Portrait of a Roman Imperial Officer or High Official, circa 100-120 CE, Rome (?), Marble. Made with ReMake and ReCap Pro from AutoDesk.
This portrait combines a very lively model, characteristic of the end of the 1st century CE, with a hairstyle imitating that of the emperor Trajan. The quality of execution pleads for a realization in one of the best imperial portraits workshops of Rome.
For more updates, please consider to follow me on Twitter at @GeoffreyMarchal.
Support OurNon-Profit Organization
Our Site is a non-profit organization. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide.
The Administration System in Ancient Rome
Monarchical form of government, established by Remulus and Remus could not prevail in Rome for a long time.
The Romans dethroned the Etruscan ruler Tarquinius Superbus and laid down the foundation of a Republican government. The struggle between Patricians and Plebians determined the course of Roman history.
The end of the struggle between these two classes brought glory to Rome. In different wars like Italian War, Gaul War, Latin War and Samnite Wars, Rome became victorious. The Roman Republic grew from strength to strength.
Image Source: francisabud612.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/246238-1.jpg
The administration of Rome was guided by a constitution. As per the provision of this constitution, the military administration and the highest executive administration was vested with two Consuls. The Romans thought that if powers will be concentrated in one hand, the Consul will be a dictator.
That is why they appointed two consuls. Both of them were cautious about their power. If by chance they differed from each other on a particular issue, the Senate interfered in that matter. The two Consuls were appointed only for one year. It was predicted that they might be dictator, if they remain in power for more than a year. That is why these two Consuls were elected only for a year.
In this way, the people of Rome brought the highest authority of the country under their control. During emergency, one of the Consuls acted as Magistrate Populi or Dictator for six months. He maintained law and order by awarding condime punishment. That magistrate Populi returned to his own position of Consul when normalcy was restored.
The general administration of Rome was not only vested with Consuls but also with Praetor. He was considered as one of the key persons of the administration of Rome. He played a vital role in the smooth discharge of administration in Rome. He helped the Consul during war as his trusted lieutenant.
He looked after warfare, supply of war materials and food to soldiers, organisation of army and obeyed the order of Consul in the war. He gave his expert opinion to the Consul at the time of need. The Consul in association with the Praetor took important decision regarding war and peace. All these activities made him popular. He was elected only for one year.
The Censor paid attention towards the economy of Roman Republic. After the end of every five years, they accomplished the task of Census in Rome. They also prepared the list of property of the citizens of Rome and levied tax on the people. They worked with a mission to collect revenue for the treasury of Rome. Due to the economic policy of the Roman Republic became strong. The Censurers were elected for five years.
Another integral part of the Roman Republic was Questor. They were appointed as treasurers. They also paid attention for the expenditure of money. They also verified the papers relating to property. They played an important role to implement criminal laws in the field of administration. The Questors were also elected only for a year.
The Aedil was responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the society. He looked after the works of the police and helped in checking crimes inside the society. He also looked after the municipal administration. He tried his best to bring administration very close to the people so that the public could feel its direct result. He was also elected for a year.
In the domain of administration in Rome, Senate was the most important organ. It consisted of 300 members. The experienced and aged people were its members. All of them were its life members. Although the Consul was the chief of the administration, he was regulated by the Senate. The main work of the Senate was to advise the Consul.
Besides this, it was regulating the foreign policy, income and expenditure, recruitment of army, provincial administration, defence of the country etc. The honesty, sincerely, ability and sense of dedication of the senate members contributed a lot for the growth of the Roman Republic.
Each and every law became legitimate after receiving the approval of the Senate. So, the Roman people respected the Senate. As a Legislative Assembly, the Senate regulated the administration of Rome.
Generally the Senators were nobles. It was suspected that these people might do harm to common people. Thus, to protect the Plebians from the tyranny of Patricians, the Tribune was formed. It was again thought out that if one man is appointed in this ‘post, he might not be impartial. That is why two persons were appointed as Tribunes.
They were always active to protect the common people from the wrath of Magistrate or Questor and impart justice. They contributed a lot for the welfare of the people protecting them always from the clutches of the nobles.
The Plebians also played vital role in the administration of Rome. A National Assembly named ‘Comitia Tributa’ was formed in Rome by the Plebians. In the first stage, the laws framed by this Assembly were holding good over the Plebians. Later on, the laws framed by this Comitia Tributa were also applicable for the Patricians.
One of the important works of this Comitia Tributa was to appoint the Tribunes. It always looked after the well being of the common people. That is why its role in the administration of Rome was quite significant.
Another National Assembly in Rome was ‘Comitia Centuriata’. Many Roman nobles were its members. This acted more or less as a judiciary. It acted as a court of appeal. It heard the charges brought against the Counsils. If they are found guilty, they were awarded punishment by this Assembly. That is why, Comitia Centuriata played a vital role in case of the administration of the Roman Republic.
In fact, the administration of ancient Rome was unique. It was well regulated and balanced. No Consul could venture to be a dictactor. If anybody tried to misutilise the power, then Comitia Centuriata punished him. The Tribune saved the Plebians from the tyranny of Patricians. The co-operation between the Patricians and Plebians ushered a new age in Rome. For their administration, the ancient Romans are famous in history.
The Qing dynasty was first established in 1636 by the Manchus to designate their regime in Manchuria (now the Northeast region of China). In 1644 the Chinese capital at Beijing was captured by the rebel leader Li Zicheng, and desperate Ming dynasty officials called on the Manchus for aid. The Manchus took advantage of the opportunity to seize the capital and establish their own dynasty in China. By adopting the Ming form of government and continuing to employ Ming officials, the Manchus pacified the Chinese population.
To guarantee Manchu control over the administration, however, the Qing made certain that half the higher-level officials were Manchus. Chinese military leaders who surrendered were given ranks of nobility, and troops were organized into the Lüying, or Army of the Green Standard, which was garrisoned throughout the country to guard against local rebellions. The regular Manchu Banner System troops (Qibing, or Baqi) were kept at the capital and in a few selected strategic spots throughout the country.
Under Kangxi (reigned 1661–1722), the second Qing emperor, the Manchus forced the Russians to abandon their fort at Albazin, located along the Manchurian border on the Amur River. In 1689 a treaty was concluded with Russia at Nerchinsk demarcating the northern extent of the Manchurian boundary at the Argun River. Over the next 40 years the Dzungar Mongols were defeated, and the empire was extended to include Outer Mongolia, Tibet, Dzungaria, Turkistan, and Nepal. Under the two succeeding emperors, Yongzheng (reigned 1722–35) and Qianlong (reigned 1735–96), commerce continued to thrive, handicraft industries prospered, and Roman Catholic missionaries were tolerated and employed as astronomers and artists. In addition, painting, printmaking, and porcelain manufacture flourished, and scientific methods of philology were developed.
Subsequent rulers, however, were unable to meet the problems caused by increased population pressure and concentration of land ownership. The Manchu armies deteriorated, and popular unrest, aggravated by severe floods and famine, were factors contributing to the Taiping (1850–64) and Nian (1853–68) rebellions in the south and north, respectively. Efforts at modernization and Westernization met opposition from conservative officials especially through the efforts of the dowager empress Cixi. Bureaucratic inefficiency and corruption became widespread, a notable example being the diversion of funds intended for building a Chinese navy to instead construct an ornamental marble warship at the imperial Summer Palace outside Beijing.
The first Opium War (1839–42), the Anglo-French War (1856–58), the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), and the Boxer Rebellion (1900) all resulted in defeats for China and the granting of major concessions to foreign powers. By 1900 revolutionary groups had begun to form throughout the country. The October 10, 1911, Republican Revolution led to the abdication of the boy emperor Xuantong (better known as Puyi) and the transfer of authority to the provisional republican government under Yuan Shikai.
Roman Army Ranks in Order
The following article describes in order the basic Roman army ranks. The Roman army was the most sophisticated armed force during its time. It was reformed several times in the course of history, and was finally disbanded in 476 A.D., as a consequence of the fall of Rome.
The following article describes in order the basic Roman army ranks. The Roman army was the most sophisticated armed force during its time. It was reformed several times in the course of history, and was finally disbanded in 476 A.D., as a consequence of the fall of Rome.
Efficient field and military formations, formidable fighting skills, a domineering infantry, genius garrison, arms, and armaments engineers and keenly crafted Roman weapons, are some of the features of the Roman army. This elite force not only consisted of Roman citizens but also of mercenaries who fought for wages. Among all these sophisticated features of the Roman army, the highly advanced structure of the army was a big contributing factor to the success of the force. The might of the army helped the Roman empire to rule a substantial part of central Europe, some part of Asia and also a part of Northern Africa, dominating the regions till its fall. On the whole the property and success of Roman civilization was largely aided by the army’s formidable campaigns.
Roman Army Corps and Field Formations
The army ranks which we know as of today, are an evolution of several reforms that were initiated after the blunders by Roman generals. Important lessons learned were during the wars against Carthage where Hannibal inflicted several losses on the Roman army in 216 B.C. Another incident in 9 A.D., where three Roman legions were slaughtered by the Germanic tribes in the ambush of Teutoburg forest, a loss too overwhelming. In 107 B.C., the Marian reforms gave birth to the initial and basic structure and ranks of the Roman army.
At the height of its power and glory, the Roman army was divided into 3 primary corps, namely, the Roman legions, Praetorian Guard and the Roman auxiliaries. The Roman cavalry is often considered to be a separate corps, however they were integrated into the field formations of the aforementioned corps. The basic armed unit was the legion and usually consisted of 6,000 soldiers, including officers. These men were divided into cohorts, which were further divided into centuries. The cohorts and centuries were commanded by the centurions and all the senior officers in turn commanded the centurions.
The primary field formation of the auxiliaries on the other hand was regimental. The auxiliaries were recruited from tribes, non-citizens, people from conquered Roman provinces. In general, they acted as mercenaries as compared to the Roman legions. Depending upon the deputation of auxiliary regiment and the need of the provinces strategic defenses, the ranks and field formations greatly differed. The auxiliaries consisted of three primary corps, namely, Cohortes (infantry), Alae (cavalry) and Cohortes equitatae (cavalry and infantry). These troops also often provided support such as logistics, patrolling, continuous watch, etc. They often acted as the paramilitary forces of Rome. There were some other corps of the auxiliaries, namely, heavily-armoured lancers, camel troops, scouts, and slingers.
The Praetorian guard was an elite force, which was under the direct command of the Emperor or the Generals. The primary task of the Praetorian guards was to act as bodyguards but the probability that this guard engaged in commando and covert operations cannot be dismissed. The history of the guard is shrouded with controversy as the guard also had a political arm.
Roman Army Ranks in Order
The following are tables depicting the ranks of the Roman army, classified as per the corps mentioned above. It must be noted that the ranks are in descending order:
|Senior Officers – Starting from Senior most|
|Sr.No||Name of Rank/Position||Note|
|1.||Legatus legionis or Legate||Legion commander, holding political authority, usually a senator with military experience, governor or head of the province, multiple legions under command, commanded an entire Legion of 6,000 men|
|2.||Dux or Leader||General of more than one provincial military unit|
|3.||Tribunus laticlavius or the Broad Band Tribune||Second in command of the legion, deputy or second in command of Legate or Dux|
|4.||Praefectus castrorum||Third in command and also usually a war hardened veteran, formidable field commander|
|5.||Tribuni angusticlavii or Narrow Band Tribunes||Every legion had about 5 or so Tribuni angusticlavii, who in most of the cases were members of high ranking families, and were quite young|
|Centurions – Starting from Senior most|
|Sr.No||Name of Rank/Position||Note|
|1.||Primus pilus or 1st Centurion||The senior most among all centurions and led the 1st century of the first cohort.|
|2.||Pilus prior||The next 9 Centurions younger and inexperienced to the Primus pilus|
|3.||Primi ordines||The next 5 Centurions, younger by experience to the Pilus priors|
|4.||Other Centurions||Centurions with lesser experience with 60 such centurions being attached to one legion|
|Other Ranks – Starting from Senior most|
|Sr.No||Name of Rank/Position||Note|
|1.||Optio||One deputy of each centurion again about 60 per legion, appointed by receptive centurions|
|2.||Tesserarius or Guard commander||Second in command and one for every century (100 men) and also acted as administrative assistant|
|3.||Decurio||Commander of a small cavalry unit known as eques legionis and has 10 to 30 men under his command.|
|4.||Decanus||Commanded 8 regular soldiers/legionaries|
|Praetorian Guard – Descending Order|
|1.||Praefectus||Head of all Praetorian Guards|
|2.||Tribuni||Deputies to the Praefectus|
|3.||Centuriones||Commanders of Centuries of Guards, commanded up to 100 men|
|4.||Evocati Augusti||Guardsmen and soldiers who chose not to retire|
|5.||Immunes||Soldiers with highly specialized skills, right from engineers to intelligence and assassins|
It must be noted that since auxiliaries were non-regular infantry soldiers. Due to the immense complexities in the organizations, their ranks have not been included. Within the legions some special duty ceremonial posts. These included, Aquilifer, Signifer, Cornicen, Imaginifer, Immunes, Evocati, and Duplicarius. Every cohort or century had at least one such post.
Portrait of a Roman Imperial Officer or High Official - History
Incidentally, I have written a page explaining how British schools have dealt with the teaching of history and how this has changed and evolved over the years. You can read that article here. Although the chapter on how Brexit may influence the teaching of imperial history has yet to be written. We shall have to wait and see.
I have been privileged to have been aided by a whole series of contributors over the years. I would like to thank each and every person and organisation who have been kind enough to donate articles, images or permission to use material. In particular I would like to thank the Regiment Magazine for allowing us to use images from their substantial library of magazines in our armed forces section.
One group worth singling out is the Overseas Service Pensioners' Association (OSPA) which is made up of members of the Colonial Service. I have worked closely with this organisation and integrating their stories and accounts of their time living and working in the British Empire. Much of their material can be found in the Articles section.
You can also help by donating money to keep this site operational. All of the material on the site is provided for free and that will always be the policy of the site. However, it does cost money to maintain it on its server, for the time spent curating the material and to continuously enhance the site. Any donation, however small, would be gratefully received and would help maintain this as a free resource for all who want or need it. You can donate through paypal here:
Better yet, you can become a regular supporter and pay a monthly amount to help allow me to dedicate yet more time, effort and energy on improving and expanding the site:
Those with technical and coding skills may be able to help also. I would gladly take advice on the best ways of updating the coding and facilities within the website and maximising the reach of the material on this site.
Another way to help if you are a webmaster or blog writer is to link to this site - either to the home page or to specific pages within the site. These links help to promote the site on various search engines and so help others to find information on colonial topics. I am always willing to reciprocate if your site has an imperial connection or theme in any way.
|The Heart of the Empire|
Stuart Legg's article: The British Empire - The Presence that Changed the World gives an overview of Britain's impact on the wider world. Tom Russell's article: Today's UK Overseas Territories In Context explains how the remaining bits of pink are administered these days.
|Empire Day 1914|
Company Rule - these were when private companies - capitalised from Britain - tried to set up their own colonies as private commercial concerns. They frequently found the administration far more expensive than they expected and so often turned to the British government for help - particularly when wars or rebellions occurred.
Colonies were those areas directly ruled by a governor on behalf of the British government and representing the Crown. The governor was responsible to the Colonial Office in London, although he usually had wide powers of discretion. These were the most common form of imperial control.
Protectorates were territories where the local rulers could continue ruling domestically but they had ceded the foreign and defence aspects of their government to the British. Theoretically, the British allowed the rulers full autonomy in domestic affairs although British advisers could and did exercise considerable influence over a range of policies.
Dominions were those colonies that were granted significant freedom to rule themselves. The settler colonies were afforded this freedom. Dominions were fully independent countries after the 1931 Statute of Westminster, although their Head of State continued to be the British sovereign.
Mandates were set up after World War One as German and Turkish colonies were passed to Britain and France to prepare for self government on behalf of the League of Nations. After World War Two, the United Nations continued the concept but called these mandates 'Trust Territories'.
In addition to these five kinds of 'colony' there were colonies set up by individuals, missionaries and even - in the case of Pitcairn Island by escaped mutineers! Of course these are the areas that had some measure of formal control. In many ways, British naval, industrial and commercial supremacy was so great that it effectively held sway over an equally impressive 'informal empire'. The best example of this was South America where the Royal Navy was happy to uphold the US so-called 'Monroe Doctrine' as it suited British commercial and strategic concerns at very little cost to the taxpayer. In many ways, formal control was often extended when informal relationships collapsed or were challenged by other European rivals.
|See the World!|
World War One appeared to add yet more colonies to the British Empire in the form of mandates. I have created a list of the populations and sizes of the colonies in 1924 a territorial highpoint of Empire - although economically the Empire would begin to enter its period of decline in this Inter-war years period. But it was still estimated at this time to cover between a quarter and a third of the globe and that it represented an area of over one hundred and fifty times the size of Great Britain itself.
The Second World War would see much imperial territory threatened or temporarily lost. Despite being on the winning side, the Empire would not recover from the geo-political shifts caused by this Second World War and would enter into a period of terminal decline. India was the first and largest area to be shed and then the Middle East and then Africa. Various Caribbean and Pacific possessions held on a little longer but most of these also went their separate way. The last of the major colonies to be lost was that of Hong Kong in 1997.
Christianity, Commerce and Civilisation
This was a popular combination of factors given for the rise of the British Empire in the late nineteenth and early twentieth Centuries. The Protestant aspect of Christianity was seen by many within the British Empire as part of the larger battle with the more 'Catholic' nations of Continental Europe. Ever since the Reformation, religion represented not merely a spiritual difference between the Catholic and Protestant churches but was part of a far larger cultural and political competition between deadly rivals. Portugal, Spain and France were the Catholic nations who developed successful commercial empires before the English (and Dutch) were able to do so. Religion gave an excuse for this commercial rivalry to turn into military and political competition. The very success of the Protestant nations in challenging the Catholic hegemony in the New World and the East Indies seemed to confirm that God might be on the Protestants' side after all - although this did ignore the fact that the English and Dutch co-religionists were just as frequently found at the throats of one another.
In summary, Christianity, commerce and civilisation was a neat way to justify the uniqueness of the British Empire and yet give it a justification for continuing it into the future. It could also be deeply patronising and justified cultural imperialism and racial stereotyping and yet there was a surprisingly large dose of truth behind these motivations and strain of British imperialism.
|East Indiamen, 1685|
Slavery would show just how exploitative and morally bankrupt this system could descend to. Plantations needed labour and labour was available, relatively cheaply, in West Africa. It was when slaves started revolting and rising up in rebellions that questions were asked back in Britain - why precisely was the government spending money and resources supporting slave owners against slaves? They had not shared the profits in the 'good' years, why should British taxpayers support them now that they were suffering? Surely it was their own problem? Non-conformist Christians in particular found it easier to challenge the status quo of slavery when their moral arguments were joined by these no less tricky economic ones.
Technological and Industrial Superiority
Sir John Seeley once stated that the British Empire was acquired in a 'fit of absent-mindedness'. What he meant by this was that the Empire was acquired for a variety of reasons that did not add up to a coherent whole.
|British Empire Stamp|
|HMS Rattler and HMS Alecto|
|Reviewing the Fleet|
Britain's population had been stable during most of the Medieval period (although there had been periods of decline especially after the Black Death). This period was characterised by a high birth rate and a high death rate - especially for infants. From the Tudor period onwards there started to be an upward trend in total population as birth rates continued to be high but life expectancy began to increase, especially for the better off. For a while, towns and cities could absorb much of the increase in population and indeed these people provided new markets and labour for the growing economy. However, as the Industrial Revolution unfolded in the Eighteenth Century the steady increase in population soon turned into a significant ballooning in numbers. This was primarily due to the fact that birth rates remained as high as ever but death rates began to fall precipitously. This was due to a number of factors including better education, more awareness of public health issues, improved medical care and better diets. Britain was the first nation in the World to experience this remarkable population explosion but it was also the country that had the financial, maritime and existing colonial links to enable a dispersal of this population beyond the shores of its own small island off the coast of Northern Europe. Some of this population dispersal was a direct result of nervous government policy to rid urban Britain of what they regarded as the criminal element. Hence, indentured servants were sent to the 13 Colonies and later to Australia. There were also formal schemes established to allow the rural poor to skip the step towards the already bulging British cities and go directly to new farming opportunities in places like New Zealand, Australia and Canada. Later, the settler colonies would seek to develop their own industries themselves and so sought skilled labour from Britain with offers of passage, employment and a better standard of living than might be expected in the expensive and crowded British urban centres. It should be noted that the Empire did not provide the only destination for such people, many migrated to the United States and South America for instance. However, British colonies provided a bureaucratic framework and a similarity of culture that appealed to many such migrants. The 19th and early 20th centuries therefore saw a sustained export of Britons across the World and helped establish an Anglo-based culture in the settler colonies in particular but not exclusively. Other European nations would undergo a similar population explosion, but by dint of being the first, the Anglo-migration proved to be particularly significant and played a role in ensuring that the Empire was well stocked with a sympathetic and largely loyal population.
Marxist/Leninist Stages of Development
|Our Allies, The Colonies|
Communism was an easy ideology to sell to poor, exploited and oppressed peoples around the world, Communist organisations and groups therefore became major resisters and opponents to Imperial regimes the world over - especially when they became tied to Cold War politics. Unfortunately, when agricultural or primary resource colonies gained their freedoms with the promises of a Communist Utopia to fulfil it did not take long for disappointment, cronyism and corruption to undermine and discredit Communism as a viable form of government. It may have given some people inspiration to remove their imperial overlords, it just could not deliver on its promises.
|Evacuation from Kabul|
One theory for Britain's domination of the large slices of the world was described as Britain being able to have taken in the resources of the various colonies in form of goods, capital, science and populations and then reallocated them more efficiently using the institutions and condensed political power available in the mother country (the Metropole) and especially those in London. This theory is based on the idea of the strong central government, educational, commercial and financial institutions which mutually reinforced one another and used the resources of the empire to further enrich themselves and build up an ever stronger competitive advantage - economically, strategically and politically. It believed that the institutions used their wealth and power to guard their positions of power and to further their own interests using the Empire as a conduit or arena in which to exercise their talents and power. In this model, the periphery colonies were at the tender mercies of the dominant metropole and had little local control over their destinies but had merely to respond to orders and directions from the centre.
Complex Patchwork of Interacting and Dynamic Agencies
Coming somewhat full circle in the debate is the idea that the Empire was a far more complex, ad hoc collection of competing, dynamic collection of agencies, individuals and companies which had no set agenda but found the Empire a convenient arena in which to forward their own interests. Unlike the Metropole example above, this theory believed that the actors could literally come from all over the globe, including native peoples or their rulers and had no fixed example of what the Empire should be like. This theory sees the variety of colonial governments, forms and institutions as evidence of a far more haphazard but flexible approach to the concept of what constituted empire. Some actors were happy to remain on the fringes of a free trade empire, others lobbied for inclusion in a far more centralised form of administration. Some wished to benefit from the protection that the Empire could provide, others used the colonial experience only so long as it was useful to their ends and then jettisoned it when it had outlived its purpose. This theory believes that the empire was a complex intermingling of motives, attitudes and purposes. It also believes that the localisation of these concerns means that a much more nuanced appraisal of Empire is possible as successes and failures can be itemised and broken up regionally and by era. Empire was useful to some groups or colonies at some points in time but exploitative or damaging at others. Using this theory, it is less a zero-sum game of saying that Empire was a 'good' or 'bad' thing as in some other theories.
Of course, there is rarely a single answer to the complicated realities of politics, economics and military rivalry. There is probably no single reason to explain how Britain created such a vast institution. Various isolated reasons, advantages and localised situations would combine to create a series of justifications for seizing isolated colonies that combined to form the huge and expansive British Empire.
Historians have debated the motivations and justifications for these processes for pretty much as long as their has been an empire itself! If you would like to follow the historiography and debates on the the British Empire over the years please take a look at the Library section.
Back in the Seventeenth Century, even when the government was interested in imperial affairs it still tended to revolve around revenue and profit as the establishment of 'The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations' in 1621 by King James I attested. He was more concerned at why income and trade was declining and administration costs were rising rather than any of the rights and responsibilities of either settlers or indigenous populations. This was effectively a temporary committee of the King's Privy Council - but it got caught up in the mid-Seventeenth Century upheavals that saw the country descend into Civil War and found itself increasingly sidelined and ineffectual.
1660 saw Charles II relaunch something similar with the creation of 'The Council of Foreign Plantations'. This Council had specific responsibility for the Americas and the Caribbean which were the most important concerns at the time. This was demonstrated in 1675 when they began the process of trying to harmonise the various colonies into Royal ones. They successfully brought New Hampshire under Crown governance, they modified William Penn's Charter and refused to reissue Plymouth Colony's more egalitarian Charter. This culminated in the creation of the Dominion of New England in 1685 which saw a single Crown colony for much of the North-Eastern seaboard.
1696 saw the Council modified into a more professional organisation with the appointment of paid commissioners for the first time by King William III. These were given the title 'The Lords Commissioners of Trade and Foreign Plantations' although they were more commonly known as the 'Lords of Trade'.
Two convulsions in the second half of the Eighteenth Century fundamentally altered Britain's relationship to its colonies. The first was the American War for Independence. Problems in the Americas saw the creation of 'A Secretary of State for the Colonies' for the very first time. This post only lasted until 1782 when it was obvious that attempts to retain the 13 colonies had failed. However, it established a precedent for assigning responsibility for colonial affairs which would be revisited in the not too distant future. In the meantime, the British government divided the duties of its two principal Secretaries of State into 'Home' and 'Foreign'. Colonial affairs were given as a responsibility to the Home Secretary in a branch of the department called 'The Office for Plantations'. with its own Under-Secretary. The American Revolution did have another consequence as the British government sought to avert something similar happening in India. From 1773 onwards, the British government sought to increase its oversight of the East India Company - especially as news and examples of incompetence and greed by EIC office holders came to light. The British government gradually gave more responsibilities to the Company in return for financial, political and military support. This culminated in 1784 with a Board of Control to oversee the activities of the EIC.
The second convulsion to alter Britain's relationship to its colonies was that of Revolution in France followed by the Napoleonic wars. As the threat of Revolution spiralled beyond France's and then the Continent's borders, so the colonies became the responsibility of the Secretary of State for War. This was formalised in 1801 with the title of 'The Secretary of State for War and the Colonies'. As the Empire grew in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars so there was seen the need to create a Permanent Under-Secretary for the Colonies from 1825 onwards. 1837 saw the first attempts at regulating the conduct of imperial officials with the publication of "Colonial Regulations" relating to "His Majesty's Colonial Service". However, each colony was responsible for hiring its own personnel and remunerating them accordingly.
The Departments of War and the Colonies were not to be formally separated until 1854 at the time of the Crimean War. By this time, the British Empire had spilled into South East Asia and the Far East and it was clear that the ever increasing institution required a ministry of its own once more. 'The Secretary of State for the Colonies' was created and remained as a cabinet post until 1966. The 'Colonial Office' peaked in importance with the appointment of Joseph Chamberlain in 1895 and was still an enormous government department until just after World War Two when it began its inevitable decline. You can read a more detailed account of the role of the Colonial Office here. There had been two main orgnisational exceptions to the remit of the Colonial Office. The first was to be 'Protectorates' which were initially under the authority of the Foreign Office until the first decade of the Twentieth Century. The second exception was to be that of the Dominions. In 1907 a Dominion Division was created within the Colonial Office but in 1925 a new Secretaryship of State for Dominion Affairs was appointed, albeit still within a single Dominions and Colonial Office. This joint establishment was formally separated in 1947 on Indian Independence when a separate Commonwealth Relations Office was created alongside the Colonial Office.
|Chapel of St Michael |
and St George
The Colonial Service, per se, was not a united service until after 1927. Up until this time, each colony was responsible for its own administrative officers and applicants had to apply directly to the colonial government in question. Initially, most applicants were bureaucrats required to help run colonial administration, but over time, more and more specialised, technical experts were required as foresters, geologists, educators, etc. were given ever greater prominence.
This increasing regard for the quality of administrators saw the creation of training programs for newly recruited officials. The first of these was inaugurated in 1908 in response to the sudden massive increase in African territories to administer. The Imperial Institute in South Kensington started a three month training program in law, accountancy, tropical hygiene and tropical resources. However, it was not until the interwar years that training programs were put in place for all personnel going out to the colonies when a unified Colonial Service finally came into being. Further information on The Colonial Service Training Courses can be found here.
1944 saw the establishment of the Devonshire Committee to consider a new look training regime for the Colonial Service in a Post-War World that saw development as more important than ever. These training programs became known as the 'Devonshire Courses'. The committee was seeking to professionalise the service yet further with yet more pertinent courses, further encouraging language skills, technical knowledge and providing opportunities to enhance officers' training at a later date. However, the timing was less than fortuitous as calls for independence and decolonisation meant that the Colonial Office would find it harder and harder to attract recruits who might wonder how long their careers may in reality last.
The Colonial Service as a name was thought to be slightly patronising in an era of increased self-government and independence. It was therefore officially terminated in 1954 and replaced by a wider encompassing "Her Majesty's Overseas Civil Service" (HMOCS). This lasted until Hong Kong being returned to China in 1997.
Decolonisation took its toll on the rationale for the Colonial Office and by the 1960s the writing was on the wall for it as a major Office of State. 1966 to 1968 saw the creation of the Commonwealth Office by the merger of the Colonial Office with the Commonwealth Relations Office. This short lived Office was then subsumed back into the Foreign Office as part of the newly renamed Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1968. This office is still technically responsible for any remaining Overseas Dependencies.
It should also be noted that various professions, industries and agencies provided their own services and training for personnel living and working in and around the Empire. These could be as diverse as the Colonial Nursing Association, the Colonial Audit Department, the Overseas Service Resettlement Bureau, the Imperial Agricultural Bureaux, Cable and Wireless and Crown Agents to name but a few. Many of these services, but not all, were later taken under the wing of the Colonial Service or worked alongside it. Furthermore, the Dominions hired and trained their own civil servants and personnel. Sometimes, these were hired locally, but they could also be hired from Britain. Even those hired locally were often sent to British Universities or professional bodies for their training. It should also be said that anyone from the Dominions could apply to work in the Colonial Service and many New Zealanders, Canadians, and Australians did precisely that.
The British Empire was a diverse collection of territories which evolved and changed over time as the personnel required to police, develop and administer them testifies. A complete list of all the Secretaries of State who had responsibility for colonial affairs can be seen here.
If no author is cited on a page then I, Stephen Luscombe, am the author of the material. As someone who has been involved in education for most of my professional life I am very happy for any of my material to be used for educational, non-profit purposes. I would of course appreciate crediting the fact that you found the information on www.britishempire.co.uk preferably with a link to the page that it came from.
If you wish to use the Harvard Referencing system then this is probably the best way of doing it. If you wish to cite a particular page then if there is an author other than myself then the name is usually prominently displayed just below the title (occasionally it is at the bottom of the page). If there is no author mentioned then it has been written by me Stephen Luscombe. The other problem is the date. The site has been in a constant state of update since 1996 so it is tricky to put a publication date. . I think the best way around this is to put the date that you accessed the page and put the publication date as this year. I pretty much refresh the entire website on virtually a daily basis.
Your reference list should look like:
Author, date, title of page [online], Website Title, [Date of Access]
So for another author on the website you might use this as an example:
If there is no author mentioned then it would like this:
Then within your text you'd refer to (Griffin, 2012) for the former or (Luscombe, 2012) for the latter.
At the top of the pyramid came the senior officers who were the most experienced, most skilled and most respected. They were divided into ranks and positions, which are given as follows:
- Imperial Legate: this position was given to the head or two or more legions.He was also the province’s governor and was recruited by the emperor.
- Legion Legate: he was the commander of the overall legion and was also the provincial governor. He was also given the responsibility of heading the auxiliary units sometimes.
- Broad Band Tribune: appointed by the senate’s emperor, this tribune was comprised of young and less experienced men who worked under the legion.
- Camp Prefect: this position was the third in command after the Broad Band Tribune and was occupied by a veteran officers who had finished about 25 years with the legions.
- Narrow Band Tribunes: these were the lower ranking tribunes and each legion had 5 of these. They were responsible for fulfilling the role of administrative officers. They often served the role of administrative officers.
The Romulan military was a powerful and technologically advanced force encompassing both spacefaring and ground forces. ( TNG : " Unification II ") Despite being defeated by Earth in the Earth-Romulan War of the 2150s, the Romulan Star Empire continued to be a powerful presence, not afraid to tempt Starfleet by entering the Neutral Zone. Romulan forces were a deciding factor in the Dominion War, whose entry in 2374 turned the tide of war in favor of the Allies. ( TOS : " Balance of Terror " DS9 : " In the Pale Moonlight ")
Romulan military operations were supported by the War Plans Council, a high-level government agency. ( DS9 : " In the Pale Moonlight ")
Besides regular forces, the Romulan Tal Shiar and Zhat Vash also had its own fleet of starships, and were a ruthless and powerful organization within the Empire and beyond. ( TNG : " Face of the Enemy " DS9 : " The Die is Cast " PIC : " Et in Arcadia Ego, Part 2 ")
Sources [ edit | edit source ]
- ↑Dark Disciple
- ↑ Clone Commander Cody in the Databank(backup link)
- ↑ 3.03.13.23.3Star Wars: The Clone Wars film
- ↑ Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Ambush"
- ↑ Captain Argyus in the Databank(backup link)
- ↑Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Storm Over Ryloth"
- ↑Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Secret Weapons"
- ↑ General Pong Krell in the Databank(backup link)
- ↑Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Heroes on Both Sides"
- ↑ 10.010.1Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith
- ↑Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones
- ↑ 12.012.1Kanan 7
- ↑Kanan 9
- ↑Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Cat and Mouse"
- ↑ 15.015.115.2Thrawn
- ↑Lords of the Sith
- ↑Aftermath: Life Debt
- ↑Aftermath: Empire's End
- ↑Star Wars: Rogue One: The Ultimate Visual Guide
- ↑Servants of the Empire: The Secret Academy
- ↑ 21.021.1Star Wars: Episode VI Return of the Jedi
- ↑Lords of the Sith
- ↑Star Wars: Complete Locations
- ↑Star Wars: Episode V The Empire Strikes Back
- ↑Darth Vader 2
- ↑ 26.026.126.226.3Star Wars: The Force Awakens: The Visual Dictionary
- ↑Star Wars: The Force Awakens: New Adventures
List of Speakers of the House
1 Resigned from the House of Representatives on January 19, 1814.
2 Elected Speaker on January 19, 1814, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker Henry Clay.
3 Resigned as Speaker of the House of Representatives on October 28, 1820.
4 Elected Speaker on November 15, 1820, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker Henry Clay.
5 Resigned from the House of Representatives on March 6, 1825, to serve as Secretary of State in the presidential administration of John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts.
6 Resigned from the House of Representatives on June 2, 1834.
7 Elected Speaker on June 2, 1834, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker Andrew Stevenson.
8 Was not a candidate for renomination to the House of Representatives in 1868, having become the Republican nominee for Vice President and successfully elected to that office.
9 Elected Speaker on March 3, 1869, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker Schuyler Colfax, and served one day.
10 Died in office, August 19, 1876.
11 Elected Speaker on December 4, 1876, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Michael Kerr.
12 Died in office, August 19, 1934.
13 Died in office, June 4, 1936.
14 Elected Speaker on June 4, 1936, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Joseph Byrns.
15 Died in office, September 15, 1940.
16 Elected Speaker on September 16, 1940, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker William Bankhead.
17 Died in office, November 16, 1961.
18 Elected Speaker on January 10, 1962, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Samuel Rayburn.
19 Resigned as Speaker of the House of Representatives on June 6, 1989.
20 Elected Speaker on June 6, 1989, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker James Wright, Jr.
21 John Boehner resigned as Speaker of the House on October 29, 2015.
22 Paul D. Ryan was elected Speaker on October 29, 2015, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker John Boehner.
Free timed entry has been introduced to ensure that we can manage numbers and maintain physical distancing. Please book a free timed entry ticket online for every member of your group in advance of your visit. This includes National Museums Scotland Members.
A range of new safety measures have been put in place in line with Scottish Government guidelines.
This includes pre-booked timed entry, face coverings, enhanced cleaning, sneeze screens, hand sanitising stations and one-way routes in certain areas of the museum where physical distancing is not possible.
We want you to have a safe and enjoyable visit. During your visit, we ask you to:
|Please keep your distance from others (2m).||Follow the directional signage.|
|Use the hand sanitiser provided.||Please note card payments only.|
|Wash your hands often.||Face coverings must be worn by visitors over 5 years old.|
Please do not visit the museum if you or anyone in your household has any symptoms of Coronavirus.
The Physical Distance Based Capacity (PDBC) for the National Museum of Scotland based on Scottish Government guidelines is 3382.