean clearing Axis powers from North Africa, reducing German pressure on Russia and improving Allied naval control of the Mediterranean Sea. The British-American invasion plans of French North Africa was known as Operation Torch.

Operation Torch landed on the shores of French Morocco on November 8, 1942, with Ranger (CV-4), Suwanee (ACV-27), Sangamon (ACV26), and Santee (ACV-29) supporting U.S. forces north and south of Casablanca. In all, the four flattops embarked 109 Grumman F4F-4 fighters with sixty-two Douglas SBD-3 and Grumman TBF-1 bombers. Operation Torch was assembled and launched so quickly that many pilots had little opportunity for training. Some had not flown in two weeks—an inordinately long layoff for carrier aviators.

The Casablanca landings were opposed by Vichy French forces allied with Germany. The defenders counted about two hundred aircraft, including American-built Curtiss fighters and Martin bombers.

Things began poorly. On November 8 a flight of seven Santee Wildcats got lost and ran low on fuel. One ditched and five crashlanded ashore with one pilot lost. Ranger’s Fighting Squadron Four lost six planes on its first mission, though Sangamon F4Fs claimed four shootdowns without loss. Later that day eighteen Ranger SBDs attacked harbor facilities including the thirty-five thousand-ton battleship Jean Bart, whose fifteen-inch guns posed a threat to Allied ships. She was partly sunk at her mooring while a submarine was destroyed.

When a French surface force steamed out to engage the U.S. warships, Dauntlesses and Wildcats descended to bomb and strafe. A light cruiser and two destroyers were damaged enough to be run aground to prevent their sinking.

On November 9, Ranger SBDs were back over Casablanca Harbor where Vichy antiaircraft batteries still posed a threat. Dauntlesses hit Jean Bart again, knocking out her remaining AA mounts. Meanwhile, Curtiss P-40s took off from Chenango (ACV-28), flying ashore to newly captured airfields. It was a precursor of other joint ArmyNavy operations throughout the war.

Operation Torch provided a laboratory for carrier aviators to perfect their trade. They flew support missions for ground troops, sank a Vichy submarine at sea, and engaged in air combat. Some of their opponents were combat veterans of the 1939–40 campaign. A Ranger pilot, Lieutenant (jg) Charles A. Shields, bailed out of his riddled F4F, and a Frenchman flying a Hawk buzzed him as he parachuted to earth, “wagging his wingtips and waving and laughing like hell.” Still, the tailhook fighters downed twenty-five Vichymen against five Wildcats lost in dogfights.

Losses were stiff, however, amounting to nearly 25 percent by the time the fighting ended on November 10. Ground fire and operational losses were by far the greatest causes, forcing planners to allot more aircraft to future operations.

Army Air Corps: The Final Aerial Combat Mission of WW2

The P-51s’ mission that day started out well.

Cruising above the Pacific under the morning sun, the Americans had approached the Japanese coastline without incident. Jerry wondered how many more missions like this he would have to fly. They’d all thought the war was over, but now, here he was again, heading to strike a stubbornly resistant enemy.

But down below, in the nation they were about to attack, a philosophical battle was raging on whether to surrender or fight on. The “Big Six”—the six military officers running Japan—had been split by a vote of 3-3 on when and how to end the war with honor. In general, hard, passionate divisions of opinion existed among the Japanese military: some of the older officers wanted to surrender to prevent the destruction of Japan, while others wanted to fight on to the death and kill as many Americans as possible.

The previous night, while another 300 American B-29s strafed Japan again, a group of rogue Japanese officers had started a coup against Prime Minister Suzuki and Emperor Hirohito. The officers burned the prime minister’s office and surrounded the Imperial Palace, hoping to kidnap the emperor, all in an effort to prevent Japan’s leadership from thinking about surrendering. For these officers, and for so many of the Japanese people, surrender was not an option. There was glory in death, but only shame in surrender Japan, for its part, had never been invaded or lost a war in its history.

Fortunately for the rest of the world, the coup did not succeed. A group of senior Japanese officers talked the insurgents off the ledge, convincing them that there was nowhere to go. Bu while the revolt ended, the war did not, and so, with the shoreline of the enemy territory coming into view and Phil Schlamberg, his dear friend and fellow pilot, on his wing, Jerry knew it was time to go back to work.

On Jerry’s order, al the planes in his squadron dropped their external fuel tanks over the ocean, then started their familiar aerial trek over the great, snow-capped peak of Mount Fuji. As of yet, there had been no radio signal with the word “UTAH,” signaling the end of the war.

As the Americans approached the Japanese capital, they began to identify targets. Within minutes, they swooped down over airfields and attacked despite heavy ground fire. Tracer bullets flew up from the Japanese guns as the Severity-Eighth made multiple passes at each target. Phil stayed tight on Jerry’s wing, just as instructed.

After strafing the last airfield, Jerry checked his fuel gauge and saw he was still in good shape. But when one of the pilots radioed that his tank had reached the ninety-gallon mark—the amount a Mustang needed for the return flight—it was time to pull up and begin plotting the course back to Iwo Jima.

Jerry looked over at Phil, who was still on his wing, and give him a thumbs up.

Phil looked back and returned the gesture.

Confidence. Maybe it was working.

With the battle of Tokyo complete, Jerry set his course back out to the ocean and banked to the south. The three other Mustangs in Jerry’s squadron returned with him. A few moments later, as they approached the coast where they would rendezvous with the navigational B-29s, they neared a cloud cover in front of them, often the case when approaching the atmospheric temperature inversions near the coast. With Phil still tight on his wing, Jerry led the four Mustangs into the cloud bank. Flying at an altitude of about 7,000 feet, Jerry focused his eyes on his navigation instruments, as the interior of the white, puffy clouds blocking his view of everything else.

But when the Mustangs emerged on the other side of the clouds, a devastating reality soon surfaced. Phil was gone. Most likely, he had been brought down by antiaircraft bullets fired into the clouds. There was no sign of him.

Jerry was devastated. When he landed at Iwo Jima, meanwhile, he learned something else: the war was over. The emperor had announced Japan’s surrender three hours earlier, while Jerry and his flight were still over Japan. The code word UTAH had been broadcast to U.S. aircraft over the country, but the word had not reached the planes of the Seventy-Eighth until they landed.

It was a surreal feeling as Jerry climbed out of his plane and jumped down to the airfield, standing on a once-bloody Pacific island. Now, suddenly, it was a world at peace. The men of the Seventy-Eighth had a saying, “Alive in 󈧱.” That had been their goal, and now it was their reality. They were going home, alive.

As Jerry walked away from his plane, another realization hit him: he had just flown the final combat mission of the war, and Phil was the final combat death of the great war. One day, after Jerry had time to collect his emotions and his thoughts, the great historical significance of the mission he’d just flown would sink in. But for now, one thought consumed his mind.


Records, RG 338

In 2001 NARA began a project to reallocate many RG 338 records into new record groups, organized around the major army commands. The reallocation project was completed in 2003. This chapter has been annotated to identify the new record group designations for the reallocated records.

Table of Contents

    Administrative History Records of Commands Operating in North America, World War II 1936-52
      Records of defense commands Records of service commands, departments, and base commands Records of schools and training centers
      Records of European Theater of Operations U.S. Army (ETOUSA)/U.S. Forces European Theater (USFET) Records of Mediterranean Theater of Operations U.S. Army (MTOUSA) Records of U.S. Army Forces in the Middle East (USAFIME)/Headquarters Africa-Middle East Theater (AMET) Records of other commands
      Records of the U.S. Military Mission to China Records of U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India (USAF CBI) Records of U.S. Army Forces, China Theater (USAF CT) Records of U.S. Forces, India-Burma Theater (USF IBT) Records of the U.S. Branch of Executive Headquarters Records of the Peiping Headquarters Group
      Records of the Hawaiian Department Records of the Military Government of Hawaii Records of the Central Pacific Base Command Records of U.S. Army Forces in the Middle Pacific (MIDPAC) Records of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) Records of U.S. Army Forces in Australia Records of U.S. Army Services of Supply, Southwest Pacific Area Records of U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific (AFWESPAC) Records of General Headquarters Southwest Pacific Area (GHQ SWPA) Records of U.S. Army Forces, Pacific (AFPAC) Records of U.S. Army Forces, South Pacific Base Command
      Records of U.S. Army, Alaska Records of U.S. Army, Caribbean
      Records of U.S. Army, European Command (EUCOM) Records of U.S. Army, Europe (USAEUR) Records of U.S. Forces, Austria Records of Vienna Area Command Records of Berlin Command/Brigade Records of Trieste, United States Troops (TRUST)
      Records of First Army Records of Second Army Records of Third Army Records of Fourth Army Records of Fifth Army Records of Sixth Army Records of Seventh Army Records of Eighth Army Records of Ninth Army Records of Tenth Army Records of Fifteenth Army
      Records of corps Records of subordinate commands
      Records of activities Records of advisory groups Records of agencies Records of depots Records of hospitals Records of laboratories Records of organizations concerned with prisoner of war and missing in action information Records of schools Records of transportation zones Records of other support elements

    338.1 Administrative History

    Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

    Related Records:

    • Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, RG 92.
    • Records of U.S. Army Commands, 1784-1821, RG 98.
    • Records of the Office of the Surgeon General (Army), RG 112.
    • Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, RG 165.
    • Records of Naval Operating Forces, RG 313.
    • Records of Allied Operational and Occupation Headquarters, World War II, RG 331.
    • Records of the Office of the Chief of Transportation, RG 336.
    • Records of Headquarters Army Ground Forces, RG 337.
    • Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations, RG 342.
    • Records of the Office of the Provost Marshal General, 1941- , RG 389.
    • Records of U.S. Regular Army Mobile Units, 1821-1942, RG 391.
    • Records of U.S. Army Coast Artillery Districts and Defenses, 1901-1942, RG 392.
    • Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920, RG 393.
    • Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1920-1942, RG 394.
    • Records of U.S. Army Overseas Operations and Commands, 1898-1942, RG 395.
    • Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1917- , RG 407.
    • Records of Mediterranean Theater of Operations, United States Army, RG 492.
    • Records of U.S. Forces in the China-Burma-India Theaters of Operations, RG 493.
    • Records of U.S. Army Forces in the Middle Pacific (World War II), RG 494.
    • Records of Headquarters, United States Army Forces, Western Pacific (World War II), RG 495.
    • Records of General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area and United States Army Forces, Pacific (World War II), RG 496.
    • Records of the Africa-Middle East Theater of Operations (World War II Army), RG 497.
    • Records of Headquarters, European Theater of Operations, United States Army (World War II), RG 498.
    • Records of U.S. Army Defense Commands (World War II), RG 499.
    • Records of the United States Army Materiel Command, RG 544.
    • Records of U.S. Army Forces in Alaska, RG 547.
    • Records of U.S. Army Forces in the Caribbean, RG 548.
    • Records of United States Army, Europe, RG 549.
    • Records of United States Army, Pacific, RG 550.
    • Records of the United States Army Military District of Washington, RG 551.
    • Records of the Military Traffic Management Command (Army), RG 552.
    • Records of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, RG 553.
    • Records of General Headquarters, Far East Command, Supreme Commander Allied Powers, and United Nations Command, RG 554.

    338.2 Records of Commands Operating in North America, World War II
    1936-52

    338.2.1 Records of defense commands

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 499, except as noted): Records of Eastern Defense Command, 1940-45, including proceedings of harbor defense boards and Chesapeake Bay sector historical files. Records of Western Defense Command, 1940-46, including portions of the central decimal file, and a microfilm copy of records of Japanese relocation centers (620 rolls). Records of Central Defense Command, 1941-46, including records of Central Air Defense Region, Fort Bray, MI, 1942-44. Records of Alaska Defense Command/Alaska Department, 1940-47, including issuances and intelligence reports (reallocated to RG 547). Records of Caribbean Defense Command, 1941-48 (reallocated to RG 548).

    338.2.2 Records of service commands, departments, and base commands

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 160, except as noted): Records of the following service commands: First, headquartered in Boston, MA, 1942-46 Second, headquartered on Governors Island, NY, 1942-46 Third, headquartered in Baltimore, MD, 1942-46, including intelligence report files, 1943-46, and records relating to German prisoners of war, 1944-45 Fourth, headquartered in Atlanta, GA, 1942-46, including correspondence of the G-2 (Intelligence) Section and plant protection survey reports Fifth, headquartered in Columbus, OH, 1942-46, including intelligence summaries and plant protection survey reports Sixth, headquartered in Chicago, IL, 1942-46, including G-2 (Intelligence) Section files Seventh, headquartered in Omaha, NE, 1936-46, including reports of investigations of aircraft accidents Eighth, headquartered in San Antonio and Dallas, TX, 1942-46 Ninth, headquartered at The Presidio, San Francisco, CA, 1942-46 and Northwest, headquartered in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1942-45. Records of the Military District of Washington, 1942-46 (reallocated to RG 551). Record set of issuances of U.S. Army Forces, Central Canada, 1943-45 (reallocated to RG 165). Records of the Panama Canal Department, 1940-47 and records of the Puerto Rican/Antilles Department, 1939-47 (reallocated to RG 548). Records of base commands in Bermuda, 1941-46, Iceland, 1941-47, and Newfoundland, 1941-46 (reallocated to RG 499).

    Maps (reallocated to RG 160): Geographic index to quadrangle maps covering the northeastern United States, by First Service Command, 1943 (1 item). Military installations location map covering TX, AR, and LA, by Eighth Service Command, 1942 (1 item).

    Architectural Plans (reallocated to RG 160): Floor plan of McCaw General Hospital, Walla Walla, WA, by Ninth Service Command, ca. 1942 (1 item).

    338.2.3 Records of schools and training centers

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 337) : Records of the Airborne Command/Parachute School, 1942-46 Amphibious Training Center, 1940-50 Antiaircraft Artillery Command Training Center, 1940-50 Armored Center/Board, 1939-48 Cavalry Center/School, 1940-46 Coast Artillery School, 1945 Field Artillery Board, 1942-45 and Tank Destroyer Center, 1941-46.

    Posters (reallocated to RG 337): Of the U.S. Army Field Artillery School, advertising artillery jobs, ca. 1951-52 (AP, 5 items).

    338.3 Records of Commands in the European, Mediterranean, and
    Africa-Middle East Theaters of Operations, World War II
    1941-48

    338.3.1 Records of European Theater of Operations U.S. Army
    (ETOUSA)/U.S. Forces European Theater (USFET)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 498): Decimal correspondence, interrogation reports, personnel rosters, awards files, and other records, 1941-47, of the General Staff Secretary the following general staff sections: G-1 (Personnel), G-2 (Intelligence), G-3 (Operations), and G-4 (Logistics) the following special staff sections for administrative matters: Adjutant General (including the Postal Division), Civil Affairs, Finance, Historical, Judge Advocate General, Provost Marshal, and Public Relations the following special staff sections for technical matters: Engineer, Ordnance, Quartermaster, Signal, Surgeon General (Medical), and Transportation the General Board the General Purchasing Agency Theater Service Forces European Theater and Communications Zone ETOUSA. Escape and evasion reports of the MIS-X (Military Intelligence Service, Escape and Evasion Section) Detachment, 1943-45.

    338.3.2 Records of Mediterranean Theater of Operations U.S. Army
    (MTOUSA)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 492): Records of headquarters organizations, 1942-47, including the staff of the Commanding General, general and special staff sections, and boards and committees. Records of subordinate commands, 1942-47, including Allied Armies in Italy Headquarters Command Allied Forces and Atlantic, Eastern, Mediterranean, and Peninsular Base Sections. Correspondence, tract books, logs, a history, and other records of the Military Liquidating Agency, 1945-48.

    338.3.3 Records of U.S. Army Forces in the Middle East
    (USAFIME)/Headquarters Africa-Middle East Theater (AMET)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 497): Records, 1942-46, including "Land of Jerusalem" reports, weekly summaries, and Military Intelligence Division reports.

    338.3.4 Records of other commands

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 497): General correspondence and other records of Persian Gulf Command (known as Persian Gulf Service Command, 1942-43), 1942-45. General orders and other issuances of Eritrea Service/Base Command, 1942-45. Records of North African Service Command relating to construction in Dakar, French West Africa (Senegal), 1942-43. Correspondence, memorandums, and orders of U.S. Forces in Central Africa, 1942-43.

    Maps (reallocated to RG 497): Maps of Persian Gulf Command, 1943-44.

    338.4 Records of Commands in the China-Burma-India Theaters of
    Operations, World War II
    1941-47

    338.4.1 Records of the U.S. Military Mission to China

    History: Commonly referred to as "AMMISCA" ("American Mission to China"). Established August 27, 1941, to facilitate lend-lease aid to China. Headed by Brig. Gen. John Magruder. Functions and personnel absorbed by Headquarters American Army Forces, China, Burma, India (predecessor of U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India see 338.4.2), by May 1942. Discontinued by September 1944.

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 493): Incoming weekly reports, September 1941-January 1942. Outgoing messages, February-December 1942.

    338.4.2 Records of U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India (USAF CBI)

    History: Headquarters American Army Forces, China, Burma, and India (HQ AAF CBI) established in Chungking, China, by General Order 1, HQ AAF CBI, March 4, 1942, pursuant to Secretary of War's appointment of Maj. Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell as Commanding General of all U.S. Army forces in China, Burma, and India, conveyed in a Chief of Staff memorandum to the Adjutant General, WPD 4389-64, February 2, 1942. (By same memorandum, Gen. Stilwell was appointed Republic of China army chief of staff.) By May 1942, HQ AAF CBI had absorbed Chungking staff of U.S. Military Mission to China, commonly known as "AMMISCA" ("American Mission to China"), established August 27, 1941, to facilitate lend-lease aid to China. A second AAF CBI headquarters was established in New Delhi, India, by letter of the Commanding General, June 25, 1942, pursuant to War Department message 354, sent as CM-OUT 5537, June 22, 1942, in effect instructing Gen. Stilwell to organize a theater of operations staff. Thenceforth, the area of operations over which Gen. Stilwell had command of U.S. Army forces was referred to as the China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater.

    By Letter of Instructions, HQ AAF CBI (Chungking), July 6, 1942, Chungking headquarters was designated HQ AAF CBI, and New Delhi headquarters was designated Branch Office, HQ AAF CBI. To avoid confusion with the Army Air Forces' acronym, "AAF," HQ AAF CBI was redesignated HQ USAF CBI, by September 12, 1942. Status of HQ USAF CBI as a theater headquarters was confirmed by letter of the Secretary of War to the Commanding General, USAF CBI, AG 320.2 (1-26-43) OB-I-GN-M, January 29, 1943. HQ AAF CBI redesignated Forward Echelon, HQ USAF CBI and Branch Office, HQ AAF CBI redesignated Rear Echelon, HQ USAF CBI, effective April 1, 1944, by General Order 5, Forward Echelon, HQ USAF CBI, March 31, 1944, with Rear Echelon in charge of overall planning and administration, and Forward Echelon responsible for liaison with Chinese Government and execution of Rear Echelon directives to U.S. Army organizations in China.

    Gen. Stilwell recalled by President Roosevelt, October 21, 1944, announced October 28, 1944. By War Department message WARX 52150, October 25, 1944, sent same date as CM-OUT 52150, CBI Theater divided, effective October 24, 1944, into China Theater (see 338.4.3) and India-Burma Theater (see 338.4.4).

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 493): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1942-44, including central decimal correspondence, incoming messages, and issuances. Circulars of Headquarters Rear Echelon, 1942-44. Records of the Services of Supply (SOS), China-Burma-India, 1942-44, including an organizational history, staff memorandums, SOS general orders, and general orders of Advance Section 1.

    Related Records (reallocated to RG 493): Additional records of USAF CBI in RG 332, Records of U.S. Theaters of War, World War II.

    338.4.3 Records of U.S. Army Forces, China Theater (USAF CT)

    History: See 338.4.2 for a history of predecessor Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, China, Burma, and India. HQ USF CT established in Chungking by General Order 1, HQ USF CT, October 25, 1944, under command of Maj. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer, appointed effective October 24, 1944. Moved to Shanghai, October 14, 1945. Abolished, effective May 1, 1946, by General Order 97, HQ USF CT, April 29, 1946, with residual functions transferred to Headquarters U.S. Army Forces in China (HQ USAF China), established by General Order 1, May 1, 1946. HQ USAF China abolished, effective July 1, 1946, by HQ USAF China message CFBX 0346, June 28, 1946, received as CM-IN 6332, June 29, 1946.

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 493): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, ca. 1944-46, including central correspondence, messages, daily bulletins and other issuances, and historical narratives. Records of the G-2 (Intelligence) Section, 1943-46, including records dealing with the Sino Translation and Interrogation Center. Records of the G-3 (Operations) Section, ca. 1944-46, consisting of general correspondence, and records relating to personnel assignments. Records of the G-5 (Civil Affairs) Section, ca. 1944-46, including messages concerning the recovery of downed U.S. airmen and prisoners of war, 1945. Records, ca. 1944-46, of the following special staff sections: Interpreter Affairs, Lend-Lease, Ordnance, Provost Marshal, Quartermaster, Theater Planning, and Transportation. Records of Headquarters Rear Echelon, 1941-45, consisting of general records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, and subject files of the Theater Psychological Warfare Officer. Records of general and special staff sections, and subordinate commands, of the Services of Supply (SOS), China Theater, 1942-45 (bulk 1944-45). Records of general and special staff sections of the joint Chinese- American Services of Supply for the Chinese Army, February- September 1945. Records of the following Chinese training and combat commands under U.S. supervision: Z-Force Operations Staff, 1943-44 and Chinese Combat Command (Provisional), 1943-45, including records of subordinate commands.

    338.4.4 Records of U.S. Forces, India-Burma Theater (USF IBT)

    History: See 338.4.2 for a history of predecessor Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, China, Burma, and India. HQ USF IBT established in New Delhi by General Order 1, HQ USF IBT, October 27, 1944, under command of Lt. Gen. Daniel I. Sultan, appointed effective October 24, 1944. Responsible for U.S. forces in India, Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, the Malay States, and Sumatra. Gen. Sultan succeeded in command by Maj. Gen. Raymond A. Wheeler, June 23, 1945. HQ USF IBT moved to Calcutta, April 15, 1946. Abolished, effective May 31, 1946, by General Order 174, HQ USF IBT, May 23, 1946.

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 493): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1944-45, including central decimal correspondence, messages, and records concerning plans and operations. Correspondence and daily intelligence summaries of the G-2 (Intelligence) Section, 1944-45. Correspondence, subject files, and records of meetings of the G-4 (Logistics) Section, 1944-45. Correspondence, issuances, and other records of the following special staff organizations: Army Exchange Service, Chaplain, Chemical Warfare, Claims, Theater Claims, Engineer, Fiscal, Historical, Inspector General (Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment), Judge Advocate General, Medical, Ordnance, Port of Debarkation, Postal, Provost Marshal, Public Relations, Rest Camps, Signal, Special Services, and Transportation. General correspondence and staff section records of the Ledo Area Command, 1943-46. Correspondence and messages of the Detachment, U.S. Army in India, 1943-46.

    338.4.5 Records of the U.S. Branch of Executive Headquarters

    History: Executive Headquarters established in Peiping (Peking), China, by order of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, January 11, 1946, as a tripartite organization of the Chinese Nationalist Government, the Chinese Communist Party, and the U.S. Government. Responsible for effecting a cease-fire between Chinese Nationalist and Communist forces, as agreed upon, December 1945, by the Committee of Three, consisting of Gen. Chang Chun for the Nationalists Gen. Chou En-lai for the Communists and Gen. George C. Marshall, special envoy of the President. Pursuant to an announcement, January 29, 1947, of U.S. Government's intent to withdraw from Committee of Three and Executive Headquarters, U.S. Branch of Executive Headquarters was abolished by U.S. Branch memorandum CDR 902, February 6, 1947, with residual functions transferred to Sino Liaison Office, established in Peiping Headquarters Group by same memorandum.

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 493): Records of the U.S. Commissioner, 1946-47, including memorandums sent to and received from the Chinese Nationalist and Communist commissioners and memorandums sent to the Chinese Nationalist and Communist branches. General records of the Director of Operations, 1946-47. Records of the U.S. Branch staff, 1946-47, consisting of a subject file of the Chief of Staff and correspondence, reports, and other records of the Conflict Control, Communications, Army Reorganization, and Public Relations Groups, and the Current Section. Subject file and other records of the Advance Section, 1946-47. Records relating to the Yenan Liaison Group, 1946-47.

    Related Records (reallocated to RG 493): "Operations Report, the Executive Headquarters, Peiping China, 1946-47" (Section I: "U.S. Branch, Executive Headquarters" Section II: "Peiping Headquarters Group"), 4 vols., submitted April 2, 1947, in Operations and Plans Division decimal correspondence, 1946-48, decimal 091 China, case 112, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

    338.4.6 Records of the Peiping Headquarters Group

    History: Established, effective January 11, 1946, by General Order 12, Headquarters U.S. Forces, China Theater (HQ USF CT), January 14, 1946, with mission to assist U.S. Branch of Executive Headquarters. Brig. Gen. Henry A. Byroade served simultaneously as Peiping Headquarters Group commanding general and Executive Headquarters director of operations, January 11- June 6, 1946, as did his successor, Brig. Gen. T.S. Timberman, June 6, 1946-October 12, 1947. Following abolition of HQ USF CT, April 30, 1946, Peiping Headquarters Group assigned to newly established Headquarters U.S. Army Forces in China (HQ USAF China), May 1, 1946. Effective July 1, 1946, by HQ USAF China message CFBX 0346, June 28, 1946, received as CM-IN 6332, June 29, 1946, HQ USAF China abolished, with Peiping Headquarters Group designated an independent command directly responsible to War Department. All Peiping Headquarters Group organizations except Peiping Depot abolished, effective April 8, 1947, by General Order 49, HQ Peiping Headquarters Group, April 3, 1947, with Peiping Depot reassigned to Army Advisory Group, Nanking.

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 493): General correspondence, 1946-47. Message files, 1946-47. Records of the Historical Section, 1946-47, including a subject file, news bulletins, a history of Executive Headquarters, and diaries and histories of field teams. General records, 1946-47, of the Headquarters Detachment, Office of the Surgeon, Special Services Section, Transportation Section, and Peiping Depot.

    Related Records (reallocated to RG 493): "Operations Report, the Executive Headquarters, Peiping China, 1946-47" (Section I: "U.S. Branch, Executive Headquarters" Section II: "Peiping Headquarters Group"), 4 vols., submitted April 2, 1947 and "Report of Inactivation, Peiping Headquarters Group, 5 February 1947-8 April 1947," submitted April 5, 1947, in Operations and Plans Division decimal correspondence, 1946-48, decimal 091 China, case 112, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

    338.5 Records of Commands in Pacific Theaters of Operations,
    World War II
    1922-47

    338.5.1 Records of the Hawaiian Department

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 494): Records of the Signal Office/Section, 1922-43. Correspondence, records of investigations, and construction reports of the Engineer Office, 1942-45.

    338.5.2 Records of the Military Government of Hawaii

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 494): Records, 1941-46, including executive correspondence, decimal correspondence, internee case files, internee property files, press releases, and correspondence concerning transport of civilians to Hawaii. Provost court case files, 1942-45. Indexes to case files of the Alien Registration Bureau, 1941-46. Reports of the Inspector General Section, 1942.

    338.5.3 Records of the Central Pacific Base Command

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 494): Weekly and monthly summary reports of the G-4 (Logistics) Section, 1944-45. General correspondence of the Signal Section, 1935-45. Reports and other records of the Engineer, Fiscal, Medical, Ordnance, Special Services, and Transportation Sections, 1935-47.

    338.5.4 Records of U.S. Army Forces in the Middle Pacific
    (MIDPAC)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 494): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, consisting of central correspondence, 1941-46 messages, 1939-43 and issuances, 1941-46, including Chief of Staff directives, 1942-44. Records relating to maneuvers and exercises, 1939-43. Records of general and special staff sections, 1941-47, including subject correspondence of the G-2 (Intelligence) Section daily reports of the G-3 (Operations) Section and construction reports of the Engineer Section.

    338.5.5 Records of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 496): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1942-45, including central correspondence, incoming and outgoing messages, and issuances. Records of general and special staff sections, 1942-45, including reports and bulletins of the Counter Intelligence Section, 1944-45 and records of the Theater Censor, 1942-45, the General Purchasing Agent, 1942-45, and the Fiscal Director, 1945.

    338.5.6 Records of U.S. Army Forces in Australia

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 495): General and special orders and other issuances, 1941-42, including special orders of the Liaison Officer, 1942.

    338.5.7 Records of U.S. Army Services of Supply

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 495): Records of the Commanding General, 1943-45. General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1942- 45, including central correspondence, messages, reports, issuances, and organization manuals. Records of general and special staff sections, 1942-46.

    338.5.8 Records of U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific (AFWESPAC)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 495): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1942-45, including central correspondence, issuances, planning files, and organization manuals. Records, 1941-46 (bulk 1942-46), of the following special staff sections: Chemical, Engineer, Information and Education, Medical, Ordnance, Philippine Army, Provost Marshal, Quartermaster, Signal, Special Services, and Transportation.

    338.5.9 Records of General Headquarters Southwest Pacific Area
    (GHQ SWPA)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 496): Central correspondence maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1942-46. Records of general and special staff sections, 1942-46. Drafts of General Douglas MacArthur's reports on the war in the Pacific, 1942-46.

    Related Records: Additional records of GHQ SWPA Psych War reallocated to RG 496.

    338.5.10 Records of U.S. Army Forces, Pacific (AFPAC)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 496): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1944-46, including central correspondence, issuances, and incoming and outgoing messages. Records of general and special staff organizations, 1944-46, including correspondence of the G-3 (Operations) and G-4 (Logistics) Sections, 1944-46 records of the Civil Affairs Section, 1945, and the Engineer Section, 1945-46 and records of the Theater Censor, 1943-45. Correspondence and reports of the Pacific Warfare Board, 1944-45.

    Maps (reallocated to RG 496): Published maps of Japan, acquired from local sources, 1945-46 (5 items).

    338.5.11 Records of U.S. Army Forces, South Pacific Base Command

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 494): Records of general and special staff sections, 1942-46. Records relating to units formed in accordance with standard tables of organization and equipment ("T/O&E Units"), 1942-45.

    338.6 Records of Commands in the Western Hemisphere, Post World
    War II
    1942-64

    338.6.1 Records of U.S. Army, Alaska

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 547): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, ca. 1947-56, including central correspondence, issuances, and incoming and outgoing messages. Records of general and special staff sections, 1942-50 (bulk 1947-50), including administrative records of the Quartermaster Section, 1942-50.

    338.6.2 Records of U.S. Army, Caribbean

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 548): Records of headquarters, including correspondence, ca. 1947-51 defense plans, 1947-51 mission summaries and command reports, 1960-62 operations planning files, 1959-63 orders, 1962-63 operating program progress reports, 1957-60 and military assistance planning files, 1949- 63. Records of the U.S. Army Caribbean School, Ft. Gulick, Canal Zone, 1946-64.

    Maps (reallocated to RG 548): Published maps of American forts in the Panama Canal Zone, 1952-53 (11 items).

    Related Records: Records of Caribbean Command in RG 349, Records of Joint Commands.

    338.7 Records of Commands in Europe, Post World War II
    1933-64

    338.7.1 Records of European Command (EUCOM)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 549): Microfilm copy of decimal correspondence maintained by the Secretary of the General Staff, 1947-52 (19 rolls). Reports of operations, 1947. Records of general and special staff sections, 1942-52, including G-2 (Intelligence) Division interrogation reports on German and Italian prisoners of war and persons in the Soviet Union or Soviet-controlled countries, 1942-49.

    Maps: Published road maps of countries in western Europe, intended for EUCOM headquarters use, 1946-59 (1946-52 maps reallocated to RG 549. 1953-59 maps reallocated to RG 531.)(18 items).

    338.7.2 Records of U.S. Army, Europe (USAEUR)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 549): Records of the War Crimes Branch of the Judge Advocate General Section, including general administrative records, 1942-57 records relating to pre-trial activities, 1944- 51, extradition, 1945-52, and medical experiments, 1933-47 war crimes case files ("Cases Tried"), 1945-59 (212 ft.) war crimes case files ("Cases Not Tried"), 1944-48 (195 ft.) Malmedy Case indexes to defendants and military companies, n.d. German- created name lists, information cards, and indexes to inmates at Buchenwald and Zweiberge Concentration Camps, 1943-45 location and identity cards for witnesses, 1947-48 indexes to war crimes case files, n.d., and witnesses and defendants in war crimes cases, 1946-48 card lists of members of the German 1st SS Panzer Regiment, n.d., suspects and defendants in war crimes cases, n.d., and prisoners requesting clemency or parole, 1952-57 summary sheets on prisoners ("Identification of Prisoners Sheets"), 1945-48 records relating to War Criminal Prison No. 1, Landsberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1947-57 records relating to parolees ("Parolee Case Files"), 1945-58, and executed prisoners ("Executee Files"), 1946-51 and records relating to post-trial activities, 1945-57. Records of general and special staff sections, 1952-64. Records of Army Communications Zone, Europe, 1950-64.

    Motion Pictures (51 reels) (reallocated to RG 549): Compiled by the War Crimes Branch, Judge Advocate General Section, ca. 1945-47, consisting mainly of concentration camp scenes (including scenes at the Hadamar and Buchenwald camps), and showing identification of victims, reburial of remains, liberation of camp internees, and visits by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Also includes newsreels from the German series, Degeto Weltspiegel (Degeto World Mirror).

    Sound Recordings (reallocated to RG 549): Compiled by the War Crimes Branch, Judge Advocate General Section, ca. 1944, consisting of eyewitness testimony (including that of Pvt. William F. Reem and T/5 Charles Appman) concerning specific incidents connected with the murder of American prisoners of war on May 30, June 8, and December 18, 1944 (4 items).

    Glass Slides (reallocated to RG 549): Exhumed human skeletons, mass graves, and a castle, ca. 1946-48 (WC, 18 images).

    338.7.3 Records of U.S. Forces in Austria

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 260): Central decimal correspondence maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1946-47. Records of general and special staff sections, 1944-56, including reports, intelligence summaries, and investigative files of the G-2 (Intelligence) Section. Final report of the High Commissioner, 1950.

    Map (reallocated to RG 260): Town plan of Gmunden, Austria, 1947 (1 item).

    338.7.4 Records of Vienna Area Command

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 260): Central correspondence, issuances, and other general records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1946- 48. Miscellaneous records, 1946-48.

    338.7.5 Records of Berlin Command/Brigade

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 549): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1946-48, including central decimal correspondence and reports of investigations. Records of boards, 1946-48.

    338.7.6 Records of Trieste United States Troops (TRUST)

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 331): General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1946-54, including correspondence, messages, and command reports. Correspondence of the G-2 (Intelligence) Section, 1951-52.

    338.8 Records of Commands in the Pacific, Post World War II
    1944-72

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 550): Records of Army Ground Forces, Pacific, 1944-48, including central decimal correspondence and issuances maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1947. Records of U.S. Army, Pacific (USARPAC), including central decimal correspondence maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1947-49 records of general and special staff sections, 1949-50 and history and command reporting files, 1950-72. Records of U.S. Army, Hawaii, including correspondence, 1957-63 organizational planning records, 1959-62 and military history files, 1959-63. General records of U.S. Army, Japan, 1957-63, including records relating to the Broadcast and Visual Activity, Pacific, 1957-61.

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 554): Records of Far East Command, including records of general and special staff sections, 1946-52. Records of U.S. Army Forces, Far East (AFFE), including records of general and special staff sections, 1952-57. Records of Japan Logistical Command, 1949-52, consisting of correspondence, general and special staff section records, and command reports. Command reports, investigations, and other records of Yokohama Command, 1947-51. General and special staff section records of Marianas-Bonins Command, 1947-52. Records of Ryukyus Command (RYCOM), including central decimal files, 1946-53 a record set of issuances, 1952 organizational planning records, 1951-52 and reports of the Joint Facilities Board, 1947. Records of the Enemy Property Custodian, Philippines Command, 1944-49. Records of general and special staff sections of Philippines-Ryukyus Command, 1946-49. Records of U.S. Army Forces in Korea (USAFIK), 1945-49. Prisoner of war files of the Korean Communications Zone, 1950-55.

    Maps (reallocated to RG 550): Published maps, compiled by USARPAC, showing locations of army, navy, and air force facilities on Oahu, HI, 1951-54 (2 items).

    Posters (reallocated to RG 554): Produced by the Office of Troop Information and Education, AFFE, illustrating the troop information program, 1954-57 (EP, 151 items), and current events ("This Week's News"), 1954-56 (NP, 153 items).

    338.9 RECORDS OF ARMIES
    1925-66

    338.9.1 Records of First Army

    Textual Records: General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, including central correspondence, 1940-50 issuances, 1946-50 and records of the Civilian Personnel Division, 1946-50. Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations), 1944-48 (bulk 1944-45), including messages, 1944-45 operations reports, 1943-44 field orders and letters of instruction, 1944-45 daily journals, 1945 G-3 reports ("Periodic Reports"), 1945 air mission reports, 1945 report of observations of Fifth U.S. Army in Italy, 1944 situation reports, 1945 tabular schedules of U.S. troop movements from Great Britain to France ("Build-Up Priority Tables With Amendments"), 1944 and operations plans, 1943-45. Records of the Offices of the Assistant Chiefs of Staff, G-1 (Personnel), 1944-45 G-2 (Intelligence), 1943-45 G-4 (Logistics), 1944 and G-5 (Civil Affairs), 1944. Records of the Artillery Section, 1944-45 Chemical Section, 1936-47, including chemical warfare intelligence bulletins, 1945 Engineer Section, 1944-51, including records relating to the Siegfried Line, 1944-45 Finance Officer, 1940-42 Medical Section, 1946-50 Ordnance Section, 1944-45, including reports on the rental and occupancy of foreign property Public Information Office, 1931-48 Quartermaster Section, 1944-50, including general correspondence, 1944-46 Signal Section, 1942-45 and Transportation Section, 1942-50. Maneuver Headquarters reports of maneuvers and command post exercises, 1936-41. Records of Special Troops, including general records of Headquarters Special Troops, 1946-48 general correspondence of 4th Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 1944-45 and general correspondence of 12th, 28th, 35th, and 39th Headquarters and Headquarters Detachments, 1945-46. Reports of military government detachments, 1944-45. First Army organizational records, 1948-68.

    338.9.2 Records of Second Army

    Textual Records: General correspondence, 1940-46. General records of the following special staff sections: Inspector General, 1941- 46 Medical, 1944-46 and Quartermaster, 1941-46. Records of the Signal Section, consisting of general correspondence, 1945-46 and records relating to communications security, 1943-45. Records of the Medical Casual Detachment, 1943. Records of the Maneuver Director's Headquarters, 1943-44. Records of Special Troops, consisting of records of Headquarters Special Troops, 1946-47 and memorandums, issuances, and other records, 1942-46, of the following Headquarters and Headquarters Detachments: 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th-9th, 11th-13th, 16th, 17th, 19th, 21st-26th, 29th, 30th, and 33d. Second Army organizational records, 1945-65.

    338.9.3 Records of Third Army

    Textual Records: General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, including central correspondence, 1932-47 and letters received, 1946. Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Intelligence), consisting of general correspondence, 1944-47 and outgoing messages, 1946-47. Reports and outgoing messages of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations), 1945-47. Periodic reports of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 (Logistics), 1944-46. Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 (Civil Affairs), consisting of incoming and outgoing messages, 1944-45 reports of military government detachments in France, Luxembourg, and Belgium, 1944-45 and reports of operations of the Civil Affairs Section, 1945-46. Records of the Antiaircraft Artillery Section, consisting of general correspondence, 1942-46 and reports, 1944-45. Daily situation reports of the Engineer Section, 1944-45. Records of the Inspector General Section, consisting of reports of investigations, 1942-47 and correspondence relating to and reports of unit annual inspections, 1940-44. Special court-martial case files of the Judge Advocate General Section, 1943-46. Messages and memorandums of the Graves Registration Service, Quartermaster Section, relating to burials, 1944-45. Messages and reports of the Signal Section, 1944-47. Operations reports and related records of the Director's Headquarters, Third Army Maneuver Area, 1936-44. Records of Special Troops, consisting of general correspondence of Headquarters Special Troops, 1944-46 general orders of 3d Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 1943 and records of 8th Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 1942-43. After- action reports of III Corps, February 1945. Third Army organizational records, 1951-66.

    338.9.4 Records of Fourth Army

    Textual Records: Central correspondence maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1934-47. Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations) relating to joint army-navy defense plans and exercises, 1925-35. General correspondence of the Provisional Administrative Detachment, 1943-45. Records of Headquarters and Headquarters Detachments, Special Troops, 1942-47. Records of consolidated Headquarters Fourth Army and Western Defense Command, including general correspondence, weekly activity reports, issuances, and orders, maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1940-46 situation reports, reports of Japanese balloon sightings, intelligence summaries, and other records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, (Intelligence), 1941-46 miscellaneous records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations), 1942-45 daily journal of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 (Logistics), Northern California Sector, 1940-43 memorandums of the Ordnance Section, 1941-46 general correspondence, surface craft detection station status reports, diaries, journals, and logs of the Signal Section, 1941-46 and general correspondence of the Ninth Coast Artillery District, 1940-43. Fourth Army organizational records, 1944-64.

    338.9.5 Records of Fifth Army

    Textual Records: Central correspondence maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1942-45. Correspondence maintained by the Secretary of the General Staff, 1944-45. Correspondence of the Chief of Staff, Western Task Force, 1942-43 and the Chief of Staff, 1943-45. Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Intelligence), including records relating to the invasion of Spanish Morocco, 1943 numbered and miscellaneous reports, 1943-45 numbered weekly intelligence summaries, 1943- 45 and miscellaneous records, 1941-45. Court reports and appointment orders compiled by the Judge Advocate General Section, 1943-45. Records of the Inspector General Section, including case reports, 1943-45 investigations reports from subordinate units, 1943-45 and inspection reports and policy memorandums, 1943-45. Memorials and burial reports of the Graves Registration Service, Quartermaster Section, 1944-45. Correspondence and action reports of the Antiaircraft Artillery Section, 1944-45. Correspondence and reports of the Engineer Section, 1943-45. Reports of the Ordnance Section concerning bomb disposal activities, 1943-45 and weapons intelligence, 1944-45. Correspondence and reports of the Liaison Section in Morocco, 1942-43 and the Liaison Section in Italy, 1944-45. Histories of various units, 1942-45. Fifth Army organizational records, 1944- 64.

    Photographic Prints: II Corps activities in northern Italy, 1944-45 (FA, 1,500 images).

    338.9.6 Records of Sixth Army

    Textual Records: Correspondence and events journals of the Chief of Staff, 1943-45. General correspondence of the G-1 (Personnel) Section, 1944-45. Records of the G-2 (Intelligence) Section, including assessment reports and related records, 1944-45 and card files on the Japanese military establishment, 1943-45, containing unit histories, unit code names and numbers, home designations, information on units on Luzon during the Philippines campaign, and biographies of leading military figures. Records of the G-3 (Operations) Section, including general correspondence, 1943-46 and a journal of the Philippines campaign, 1944-45. Records of the G-4 (Logistics) Section, consisting of general correspondence, 1943-45 and a campaign journal, 1945. Sixth Army organizational records, 1946-66.

    338.9.7 Records of Seventh Army

    Textual Records: Records of general and special staff sections, 1941-46, including orders and investigative records of the Inspector General Section, 1941-46 and decimal correspondence of the Chemical Warfare Section, 1942-46. Seventh Army organizational records, 1950-66.

    338.9.8 Records of Eighth Army

    Textual Records: Central decimal correspondence, 1945-53. Records of general and special staff sections, 1944-53, including records of the Military History Section, 1948-53. Operations planning files, 1945-51. Eighth Army organizational records, 1953-63.

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 554): Records relating to Sugamo Prison, including personnel files of prisoners and prison journals, 1945-52.

    Maps: Published route maps of North and South Korea, 1951-52 (2 items). Railways in communist Far East, 1957 (1 item).

    Maps (reallocated to RG 554): Map of United Nations airfields in South Korea, 1954 (1 item).

    338.9.9 Records of Ninth Army

    Textual Records: Central decimal correspondence, and incoming and outgoing messages, maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1944-45. Records of general and special staff sections, 1944-45, including combat medical statistical reports and military police records.

    338.9.10 Records of Tenth Army

    Textual Records: Incoming messages, 1945. Records of general and special staff sections, 1944-45.

    338.9.11 Records of Fifteenth Army

    Textual Records: General records maintained by the Adjutant General Section, 1944-46, including central decimal correspondence, incoming and outgoing messages, and memorandums. Reports relating to prisoners of war, ca. 1944-46. Records of general and special staff sections, 1944-46.

    338.10 Records of Other Commands
    1940-70

    338.10.1 Records of corps

    Textual Records: Central correspondence, incoming and outgoing messages, issuances, records of general and special staff sections, and other records, of the following corps: I, 1941-45 I Armored, 1941-43 II, 1941-45, 1957-65 III, 1942-46, 1951-66 IV, 1940-45, 1958-67 V, 1940-45, 1949-66 VI, 1940-50, 1957-68 VII, 1941-45, 1953-66 VIII, 1940-45, 1958-62 IX, 1940-47 X, 1941-46, 1958-66 XI, 1942-46, 1958-65 XII, 1942-45, 1958-66 XIII, 1942-45, 1954-65 XIV, 1942-45, 1958-67 XV, 1942-46, 1951- 52, 1958-66 XVI, 1941-45, 1954-67 XVIII, 1942-45 XVIII Airborne, 1951-63 XIX, 1942-45, 1959-66 XX, 1942-46, 1956-66 XXI, 1941-45, 1957-63 XXII, 1941-45 XXIII, 1943-46 and XXIV, 1944-45.

    338.10.2 Records of subordinate commands

    Textual Records: Unit histories and other records of divisions, brigades, groups, regiments, and miscellaneous army organizations, 1940-70.

    338.11 Records of Support Elements
    1917-92 (bulk 1950-70)

    338.11.1 Records of activities

    Textual Records (reallocated to various record groups): Records of the General Support Maintenance Activity, Loring Air Force Base, ME, 1965 (in Boston). Records of the U.S. Army Medical and Optical Maintenance Activity, St. Louis, MO, 1955-61 (in Kansas City). Records of the Rio Vista Marine Storage Activity, Rio Vista, CA, 1953-61 (in San Francisco). General orders of the U.S. Army Transportation Corps Road Test Support Activity, Ottawa, IL, 1959 (in Chicago). General orders of the Ordnance Field Activity, Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, IL, 1961 (in Chicago). Unit histories and operating program progress reports of the Lordstown Storage Activity, Warren, OH, 1956-57 (in Chicago). Research and development case and report files, and log, of the General Equipment Test Activity, Fort Lee, VA, 1957-60, 1965 (in Philadelphia). Records (in Philadelphia) of the Curtis Bay, MD, Storage Activity, subdepot of Letterkenny Ordnance Depot, Chambersburg, PA, consisting of general orders, 1951-52, 1954-55 management improvement records, 1952-53 organizational planning records, 1951, 1955 daily journal ("Post Diary"), 1951-57 unit histories, 1917-55 and research and development technical files, 1947-56. Records (in Philadelphia) of the Delaware Storage Activity, Raritan Arsenal, NJ, consisting of general correspondence, 1955 general orders, 1951-52, 1954-55 organizational planning records, 1952, 1955 regulations, 1953 and management improvement records, 1952-53. Issuances of the Hughes Plant Activity, Culver City, CA, 1972-73 (in Los Angeles).

    338.11.2 Records of advisory groups

    Textual Records: Records (in Boston) of U.S. Army Advisory Group, CT, 1957-60, 1962-63 ME, 1958-64 MA, 1957-64 NH, 1951-52, 1957-63 and RI, 1958-64. Issuances (in Chicago) of U.S. Army Advisory Group, IL, 1957-66, 1969 IN, 1957-64 MI, 1957-61 MN, 1957-65 and WI, 1957-60, 1965-66. Records, 1950-64 (in Fort Worth), of U.S. Army Advisory Groups, AR, LA, NM, OK, and TX. Subject files (in Kansas City) of U.S. Army Advisory Group, IA, 1957-63 KS, 1951-52 MO, 1959-63 and NE, 1958-61. General orders of U.S. Army Advisory Group, AZ, 1955-63 (in Los Angeles). General orders (in Philadelphia) of U.S. Army Advisory Group, DE, 1957-61 MD, 1958-62, 1964 PA, 1948-52, 1954, 1958-63 VA, 1957- 65 and WV, 1959.

    338.11.3 Records of agencies

    Textual Records (pre-1962 records reallocated to various record groups, later records reallocated to RG 544): Records (in Los Angeles) of the Los Angeles Procurement Agency, Pasadena, CA, including installation historical records, 1946-69 records concerning investigations, 1959-69 organizational planning records, 1965-69 organization management files, 1966-69 and issuances, 1966-69. Records (in Atlanta) of the Atlanta (GA) District, Southern Region, U.S. Army Audit Agency, consisting of field command operating program records, 1965-66 and issuances, 1960-65. Operating budget records of the U.S. Army Procurement Agency, Chicago, IL, 1966-69 (in Chicago).

    338.11.4 Records of depots

    Textual Records (pre-1962 records reallocated to various record groups, later records reallocated to RG 544): Historical records of the Decatur Signal Depot, Decatur, IL, compiled by the Public Information Office, 1948-61 (in Chicago). Records (in Chicago) of the Lordstown Ordnance Depot, Warren, OH, consisting of installation planning board files, 1946-47, 1951-56 and unit histories, 1956. Records (in Kansas City) of the Sioux Depot, Sidney, NE, consisting of general orders, 1952-62 facilities control records, 1951-57 manuals, 1952-62 newspapers, 1951-52 records concerning operating procedures, 1951-62 organizational planning records, 1952-62 and unit histories, 1954-59. Records (in Kansas City) of the St. Louis (MO) Medical Depot, consisting of conference records, 1952 facilities control records, 1952 installation historical files, 1955 and manuals, 1955. General orders of the 593d Engineer Depot, 1952 (in Kansas City). General correspondence, general orders, organizational planning records, and historical records, 1940-63 (in Seattle), of the Auburn (WA) General Depot 445th Quartermaster Depot, Fort Lawton, WA Mt. Rainier Ordnance Depot, Tacoma, WA Seattle Quartermaster Depot, Seattle, WA and Umatilla Depot, Hermiston, WA.

    338.11.5 Records of hospitals

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 112, in Los Angeles): Records of the Fort Huachuca, AZ, Fort MacArthur, CA, and Fort Irwin, CA, Army Hospitals, 1953- 63.

    338.11.6 Records of laboratories

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 544): Records of the Natick (MA) Laboratory, consisting of mutual weapons development data exchange agreements, 1959-69 management survey case files, 1958-67 technical report record files, 1947-72 historian's background materials, 1941-66 general orders, 1961-69 operating program progress report files, 1944-69 five-year programming files, 1964-68 regulatory publications, 1964-65 operating budget records, 1962-71 a history of the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Field Facility and Quartermaster Test Activity, Maynard, MA, 1960 activation records of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, 1961-64 research and development project control files, 1952-65, and administrative records, 1956-65 and organizational planning records, 1958-66. Technical reports of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories, Hanover, NH, 1968-70 (in Boston).

    338.11.7 Records of organizations concerned with prisoner of war and missing in action information

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 389): Subject files of Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 22d U.S. Army Prisoner of War/Civilian Internee Information Center, 1949-74. Records of the U.S. Army Office of Prisoner of War/Missing in Action (POW/MIA) Affairs, consisting of documents released by the Task Force 250 POW/MIA Documentation Project, 1991-92.

    338.11.8 Records of schools

    Textual Records: Records of the Food Service School, Fort George G. Meade, MD, 1954 (reallocated to RG 92, in Philadelphia). Records of the Medical Service Veterinary School, Chicago, IL, 1957-63 (reallocated to RG 112, in Chicago) and the Fifth Army Area Food Service School, Fort Sheridan, IL, 1951-52 (in Chicago).

    338.11.9 Records of transportation zones

    Textual Records (reallocated to RG 336): Records (in Philadelphia) of the First Transportation Zone, Pittsburgh, PA, consisting of general orders, 1952, 1954, 1956 organizational planning records, 1952, 1954-55 conference files, 1954-55 and unit histories, 1953-55. Central decimal correspondence of the Chief of Transportation, Third Transportation Zone, St. Louis-Kansas City, MO, 1952-56 (in Kansas City).

    338.11.10 Records of other support elements

    Textual Records: Organizational history records of the Army and Engineer Board, U.S. Army Test and Experimentation Command (TEXCOM), 1940-90 (reallocated to RG 553). Security-classified records relating to the destruction of biological weapons at the Pine Bluff Arsenal, AR, 1970-73 (reallocated to RG 544, in Philadelphia). Issuances of the U.S. Army Electronics Support Command, Philadelphia, PA, 1966-68 (reallocated to RG 544, in Philadelphia). International Logistics Program requirements files of the International Logistics Directorate, Philadelphia, PA, 1967-68, 1970 (reallocated to RG 544, in Philadelphia). Correspondence and issuances of the Southwestern Traffic Region, Military Traffic and Terminal Service, 1962-65 (reallocated to RG 552, in Fort Worth).

    Architectural Plans: Arlington Hall Station, Arlington VA, 1942-86, from the Intelligence and Security Command (1,820 items). Yongsan Military Reservation buildings, South Korea, 1952-53, from Headquarters Engineer Construction Group (56 items).

    338.12 Motion Pictures (General)
    1940, 1956, 1975

    Troop maneuvers, training, and other activity at Fort Bliss, TX, ca. 1940 (2 reels). Anniversary events, 601st Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion, 1956 (1 reel). Construction and operation of the Refugee Reception Center for Southeast Asian Refugees, Eglin Air Force Base, FL, 1975 (1 reel).

    388.13 Sound Recordings (General)
    1943-45, 1956

    Japanese prisoner of war interviews, 1943-45 (107 items). Interview with Commander, Battery D, 601st Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion, part of the Army Hour series, 1956 (1 item).

    338.14 Machine-Readable Records (General)
    1968-70

    Combat Operations Losses and Expenditures Data (COLED-V), 1968- 70, with supporting documentation (6 data sets).

    338.15 Still Pictures (General)
    1986-93

    Posters: U.S. Army recruiting posters, 1986-93 (RP, 50 images).

    Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
    3 volumes, 2428 pages.

    This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


    Contents

    With the outbreak of World War I, troops of the National Guard were formed into the units which exist today, with the Colorado Guard forming the 157th Infantry Regiment, the Arizona Guard forming the 158th Infantry Regiment, and the New Mexico Guard forming the 120th Engineer Regiment. These units were attached to the 40th Infantry Division and deployed to France where they were used as "depot" forces to provide replacements for front-line units. They returned home at the end of the war. Α] The Oklahoma Guard units that would later become the 179th Infantry Regiment and 180th Infantry Regiment were assigned to the 36th Infantry Division and would earn a combat participation credit during the Meuse-Argonne campaign in France as the 142nd Infantry. Β]

    Inter-war years [ edit | edit source ]

    1923–1940 "Square" Organization Γ]

    On 19 October 1920, the Oklahoma State militia was organized as the 45th Infantry Division of the Oklahoma Army National Guard, and manned with troops from Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Δ] The division was formed and federally recognized as a National Guard unit on 3 August 1923 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Ε] It was assigned the 89th Infantry Brigade of the Colorado and Arizona National Guards, and the 90th Infantry Brigade of the Oklahoma National Guard. Ζ] As a consequence of these militia roots, when the division was properly organized, many of its members were marksmen and outdoorsmen from the remote frontier regions of the Southwestern United States. Η] The division's first commander was Major General Baird H. Markham. ⎖]

    The 45th Infantry Division engaged in regular drills but no major events in its first few years, though the division's Colorado elements were called in to help quell a large coal mining strike. ⎗] The onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s severely curtailed its funding for training and equipment. Major General Roy Hoffman took command in 1931, followed by Alexander M. Tuthill, Alexander E. McPherren in 1935, and William S. Key in 1936. ⎖] In 1937, the division's troops were once again called up, this time to help manage a locust plague affecting Colorado. ⎗]

    Before the 1930s, the division's symbol was a red square with a yellow swastika, a tribute to the large Native American population in the southwestern United States.

    The division's original shoulder sleeve insignia, approved in August 1924, ⎘] featured a swastika , a common Native American symbol, as a tribute to the Southwestern United States region which had a large population of Native Americans. However, with the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany, with its infamous swastika symbol , the 45th Division stopped using the insignia. ⎙] Following a long process of submissions for new designs, a new shoulder sleeve insignia, designed by a Carnegie, Oklahoma native named Woody Big Bow, ⎚] featuring the Thunderbird, another Native American symbol, was approved in 1939. Ώ]

    In August 1941, the 45th Infantry Division took part in the Louisiana Maneuvers, the largest peacetime exercises in U.S. military history. ⎛] It was assigned to VIII Corps with the 2nd Infantry Division and the 36th Infantry Division, camped near Pitkin, Louisiana. ⎜] Still operating with outmoded equipment from World War I, the division did not perform well during these exercises. ⎝] With poor weather and bad equipment, the undertrained 45th Infantry Division was criticized by officers who considered it "feeble". ⎜] In spite of these deficiencies, less than one month later, the men were recalled to the active duty force, much to their chagrin, because of concerns of an impending U.S. entry into World War II. ⎛]

    World War II [ edit | edit source ]

    A monument at the University of North Texas commemorating the 45th Infantry Division's time in Texas as it trained at Camp Barkeley in 1940.

    On 16 September 1941, the 45th Infantry Division was federalized from state control into the regular army force. Ε] It was one of four National Guard divisions to be federalized, alongside the 30th Infantry Division, the 41st Infantry Division and the 44th Infantry Division, originally for a one-year period. ⎞] Its men immediately began basic combat training at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. ⎟] Throughout 1942, it continued this training at Camp Barkeley, Texas, ⎠] before moving to Fort Devens, Massachusetts, to undergo amphibious assault training in preparation for an invasion of Italy. ⎡] It then moved to Pine Camp, New York briefly for winter warfare training, but was hampered by continuously poor weather. In January 1943 it moved to Fort Pickett, Virginia, for its final training. ⎢]

    The division's two combat commands, the 89th and 90th Brigades, were not activated, as the Army favored smaller and more versatile regimental commands for the new conflict. Ζ] The 45th Infantry Division was instead based around the 157th, 179th, and 180th Infantry Regiments. ⎣] Also assigned to the division were the 158th, 160th, 171st, and 189th Field Artillery Battalions, the 45th Signal Company, the 700th Ordnance Company, the 45th Quartermaster Company, the 45th Reconnaissance Troop, the 120th Engineer Combat Battalion, and the 120th Medical Battalion. ⎣]

    Sicily [ edit | edit source ]

    1942–1963 "Triangular" Organization ⎤]

    • HQ 45th Infantry Division
    • 157th Infantry Regiment
    • 179th Infantry Regiment
    • 180th Infantry Regiment
    • 45th Division Artillery
      • 158th Field Artillery Battalion
      • 160th Field Artillery Battalion
      • 189th Field Artillery Battalion

      The division sailed for the Mediterranean region on 8 June 1943, combat loaded. ⎡] By the time the 45th Division landed in North Africa on 22 June 1943, the Allies had largely secured the African theater. As a result the division was not sent into combat upon arrival and instead commenced training at Arzew, French Morocco, ⎥] in preparation for the invasion of Sicily. Allied intelligence estimated that the island was defended by approximately 230,000 troops, the majority of which were drawn mostly from weak Italian formations and two German divisions which had been reconstituted after being destroyed earlier. Against this, the Allies planned to land 180,000 troops, ⎦] including the 45th Division, which was assigned to II Corps of the Seventh United States Army for the operation. ⎧]

      The division was subsequently assigned a lead role in the amphibious assault on Sicily, coming ashore on 10 July. ⎨] ⎩] Landing near Scoglitti, the southernmost U.S. objective on the island, the division advanced north on the U.S. force's eastern flank. ⎪] After initially encountering resistance from armor of the German Herman Goering Division, the division advanced, supported by paratroopers of the 82nd Airborne Division who landed inland on 11 July. ⎫] The 82nd paratroopers, conducting their first combat jump of the war, then set up to protect the 45th's flank against German counterattack, but without weapons to counter heavy armor, the paratroopers had to rely on support from U.S. armored units to repulse the German Tiger I tanks. ⎫] As the division advanced towards its main objective to capture the airfields at Biscari and Comiso, German forces pushed back. ⎬] For most of the first two weeks while the division moved slowly north, it encountered only light resistance from Italian forces fighting delaying actions. ⎭] Italian and German forces resisted fiercely at Motta Hill on 26 July, however, and for four days the 45th Infantry Division was held up there. ⎮] After this, division was allocated to drive towards Messina, being ordered by General George S. Patton to cover the distance as quickly as possible. ⎯] It spent a few days in that city, but on 1 August, the division was withdrawn from the front line for rest and rear-guard patrol duty, ⎥] after which the division was assigned to VI Corps of the Fifth United States Army, in preparation for the invasion of mainland Italy. ⎰]

      Salerno [ edit | edit source ]

      Troops of the 45th Infantry Division in a transport bound for Sicily in June 1943.

      On 3 September, Italy surrendered to the Allied powers. Hoping to occupy as much of the country as possible before the German army could react, the Fifth Army prepared to attack Salerno. ⎱] On 10 September 1943, the division conducted its second landing at Agropoli and Paestum with the 36th Infantry Division, on the southernmost beaches of the attack. ⎰] Opposing them were elements of the German 29th Panzergrenadier Division and XVI Panzer Corps. ⎰] Against stiff resistance, the 45th pushed to the Calore River after a week of heavy fighting. ⎲] The Fifth Army was battered and pushed back by German forces until 20 September, when American forces were finally able to break out and establish a more secure beachhead. ⎰] ⎳] On 3 November it crossed the Volturno River and took Venafro. ⎲] The division had great difficulty moving across the rivers and through the mountainous terrain, and the advance was slow. After linking up with the British Eighth Army, which had advanced from the south, the combined force, under the Fifteenth Army Group, was stalled when it reached the Gustav Line. ⎴] Until 9 January 1944, the division inched forward into the mountains reaching St. Elia, north of Cassino, before moving to a rest area. ⎲]

      Anzio [ edit | edit source ]

      Chaplain Lt. Col. William King leads troops of the 45th in Christmas Day services in Italy, 25 December 1943

      Allied forces conducted a frontal assault on the Gustav Line stronghold at Monte Cassino, and VI Corps was assigned Operation Shingle, detached from the Army Group to land behind enemy lines at Anzio on 22 January. ⎵] For this mission, the 45th Infantry Division was given additional armored units. ⎶] Landing on schedule, VI Corps surprised the German forces, but Major General John P. Lucas's decision to consolidate the beachhead instead of attacking gave the Germans time to bring the LXXVI Panzer Corps forward to oppose the landings. ⎵] ⎷]

      On 30 January 1944, when VI Corps moved out, it encountered heavy resistance from German armored units which inflicted heavy casualties. ⎵] ⎸] The fight became a war of attrition, and for the next four months the division stood its ground during repeated German counterattacks. ⎲] The 45th Infantry Division was mostly stuck in place as the Pimlott Line was subjected to bombardment from aircraft and artillery fire. It was May before the Germans, reeling from heavy bombing and repeated attacks from the Fifteenth Army Group, began to withdraw. ⎹]

      On 23 May the division went on the offensive, crossing the Tiber River by 4 June and, in the process, outflanking Rome. VI Corps linked up with the rest of the Fifth Army by 25 May, and as the division crossed the river, the Fifth Army entered and captured Rome. ⎺] As a result, the 45th Infantry was the first military unit to enter the Vatican. On 16 June, it withdrew for rest in preparation for another assault. ⎲] During this time, VI Corps was attached to the Seventh United States Army, Sixth United States Army Group, ⎻] part of a buildup in preparation for an invasion of mainland Europe in southern France, called Operation Anvil, which was originally planned to coincide with Operation Overlord in the north. ⎼] The 45th, 36th and 3rd Infantry Divisions were pulled from the line in Italy to conduct Operation Anvil, but the attack was delayed until August because of a shortage of landing craft. ⎼]

      France and Germany [ edit | edit source ]

      Tactical map of Operation Dragoon

      The 45th Infantry Division participated in its fourth assault landing during Operation Dragoon on 15 August 1944, at St. Maxime, in Southern France. ⎲] The division landed its 157th and 180th regimental combat teams and captured the heights of the Chaines de Mar before meeting the 1st Special Service Force. ⎽] The German Army, reeling from the Battle of Normandy, pulled back after a short fight, part of an overall German withdrawal to the east following the landings. ⎾] ⎿] Soldiers of the 45th Infantry Division engaged the dispersed forces of German Army Group G, suffering very few casualties. ⎺] The Seventh Army, along with Free French forces, were able to advance north quickly. By 12 September, the Seventh Army linked up with the Third United States Army, advancing from Normandy, joining the two forces at Dijon. ⎼] Against slight opposition, it spearheaded the drive for the Belfort Gap. The 45th Infantry Division took the strongly defended city of Epinal on 24 September. ⎲] The division was then reassigned to V Corps for its next advance. ⎻] On 30 September the division crossed the Moselle River and entered the western foothills of the Vosges, taking Rambervillers. ⎲] It would remain in the area for a month waiting for other units to catch up before crossing the Mortagne River on 23 October. ⎲] The division remained on the line with the Sixth United States Army Group, the southernmost of three Army Groups advancing through France. ⏀]

      After the crossing was complete, the division was relieved from V Corps and assigned to XV Corps. ⎻] The division was allowed a one-month rest, resuming its advance on 25 November, attacking the forts north of Mutzig. These forts had been designed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1893 to block access to the plain of Alsace. The 45th Division next crossed the Zintzel River before pushing through the Maginot defenses. ⎲] During this time much of the division's artillery assets were attached to the 44th Infantry Division to provide additional support. ⏁] The 45th Infantry Division was reassigned to VI Corps on New Year's Day. ⎻] From 2 January 1945, the division fought defensively along the German border, withdrawing to the Moder River. ⎲] It sent half of its artillery to support the 70th Infantry Division. ⏁] On 17 February the division was pulled off the line for rest and training. Once this rest period was complete, the division was assigned to XV Corps for the final push into German territory. ⎻] The 45th moved north to the Sarreguemines area and smashed through the Siegfried Line, on 17 March taking Homburg on the 21st and crossing the Rhine between Worms and Hamm on the 26th. ⎲] The advance continued, with Aschaffenburg falling on 3 April, and Nuremberg on the 20th. ⎲] The division crossed the Danube River on 27 April, and liberated 32,000 captives of the Dachau concentration camp on 29 April 1945. ⎲] The division captured Munich during the next two days, occupying the city until V-E Day and the surrender of Germany. ⏂] During the next month, the division remained in Munich and set up collection points and camps for the massive numbers of surrendering troops of the German armies. The number of POWs taken by the 45th Division during its almost two years of fighting totalled 124,840 men. ⎲] The division was then slated to move to the Pacific theater of operations to participate in the invasion of mainland Japan on the island of Honshu, but these plans were scrubbed before the division could depart after the surrender of Japan, on V-J Day. ⏃]

      Criminal allegations [ edit | edit source ]

      After the war, courts-martial were convened to investigate possible war crimes by members of the division. In the first case, dubbed the Biscari massacre, American troops from C Company, 180th Infantry Regiment, were alleged to have shot 74 Italian and two German prisoners in Acate in July 1943 following the capture of an airfield in the area. Patton asked General Omar Bradley to get the case dismissed to prevent bad press, but Bradley refused. A non-commissioned officer later confessed to the crimes and was found guilty, but an officer who claimed he had only been following orders was acquitted. ⏄] ⏅] ⏆]

      Dead German troops near Dachau Concentration Camp, allegedly killed in the Dachau massacre in 1945.

      In a second incident, the Army considered court-martialling several officers of the 157th Infantry Regiment under Lieutenant Colonel Felix L. Sparks after servicemen were accused of massacring German soldiers who were surrendering at the Dachau concentration camp in 1945. Some of the German troops were camp guards the others were sick and wounded troops from a nearby hospital. The soldiers of the 45th Division who liberated the camp were outraged at the malnourishment and maltreatment of the 32,000 prisoners they liberated, some barely alive, and all victims of the Holocaust. After entering the camp, the soldiers found boxcars filled with dead bodies of prisoners who had succumbed to starvation or last-minute executions, and in rooms adjacent to gas chambers they found naked bodies piled from the floor to the ceiling. ⏇] The cremation ovens, which were still in operation when the soldiers arrived, contained bodies and skeletons as well. Some of the victims apparently had died only hours before the 45th Division entered the camp, while many others lay where they had died in states of decomposition that overwhelmed the soldiers' senses. ⏈] Accounts conflict over what happened and over how many German troops were killed. After investigating the incident, the Army considered court-martialling several officers involved, but Patton successfully intervened. Some veterans of the 45th Infantry Division have said that only 30 to 50 German soldiers were killed and that very few were killed trying to surrender, while others have admitted to killing or refusing to treat wounded German guards. ⏉]

      After the war [ edit | edit source ]

      During World War II, the 45th Division fought in 511 days of combat. ⎥] Eight soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor during their service with the 45th Infantry Division: Van T. Barfoot, ⏊] Ernest Childers, ⏋] Almond E. Fisher, ⏌] William J. Johnston, ⏍] Jack C. Montgomery, ⏎] James D. Slaton, ⏋] Jack Treadwell, ⏏] and Edward G. Wilkin. ⏐] Soldiers of the division also received 61 Distinguished Service Crosses, three Distinguished Service Medals, 1,848 Silver Star Medals, 38 Legion of Merit medals, 59 Soldier's Medals, 5,744 Bronze Star Medals, and 52 Air Medals. The division received seven distinguished unit citations and eight campaign streamers during the conflict. ⎥] The division suffered 3,650 killed in action, 13,729 wounded in action, 3,615 missing in action, 266 captured, and 41,647 non-battle casualties for a total of 62,907 casualties during the war. ⏑]

      Most of the division returned to New York in September 1945, and from there went to Camp Bowie, Texas. On 7 December 1945, the division was deactivated from the active duty force and its members reassigned to other Army units. The following year, on 10 September 1946, the 45th Infantry Division was reconstituted as a National Guard unit. ⏒] Instead of comprising units from several states, the post-war 45th was an all-Oklahoma organization. ⏓] During this time the division was also reorganized and as a part of this process the 157th Infantry was removed from the division's order of battle and replaced with the 279th Infantry Regiment. ⏔]

      During this time, the U.S. Army underwent a drastic reduction in size. At the end of World War II, it contained 89 divisions, but by 1950, there were just 10 active divisions in the force, along with a few reserve divisions such as the 45th Infantry Division which were combat-ineffective. ⏕] The division retained many of its best officers as senior commanders as the force downsized, and it enjoyed a good relationship with its community. The 45th in this time was regarded as one of the better-trained National Guard divisions. ⏖] Regardless, by mid-1950 the division had only 8,413 troops, less than 45 percent [n 1] of its full-strength authorization. ⏗] Only 10 percent of the division's officers and 5 percent of its enlisted men had combat experience with the division from World War II. ⏘]

      Korean War [ edit | edit source ]

      At the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950, the U.S. Army looked to expand its force again to prepare for major conflict. Positioned to oppose the North Korean People's Army alongside the Republic of Korea Army as hostilities began were four understrength U.S. divisions on occupation duty in Japan. These were the 7th Infantry Division, the 1st Cavalry Division, the 24th Infantry Division, and the 25th Infantry Division, which were all under the control of the Eighth United States Army. Due to drastic reductions in U.S. military spending following the end of World War II, these divisions were equipped with antiquated weaponry and suffered from a shortage of anti-armor weapons capable of penetrating the hulls of the North Korean T-34 tanks. ⏙] ⏚]

      Reinforcement pool [ edit | edit source ]

      Initially, the division was used to provide a pool of reinforcements for the divisions which had been sent to the Korean War theater, and in January 1951 it provided 650 enlisted fillers for overseas service. Later that month, it was given 4,006 new recruits for its three infantry regiments and artillery assets, and each unit created a 14-week training program to prepare these new soldiers for combat. ⏛] Because of heavy casualties and slow reinforcement rates, the Army looked to the National Guard to provide additional units to relieve the beleaguered Eighth Army. At the time, the 45th Infantry Division was comprised overwhelmingly of high school students or recent graduates and only about 60 percent of its divisional troops had conducted training and drills with the division for a year or more. Additionally, only about 20 percent of its personnel had prior experience of military service from World War II. ⏜] Nevertheless, the division was one of four National Guard divisions identified as being among the most prepared for combat based on the effectiveness of its equipment, training, and leadership. ⏝] As a result, in February 1951, the 45th Infantry Division was alerted that it would sail for Japan. ⏞]

      In preparation for the deployment, the division was sent to Fort Polk, Louisiana, to begin training and to fill its ranks. ⏟] After its basic training was complete, the division was sent to Japan in April 1951 for advanced training and to act as a reserve force for the Eighth United States Army, then fighting in Korea. ⏠] The involvement of the National Guard in the fighting in Korea was further expanded when the 40th Infantry Division of the California Army National Guard received warning orders for deployment as well. ⏡]

      Initial struggles [ edit | edit source ]

      A soldier of the 120th Engineer Battalion, 45th Infantry Division sets up camouflage net near the front lines in Korea in 1952.

      On 1 September 1950, the 45th Infantry Division was activated as the first National Guard division to be deployed to the Far East theater since World War II. ⏟] ⏢] Nevertheless, it was not deployed to Korea until December 1951, when its advanced training was complete. ⏠] ⏣] Following its arrival, the division moved to the front line to replace the 1st Cavalry Division, who were then delegated to the Far East reserve, having suffered over 16,000 casualties in less than 18 months of fighting. ⏤]

      Though the 45th remained de facto segregated as an all-white unit in 1950, ⏥] individual unit commanders went to great lengths to integrate reinforcements from different areas and ethnicity into their units. ⏦] By 1952, it was fully integrated. ⏧] Additionally, in an effort to reduce the burden on the National Guard, [n 2] troops from the division were often replaced by enlisted and drafted soldiers from the active duty force. When it arrived in Korea, only half the division's manpower were National Guard troops, and over 4,500 guardsmen left between May and July 1952, continually replaced by more active duty troops, including an increasing number of African Americans. ⏨] Though the division was no longer an "All-Oklahoma" unit, leaders opted to keep its designation as the 45th Infantry Division. ⏩] [n 3]

      By the time the division was in place, the battle lines on both sides had largely solidified, leaving the 45th Infantry Division in a stationary position as it conducted attacks and counterattacks for the same ground. ⏪] The division was put under the command of Eighth Army's I Corps for most of the conflict. ⏫] It was deployed around Chorwon and assigned to protect the key routes from that area into Seoul. The terrain was difficult and the weather was poor in the region. ⏬] The division suffered its first casualty on 11 December 1951. ⏭]

      Initially, the division did not fare well, though it improved quickly. ⏠] Its anti-aircraft and armor assets were used as mobile artillery, which continuously pounded Chinese positions. The 45th, in turn, was under constant artillery and mortar attack. ⏮] It also conducted constant small-unit patrols along the border seeking to engage Chinese outposts or patrols. These small-unit actions made up the majority of the division's combat in Korea. ⏯] Chinese troops were well dug-in and better trained than the troops of the inexperienced 45th, and it suffered casualties and frequently had to disengage when it was attacked. 𖏜]

      In the division's first few months on the line, Chinese forces conducted three raids in its sector. In retaliation, the 245th Tank Battalion sent nine tanks to raid Agok. ⏪] Two companies of Chinese forces ambushed and devastated a patrol from the 179th Infantry a short time later. ⏪] In the spring, the division launched Operation Counter, which was an effort to establish 11 patrol bases around Old Baldy Hill. The division then defended the hill against a series of Chinese assaults from the Chinese 38th Army. ⏪]

      Final engagements and the end of the war [ edit | edit source ]

      Map of the area surrounding Old Baldy Hill, which the division defended for much of its tour in Korea.

      The 45th Infantry Division, along with the 7th Infantry Division, fought off repeated Chinese attacks all along the front line throughout 1952, and Chinese forces frequently attacked Old Baldy Hill into the fall of that year. 𖏝] Around that time, the 45th Infantry Division relinquished command of Old Baldy Hill to the 2nd Infantry Division. Almost immediately the Chinese launched a concentrated attack on the hill, overrunning the U.S. forces. 𖏞] Heavy rainstorms prevented the divisions from retaking the hill for around a month, and when it was finally retaken it was heavily fortified to prevent further attacks. 𖏟] The 245th Tank Battalion was sent to assault Chinese positions throughout late 1952, but most of the division held a stationary defensive line against the Chinese. 𖏝]

      In early 1953, North Korean forces launched a large-scale attack against Hill 812, which was then under the control of K Company, 3rd Battalion, 179th Infantry. 𖏠] The ensuing Battle of Hill Eerie was one of a series of larger attacks by Chinese and North Korean forces which produced heavier fighting than the previous year had seen. These offensives were conducted largely in order to secure a better position during the ongoing truce negotiations. 𖏠] Chinese forces continued to mount concentrated attacks on the lines of the UN forces, including the 45th Infantry Division, but the division managed to hold most of its ground, remaining stationary until the end of the war in the summer of 1953. 𖏡]

      During the Korean War the 45th Infantry Division suffered 4,004 casualties, consisting of 834 killed in action and 3,170 wounded in action. ⏠] The division was awarded four campaign streamers and one Presidential Unit Citation. 𖏢] One soldier from the division, Charles George, was awarded the Medal of Honor while serving in Korea. 𖏣]

      After Korea [ edit | edit source ]

      Soldiers of the 45th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the successor organization to the 45th Infantry Division, hold a ceremony ahead of a deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom in February 2011.

      The division briefly patrolled the Korean Demilitarized Zone following the signing of the armistice ending the war, but most of its men returned home and reverted to National Guard status on 30 April 1954. ⏒] Its colors were returned to Oklahoma on 25 September of that year, formally ending the division's presence in Korea. ⏩]

      The division remained as a unit of the Oklahoma National Guard, and participated in no major actions throughout the rest of the 1950s save regular weekend and summer training exercises. In 1963, the formation was reorganized in accordance with the Reorganization Objective Army Divisions plan, which saw the establishment of a 1st, 2nd and 3rd Brigade within the division. These brigades would see no major deployments or events, and were deactivated five years later in 1968. 𖏤] That same year, due to the perceived lack of need for so many large formations in the Army National Guard, the 45th Infantry Division was deactivated, as part of a larger move to reduce the number of Army National Guard divisions from 15 to eight, while increasing the number of separate brigades from seven to 18. 𖏥] In its place, the independent 45th Infantry Brigade (Separate) was established. ⏒] 𖏦] The 45th Infantry Brigade received all of the 45th Division's lineage and heraldry, including its shoulder sleeve insignia. ΐ] Also activated from division assets were the 45th Field Artillery Group, later redesignated the 45th Fires Brigade, and the 90th Troop Command. 𖏧] 𖏨]


      The United States and the Holocaust

      Americans had access to reliable information about the Nazi regime’s persecution of Jews as it happened, but most could not imagine that a mass murder campaign was possible. Though most Americans sympathized with the plight of European Jews, assisting refugees and rescuing the victims of Nazism never became a national priority.

      Key Facts

      Domestic concerns in the United States, including unemployment and national security, combined with prevalent antisemitism and racism, shaped Americans’ responses to Nazism and willingness to aid European Jews.

      The United States and the other Allied nations prioritized military victory over humanitarian considerations during World War II. Saving Jews targeted for murder by the Nazi regime and its collaborators was not the Allies’ wartime aim.

      The United States admitted between 180,000 and 225,000 refugees who were fleeing Nazi persecution between 1933 and 1945. Although the United States permitted more refugees to enter than any other nation, thousands more could have been granted US immigration visas had the quotas been filled during this period.

      This content is available in the following languages

      The economic devastation of the Great Depression in the United States, combined with a commitment to neutrality and deeply held prejudices against immigrants, limited Americans’ willingness to welcome refugees.

      Neither President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration nor the US Congress adjusted America’s complicated and bureaucratic immigration process, which included quotas—numerical limits on the number of immigrants—to aid the hundreds of thousands of refugees trying to flee Europe. Instead, the US State Department implemented new restrictive measures during this period that made it more difficult for immigrants’ to enter the United States. Although the United States issued far fewer immigration visas than it could have during this period, it did admit more refugees fleeing Nazism than any other nation in the world.

      When World War II began in September 1939, most Americans hoped the United States would remain neutral. Over the next two years, amid ongoing debates between those who wanted the United States to stay out of war and focus on the defense of the Western Hemisphere (isolationists) and those who favored proactively assisting Great Britain, even if it meant entering the war (interventionists), the United States slowly began to support the Allied powers. Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, ended this debate. The United States quickly declared war on Japan, and Germany soon responded by declaring war on the United States.

      The United States joined the Allies’ fight against the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) in World War II to defend democracy, not to rescue Jewish victims of the Nazi regime. In January 1944, the US government created the War Refugee Board, charged with trying to rescue and provide relief for Jews and other minorities who were targeted by the Nazis. During the final year of the war, US rescue efforts saved tens of thousands of lives. In the spring of 1945, Allied forces, including millions of American soldiers defeated Nazi Germany and its Axis collaborators, ending the Holocaust.


      Postwar reconstruction and social upheavals, 1945–58

      During World War II, liberal and moderate Iraqi elements began to play an active political role. The entry of the United States and the Soviet Union into the war and their declarations in favour of democratic freedoms greatly enhanced the position of the Iraqi democratic elements. The people endured shortages and regulations restricting personal liberty and the freedom of the press, trusting that the end of the war would bring the promised better way of life. The government, however, paid no attention to the new spirit, and the wartime regulations and restrictions continued after the war. The regent, ʿAbd al-Ilāh, called a meeting of the country’s leaders in 1945 and made a speech in which he attributed public disaffection to the absence of a truly parliamentary system. He called for the formation of political parties and promised full freedom for their activities and the launching of social and economic reforms.

      The immediate reactions to the regent’s speech were favourable, but, when political parties were formed in 1946 and certain regulations were abolished, the older politicians and vested interests resisted. The new government formed in January 1946 was overthrown within a few months of its inception. Nūrī al-Saʿīd then became prime minister and tried to enlist the cooperation of political parties, but the general elections held under his government’s supervision were no different from previous controlled elections. The parties boycotted the elections. Nūrī al-Saʿīd resigned in March 1947, and Ṣāliḥ Jabr formed a new government.

      Jabr, the first Shiʿi politician to become a prime minister, included in his cabinet a number of young men, but he himself was unacceptable to some liberal and nationalist elements who had been roughly handled when he was wartime minister of interior. Jabr tried to help the Arabs in Palestine in order to improve his image in nationalist circles, but he mishandled opposition leaders. Most damaging was his attempt to replace the Anglo-Iraqi treaty of 1930 without consulting with Iraqi leaders. When he was asked to consult with others, he called in only older politicians and excluded the younger leaders.

      Jabr entered into negotiations with Britain with the intention of enhancing his own position. When he found that Britain wanted to retain control of its air bases in Iraq, he insisted that Britain accept the principle of Iraqi control of the bases Iraq would allow Britain to use them in the event of war. He threatened to resign if Britain refused his proposals.

      It was with this understanding that Jabr proceeded to London early in 1948 to negotiate a new treaty. He and Ernest Bevin, the British foreign secretary, quickly came to an agreement and signed a 20-year treaty at Portsmouth on January 15, 1948. It provided for a new alliance between Iraq and Britain on the basis of equality and complete independence and required that “each of the high contracting parties undertake not to adopt in foreign countries an attitude which is inconsistent with the alliance or which might create difficulties for the other party.” An improvement of the 1930 treaty, this document sought an alliance on the basis of mutual interests. The two air bases, which were often the subject of criticism, were returned to Iraq. British forces were to be evacuated, and Iraq would be supplied with arms and military training. The annex to the treaty stressed the importance of the air bases as “an essential element in the defense of Iraq.” Britain’s use of the bases in the event of war, or threat of war, would depend on Iraq’s invitation. The treaty also provided for the establishment of a joint defense board for common defense and consultation. Both parties agreed to grant each other necessary facilities for defense purposes.

      Despite these advances, the treaty was repudiated immediately in a popular uprising. Street demonstrations had occurred before the treaty was signed, in defense of Arab rights in Palestine, but, when the news of the signing of the new treaty was broadcast in London, rioting and demonstrations in Baghdad followed. Within a week of the signing, the regent called a meeting at the royal household that was attended by both older and younger leaders. After deliberations, they decided to repudiate the treaty. Jabr returned to Baghdad to defend his position but to no avail. Rioting and demonstrations increased, and Jabr was forced to resign.

      The new treaty was not the root cause of the uprising. It was the culmination of a struggle between the young, liberal leaders who wanted to participate in political activities and the older leaders who insisted on excluding them. This conflict continued after the treaty was rejected. The older politicians returned to power under Nūrī al-Saʿīd’s leadership.

      In 1952 another popular uprising flared, stirred by opposition leaders and carried out by students and extremists. The police were unable to control the mob, and the regent called on the army to maintain public order. The chief of the general staff governed the country under martial law for more than two months. Civilian rule was restored at the beginning of 1953, but there was no sign that the country’s older leaders were prepared to share authority with their opponents.

      Meanwhile, King Fayṣal II, who had come of age, began to exercise his formal powers, and the period of regency came to an end. It was hoped that ʿAbd al-Ilāh would withdraw from active politics and allow the political forces of the country to create a new order. The former regent, who became the crown prince, continued to control political events from behind the scenes, however, and the struggle for power among the leaders continued with increasing intensity until the downfall of the monarchy in 1958.

      Despite political instability, Iraq achieved material progress during the 1950s, thanks to a new oil agreement that increased royalties and to the establishment of the Development Board. The original oil agreement between the Iraqi government and the IPC had heretofore yielded relatively modest royalties, owing to certain technical limitations (such as the need for pipelines) and to war conditions. It was not until 1952 that construction of pipelines to Bāniyās was completed.

      Some points of dispute between the government and the IPC were not entirely resolved. The nationalization of the oil industry in Iran and the announcement of the 1950 agreement between Saudi Arabia and Aramco ( Arabian American Oil Company, later Saudi Aramco), on a half-and-half basis of payment, induced the Iraqi government and the IPC to negotiate a new agreement on the division of profits. Some opposition leaders demanded that the oil industry be nationalized, but the Iraqi government and the IPC, forestalling any serious move for nationalization, agreed to negotiate on the basis of the fifty-fifty formula, to the mutual advantage of Iraq and the company. The new agreement was signed in 1952 it allowed Iraq to take part of its share of the profits in kind and to receive an increasing amount of royalties specifically agreed upon between the two parties. It was stated that Iraq would receive a set minimum amount of the proceeds in 1953 and all subsequent years.

      In 1950 the government had created an independent Development Board, an agency immune from political pressures and responsible directly to the prime minister. The board had six executive members, three of whom had to be experts in some branch of the development program. The prime minister, as chairman, and the minister of finance were ex officio members. An amendment to the law increased membership by two and provided for a minister of development responsible directly to the head of the cabinet. These members were appointed by the cabinet, had equal voting rights, and were not permitted to hold any other official position. Two foreign members held positions as experts, and the Iraqi members were selected on merit and past experience. The board was composed of a council and ministry. Its staff was divided into technical sections and the ministry into a number of departments. The technical sections were for irrigation, flood control, water storage, drainage, transportation, and industrial and agricultural development. The board was financed from 70 percent of oil royalties and from loans and revenues from the board’s own projects.

      In 1950 the World Bank provided a loan for the Wadi Al-Tharthār flood-control project, and other flood-control plans were constructed. Extensive work on bridges and public buildings—including schools, hospitals, a new Parliament building, and a royal house—was started. This work, especially the work on dams and irrigation projects, was a long-term investment, and many short-term projects of more direct benefit to the population were neglected. Opposition leaders attacked the Development Board for the stress on long-term projects that they claimed benefited only the vested interests—landowners and tribal chiefs. Despite criticism, the board maintained an independent status rarely enjoyed by any other government department. Nevertheless, the public remained unaware of the far-reaching effects of the projects undertaken, while the opposition attacked the board for squandering funds on contracts given to wealthy landlords and influential politicians.


      THE BRITISH ARMY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 1939-45

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      United States Army: 1939-45 - History

      The following maps were produced by the U.S. Army Center of Military History, unless otherwise indicated.

        [Ambon, Netherlands East Indies] - Tan Toey Prisoners of War Camp 1943 "Sketch Map of Tan Toey Prisoners of War Camp, Amboina" from Allied Geographical Section, Southwest Pacific Area. Area Study of Ambon Island, Terrain Study No. 45, 13 January 1943. (429K) Aleutians, 1942 - 1943 From the Aleutians Islands Campaign Brochure by George L. MacGarrigle (258K) Aleutians - The Capture of Attu, 11 - 30 May 1943 From the Aleutians Islands Campaign Brochure by George L. MacGarrigle (258K) Aleutians - Kiska Island, 15 - 16 August 1943 From the Aleutians Islands Campaign Brochure by George L. MacGarrigle (65K) Asia and the Pacific - The Japanese Plan and Troop Disposition, November 1941 From the Philippines Campaign Brochure by Jennifer L. Bailey (129K) [China-Burma-India Theater] Transportation System 1942-1943 From Stillwell's Mission to China by Charles F. Romanus and Riley Sunderland [Series: United States Army in World War II: China-Burma-India Theater]. Dept. of the Army, Office of the Chief of Military History, 1953. China - The Japanese Plan, 3 December 1941 From the China Defensive Campaign Brochure by Mark D. Sherry (129K) China - Ichigo Plan, April 1944 From the China Defensive Campaign Brochure by Mark D. Sherry (129K) China - Salween Campaign, 11 May - June 1944 From the China Defensive Campaign Brochure by Mark D. Sherry (129K) China - China Coast, Ningpo to Canton United States and Pacific Ocean Areas: Air Target Maps and Photos, China Coast, Ningpo to Canton. U.S. Pacific Command, 15 October 1944. Scanned by Combined Arms Research Library [72 pages](14.5 MB) (PDF Format) China - End of The Salween Campaign, 3 November 1944 - 27 January 1945 From the China Defensive Campaign Brochure by Mark D. Sherry (129K) China - Chihchiang Campaign, 8 April - 7 june 1945 From the China Defensive Campaign Brochure by Mark D. Sherry (129K) Engineers of the Southwest Pacific, 1941-1945, Vol. 1 Maps of major Southwest Pacific operations Gilbert Islands - Galvanic Operational Area, November 1943 From the Central Pacific Campaign Brochure by Lt. Col. Clayton R. Newell (65K) Guadalcanal, 7 August 1942 From the Guadalcanal Campaign Brochure by Charles R. Anderson (65K) Guadalcanal - XIV Corps Advance, 10 January - 9 February 1943 From the Guadalcanal Campaign Brochure by Charles R. Anderson (129K) Guam - War In The Pacific National Historical Park Produced by the U.S. National Park Service 1999 (65K) (PDF Format) and JPEG Format (61K) Guam - War In The Pacific National Historical Park (Pacific Theater 1941-1945) 1999 (110K) Iwo Jima 1944 "Iwo Jima Historical Map" [poster] National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2003 (1.8MB) Luzon - The Enemy on Luzon, 11 January 1945 From the Luzon Campaign Brochure by Dale Andrade (129K) Luzon - Sixth Army Landings, 9 - 17 January 1945 From the Luzon Campaign Brochure by Dale Andrade (129K) Luzon - Troop Dispositions, 21 February 1945 From the Luzon Campaign Brochure by Dale Andrade (129K) Luzon - The Capture of Manila, 23 February - 3 March, 1945 From the Luzon Campaign Brochure by Dale Andrade(129K) Luzon - The Seizure of Wawa Dam, 27 March - 28 May 1945 From the Luzon Campaign Brochure by Dale Andrade (194K) Makin Atoll, November 1943 From the Central Pacific Campaign Brochure by Lt. Col. Clayton R. Newell (65K) New Guinea Area, 1942-1944 From American Military History, United States Army Center of Military History, 1989 (194K) New Guinea Operations, January 1943 - February 1944 From the New Guinea Campaign Brochure by Edward J. Drea (194K) New Guinea Operations, 22 April - 27 May 1944 From the New Guinea Campaign Brochure by Edward J. Drea (194K) Pacific Areas, 1 August 1942 From American Military History, United States Army Center of Military History, 1989 (323K) Pacific Islands [Geographical Handbook Series] 1943-1945 Maps from Pacific Islands, Great Britain. Admiralty. Naval Intelligence Division, 1943-1945. Papua - Fight for The Owen Stanley Range, 18 September - 15 November 1942 From the Papua Campaign Brochure by Charles R. Anderson (129K) Papua - Buna Perimeter, 16 - 21 November 1942 From the Papua Campaign Brochure by Charles R. Anderson (194K) Philippine Area, 1944-1945 From American Military History, United States Army Center of Military History, 1989(194K) Philippines, 8 January 1942 From the Philippines Campaign Brochure by Jennifer L. Bailey (194K) Philippines - Bataan, January - April 1942 From the Philippines Campaign Brochure by Jennifer L. Bailey (194K) Southwest Pacific Area, 1942 From the Papua Campaign Brochure by Charles R. Anderson (194K)

      The following maps were produced by the U.S. Army Center of Military History, unless otherwise indicated.

        Anzio - The Landing, 22 January 1944 From the Anzio Campaign Brochure by Clayton D. Laurie (129K) Anzio - Expanding The Beachhead, 1 February 1944 From the Anzio Campaign Brochure by Clayton D. Laurie (129K) Anzio - The Breakthrough, 25 - 26 May 1944 From the Anzio Campaign Brochure by Clayton D. Laurie (129K) Europe - Southern Approaches to Europe, 1942-1945 From American Military History, United States Army Center of Military History, 1989(258K) Naples-Foggia - Invasion of Italy, September 1943 From the Naples-Foggia Campaign Brochure by Col. Kenneth V. Smith (129K) Naples-Foggia - Fifth Army Landings, 9 - 13 September 1943 From the Naples-Foggia Campaign Brochure by Col. Kenneth V. Smith (194K) Naples-Foggia - Allied Gains, 6 October - 15 November 1943 From the Naples-Foggia Campaign Brochure by Col. Kenneth V. Smith (194K) Northern Europe, 1944-1945 From American Military History, United States Army Center of Military History, 1989 (258K) D-Day Maps, 6 June 1944 Prepared by the Commander Task Force 122, April 21, 1944 North Apennines - Approach to the Gothic Line / Concept of Operation Olive, 25 August 1944 From the North Apennines Campaign Brochure by Dwight D. Oland (387K) North Apennines - II Corps Attack on the Gothic Line, 10 - 18 September 1944 From the North Apennines Campaign Brochure by Dwight D. Oland (387K) North Apennines - Thrust Towards Imola 88th Division, 24 September - 1 October 1944 From the North Apennines Campaign Brochure by Dwight D. Oland (323K) North Apennines - II Corps Attack on the Livergnano, 1 - 15 October 1944 From the North Apennines Campaign Brochure by Dwight D. Oland (258K) North Apennines - Operation Encore, 19 February - 5 March 1945 From the North Apennines Campaign Brochure by Dwight D. Oland (129K) Po Valley - The Spring Offensive, 9 April - 2 May 1945 From the Po Valley Campaign Brochure by Thomas A. Popa (387K) Po Valley - Breakthrough into the Po Valley IV and II Corps, 14 - 21 April 1945 From the Po Valley Campaign Brochure by Thomas A. Popa (258K) Rome-Arno - Allied Strategy in Italy, January 1944 From the Rome-Arno Campaign Brochure by Clayton D. Laurie (129K) Rome-Arno - Operation Diadem, 11 - 18 May 1944 From the Rome-Arno Campaign Brochure by Clayton D. Laurie (129K) Rome-Arno - Rome to the Arno River, 5 June - 5 August 1944 From the Rome-Arno Campaign Brochure by Clayton D. Laurie (194K) Sicily - Assault on Sicily, 10 July 1943 From the Sicily Campaign Brochure by Andrew J. Birtle (194K) Sicily - The Fight for Sicily, 12 July - 17 August 1943 From the Sicily Campaign Brochure by Andrew J. Birtle (129K) 89th Infantry Division - Route of the 89th France, Luxembourg, Germany 1945 (1.5 MB) Scan of copy from the estate of Dr. Keith Young, University of Texas Department of Geosciences 355th Infantry Regiment - March Through Germany 355th Infantry Regiment, Col. Jesse T. Harris Commanding [89th Infantry Division] 1945. (2.3 MB) Scan of copy from the estate of Dr. Keith Young, University of Texas Department of Geosciences

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