Spanish-American War: Causes, Battles and Timeline

The Spanish-American War was an 1898 conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America.

Causes: Remember the Maine!

The war originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain, which began in February 1895.

Spain’s brutally repressive measures to halt the rebellion were graphically portrayed for the U.S. public by several sensational newspapers engaging in yellow journalism, and American sympathy for the Cuban rebels rose.

The growing popular demand for U.S. intervention became an insistent chorus after the still-unexplained sinking in Havana harbor of the American battleship USS Maine, which had been sent to protect U.S. citizens and property after anti-Spanish rioting in Havana.

War Is Declared

Spain announced an armistice on April 9 and speeded up its new program to grant Cuba limited powers of self-government.

But the U.S. Congress soon afterward issued resolutions that declared Cuba’s right to independence, demanded the withdrawal of Spain’s armed forces from the island, and authorized the use of force by President William McKinley to secure that withdrawal while renouncing any U.S. design for annexing Cuba.

Spain declared war on the United States on April 24, followed by a U.S. declaration of war on the 25th, which was made retroactive to April 21.

Spanish-American War Begins

The ensuing war was pathetically one-sided, since Spain had readied neither its army nor its navy for a distant war with the formidable power of the United States.

In the early morning hours of May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey led a U.S. naval squadron into Manila Bay in the Philippines. He destroyed the anchored Spanish fleet in two hours before pausing the Battle of Manila Bay to order his crew a second breakfast. In total, fewer than 10 American seamen were lost, while Spanish losses were estimated at over 370. Manila itself was occupied by U.S. troops by August.

The elusive Spanish Caribbean fleet under Adm. Pascual Cervera was located in Santiago harbor in Cuba by U.S. reconnaissance. An army of regular troops and volunteers under Gen. William Shafter (including then-secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt and his 1st Volunteer Cavalry, the “Rough Riders”) landed on the coast east of Santiago and slowly advanced on the city in an effort to force Cervera’s fleet out of the harbor.

Cervera led his squadron out of Santiago on July 3 and tried to escape westward along the coast. In the ensuing battle all of his ships came under heavy fire from U.S. guns and were beached in a burning or sinking condition.

Santiago surrendered to Shafter on July 17, thus effectively ending the brief but momentous war.

Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War was signed on December 10, 1898. In it, Spain renounced all claim to Cuba, ceded Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States and transferred sovereignty over the Philippines to the United States for $20 million.

Philippine insurgents who had fought against Spanish rule soon turned their guns against their new occupiers. The Philippine-American War began in February of 1899 and lasted until 1902. Ten times more U.S. troops died suppressing revolts in the Philippines than in defeating Spain.

Impact of the Spanish-American War

The Spanish-American War was an important turning point in the history of both antagonists. Spain’s defeat decisively turned the nation’s attention away from its overseas colonial adventures and inward upon its domestic needs, a process that led to both a cultural and a literary renaissance and two decades of much-needed economic development in Spain.

The victorious United States, on the other hand, emerged from the war a world power with far-flung overseas possessions and a new stake in international politics that would soon lead it to play a determining role in the affairs of Europe and the rest of the globe.

Causes & Timeline of the Spanish Civil War

Peace is not valued until war comes knocking at the door. The years between 1936 & 1939 were very bloody for Spanish citizens. During that time interval, the civil war in Spain killed more than 500,000 people. This huge loss signals how intense and bloody the Spanish Civil War was.

But what were the causes of this bloodbath in the Spanish lands? Here, we dig into the matters surrounding the ignition of this destructive Spanish Civil War and major events in its timeline.


Spain's attitude towards its colonies Edit

The combined problems arising from the Peninsular War (1807–1814), the loss of most of its colonies in the Americas in the early 19th-century Spanish American wars of independence, and three Carlist Wars (1832–1876) marked the low point of Spanish colonialism. [28] Liberal Spanish elites like Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and Emilio Castelar offered new interpretations of the concept of "empire" to dovetail with Spain's emerging nationalism. Cánovas made clear in an address to the University of Madrid in 1882 [29] [30] his view of the Spanish nation as based on shared cultural and linguistic elements—on both sides of the Atlantic—that tied Spain's territories together.

Cánovas saw Spanish colonialism as more "benevolent" than that of other European colonial powers. The prevalent opinion in Spain before the war regarded the spreading of "civilization" and Christianity as Spain's main objective and contribution to the New World. The concept of cultural unity bestowed special significance on Cuba, which had been Spanish for almost four hundred years, and was viewed as an integral part of the Spanish nation. The focus on preserving the empire would have negative consequences for Spain's national pride in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War. [31]

American interest in the Caribbean Edit

In 1823, the fifth American President James Monroe (1758–1831, served 1817–25) enunciated the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further efforts by European governments to retake or expand their colonial holdings in the Americas or to interfere with the newly independent states in the hemisphere. The U.S. would, however, respect the status of the existing European colonies. Before the American Civil War (1861–1865), Southern interests attempted to have the United States purchase Cuba and convert it into a new slave state. The pro-slavery element proposed the Ostend Manifesto proposal of 1854. Anti-slavery forces rejected it.

After the American Civil War and Cuba's Ten Years' War, U.S. businessmen began monopolizing the devalued sugar markets in Cuba. In 1894, 90% of Cuba's total exports went to the United States, which also provided 40% of Cuba's imports. [32] Cuba's total exports to the U.S. were almost twelve times larger than the export to her mother country, Spain. [33] U.S. business interests indicated that while Spain still held political authority over Cuba, it was the US that held economic power over Cuba.

The U.S. became interested in a trans-isthmus canal in either Nicaragua or Panama and realized the need for naval protection. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was an exceptionally influential theorist his ideas were much admired by future 26th President Theodore Roosevelt, as the U.S. rapidly built a powerful naval fleet of steel warships in the 1880s and 1890s. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1897–1898 and was an aggressive supporter of an American war with Spain over Cuban interests.

Meanwhile, the "Cuba Libre" movement, led by Cuban intellectual José Martí until he died in 1895, had established offices in Florida. [34] The face of the Cuban revolution in the U.S. was the Cuban "Junta", under the leadership of Tomás Estrada Palma, who in 1902 became Cuba's first president. The Junta dealt with leading newspapers and Washington officials and held fund-raising events across the US. It funded and smuggled weapons. It mounted an extensive propaganda campaign that generated enormous popular support in the U.S. in favor of the Cubans. Protestant churches and most Democrats were supportive, but business interests called on Washington to negotiate a settlement and avoid war. [35]

Cuba attracted enormous American attention, but almost no discussion involved the other Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, also in the Caribbean, or of the Philippines or Guam. [36] Historians note that there was no popular demand in the United States for an overseas colonial empire. [37]

Cuban struggle for independence Edit

The first serious bid for Cuban independence, the Ten Years' War, erupted in 1868 and was subdued by the authorities a decade later. Neither the fighting nor the reforms in the Pact of Zanjón (February 1878) quelled the desire of some revolutionaries for wider autonomy and, ultimately, independence. One such revolutionary, José Martí, continued to promote Cuban financial and political freedom in exile. In early 1895, after years of organizing, Martí launched a three-pronged invasion of the island. [38]

The plan called for one group from Santo Domingo led by Máximo Gómez, one group from Costa Rica led by Antonio Maceo Grajales, and another from the United States (preemptively thwarted by U.S. officials in Florida) to land in different places on the island and provoke an uprising. While their call for revolution, the grito de Baíre, was successful, the result was not the grand show of force Martí had expected. With a quick victory effectively lost, the revolutionaries settled in to fight a protracted guerrilla campaign. [38]

Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, the architect of Spain's Restoration constitution and the prime minister at the time, ordered General Arsenio Martínez-Campos, a distinguished veteran of the war against the previous uprising in Cuba, to quell the revolt. Campos's reluctance to accept his new assignment and his method of containing the revolt to the province of Oriente earned him criticism in the Spanish press. [39]

The mounting pressure forced Cánovas to replace General Campos with General Valeriano Weyler, a soldier who had experience in quelling rebellions in overseas provinces and the Spanish metropole. Weyler deprived the insurgency of weaponry, supplies, and assistance by ordering the residents of some Cuban districts to move to reconcentration areas near the military headquarters. [39] This strategy was effective in slowing the spread of rebellion. In the United States, this fueled the fire of anti-Spanish propaganda. [40] In a political speech President William McKinley used this to ram Spanish actions against armed rebels. He even said this "was not civilized warfare" but "extermination". [41] [42]

Spanish attitude Edit

The Spanish government regarded Cuba as a province of Spain rather than a colony. [ citation needed ] [ clarification needed ] Spain depended on Cuba for prestige and trade, and used it as a training ground for its army. Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Cánovas del Castillo announced that "the Spanish nation is disposed to sacrifice to the last peseta of its treasure and to the last drop of blood of the last Spaniard before consenting that anyone snatch from it even one piece of its territory". [43] He had long dominated and stabilized Spanish politics. He was assassinated in 1897 by Italian anarchist Michele Angiolillo, [44] leaving a Spanish political system that was not stable and could not risk a blow to its prestige. [45]

US response Edit

The eruption of the Cuban revolt, Weyler's measures, and the popular fury these events whipped up proved to be a boon to the newspaper industry in New York City. Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World and William Randolph Hearst of the New York Journal recognized the potential for great headlines and stories that would sell copies. Both papers denounced Spain but had little influence outside New York. American opinion generally saw Spain as a hopelessly backward power that was unable to deal fairly with Cuba. American Catholics were divided before the war began but supported it enthusiastically once it started. [46] [47]

The U.S. had important economic interests that were being harmed by the prolonged conflict and deepening uncertainty about Cuba's future. Shipping firms that had relied heavily on trade with Cuba now suffered losses as the conflict continued unresolved. [48] These firms pressed Congress and McKinley to seek an end to the revolt. Other American business concerns, specifically those who had invested in Cuban sugar, looked to the Spanish to restore order. [49] Stability, not war, was the goal of both interests. How stability would be achieved would depend largely on the ability of Spain and the U.S. to work out their issues diplomatically.

While tension increased among the Cubans and Spanish Government, popular support of intervention began to spring up in the United States. Many Americans likened the Cuban revolt to the American Revolution, and they viewed the Spanish Government as a tyrannical oppressor. Historian Louis Pérez notes that "The proposition of war in behalf of Cuban independence took hold immediately and held on thereafter. Such was the sense of the public mood." Many poems and songs were written in the United States to express support of the "Cuba Libre" movement. [50] At the same time, many African Americans, facing growing racial discrimination and increasing retardation of their civil rights, wanted to take part in the war. They saw it as a way to advance the cause of equality, service to country hopefully helping to gain political and public respect amongst the wider population. [51]

President McKinley, well aware of the political complexity surrounding the conflict, wanted to end the revolt peacefully. He began to negotiate with the Spanish government, hoping that the talks would dampen yellow journalism in the United States and soften support for war with Spain. An attempt was made to negotiate a peace before McKinley took office. However, the Spanish refused to take part in the negotiations. In 1897 McKinley appointed Stewart L. Woodford as the new minister to Spain, who again offered to negotiate a peace. In October 1897, the Spanish government refused the United States' offer to negotiate between the Spanish and the Cubans, but promised the U.S. it would give the Cubans more autonomy. [52] However, with the election of a more liberal Spanish government in November, Spain began to change its policies in Cuba. First, the new Spanish government told the United States that it was willing to offer a change in the Reconcentration policies if the Cuban rebels agreed to a cessation of hostilities. This time the rebels refused the terms in hopes that continued conflict would lead to U.S. intervention and the creation of an independent Cuba. [52] The liberal Spanish government also recalled the Spanish Governor-General Valeriano Weyler from Cuba. This action alarmed many Cubans loyal to Spain. [53]

The Cubans loyal to Weyler began planning large demonstrations to take place when the next Governor General, Ramón Blanco, arrived in Cuba. U.S. consul Fitzhugh Lee learned of these plans and sent a request to the U.S. State Department to send a U.S. warship to Cuba. [53] This request lead to USS Maine being sent to Cuba. While Maine was docked in Havana, an explosion sank the ship. The sinking of Maine was blamed on the Spanish and made the possibility of a negotiated peace very slim. [54] Throughout the negotiation process, the major European powers, especially Britain, France, and Russia, generally supported the American position and urged Spain to give in. [55] Spain repeatedly promised specific reforms that would pacify Cuba but failed to deliver American patience ran out. [56]

USS Maine dispatch to Havana and loss Edit

McKinley sent USS Maine to Havana to ensure the safety of American citizens and interests, and to underscore the urgent need for reform. Naval forces were moved in position to attack simultaneously on several fronts if the war was not avoided. As Maine left Florida, a large part of the North Atlantic Squadron was moved to Key West and the Gulf of Mexico. Others were also moved just off the shore of Lisbon, and others were moved to Hong Kong too. [58]

At 9:40 P.M. on February 15, 1898, Maine sank in Havana Harbor after suffering a massive explosion. While McKinley urged patience and did not declare that Spain had caused the explosion, the deaths of 250 out of 355 [59] sailors on board focused American attention. McKinley asked Congress to appropriate $50 million for defense, and Congress unanimously obliged. Most American leaders believed that the cause of the explosion was unknown. Still, public attention was now riveted on the situation and Spain could not find a diplomatic solution to avoid war. Spain appealed to the European powers, most of whom advised it to accept U.S. conditions for Cuba in order to avoid war. [60] Germany urged a united European stand against the United States but took no action. [61]

The U.S. Navy's investigation, made public on March 28, concluded that the ship's powder magazines were ignited when an external explosion was set off under the ship's hull. This report poured fuel on popular indignation in the US, making the war inevitable. [62] Spain's investigation came to the opposite conclusion: the explosion originated within the ship. Other investigations in later years came to various contradictory conclusions, but had no bearing on the coming of the war. In 1974, Admiral Hyman George Rickover had his staff look at the documents and decided there was an internal explosion. [63] A study commissioned by National Geographic magazine in 1999, using AME computer modeling, stated that a mine could have caused the explosion, but no definitive evidence was found. [63]

Declaring war Edit

After Maine was destroyed, New York City newspaper publishers Hearst and Pulitzer decided that the Spanish were to blame, and they publicized this theory as fact in their papers. [64] They both used sensationalistic and astonishing accounts of "atrocities" committed by the Spanish in Cuba by using headlines in their newspapers, such as "Spanish Murderers" and "Remember The Maine". Their press exaggerated what was happening and how the Spanish were treating the Cuban prisoners. [65] The stories were based on factual accounts, but most of the time, the articles that were published were embellished and written with incendiary language causing emotional and often heated responses among readers. A common myth falsely states that when illustrator Frederic Remington said there was no war brewing in Cuba, Hearst responded: "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." [66]

However, this new "yellow journalism" was uncommon outside New York City, and historians no longer consider it the major force shaping the national mood. [67] Public opinion nationwide did demand immediate action, overwhelming the efforts of President McKinley, Speaker of the House Thomas Brackett Reed, and the business community to find a negotiated solution. Wall Street, big business, high finance and Main Street businesses across the country were vocally opposed to war and demanded peace. [18] After years of severe depression, the economic outlook for the domestic economy was suddenly bright again in 1897. However, the uncertainties of warfare posed a serious threat to full economic recovery. "War would impede the march of prosperity and put the country back many years," warned the New Jersey Trade Review. The leading railroad magazine editorialized, "From a commercial and mercenary standpoint it seems peculiarly bitter that this war should come when the country had already suffered so much and so needed rest and peace." McKinley paid close attention to the strong anti-war consensus of the business community, and strengthened his resolve to use diplomacy and negotiation rather than brute force to end the Spanish tyranny in Cuba. [68] Historian Nick Kapur argues that McKinley's actions as he moved toward war were rooted not in various pressure groups but in his deeply held "Victorian" values, especially arbitration, pacifism, humanitarianism, and manly self-restraint. [69]

A speech delivered by Republican Senator Redfield Proctor of Vermont on March 17, 1898, thoroughly analyzed the situation and greatly strengthened the pro-war cause. Proctor concluded that war was the only answer. [70] : 210 Many in the business and religious communities which had until then opposed war, switched sides, leaving McKinley and Speaker Reed almost alone in their resistance to a war. [71] [72] [73] On April 11, McKinley ended his resistance and asked Congress for authority to send American troops to Cuba to end the civil war there, knowing that Congress would force a war.

On April 19, while Congress was considering joint resolutions supporting Cuban independence, Republican Senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado proposed the Teller Amendment to ensure that the U.S. would not establish permanent control over Cuba after the war. The amendment, disclaiming any intention to annex Cuba, passed the Senate 42 to 35 the House concurred the same day, 311 to 6. The amended resolution demanded Spanish withdrawal and authorized the President to use as much military force as he thought necessary to help Cuba gain independence from Spain. President McKinley signed the joint resolution on April 20, 1898, and the ultimatum was sent to Spain. [20] In response, Spain severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 21. On the same day, the U.S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba. [21] On April 23, Spain reacted to the blockade by declaring war on the U.S. [74]

On April 25, the U.S. Congress responded in kind, declaring that a state of war between the U.S. and Spain had de facto existed since April 21, the day the blockade of Cuba had begun. [21]

The Navy was ready, but the Army was not well-prepared for the war and made radical changes in plans and quickly purchased supplies. In the spring of 1898, the strength of the U.S. Regular Army was just 25,000 men. The Army wanted 50,000 new men but received over 220,000 through volunteers and the mobilization of state National Guard units, [75] even gaining nearly 100,000 men on the first night after the explosion of USS Maine. [76]

Historiography Edit

The overwhelming consensus of observers in the 1890s, and historians ever since, is that an upsurge of humanitarian concern with the plight of the Cubans was the main motivating force that caused the war with Spain in 1898. McKinley put it succinctly in late 1897 that if Spain failed to resolve its crisis, the United States would see "a duty imposed by our obligations to ourselves, to civilization and humanity to intervene with force." [77] Intervention in terms of negotiating a settlement proved impossible—neither Spain nor the insurgents would agree. Louis Perez states, "Certainly the moralistic determinants of war in 1898 has been accorded preponderant explanatory weight in the historiography." [78] By the 1950s, however, American political scientists began attacking the war as a mistake based on idealism, arguing that a better policy would be realism. They discredited the idealism by suggesting the people were deliberately misled by propaganda and sensationalist yellow journalism. Political scientist Robert Osgood, writing in 1953, led the attack on the American decision process as a confused mix of "self-righteousness and genuine moral fervor," in the form of a "crusade" and a combination of "knight-errantry and national self- assertiveness." [79] Osgood argued:

A war to free Cuba from Spanish despotism, corruption, and cruelty, from the filth and disease and barbarity of General 'Butcher' Weyler's reconcentration camps, from the devastation of haciendas, the extermination of families, and the outraging of women that would be a blow for humanity and democracy. No one could doubt it if he believed—and skepticism was not popular—the exaggerations of the Cuban Junta's propaganda and the lurid distortions and imaginative lies pervade by the "yellow sheets" of Hearst and Pulitzer at the combined rate of 2 million [newspaper copies] a day. [80]

In his War and Empire, [22] Prof. Paul Atwood of the University of Massachusetts (Boston) writes:

The Spanish–American War was fomented on outright lies and trumped up accusations against the intended enemy. . War fever in the general population never reached a critical temperature until the accidental sinking of the USS Maine was deliberately, and falsely, attributed to Spanish villainy. . In a cryptic message . Senator Lodge wrote that 'There may be an explosion any day in Cuba which would settle a great many things. We have got a battleship in the harbor of Havana, and our fleet, which overmatches anything the Spanish have, is masked at the Dry Tortugas.

In his autobiography, [81] Theodore Roosevelt gave his views of the origins of the war:

Our own direct interests were great, because of the Cuban tobacco and sugar, and especially because of Cuba's relation to the projected Isthmian [Panama] Canal. But even greater were our interests from the standpoint of humanity. . It was our duty, even more from the standpoint of National honor than from the standpoint of National interest, to stop the devastation and destruction. Because of these considerations I favored war.

Philippines Edit

In the 333 years of Spanish rule, the Philippines developed from a small overseas colony governed from the Viceroyalty of New Spain to a land with modern elements in the cities. The Spanish-speaking middle classes of the 19th century were mostly educated in the liberal ideas coming from Europe. Among these Ilustrados was the Filipino national hero José Rizal, who demanded larger reforms from the Spanish authorities. This movement eventually led to the Philippine Revolution against Spanish colonial rule. The revolution had been in a state of truce since the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato in 1897, with revolutionary leaders having accepted exile outside of the country.

Lt. William Warren Kimball, Staff Intelligence Officer with the Naval War College [82] prepared a plan for war with Spain including the Philippines on June 1, 1896 known as "the Kimball Plan". [83]

On April 23, 1898, a document from Governor General Basilio Augustín appeared in the Manila Gazette newspaper warning of the impending war and calling for Filipinos to participate on the side of Spain. [e]

The first battle between American and Spanish forces was at Manila Bay where, on May 1, Commodore George Dewey, commanding the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron aboard USS Olympia, in a matter of hours defeated a Spanish squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo. [f] Dewey managed this with only nine wounded. [90] [91] With the German seizure of Tsingtao in 1897, Dewey's squadron had become the only naval force in the Far East without a local base of its own, and was beset with coal and ammunition problems. [92] Despite these problems, the Asiatic Squadron destroyed the Spanish fleet and captured Manila's harbor. [92]

Following Dewey's victory, Manila Bay became filled with the warships of other naval powers. [92] The German squadron of eight ships, ostensibly in Philippine waters to protect German interests, acted provocatively—cutting in front of American ships, refusing to salute the American flag (according to customs of naval courtesy), taking soundings of the harbor, and landing supplies for the besieged Spanish. [94]

With interests of their own, Germany was eager to take advantage of whatever opportunities the conflict in the islands might afford. [95] There was a fear at the time that the islands would become a German possession. [96] The Americans called Germany's bluff and threatened conflict if the aggression continued. The Germans backed down. [95] [97] At the time, the Germans expected the confrontation in the Philippines to end in an American defeat, with the revolutionaries capturing Manila and leaving the Philippines ripe for German picking. [98]

Commodore Dewey transported Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino leader who led rebellion against Spanish rule in the Philippines in 1896, from exile in Hong Kong to the Philippines to rally more Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. [99] By June 9, Aguinaldo's forces controlled the provinces of Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bataan, Zambales, Pampanga, Pangasinan, and Mindoro, and had laid siege to Manila. [100] On June 12, Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines. [101] [102]

On August 5, upon instruction from Spain, Governor-General Basilio Augustin turned over the command of the Philippines to his deputy, Fermin Jaudenes. [103] On August 13, with American commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between Spain and the U.S. on the previous day in Washington D.C., American forces captured the city of Manila from the Spanish in the Battle of Manila. [g] [99] [105] This battle marked the end of Filipino–American collaboration, as the American action of preventing Filipino forces from entering the captured city of Manila was deeply resented by the Filipinos. This later led to the Philippine–American War, [106] which would prove to be more deadly and costly than the Spanish–American War.

The U.S. had sent a force of some 11,000 ground troops to the Philippines. On August 14, 1898, Spanish Captain-General Jaudenes formally capitulated and U.S. General Merritt formally accepted the surrender and declared the establishment of a U.S. military government in occupation. The capitulation document declared, "The surrender of the Philippine Archipelago." and set forth a mechanism for its physical accomplishment. [107] [108] That same day, the Schurman Commission recommended that the U.S. retain control of the Philippines, possibly granting independence in the future. [109] On December 10, 1898, the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. Armed conflict broke out between U.S. forces and the Filipinos when U.S. troops began to take the place of the Spanish in control of the country after the end of the war, quickly escalating into the Philippine–American War.

Guam Edit

On June 20, 1898, a U.S. fleet commanded by Captain Henry Glass, consisting of the protected cruiser USS Charleston and three transports carrying troops to the Philippines, entered Guam's Apra Harbor, Captain Glass having opened sealed orders instructing him to proceed to Guam and capture it. Charleston fired a few rounds at Fort Santa Cruz without receiving return fire. Two local officials, not knowing that war had been declared and believing the firing had been a salute, came out to Charleston to apologize for their inability to return the salute as they were out of gunpowder. Glass informed them that the U.S. and Spain were at war. [110]

The following day, Glass sent Lieutenant William Braunersruehter to meet the Spanish Governor to arrange the surrender of the island and the Spanish garrison there. Some 54 Spanish infantry were captured and transported to the Philippines as prisoners of war. No U.S. forces were left on Guam, but the only U.S. citizen on the island, Frank Portusach, told Captain Glass that he would look after things until U.S. forces returned. [110]

Cuba Edit

Theodore Roosevelt advocated intervention in Cuba, both for the Cuban people and to promote the Monroe Doctrine. While Assistant Secretary of the Navy, he placed the Navy on a war-time footing and prepared Dewey's Asiatic Squadron for battle. He also worked with Leonard Wood in convincing the Army to raise an all-volunteer regiment, the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry. Wood was given command of the regiment that quickly became known as the "Rough Riders". [111]

The Americans planned to destroy Spain's army forces in Cuba, capture the port city of Santiago de Cuba, and destroy the Spanish Caribbean Squadron (also known as the Flota de Ultramar). To reach Santiago they had to pass through concentrated Spanish defenses in the San Juan Hills and a small town in El Caney. The American forces were aided in Cuba by the pro-independence rebels led by General Calixto García.

Cuban sentiment Edit

For quite some time the Cuban public believed the United States government to possibly hold the key to its independence, and even annexation was considered for a time, which historian Louis Pérez explored in his book Cuba and the United States: Ties of Singular Intimacy. The Cubans harbored a great deal of discontent towards the Spanish government, due to years of manipulation on the part of the Spanish. The prospect of getting the United States involved in the fight was considered by many Cubans as a step in the right direction. While the Cubans were wary of the United States' intentions, the overwhelming support from the American public provided the Cubans with some peace of mind, because they believed that the United States was committed to helping them achieve their independence. However, with the imposition of the Platt Amendment of 1903 after the war, as well as economic and military manipulation on the part of the United States, Cuban sentiment towards the United States became polarized, with many Cubans disappointed with continuing American interference. [112]

Land campaign Edit

From June 22 to 24, the Fifth Army Corps under General William R. Shafter landed at Daiquirí and Siboney, east of Santiago, and established an American base of operations. A contingent of Spanish troops, having fought a skirmish with the Americans near Siboney on June 23, had retired to their lightly entrenched positions at Las Guasimas. An advance guard of U.S. forces under former Confederate General Joseph Wheeler ignored Cuban scouting parties and orders to proceed with caution. They caught up with and engaged the Spanish rearguard of about 2,000 soldiers led by General Antero Rubín [113] who effectively ambushed them, in the Battle of Las Guasimas on June 24. The battle ended indecisively in favor of Spain and the Spanish left Las Guasimas on their planned retreat to Santiago.

The U.S. Army employed Civil War–era skirmishers at the head of the advancing columns. Three of four of the U.S. soldiers who had volunteered to act as skirmishers walking point at the head of the American column were killed, including Hamilton Fish II (grandson of Hamilton Fish, the Secretary of State under Ulysses S. Grant), and Captain Allyn K. Capron, Jr., whom Theodore Roosevelt would describe as one of the finest natural leaders and soldiers he ever met. Only Oklahoma Territory Pawnee Indian, Tom Isbell, wounded seven times, survived. [114]

Regular Spanish troops were mostly armed with modern charger-loaded, 7mm 1893 Spanish Mauser rifles and using smokeless powder. The high-speed 7×57mm Mauser round was termed the "Spanish Hornet" by the Americans because of the supersonic crack as it passed overhead. Other irregular troops were armed with Remington Rolling Block rifles in .43 Spanish using smokeless powder and brass-jacketed bullets. U.S. regular infantry were armed with the .30–40 Krag–Jørgensen, a bolt-action rifle with a complex magazine. Both the U.S. regular cavalry and the volunteer cavalry used smokeless ammunition. In later battles, state volunteers used the .45–70 Springfield, a single-shot black powder rifle. [114]

On July 1, a combined force of about 15,000 American troops in regular infantry and cavalry regiments, including all four of the army's "Colored" Buffalo soldier regiments, and volunteer regiments, among them Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders", the 71st New York, the 2nd Massachusetts Infantry, and 1st North Carolina, and rebel Cuban forces attacked 1,270 entrenched Spaniards in dangerous Civil War-style frontal assaults at the Battle of El Caney and Battle of San Juan Hill outside of Santiago. [115] More than 200 U.S. soldiers were killed and close to 1,200 wounded in the fighting, thanks to the high rate of fire the Spanish put down range at the Americans. [116] Supporting fire by Gatling guns was critical to the success of the assault. [117] [118] Cervera decided to escape Santiago two days later. First Lieutenant John J. Pershing, nicknamed "Black Jack", oversaw the 10th Cavalry Unit during the war. Pershing and his unit fought in the Battle of San Juan Hill. Pershing was cited for his gallantry during the battle.

The Spanish forces at Guantánamo were so isolated by Marines and Cuban forces that they did not know that Santiago was under siege, and their forces in the northern part of the province could not break through Cuban lines. This was not true of the Escario relief column from Manzanillo, [119] which fought its way past determined Cuban resistance but arrived too late to participate in the siege.

After the battles of San Juan Hill and El Caney, the American advance halted. Spanish troops successfully defended Fort Canosa, allowing them to stabilize their line and bar the entry to Santiago. The Americans and Cubans forcibly began a bloody, strangling siege of the city. [120] During the nights, Cuban troops dug successive series of "trenches" (raised parapets), toward the Spanish positions. Once completed, these parapets were occupied by U.S. soldiers and a new set of excavations went forward. American troops, while suffering daily losses from Spanish fire, suffered far more casualties from heat exhaustion and mosquito-borne disease. [121] At the western approaches to the city, Cuban general Calixto Garcia began to encroach on the city, causing much panic and fear of reprisals among the Spanish forces.

Battle of Tayacoba Edit

Lieutenant Carter P. Johnson of the Buffalo Soldiers' 10th Cavalry, with experience in special operations roles as head of the 10th Cavalry's attached Apache scouts in the Apache Wars, chose 50 soldiers from the regiment to lead a deployment mission with at least 375 Cuban soldiers under Cuban Brigadier General Emilio Nunez and other supplies to the mouth of the San Juan River east of Cienfuegos. On June 29, 1898, a reconnaissance team in landing boats from the transports Florida and Fanita attempted to land on the beach, but were repelled by Spanish fire. A second attempt was made on June 30, 1898, but a team of reconnaissance soldiers was trapped on the beach near the mouth of the Tallabacoa River. A team of four soldiers saved this group and were awarded Medals of Honor. The USS Peoria and the recently arrived USS Helena then shelled the beach to distract the Spanish while the Cuban deployment landed 40 miles east at Palo Alto, where they linked up with Cuban General Gomez. [122] [123]

Naval operations Edit

The major port of Santiago de Cuba was the main target of naval operations during the war. The U.S. fleet attacking Santiago needed shelter from the summer hurricane season Guantánamo Bay, with its excellent harbor, was chosen. The 1898 invasion of Guantánamo Bay happened between June 6 and 10, with the first U.S. naval attack and subsequent successful landing of U.S. Marines with naval support.

On April 23, a council of senior admirals of the Spanish Navy had decided to order Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete's squadron of four armored cruisers and three torpedo boat destroyers to proceed from their present location in Cape Verde (having left from Cádiz, Spain) to the West Indies. [124]

The Battle of Santiago de Cuba on July 3, was the largest naval engagement of the Spanish–American War and resulted in the destruction of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron. In May, the fleet of Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete had been spotted in Santiago harbor by American forces, where they had taken shelter for protection from sea attack. A two-month stand-off between Spanish and American naval forces followed.

When the Spanish squadron finally attempted to leave the harbor on July 3, the American forces destroyed or grounded five of the six ships. Only one Spanish vessel, the new armored cruiser Cristóbal Colón, survived, but her captain hauled down her flag and scuttled her when the Americans finally caught up with her. The 1,612 Spanish sailors who were captured, including Admiral Cervera, were sent to Seavey's Island at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine, where they were confined at Camp Long as prisoners of war from July 11 until mid-September.

During the stand-off, U.S. Assistant Naval Constructor, Lieutenant Richmond Pearson Hobson had been ordered by Rear Admiral William T. Sampson to sink the collier USS Merrimac in the harbor to bottle up the Spanish fleet. The mission was a failure, and Hobson and his crew were captured. They were exchanged on July 6, and Hobson became a national hero he received the Medal of Honor in 1933, retired as a Rear Admiral and became a Congressman.

US withdrawal Edit

Yellow fever had quickly spread among the American occupation force, crippling it. A group of concerned officers of the American army chose Theodore Roosevelt to draft a request to Washington that it withdraw the Army, a request that paralleled a similar one from General Shafter, who described his force as an "army of convalescents". By the time of his letter, 75% of the force in Cuba was unfit for service. [125]

On August 7, the American invasion force started to leave Cuba. The evacuation was not total. The U.S. Army kept the black Ninth U.S. Cavalry Regiment in Cuba to support the occupation. The logic was that their race and the fact that many black volunteers came from southern states would protect them from disease this logic led to these soldiers being nicknamed "Immunes". Still, when the Ninth left, 73 of its 984 soldiers had contracted the disease. [125]

Puerto Rico Edit

On May 24, 1898, in a letter to Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge wrote, "Porto Rico is not forgotten and we mean to have it". [126]

In the same month, Lt. Henry H. Whitney of the United States Fourth Artillery was sent to Puerto Rico on a reconnaissance mission, sponsored by the Army's Bureau of Military Intelligence. He provided maps and information on the Spanish military forces to the U.S. government before the invasion.

The American offensive began on May 12, 1898, when a squadron of 12 U.S. ships commanded by Rear Adm. William T. Sampson of the United States Navy attacked the archipelago's capital, San Juan. Though the damage inflicted on the city was minimal, the Americans established a blockade in the city's harbor, San Juan Bay. On June 22, the cruiser Isabel II and the destroyer Terror delivered a Spanish counterattack, but were unable to break the blockade and Terror was damaged.

The land offensive began on July 25, when 1,300 infantry soldiers led by Nelson A. Miles disembarked off the coast of Guánica. The first organized armed opposition occurred in Yauco in what became known as the Battle of Yauco. [127]

This encounter was followed by the Battle of Fajardo. The United States seized control of Fajardo on August 1, but were forced to withdraw on August 5 after a group of 200 Puerto Rican-Spanish soldiers led by Pedro del Pino gained control of the city, while most civilian inhabitants fled to a nearby lighthouse. The Americans encountered larger opposition during the Battle of Guayama and as they advanced towards the main island's interior. They engaged in crossfire at Guamaní River Bridge, Coamo and Silva Heights and finally at the Battle of Asomante. [127] [128] The battles were inconclusive as the allied soldiers retreated.

A battle in San Germán concluded in a similar fashion with the Spanish retreating to Lares. On August 9, 1898, American troops that were pursuing units retreating from Coamo encountered heavy resistance in Aibonito in a mountain known as Cerro Gervasio del Asomante and retreated after six of their soldiers were injured. They returned three days later, reinforced with artillery units and attempted a surprise attack. In the subsequent crossfire, confused soldiers reported seeing Spanish reinforcements nearby and five American officers were gravely injured, which prompted a retreat order. All military actions in Puerto Rico were suspended on August 13, after U.S. President William McKinley and French Ambassador Jules Cambon, acting on behalf of the Spanish Government, signed an armistice whereby Spain relinquished its sovereignty over Puerto Rico. [128]

Shortly after the war began in April, the Spanish Navy ordered major units of its fleet to concentrate at Cádiz to form the 2nd Squadron, under the command of Rear Admiral Manuel de la Cámara y Livermoore. [129] Two of Spain's most powerful warships, the battleship Pelayo and the brand-new armored cruiser Emperador Carlos V, were not available when the war began—the former undergoing reconstruction in a French shipyard and the latter not yet delivered from her builders—but both were rushed into service and assigned to Cámara's squadron. [130] The squadron was ordered to guard the Spanish coast against raids by the U.S. Navy. No such raids materialized, and while Cámara's squadron lay idle at Cádiz, U.S. Navy forces destroyed Montojo's squadron at Manila Bay on 1 May and bottled up Cervera's squadron at Santiago de Cuba on 27 May.

During May, the Spanish Ministry of Marine considered options for employing Cámara's squadron. Spanish Minister of Marine Ramón Auñón y Villalón made plans for Cámara to take a portion of his squadron across the Atlantic Ocean and bombard a city on the United States East Coast—preferably Charleston, South Carolina—and then head for the Caribbean to make port at San Juan, Havana, or Santiago de Cuba, [131] but in the end this idea was dropped. Meanwhile, U.S. intelligence reported rumors as early as 15 May that Spain also was considering sending Cámara's squadron to the Philippines to destroy Dewey's squadron and reinforce the Spanish forces there with fresh troops. [132] Pelayo and Emperado Carlos V each were more powerful than any of Dewey's ships, and the possibility of their arrival in the Philippines was of great concern to the United States, which hastily arranged to dispatch 10,000 additional U.S. Army troops to the Philippines and send two U.S. Navy monitors to reinforce Dewey. [132]

On 15 June, Cámara finally received orders to depart immediately for the Philippines. His squadron, made up of Pelayo (his flagship), Emperador Carlos V, two auxiliary cruisers, three destroyers, and four colliers, was to depart Cádiz escorting four transports. After detaching two of the transports to steam independently to the Caribbean, his squadron was to proceed to the Philippines, escorting the other two transports, which carried 4,000 Spanish Army troops to reinforce Spanish forces there. He then was to destroy Dewey's squadron. [133] [131] [134] Accordingly, he sortied from Cádiz on 16 June [135] and, after detaching two of the transports for their voyages to the Caribbean, passed Gibraltar on 17 June [133] and arrived at Port Said, at the northern end of the Suez Canal, on 26 June. [136] There he found that U.S. operatives had purchased all the coal available at the other end of the canal in Suez to prevent his ships from coaling with it [137] and received word on 29 June from the British government, which controlled Egypt at the time, that his squadron was not permitted to coal in Egyptian waters because to do so would violate Egyptian and British neutrality. [136] [131]

Ordered to continue, [138] Cámara's squadron passed through the Suez Canal on 5–6 July. By that time, the United States Department of the Navy had announced that a U.S. Navy "armored squadron with cruisers" would assemble and "proceed at once to the Spanish coast" [138] and word also reached Spain of the annihilation of Cervera's squadron off Santiago de Cuba on 3 July, freeing up the U.S. Navy's heavy forces from the blockade there. Fearing for the safety of the Spanish coast, the Spanish Ministry of Marine recalled Cámara's squadron, which by then had reached the Red Sea, on 7 July 1898. [139] Cámara ' s squadron returned to Spain, arriving at Cartagena on 23 July. Cámara and Spain's two most powerful warships thus never saw combat during the war. [131]

With defeats in Cuba and the Philippines, and its fleets in both places destroyed, Spain sued for peace and negotiations were opened between the two parties. After the sickness and death of British consul Edward Henry Rawson-Walker, American admiral George Dewey requested the Belgian consul to Manila, Édouard André, to take Rawson-Walker's place as intermediary with the Spanish government. [140] [141] [142]

Hostilities were halted on August 12, 1898, with the signing in Washington of a Protocol of Peace between the United States and Spain. [143] After over two months of difficult negotiations, the formal peace treaty, the Treaty of Paris, was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, [144] and was ratified by the United States Senate on February 6, 1899.

The United States gained Spain's colonies of the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico in the treaty, and Cuba became a U.S. protectorate. [144] The treaty came into force in Cuba April 11, 1899, with Cubans participating only as observers. Having been occupied since July 17, 1898, and thus under the jurisdiction of the United States Military Government (USMG), Cuba formed its own civil government and gained independence on May 20, 1902, with the announced end of USMG jurisdiction over the island. However, the U.S. imposed various restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries, and reserved the right to intervene. The U.S. also established a de facto perpetual lease of Guantánamo Bay. [145] [146] [147]

The war lasted 16 weeks. [148] John Hay (the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom), writing from London to his friend Theodore Roosevelt, declared that it had been "a splendid little war". [149] [150] The press showed Northerners and Southerners, blacks and whites fighting against a common foe, helping to ease the scars left from the American Civil War. [151] Exemplary of this was the fact that four former Confederate States Army generals had served in the war, now in the U.S. Army and all of them again carrying similar ranks. These officers included Matthew Butler, Fitzhugh Lee, Thomas L. Rosser and Joseph Wheeler, though only the latter had seen action. Still, in an exciting moment during the Battle of Las Guasimas, Wheeler apparently forgot for a moment which war he was fighting, having supposedly called out "Let's go, boys! We've got the damn Yankees on the run again!" [152]

The war marked American entry into world affairs. Since then, the U.S. has had a significant hand in various conflicts around the world, and entered many treaties and agreements. The Panic of 1893 was over by this point, and the U.S. entered a long and prosperous period of economic and population growth, and technological innovation that lasted through the 1920s. [153]

The war redefined national identity, served as a solution of sorts to the social divisions plaguing the American mind, and provided a model for all future news reporting. [154]

The idea of American imperialism changed in the public's mind after the short and successful Spanish–American War. Due to the United States' powerful influence diplomatically and militarily, Cuba's status after the war relied heavily upon American actions. Two major developments emerged from the Spanish–American War: one, it firmly established the United States' vision of itself as a "defender of democracy" and as a major world power, and two, it had severe implications for Cuban–American relations in the future. As historian Louis Pérez argued in his book Cuba in the American Imagination: Metaphor and the Imperial Ethos, the Spanish–American War of 1898 "fixed permanently how Americans came to think of themselves: a righteous people given to the service of righteous purpose". [155]

Aftermath in Spain Edit

The war greatly reduced the Spanish Empire. Spain had been declining as an imperial power since the early 19th century as a result of Napoleon's invasion. The loss of Cuba caused a national trauma because of the affinity of peninsular Spaniards with Cuba, which was seen as another province of Spain rather than as a colony. Spain retained only a handful of overseas holdings: Spanish West Africa (Spanish Sahara), Spanish Guinea, Spanish Morocco and the Canary Islands. With the loss of the Philippines, Spain's remaining Pacific possessions in the Caroline Islands and Mariana Islands became untenable and were sold to Germany [156] in the German-Spanish Treaty (1899).

The Spanish soldier Julio Cervera Baviera, who served in the Puerto Rican Campaign, published a pamphlet in which he blamed the natives of that colony for its occupation by the Americans, saying, "I have never seen such a servile, ungrateful country [i.e., Puerto Rico] . In twenty-four hours, the people of Puerto Rico went from being fervently Spanish to enthusiastically American. They humiliated themselves, giving in to the invader as the slave bows to the powerful lord." [157] He was challenged to a duel by a group of young Puerto Ricans for writing this pamphlet. [158]

Culturally, a new wave called the Generation of '98 originated as a response to this trauma, marking a renaissance in Spanish culture. Economically, the war benefited Spain, because after the war large sums of capital held by Spaniards in Cuba and the United States were returned to the peninsula and invested in Spain. This massive flow of capital (equivalent to 25% of the gross domestic product of one year) helped to develop the large modern firms in Spain in the steel, chemical, financial, mechanical, textile, shipyard, and electrical power industries. [159] However, the political consequences were serious. The defeat in the war began the weakening of the fragile political stability that had been established earlier by the rule of Alfonso XII.

Teller and Platt Amendments Edit

The Teller Amendment was passed in the Senate on April 19, 1898, with a vote of 42 for versus 35 against. Subsequently, the House of Representatives passed the amendment with a vote of 311 for versus 6 against allowing President William McKinley to sign the resolution. [160] The Teller Amendment, which was enacted on April 20, 1898, was a promise from the United States to the Cuban people that it was not declaring war to annex Cuba, but to help it gain its independence from Spain. The Platt Amendment was a move by the United States' government to shape Cuban affairs without violating the Teller Amendment. [161]

The U.S. Congress had passed the Teller Amendment before the war, promising Cuban independence. However, the Senate passed the Platt Amendment as a rider to an Army appropriations bill, forcing a peace treaty on Cuba which prohibited it from signing treaties with other nations or contracting a public debt. The Platt Amendment was pushed by imperialists who wanted to project U.S. power abroad (in contrast to the Teller Amendment which was pushed by anti-imperialists who called for a restraint on U.S. rule). The amendment granted the United States the right to stabilize Cuba militarily as needed. [162] In addition, the Platt Amendment permitted the United States to deploy Marines to Cuba if its freedom and independence was ever threatened or jeopardized by an external or internal force. [162] The Platt Amendment also provided for a permanent American naval base in Cuba. [162] Guantánamo Bay was established after the signing of the Cuban–American Treaty of Relations in 1903. Thus, despite that Cuba technically gained its independence after the war ended, the United States government ensured that it had some form of power and control over Cuban affairs.

Aftermath in the United States Edit

The U.S. annexed the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam. [162] The notion of the United States as an imperial power, with colonies, was hotly debated domestically with President McKinley and the Pro-Imperialists winning their way over vocal opposition led by Democrat William Jennings Bryan, [162] who had supported the war. The American public largely supported the possession of colonies, but there were many outspoken critics such as Mark Twain, who wrote The War Prayer in protest. Roosevelt returned to the United States a war hero, [162] and he was soon elected governor of New York and then became the vice president. At the age of 42 he became the youngest person to become president after the assassination of President McKinley.

The war served to further repair relations between the American North and South. The war gave both sides a common enemy for the first time since the end of the Civil War in 1865, and many friendships were formed between soldiers of northern and southern states during their tours of duty. This was an important development, since many soldiers in this war were the children of Civil War veterans on both sides. [163]

The African-American community strongly supported the rebels in Cuba, supported entry into the war, and gained prestige from their wartime performance in the Army. Spokesmen noted that 33 African-American seamen had died in the Maine explosion. The most influential Black leader, Booker T. Washington, argued that his race was ready to fight. War offered them a chance "to render service to our country that no other race can", because, unlike Whites, they were "accustomed" to the "peculiar and dangerous climate" of Cuba. One of the Black units that served in the war was the 9th Cavalry Regiment. In March 1898, Washington promised the Secretary of the Navy that war would be answered by "at least ten thousand loyal, brave, strong black men in the south who crave an opportunity to show their loyalty to our land, and would gladly take this method of showing their gratitude for the lives laid down, and the sacrifices made, that Blacks might have their freedom and rights." [164]

Veterans Associations Edit

In 1904, the United Spanish War Veterans was created from smaller groups of the veterans of the Spanish–American War. Today, that organization is defunct, but it left an heir in the Sons of Spanish–American War Veterans, created in 1937 at the 39th National Encampment of the United Spanish War Veterans. According to data from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the last surviving U.S. veteran of the conflict, Nathan E. Cook, died on September 10, 1992, at age 106. (If the data is to be believed, Cook, born October 10, 1885, would have been only 12 years old when he served in the war.)

The Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States (VFW) was formed in 1914 from the merger of two veterans organizations which both arose in 1899: the American Veterans of Foreign Service and the National Society of the Army of the Philippines. [165] The former was formed for veterans of the Spanish–American War, while the latter was formed for veterans of the Philippine–American War. Both organizations were formed in response to the general neglect veterans returning from the war experienced at the hands of the government.

To pay the costs of the war, Congress passed an excise tax on long-distance phone service. [166] At the time, it affected only wealthy Americans who owned telephones. However, the Congress neglected to repeal the tax after the war ended four months later, and the tax remained in place for over 100 years until, on August 1, 2006, it was announced that the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the IRS would no longer collect the tax. [167]

Postwar American investment in Puerto Rico Edit

The change in sovereignty of Puerto Rico, like the occupation of Cuba, brought about major changes in both the insular and U.S. economies. Before 1898 the sugar industry in Puerto Rico was in decline for nearly half a century. [ citation needed ] In the second half of the nineteenth century, technological advances increased the capital requirements to remain competitive in the sugar industry. Agriculture began to shift toward coffee production, which required less capital and land accumulation. However, these trends were reversed with U.S. hegemony. Early U.S. monetary and legal policies made it both harder for local farmers to continue operations and easier for American businesses to accumulate land. [168] This, along with the large capital reserves of American businesses, led to a resurgence in the Puerto Rican nuts and sugar industry in the form of large American owned agro-industrial complexes.

At the same time, the inclusion of Puerto Rico into the U.S. tariff system as a customs area, effectively treating Puerto Rico as a state with respect to internal or external trade, increased the codependence of the insular and mainland economies and benefitted sugar exports with tariff protection. In 1897, the United States purchased 19.6 percent of Puerto Rico's exports while supplying 18.5 percent of its imports. By 1905, these figures jumped to 84 percent and 85 percent, respectively. [169] However, coffee was not protected, as it was not a product of the mainland. At the same time, Cuba and Spain, traditionally the largest importers of Puerto Rican coffee, now subjected Puerto Rico to previously nonexistent import tariffs. These two effects led to a decline in the coffee industry. From 1897 to 1901, coffee went from 65.8 percent of exports to 19.6 percent while sugar went from 21.6 percent to 55 percent. [170] The tariff system also provided a protected market place for Puerto Rican tobacco exports. The tobacco industry went from nearly nonexistent in Puerto Rico to a major part of the country's agricultural sector. [ citation needed ]

The Spanish–American War was the first U.S. war in which the motion picture camera played a role. [171] The Library of Congress archives contain many films and film clips from the war. [172] In addition, a few feature films have been made about the war. These include

  • The Rough Riders, a 1927 silent film
  • A Message to Garcia, 1936 , a 1997 television miniseries directed by John Milius, and featuring Tom Berenger (Theodore Roosevelt), Gary Busey (Joseph Wheeler), Sam Elliott (Buckey O'Neill), Dale Dye (Leonard Wood), Brian Keith (William McKinley), George Hamilton (William Randolph Hearst), and R. Lee Ermey (John Hay)
  • Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War, a 1999 television documentary from PBS
  • The Spanish–American War: First Intervention, a 2007 docudrama from The History Channel
  • Baler, a 2008 film about the Siege of Baler
  • Los últimos de Filipinas ("The Last Ones of the Philippines"), a 1945 Spanish biographical film directed by Antonio Román
  • Amigo, 2010
  • 1898, Our Last Men in the Philippines, a well-acclaimed 2016 film about the Siege of Baler

United States Edit

The United States awards and decorations of the Spanish–American War were as follows:

Wartime service and honors Edit

Postwar occupation service Edit

Spain Edit

  • Army Cross of Military Merit/Cruces del Mérito Militar—Spain issued two Crosses of Military Merit including one for fighters with a red badge and a red ribbon with a white stripe, and one for non-fighters with a white badge and a white ribbon with a red stripe. An example of the Silver Cross of Military Merit with the red emblem for fighters was issued on July 18 of 1898 for good behavior on the 11th of May in defense of the fortress of El Faro and the Pueblo de Jagua on May 11 in the Battle of Cienfuegos. [173]
  • Army Operations Medal/Medalla Para Ejercito de Operaciones, Cuba [174]
  • Medal for Volunteers/Medalla Para Los Volunatrios, Cuban Campaign, 1895–1898 [174]
  • Army Operations Medal for Vaolr, Discipline and Loyalty, Philippines, 1896–1898 [174]
  • Army Medal for Volunteers/Medalla Para Los Voluntarios, Philippines, Luzon Campaign, 1896–1897 [174]

Other countries Edit

The governments of Spain and Cuba issued a wide variety of military awards to honor Spanish, Cuban, and Philippine soldiers who had served in the conflict.

Footnotes Edit

  1. ^ ab Unrecognized by the primary belligerents.
  2. ^ The US declared war on Spain on April 25, 1898, but dated the beginning of the war retroactively to April 21
  3. ^ Number is the total for all Cuban rebels active from 1895 to 1898. [2]
  4. ^ Some historians prefer alternative titles, e.g.:
    • Louis A. Pérez (1998), The war of 1898: the United States and Cuba in history and historiography, UNC Press Books, ISBN978-0807847428 , archived from the original on April 24, 2016 , retrieved October 31, 2015
    • Benjamin R. Beede (1994), The War of 1898, and US interventions, 1898–1934: an encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN978-0824056247 , archived from the original on May 27, 2016 , retrieved October 31, 2015
    • Thomas David Schoonover Walter LaFeber (2005), Uncle Sam's War of 1898 and the Origins of Globalization, University Press of Kentucky, ISBN978-0813191225 , archived from the original on May 7, 2016 , retrieved October 31, 2015
    • Virginia Marie Bouvier (2001), Whose America?: the war of 1898 and the battles to define the nation, Praeger, ISBN978-0275967949 , archived from the original on May 14, 2016 , retrieved October 31, 2015
  5. ^

1. This is the English language text of the document as published by the supporting source cited, possibly as translated from the original Spanish or Tagalog. In 1898, Spanish, Tagalog, and English were official languages in the Spanish colonial Philippines. [84] 2. In the Spanish colonial Philippiines, the term Filipino was reserved for full-blooded Spaniards born in the Philippines (insulares). Full-blooded Spaniards born in the Spanish peninsula were termed peninsulares. The Filipinos that we know today were then termed indios. [85] [86]

The text of the document as published in the cited source was as follows:


Fellow Spaniards,

Hostilities between Spain and the United States have broken out.

The moment has come for us to show the world that we are more than courageous to triumph over those, who, feigning to be loyal friends, took advantage of our misfortunes and capitalized on our nobility by making use of the means civilized nations consider as condemnable and contemptible.

The Americans, gratified with their social progress, have drained off our patience and have instigated the war through wicked tactics, treacherous acts, and violations of human rights and internal agreements.

Fighting will be short and decisive. God of victories will render this victory glorious and complete as demanded by reason and justice to our cause.

Spain, counting on the sympathies of all nations, will come out in triumph from this new test, by shattering and silencing the adventurers of those countries which, without cohesiveness and post, offer to humanity shameful traditions and the ungrateful spectacle of some embassies within which jointly dwell intrigues and defamation, cowardice and cynicism.

A US squadron, manned by strangers, by ignorant undisciplined men, is coming into the Archipelago for the purpose of grabbing from us what we consider to be our life, honor freedom. It tries to inspire (motivate) American sailors by saying that we are weak, they are encouraged to keep on with an undertaking that can be accomplished namely of substituting the Catholic religion with Protestantism, they consider you as a people who impedes growth they will seize your wealth as if you do not know your rights to property they will snatch away from you those they consider as useful to man their ships, to be exploited as workers in their fields and factories.

Useless plans! Ridiculous boastings!

Your indomitable courage suffices to hold off those who dare to bring it to reality. We know you will not allow them to mock the faith you are professing, their feet to step on the temple of the true God, incredulity to demolish the sacred images you honor you will not allow the invaders to desecrate the tombs of your forefathers to satisfy their immodest passions at the expense of your wives and daughters' honor you will not allow them to seize all the properties you have put up through honest work in order to assure your future you will not allow them to commit any of those crimes inspired by their wickedness and greed, because your bravery and patriotism suffice in scaring them away and knocking down the people who, calling themselves civilized and cultured, resort to the extermination of the natives of North America instead of trying to attract them to live a civilized life and of progress.

Filipinos! Prepare yourself for the battle and united together under the glorious Spanish flag, always covered with laurels, let us fight, convinced that victory will crown our efforts and let us reply the intimations of our enemies with a decision befitting a Christian and patriot, with a cry of "Long live Spain!"

Manila, April 23, 1898

Your general


Timeline of the Spanish American wars of independence

This is a timeline of events related to the Spanish American wars of independence. Numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America took place during the early 19th century, from 1808 until 1829, directly related to the Napoleonic French invasion of Spain. The conflict started with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell to the French, numerous new Juntas appeared all across the Americas, eventually resulting in a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south, to Mexico in the north. After the death of the king Ferdinand VII, in 1833, only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule, until the Spanish–American War in 1898.

These conflicts can be characterized both as civil wars and wars of national liberation, since the majority of the combatants were Spanish Americans on both sides, and the goal of the conflict for one side was the independence of the Spanish colonies in the Americas. In addition, the wars were related to the more general Latin American wars of independence, which include the conflicts in Haiti and Brazil (Brazil's independence shared a common starting point with Spanish America's, since both were triggered by Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, when the Portuguese royal family resettled in Brazil).

The war in Europe, and the resulting absolutist restoration ultimately convinced the Spanish Americans of the need to establish independence from the mother country, so various revolutions broke out in Spanish America. Moreover, the process of Latin American independence took place in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment and that influenced all of the so-called Atlantic Revolutions, including the earlier revolutions in the United States and France. Nevertheless, the wars in, and the independence of, Spanish America were the result of unique developments within the Spanish Monarchy.

Spanish-American War: Causes, Battles and Timeline - HISTORY

What were the causes of the

Spanish American War ?

Picture of Spanish colonial cruelty in Cuba from The War in Cuba

by Gonzalo deQuesada in 1896, such books aroused American

There were many factors which brought about the Spanish American War. The relations between Spain and the United States had been much disturbed by the state of affairs in Cuba, Since the 1870s Cubans fighting for Cuban independence and Spanish forces and by 1898 the country was desolate, by some estimates 400 to 500,000 people had died as a result of the fighting . The Cubans had fought three wars for Independence: the Ten Years' War ( 1868-1878 ) , the Little War

( 1879-1880 ) and the War of ྛ, which led to the Spanish American War .

Fighting in the Ten Years War

( Guerra de los Diez Años Spanish )

From 1895 to 1898, Cuban insurgents fought to free their homeland from Spanish rule.

Though often overshadowed by the "Splendid Little War" of the Americans in 1898,

according to John Tone, the longer Spanish-Cuban conflict was in fact more

remarkable, foreshadowing the wars of decolonization in the twentieth century.

The assassination of Prime Minister Antonio Cánovas

del Castillo by Italian anarchist Michele Angiolillo on

August 8, 1897 . Castillo's repressive policies earned

In February 1895 reports of uprisings in Cuba were reported in America . Spain responded by sending 8,000 soldiers to restore order. Spain was reported to be stirred by ' war fever' and the liberal Spanish government of Prime Minister Práxedes Mateo Sagasta ( 1825 - 1903 ) was replaced due to its inability to stop the rebellion. The 'war hawk' premier , Antonio Cánovas del Castillo ( 1828 - 1897 ) took power and sent Spain's most famous general to deal with the rebellion, Martinez Campos ( 1831 - 1900 ) .

There were filibuster (from the Spanish filibustero meaning freebooter, the freewheeling actions of the filibusters led to the name being applied figuratively to the political act of filibustering in the U.S. Senate . Attempts by adventurers to land on Cuba, hoping to spark a revolution and take over the country . There were plans to add Cuba to America going back to the days of Thomas Jefferson . One of the first was by a former Spanish general, Narcisco Lopez (1797&ndash1851), led expeditions into Cuba from New Orleans prior to the American Civil War .

Narcisco Lopez with his flag

López realized the advantages for the South of a free Cuba. He and other Southerners hoped that Cuba would become a strong partner in the slavery and perhaps, like Texas, join the Union as a slave state. He moved his headquarters to New Orleans and tried to gain popular support by recruiting the influential men of the South to lead his expedition. He solicited the military help of Senator Jefferson Davis . Davis turned him down, but he recommended Major Robert E. Lee. Lee thought seriously about López's offer, but eventually also decided not to become involved.

Cuban flag designed by Lopez

Lopez enlisted about six-hundred filibusters in his expedition, and successfully reached Cuba in May 1850. His troops arrived in and took the town of Cárdenas, carrying a flag that López had designed and which would become the flag of modern Cuba. Nevertheless, the local support that he had hoped for failed to materialize when the fighting started. Much of the local population joined the Spanish against López, and he hastily retreated to Key West, where he disbanded the expedition within minutes of landing in order to avoid prosecution under the U.S. Neutrality Law of 1818.

In August 1851, López once again departed for Cuba with several hundred men. When he arrived, he took one half of his expedition to march inland, while the other half, commanded by Colonel William Crittenden, remained on the northern coast to protect supplies. As in his first attempt, the local support that López had counted upon did not answer his appeals. Outnumbered and surrounded by Spanish forces, López and many men were captured. Crittenden's forces shared the same fate. The Spanish executed most of the prisoners, sending others to work in mining labor camps. Those executed included many Americans, Colonel Crittenden, and Lopez himself.

The execution of López and his soldiers caused outrage in both the northern and southern United States. Many who did not support the expedition found the Spanish treatment of military prisoners brutal. The strongest reaction occurred in New Orleans, where a mob attacked the Spanish consulate.

The Virginius chased by the Tornado

In 1873, American indigna tion was briefly aroused again by the capture of former Civil War era blockade runner side-wheel steamer, the Virginius . The Virginius was hired by Cuban insurrectionists to land men and munitions in Cuba to attack Spain. The Virginius was captured off Morant Bay, Jamaica, by the Spanish vessel Tornado , and was taken to Santiago de Cuba. There, after a summary court-m artial, 53 of the crew and passengers, including Fry and some Americans and Englishmen, were executed as pirates.

Execution of the Virginius crew

While most Americans were inclined to remain observers in the Cuban struggle despite sympathy for Cuba, the provocative headline ' Our Flag Fired Upon' in newspapers on March 13, 1895 drew Americans ire . According to the story, the captain of the American steamer Allianca reported his ship had been fired upon and chased by a Spanish gunboat .In reality, the gunboat had fired blanks to signal the ship to stop for a search, but the damage had been done .

cartoon after the Allianca affair

The insurgents success in the beginning of the Ten Year's War, through using such tactics as the such as the 'machete charge ' and hit-and-run tactics led the Spanish to send General Valeriano Weyler .

A 'machete charge'

General Valeriano Weyler

Valeriano Weyler Nicolau, marqués de Tenerife (17 September 1838 - 20 October 1930) His family was originally Prussian, and served in the Spanish army for several generations. He entered at sixteen the military college of infantry at Toledo. From 1868 to 1872, he also fought brilliantly against the Cuban rebels, and commanded a corps of volunteers specially raised for him in Havana. He distinguished himself in the expedition to Santo Domingo in many fights, and especially in a daring reconnaissance with 1500 men he killed 120 in the heart of the enemy's lines, for which he got the cross with laurels of San Fernando. In 1888, he was sent out as captain-general to the Philippines, where he dealt very sternly with the native rebels of the Carolines, of Mindanao and other provinces. He won La Cruz Grande de Maria Cristina ("Grand Cross of Maria Cristina") for his command of troops in the Philippines in 1895, displaying a cold and brutal facet which would surface prominently in Cuba, where he invented 'concentration camps ( Creciente de Valmaseda) to isolate the rebels from the source of their support and gained the nickname "The Butcher"

concentration camp victims in Cuba

After Marshal Campos had failed to pacify the Cuban rebellion, the Conservative government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo sent out Gen. Weyler to Cuba again . He was made a governor of Cuba with full powers to suppress the insurgency (rebellion was widespread in Cuba) and restore the island to political order and its sugar production to greater profitability. Their opponents practiced hit-and-run tactics and lived off the land, blending in with the non-combatant population. He came to the same conclusions as his predecessors as well--that to win Cuba back for Spain, he would have to separate the rebels from the civilians by putting the latter in safe havens, protected by loyal Spanish troops. By the end of 1897, General Weyler had relocated more than 300,000 into such "reconcentration camps," believed by many to be the origin of the name for such tactics used by the British in the Second Boer War and thus evolved into a designation to describe such methods used by twentieth century regimes as Hitler and Stalin. Although he was successful moving vast numbers of people, he failed to provide for them adequately. Consequently, these became areas of hunger and disease, where many hundreds of thousands died.

In the propaganda war waged in the United States, Cuban emigres made much of Weyler's inhumanity to their countrymen and won the sympathy of broad groups of the U.S. population to their cause. Weyler's strategy also backfired militarily due to the rebellion in the Philippines that required the redeployment by 1897 of some troops already in Cuba. When Prime Minister Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was assassinated in August, Weyler lost his principal supporter in Spain. He resigned his post in late 1897 and returned to Europe. He was replaced in Cuba by the more conciliatory Ramón Blanco y Erenas.

Many Cubans came to the United states as exiles after the Ten Year's War .In the propaganda war waged in the United States, Cuban emigrés made much of Weyler's inhumanity to their countrymen and won the sympathy of broad groups of the U.S. population to their cause. The rebels suffered a series of setbacks and agreed to the Pact of Zanjón with Spain on February 10, 1878 which promised reforms .

The troubles in Cuba through the often sensationalist newspapers exclaiming ' blood on our doorsteps' captured the American imagination, American newspapers had been agitating for intervention with sensational stories of Spanish atrocities against the native Cuban population .

On 24 February 1895, the insurrection began again when several important Cuban independence fighters landed near Baracoa, starting the second major War of Cuban Independence,

Cuban Insurgents

Riots in Havana by rowdy pro-Spanish "Voluntarios" moved the United States to send in the warship USS Maine to indicate high national interest opinion was outraged at news of Spanish atrocities and President William McKinley demanded reforms or independence. The US Consul-General, nephew of Robert E. Lee and former Civil War Confederate general Fitzhugh Lee, cabled Washington with fears for the lives of Americans living in Havana. When the US battleship Maine blew up on 15 February 1898, tensions escalated, and the U.S. would no longer accept Spanish promises of eventual reform.

Search of female Cuban exiles on the American steamer Olivette

for letters to rebels in America . In reality the woman were not stripped

naked and searched by men, but were searched by another women .

Pulitzer in the World was one of the first to publishing sensational stories on the Cuban Revolution . War fever was whipped up in America with the sensationalism of the jingo press, called ' Yellow Journalism' after the color of the ink used in the popular ' The Yellow Kid' cartoon of the time . "The Yellow Kid' was drawn by Richard Outcault, were it first appeared in Pulitzer's World, but switched to the Journal when Hearst offered him more money . Then Pulitzer hired another cartoonist to draw his own " Yellow Kid' cartoon, and the papers became known as ' Yellow Kid papers .'

Big newspapers of the time, such as New York Morning Journal owned by William Randolph Hearst , the New York World by Pulitzer, the Sun ( New York ) and the Herald ( New York ) became known for sensationalist writing and for its agitation in favor of war with Spain. These New York newspapers, appealing to the public in support of the Cuban Revolution often exaggerated incidents and their style was imitated by newspapers throughout the country .

A cartoon of Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New

York World and William Randolph Hearst, publisher of the New

York Morning Journal over their bitter circulation battle .

William Randolph Hearst took credit for the Spanish American war as the New York Journal's war (basis for the movie Citizen Kane ). When the famous western painter Frederic Remington, working for the Journal in Cuba, asked for permission to return, Hearst replied with his famous saying, " Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war ."

Many people accused Pulitzer and Hearst of conjuring the Spanish-American War in order to increase newspaper sales . Was the Spanish American war a 'newspaper war ' ? Many have claimed that the president and business did not desire war, but the public, aroused by the ' yellow journalism' of the press demanded it . Hearst certainly believed it, even putting the headline ' How do you like the Journals war ?' on the front page of Journal when war was declared .The question as to whether newspapers actually brought on the war is a complex one and maybe too simplistic . It was certainly one of the factors, along with manifest destiny after the conquest of the west, belief in democracy,interest in overseas possessions such as the other major powers had at the time,etc. However , many newspaper editorials of the time did not stress the sensational stories but basic factors.

Evangelina Cisneros

The Hearst newspapers started a massive press campaign was launched by Hearst on behalf of a young woman, known in the United States for Evangelina Cisneros, who was held in a prison in Cuba for revolutionary activities on the Isle of Pines. She was to be imprisoned on the African coast for 20 years . Later she managed to escape with the help of Hearst journalist Karl Decker,to the United States, where she was in rallies and meet McKinley . She married one of the men who helped her escape, Cuban dentist Carlos Carbonelle .

On December 11, 1897 the battleship Maine, commanded by captain Charles Sigsbee was ordered to Key West in case of anti-American demonstrations in Cuba . On January 13, there were newspaper reports (largely false ) of rioting against Americans in Cuba .The riots were mainly by Spanish soldiers angry over reports of some newspapers in Cuba critical of Gen.Weyler and the army . No Americans were in danger .On Jan 13, the Maine was ordered to Cuba, possible due to a wrongly interpreted code an order by the Secretary of the Navy for a friendly visit to improve relations between Spain and America .

The mystery of the sinking of the USS Maine

story of the Maine explosion in the Journal

On Jan 15 at 9:40 pm, , the Maine exploded, killing 260 of the crew. Later investigations revealed that more than five tons of powder charges for the vessel's six and ten-inch guns had ignited, destroying the forward third of the ship. Most of the Maine &rsquos crew were sleeping or resting in the enlisted quarters in the forward part of the ship when the explosion occurred . Why those magazines had exploded, could not determine conclusively, and doubt remains as to the to this day.

video of 1898 Wreck of the Battleship Maine by the Thomas Edison Company Thomas Edison Company

Sailors from the Spanish cruiser Alfonso XII rescued sailors . Captain Sigsbee was not on the Maine during the explosion and made no comment as to the cause of the explosion at the time. President McKinley summoned his cabinet to decide on policy and decided until the board of inquiry determined the cause , the official theory would be that the explosion was an accident . however, the Journal nor the World were willing to wait and implied Spain was to blame in some sinister way

On March 28,1898 the US Naval Court of Inquiry in declared that a naval mine caused the explosion. Soon a rallying cry could be heard everywhere America: "Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain !"

funeral procession of the

In the 1976 book, How the Battleship Maine Was Destroyed, proposed that an internal coal bunker explosion caused the explosion. In 1999, National Geographic Magazine came full circle and determined a mine destroyed the Maine. No evidence has ever been found in Spanish records of a plot to destroy the Maine which seems unlikely as the new Spanish government was trying to keep the peace with America, short of granting Cuba independence .

Senator Redfield Proctor

The decisive event leading to war was the speech of Republican Senator Redfield Proctor ( 1831 - 1908 ) delivered on March 17, 1898, which thoroughly and calmly analyzed the situation and concluded war was the only answer. The business and religious communities, which had opposed war, switched sides, leaving President William McKinley and Thomas Brackett Reed almost alone in their opposition to the war. Senator Redfield Proctor, of Vermont visited Cuba after the destruction of the Maine and gave a disturbing account of conditions in Cuba as a result of the Spanish attempts to isolate the Cuban rebels:

" Outside Havana all is changed. It is not peace, nor is it war. It is desolation and distress, misery and starvation. Every town and village is surrounded by a trocha (trench), a sort of rifle-pit, but constructed on a plan new to me, the dirt being thrown upon the inside and a barb wire fence on the outer side of the trench. These trochas have at every corner and at frequent intervals along the sides what are there called forts, but which are really small block-houses, many of them more like a large sentry- box, loop-holed for musketry, and with a guard of from two to ten soldiers in each.

The purpose of these trochas is to keep the reconcentrados in as well as to keep the insurgents out. From all the surrounding country the people have been driven into these fortified towns, and held there to subsist as they can. They are virtually prison-yards and not unlike one in general appearance, except the walls are not so high and strong, but they suffice, where every point is in range of a soldier's rifle, to keep in the poor reconcentrado women and children. Every rail road station is within one of these trochas and has an armed guard.

With this exception there is no human life or habitation between these fortified towns and villages, and throughout the whole of the four western provinces, except to a very limited extent among
the hills, where the Spaniards have not been able to go and drive the people to the towns and burn their dwellings, I saw no house or hut in the 400 miles of railroad rides from Pinar del Rio province in the west across the full width of Havana and Matanza provinces, and to Sagua La Grande, on tin- north shore, and to Cienfuegos, on the south shore of Santa Clara, except within the Spanish trochas

There are no domestic animals or crops on the rich fields and pastures except such as are under guard in the immediate vicinity of the towns. In other words, the Spaniards hold in these four western provinces just what their army sits on.

Every man, woman, and child, and every domestic animal, wherever their columns have reached, is under guard and within their so-called fortifications. To describe one place is to describe all. To repeat, it is neither peace nor war. It is concentration and desolation."

These dreadful conditions were brought about by the famous and
brutal order of Captain-General Weyler, the first clause of which Senator Proctor quoted and which is here repeated. It read

"I order and command first, all the inhabitants of the country or outside of the line of fortification of the towns, shall, within the period of eight days, concentrate themselves in the town so occupied by the troops. Any individual who, after the expiration of this period, is found in the uninhabited parts will be considered a rebel, and tried as such."

According to Proctor, this was nothing less than an artfully planned scheme to exterminate by starvation and disease the native population.

Under the order of his Government, General Fitzhugh Lee, Consul-
General of the United States at Havana, had, the 9th of April, closed his
office, turned over to the English consul the care of American interests
and, with a number of other Americans, had embarked for Key West,
reaching there the next day.

President McKinley

The preceding administration of Grover Cleveland had been opposed to war. the president elect, republican William McKinley was also opposed to war .Why was President McKinley reluctant to go to war with Spain ? There were a few reasons for this. First, as a Union officer during the Civil war he had seen death first hand. Second, America was revving from an economic depression and it was thought the war would be a drag on the economy. Third, America did not know what the European reaction would be to such a war, and if it would bring in other European powers The European press was hostile to America during the war .

cartoon of McKinley trying to keep

Despite the sinking of the Maine, , it was Spain's failure to grant autonomy to Cuba that was the major force leading to the war . On March 18, 1898 McKinley sent three messages to the American ambassador in Madrid that unless Spain would give full née to Cuba, he would resort to turning the question over to the war favoring Congress .

On April 11, 1898 McKinley sent a message to Congress and congress passed a resolution recognizing the independence of Cuba and on April 25 passed a war resolution. On April 22 the navy had sailed to set up a blockade of ports in Cuba .

On April 23 McKinley called for 125,000 and there was a great rush to volunteer

The war party in Congress was in all overwhelming majority, and to this majority the message of the President proved a disappointment. The efforts of Mr. McKinley at delay had been received with undisguised impatience, and, joined to his pacific intentions, which were well known, had created a question in the public mind whether in case the decision should be left with him, he could be relied on to carry out the now set purpose of the people to allow no further equivocation, but to proceed at once by force of arms to compel Spain to withdraw from Cuba.

Without debate the message was The very next day, the 13th of April, Congress began to act. Each of the two committees, to which the President's message had been referred made its returns, each consisting of two reports, one of the majority and the other of the minority. Objections from a senator carried the two reports of the Senate Committee over for a day but in the House immediate consideration was had. The minority report, offered by the Democrats and recognizing the insurrectionary Cuban government, was voted down, 147 to 190.

Then the House by a vote of 322 to 19 adopted the resolutions reported by the majority of its Committee on Foreign Affairs, denouncing Spain's methods in Cuba as inhuman and uncivilized, holding Spain responsible for the destruction of the Maine, and directing the President " to intervene at once " for the restoration of order in Cuba, and for the establishment of " a stable and independent government" in the island, for which intervention " he is empowered to use the land and naval forces of the United States." In the Senate, where objection delayed immediate consideration, a majority of the Committee on Foreign Relations re ported resolutions declaring that the people of Cuba are and of right ought to be free and independent, denouncing Spanish misrule in the island as "cruel, barbarous, and inhuman," demanding that Spain at once withdraw her forces from the island and empowering and directing the President to intervene with the army and navy of the United States to drive Spain from Cuba.

The minority of the Senate Committee, consisting of the Democratic members and Senator Foraker, brought in resolutions definitely recognizing the independence of the insurgent Cuban government. On the 16th, after a debate of three days, the Senate adopted resolutions similar to those adopted by the House, but embracing a recognition of the insurgent government. Thus matters rested over Sunday the 17th, when, after many and prolonged consultations beginning the morning of the 18th and extending far into the night of the 19th, the Conference Committee agreed upon a final report. This declared that the people of Cuba "are, and of right ought to be, free and independent," demanded that Spain at once withdraw from Cuba, directed the President of the United States to use the army and navy if necessary to enforce this demand, and pledged the United States to leave the people of Cuba free, after the expulsion of Spain, to establish their own form of government. Concessions were made by both House and Senate to this agreement, though as the resolutions were at last adopted they proved to be those reported to the Senate by the majority of its Foreign Relations Committee, with the addition of the amendment pledging liberty to Cuba to establish its own government.

he conference reported was promptly adopted by the Senate by a vote of 42 to 35. The House, however, did not get through its roll call for more than an hour later, finally adopting the report by a vote of 310 to 6. Thus was the Congress a unit and behind it an overwhelming majority of the people referred to the appropriate committees but, when Congress adjourned that afternoon, no doubt was anywhere entertained that a state of war already existing a formal declaration of war was but the matter of a few days or hours.

The Joint Resolution, as it was finally adopted by the two Houses
of Congress and was signed by the President, read as follows:

Resolved, By the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States
of America in Congress assembled,

1. That the people of the island of Cuba are, and of a right ought to be free
and independent.

2. That it is the duty of the United States to demand, and the Government of
the United States does hereby demand, that the Government of Spain at once
relinquish its authority and government in the island of Cuba and withdraw its land
and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban, waters.

3. That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, directed and
empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States, and to
call into the actual service of the United States the militia of the several States
to such an extent as may be necessary to carry these resolutions into effect.

4. That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to
exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over said island, except for the pacifi
cation thereof, and asserts its determination, when that is accomplished, to leave
the government and control of the island to its people.

The discretion asked by the President was withheld partly because,
as was claimed, Congress should not surrender to the Executive its
war-making prerogative, and partly because the war party thought
the President was not sufficiently aggressive in temper and purpose.
There appeared, however, no reason to find fault with the conduct of
the President in the emergency created by the action of Congress.
Minister Woodford, at Madrid, was promptly instructed to lay the
ultimatum of the United States before the Government of Spain and
to demand an answer by the following Saturday, the 23rd of April, it
being now Wednesday the 20th.

Spain, however, did not wait to be officially advised. Senor Barnabe, who had succeeded Signor De Lome as Spanish minister at Washington, demanded and received his pass ports at once, taking the train that same evening and, without event of any kind, going through to Toronto, Canada.

The instructions from the State Department, sent in cipher, did not reach Minister Woodford at Madrid in time to be translated and delivered to the Spanish premier, Senor Sagasta, that same Wednesday evening, and
the action of Congress, being already known, was deemed by the
Premier all-sufficient, so that before Minister Woodford had time to
present the ultimatum of his Government next day, he was given his
passports and told that Spain considered the congressional proceeding
of the previous day a declaration of war.

Minister Woodford, although furnished an escort to the Spanish frontier, was not so fortunate in the circumstances of his departure from Madrid as Signor Barnabe had been in his departure from Washington. There was much excitement among the populace, who assembled in noisy crowds about the railway stations, and at Valladolid a mob collected, demanding the surrender of a member of the Minister's official staff and otherwise menacing General Woodford and his party. Without serious accident, however, the frontier was reached, and on Friday evening the Americans arrived in Paris. Thus, although there had been no formal
declaration of war on either side, actual war was at hand, a tension
little short of a state of war having existed from the day when the
Maine report had been submitted to Congress.

assassination of premier Canovas

On August 8, 1897 premier Canovas was assassinated by an Italian anarchist assassin, Michele Angiolillo and Sagasta was returned to power . Sagasta declared the warlike policy of Canovas to be a failure and was open to a new policy . A measure of autonomy would be offered to Cuba, with Spanish control of the military, foreign relations and courts .General Weylar would be recalled and Ramon Blanco y erenas would replace him. Americans newspapers were distrustful of the offer of autonomy and demanded independence .

Anti-American demonstration in Madrid in 1896

Spain, in 1898 was a constitutional monarchy. There was a parliament, the Cortes and a prime minister .The 12 year old king, Alfonso XIII was the regent of his strong-willed mother, Maria Cristina . Despite the facade parlinentary rule. Spain was basically run like a huge feudal estate, and it was on the verge of bankruptcy . Peasants worked on great estates of absentee aristocrats.

The young king Alfonso XIII of Spain and

his regent mother Maria Cristina

In the 1890's, when it became obvious that America , Japan and Germany had designs on Spanish colonies, Spanish the well developed Spanish sense of honor and fear of a revolt at home meant that he Spanish were compelled to fight. Many Spaniards knew the coming fight was hopeless, but determined to fight heroically . common Spaniards were growing resentful of upstart American actions, and there were anti-American demonstrations in Spain . The response of the ruling classes was, if possible, still more animated. It was vehement and defiant. Spain regarded Cuba, which had been a part of the Spanish empire for 400 years as an integral part of Spain. The Cortes had been assembled in extraordinary session. Even whilst the Congress at Washington was framing the ultimatum to Spain, a scene, both impressive and pathetic, was passing at Madrid. The Queen-Regent
with her son, the youthful King of Spain, appeared in the Spanish
Senate Chamber, where were assembled not only the Legislative Bodies, the Cabinet, and the great officials, civil and military, but all the
wealth and beauty of the capital, gorgeously attired and arrayed.
The spectacle was truly magnificent.

When Queen Christina and the little King Alfonso appeared, the enthusiasm knew no bounds though there must have been many among that brilliant throng, who, seeing this stately and noble lady, and reflecting upon the true
character and meaning of hurrying events, could not but feel more
of sadness than of exaltation.

The Queen-Regent read her speech from the throne, the boy King standing on her right, Senor Sagasta on her left. Spain considered Cuba not as a colony, but as a district of Spain . She described the menaces and insults of America as intolerable provocations which would compel her Government to sever
relations with the Government of the United States. She expressed
her gratitude to the Pope and Powers, and hoped that the:

" supreme decision of parliament" would sanction the unalterable resolution of her Government to defend the rights of Spain. She appealed to the Spanish people to maintain the integrity both of the dynasty and the nation. "I have summoned the Cortes," she said, "to defend our rights, whatever sacrifice they may entail. Thus identifying myself with the nation, I not only fulfill the oath I swore in accepting the regency, but I follow the dictates of a mother's heart, trusting to the
Spanish people to gather behind my son's throne, and to defend it until he is old enough to defend it himself, as well as trusting to the Spanish people to defend the honor and the territory of the nation."

On the 24th Spain declared war against the United States .

Her brave words found their answer in all hearts, and were echoed
and re-echoed throughout the Senate Chamber and the nation.

It was not until the 25th of April that Congress passed a bill formally declaring war to exist, and dating this from the preceding 21st of April, though the President had already called out 125,000
volunteer soldiers. Meanwhile, the entire north coast of Cuba, including Havana, had been blockaded, and several Spanish prizes had been captured and brought into Key West by the naval vessels operating
in that quarter.

What was the foreign reaction to the American decision to go to war with Spain ? The great powers sympathized with Spain, but did not intend on provoking the United States .

    (1783) recognizes the independence of the United States of America
  • John Hancock
  • Henry Laurens
  • John Jay
  • Samuel Huntington
  • Thomas McKean
  • John Hanson
  • Elias Boudinot
  • Thomas Mifflin
  • Richard Henry Lee
  • John Hancock
  • Nathaniel Gorham
  • Arthur St. Clair
  • Cyrus Griffin
  • John Hancock
  • Henry Laurens
  • John Jay
  • Samuel Huntington
  • Thomas McKean
  • John Hanson
  • Elias Boudinot
  • Thomas Mifflin
  • Richard Henry Lee
  • John Hancock
  • Nathaniel Gorham
  • Arthur St. Clair
  • Cyrus Griffin

Presidents of the United States:

  • Guadeloupe
  • Peaceful cessation of Franco-American alliance
  • End of French privateer attacks on American shipping
  • American neutrality and renunciation of claims by France

Location: Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Tripoli

  • Spain cedes Spanish Florida to the United States in the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819
  • The United States forcibly relocates Seminole in northern Florida to a reservation in the center of the peninsula in the Treaty of Moultrie Creek of 1823
  • End of Native armed resistance to U.S. expansion in the Old Northwest (1832)
  • The United States purchases Potawatomi land in the Treaty of Tippecanoe (1832)
  • The United States purchases the rest of Potawatomi land west of the Mississippi River in the Treaty of Chicago (1833)
  • Out of the Texan soldiers serving from January through March 1836, 78% had arrived from the United States after October 2, 1835. [Note 1][5]
  • The Republic of Texas gains its independence.
  • Texas is annexed into the United States in 1845.

William Henry Harrison(March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841)

John Tyler (April 4, 1841 –March 4, 1845)

Zachary Taylor (March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850)

Millard Fillmore (July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853)

Franklin Pierce (March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857)

Zachary Taylor (March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850)

Millard Fillmore (July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853)

Franklin Pierce (March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)

Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869)

Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877)

Rutherford B. Hayes (March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881)

James A. Garfield (March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881)

Chester A. Arthur (September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885)

Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889)

Benjamin Harrison (March 4, 1889 – March 4, 1893)

Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897)

William McKinley (March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901)

Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)

William Howard Taft (March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913)

Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

  • By late 1850s, most Seminoles forced to leave their land a few hundred remain deep in the Everglades on land unwanted by white settlers

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

  • Resolution through negotiation replaced as governor of the territory
  • Full amnesty for charges of sedition and treason issued to the citizens of Utah Territory by President James Buchanan on the condition that they accept American Federal authority

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

James Buchanan (March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861)

Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)

Part of pre-Civil War conflicts

  • Dissolution of the Confederate States
  • U.S. territorial integrity preserved
  • Beginning of the Reconstruction Era
  • U.S. Federal government expands further control over land and railroad rights in the Indian Territory.

Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)

Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869)

Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877)

Location: Minnesota and Dakota

Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869)

Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877)

American military victory

American diplomatic failure

  • Withdrawal of American forces
  • Korea retains isolationist policies
  • Eventual signing of the United States–Korea Treaty of 1882

Location: Texas and Mexico

Location: Montana, Dakota and Wyoming

Location: Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana

Location: Texas and Mexico

Location: Arizona and Mexico

William McKinley (March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901)

Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)

William Howard Taft (March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913)

Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

  • Allies and Rebels compromise for peace Tripartite Convention
  • United States acquires American Samoa
  • United Kingdom withdraws claim in exchange for concessions in the Solomon Islands
  • Germany acquires German Samoa becomes paramount chief of Samoa

Limited Foreign Support:
Empire of Japan

Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)

Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)

William Howard Taft (March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913)

Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

  • Permanent border wall established
  • Pancho Villa's troops no longer an effective fighting force [6]
  • Mexican Constitutionalist faction leader Venustiano Carranzarecognised as the sole leaders of the Mexican government by the United States

Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

Herbert Hoover (March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933)

Location: Utah and Colorado

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

Herbert Hoover (March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933)

Franklin D. Roosevelt (March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945)

Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)

Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)

Location: Europe, Africa, Asia, Middle East, the Pacific Islands, and coast of North and South America

  • End of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires
  • Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East
  • Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers
  • Establishment of the League of Nations

Location: Russia, Mongolia, and Iran

  • Collapse of the Third Reich
  • Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires
  • Creation of the United Nations
  • Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers
  • Beginning of the Cold War

Franklin D. Roosevelt (March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945)

Harry S. Truman (April 12, 1945 –January 20, 1953)

  • Occupation of Hopeh and Shantung provinces
  • Japanese and Koreans repatriated
  • American and other foreign nationals evacuated

Dwight D. Eisenhower (January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961)

Location: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

  • Withdrawal of American forces from Indochina
  • Dissolution of the Republic of Vietnam
  • Communist governments take power in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia[7]

John F. Kennedy (January 20, 1961 –November 22, 1963)

Lyndon B. Johnson (November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969)

Richard Nixon (January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974)

Gerald Ford (August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977)

Part of the Korean conflict and the Cold War

Richard Nixon (January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974)

  • Brazil
  • Paraguay
  • Nicaragua
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Honduras
  • Fall of the Bosch regime elected as the new president
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Sudan
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Libya
  • South Yemen
  • Multinational forces fail to prevent collapse of Lebanese Army into Syrian- or Israeli- supported militias [8][9]
  • Multinational forces evacuated after the US embassy and US Marine barracks are bombed by the Islamic Jihad Organization
  • Multinational forces oversee withdrawal of Palestine Liberation Organization continues until 1990
  • President Hafez al-Assad continues his occupation of Lebanon until his son and later president Bashar al-Assad orders a withdrawal from the country

Ronald Reagan (January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989)

  • Military dictatorship of Hudson Austin deposed
  • Defeat of Cuban military presence
  • Restoration of constitutional government

George H. W. Bush (January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993)

Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001)

George W. Bush (January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009)

  • Failure to capture SNA leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid specific Aidid lieutenants captured
  • Withdrawal of U.S. forces 5 months after losses in the Battle of Mogadishu
  • The UN mandate saved close to 100,000 lives, before and after U.S. withdrawal is ongoing

Bill Clinton(January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001)

  • Ceasefire reached through Kumanovo Agreement of June 1999. after Russian and Finnish envoys visit Belgrade
  • Yugoslav forces pull out of Kosovo
  • UN Resolution 1244 confirming Kosovo as de jure part of FRY
  • De facto separation of Kosovo from FR Yugoslavia under UN administration
  • Return of Albanian refugees after attempted ethnic cleansing of Albanians
  • KLA veterans join the UÇPMB, starting the Preševo insurgency
  • Around 200,000 Serbs, Romani, and other non-Albanians fleeing Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians becoming victims of abuse
  • Three Chinese journalists were killed in United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade
  1. ^ Advisory role from the forming of the MAAG in Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
  2. ^ Direct U.S. involvement ended in 1973 with the Paris Peace Accords. The Paris Peace Accords of January 1973 saw all U.S forces withdrawn the Case–Church Amendment, passed by the U.S Congress on 15 August 1973, officially ended direct U.S military involvement .
  3. ^ The war reignited on December 13, 1974 with offensive operations by North Vietnam, leading to victory over South Vietnam in under two months.

Taliban splinter groups

    (2001) (2001)
  • Destruction of al-Qaeda and Taliban militant training camps (2001)
  • Fall of the Taliban government (2001)
  • Establishment of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan under the Karzai administration
  • Start of Taliban insurgency in May 2011
  • Death of Mohammed Omar in July 2013
  • Over two-thirds of Al-Qaeda's operatives killed or captured (ISAF) disbanded in December 2014
  • Commencement of Resolute Support Mission in December 2014
  • All US troops to withdraw by September 11, 2021

Barack Obama (January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017)

Donald Trump (January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021)

Joe Biden (January 20, 2021 –Incumbent)

    and occupation of Iraq
  • Overthrow of Ba'ath Party government
  • Emergence of significant insurgency, rise of al-Qaeda in Iraq, and severe sectarian violence[16]
  • Subsequent reduction in violence and depletion of al-Qaeda in Iraq [17][18]
  • Establishment of democratic elections and formation of new Shia-led government of U.S. forces from Iraq in 2011
  • Stronger Iranian influence in Iraq [19] [dubious – discuss] [20][21][22] leading to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in Iraq [23][24]

Barack Obama (January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017)

Barack Obama (January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017)

Donald Trump (January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021)

Joe Biden (January 20, 2021 –Incumbent)

  • Number of pirate attacks dramatically decreased
  • The US Office of Naval Intelligence have officially reported that in 2013, only 9 incidents of piracy were reported and that none of them were successfully hijacked [citation needed]
  • Piracy drops 90% [27]
  • Overthrow of the Gaddafi government and the killing of Muammar Gaddafi
  • Assumption of interim control by National Transitional Council (NTC) of NTC as sole governing authority for Libya by 105 countries, UN, EU, AL and AU leading to the second civil war in 2014 [28]
  • Founder and leader of the LRA Joseph Kony goes into hiding
  • Senior LRA commander Dominic Ongwen surrenders to American forces in the Central African Republic and is tried at the Hague[7][8]
  • Majority of LRA installations and encampments located in South Sudan and Uganda abandoned and dismantled
  • Small scale LRA activity continues in eastern DR Congo, and the Central African Republic

Donald Trump (January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021)

Joe Biden (January 20, 2021 –Incumbent)

  • Tens of thousands of ISIL fighters killed
  • American-led forces launch over 13,300 airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq
  • Heavy damage dealt to ISIL forces, ISIL loses 40% of its territory in Iraq by January 2016, and all of its territory in Iraq in December 2017
  • Multinational humanitarian and arming of ground forces efforts
  • 200 ISIL created mass graves found containing up to 12,000 people [29]
  • Ongoing US-led Coalition advising and training of Iraqi and Kurdish ground forces
  • US maintains limited military presence in Iraq

Donald Trump (January 20, 2017 – January 20, 2021)

Joe Biden (January 20, 2021 –Incumbent)

Israel (limited involvement against Hezbollah and government forces only)


10 October
Carlos M. Céspedes issued the Grito de Yara and initiated the Ten Years' War in Cuba (1868-1878), the independence movement that served as the forerunner of the 1895 Insurrection and the Spanish American War.

Publication in Berlin, Germany, of Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) by José Rizal, the Philippines' most illustrious son, awakened Filipino national consciousness.

U.S. foreign policy is influenced by Alfred T. Mahan who wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon history, 1600-1783 , which advocated the taking of the Caribbean Islands, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands for bases to protect U.S. commerce, the building of a canal to enable fleet movement from ocean to ocean and the building of the Great White fleet of steam-driven armor plated battleships.

5 January
José Julián Martí y Pérez formed El Partido Revolucionario Cubano (Cuban Revolutionary party). This Cuban political party was organized first in New York City and Philadelphia and soon spread to Tampa and Key West, Florida.

3 July
La Liga Filipina, a political action group that sought reforms in the Spanish administration of the Philippines by peaceful means, was launched formally at a Tondo meeting by José Rizal upon his return to the Philippines from Europe and Hong Kong in June 1892. Rizal's arrest three days later for possessing anti-friar bills and eventual banishment to Dapitan directly led to the demise of the Liga a year or so later.

7 July
Andrés Bonifacio formed the Katipunan, a secret, nationalistic fraternal brotherhood founded to bring about Filipino independence through armed revolution, at Manila. Bonifacio, an illiterate warehouse worker, believed that the Liga was ineffective and too slow in bringing about the desired changes in government, and decided that only through force could the Philippines problem be resolved. The Katipunan replaced the peaceful civic association that Rizal had founded.

24 February
Cuban independence movement (Ejército Libertador de Cuba) issued in the Grito de Baire, declaring Independencia o muerte (Independence or death), as the revolutionary movement in Cuba began. It was quelled by Spanish authorities that same day.

10 April
José Martí and Máximo Gómez Baez returned to Cuba to fight for independence Gómez was to serve as military leader of the new revolution. The Cuban Revolutionary party (El Partido Revolucionario Cubano) in New York worked tirelessly for revolution, inspired by José Martí and maintained by various voices for Revolution.

12 June
U.S. President Cleveland issues proclamation of neutrality in the Cuban Insurrection.

16 February
Spain begins reconcentration policy in Cuba.

28 February
The U.S. Senate recognized Cuban belligerency with overwhelming passage of the joint John T. Morgan/Donald Cameron resolution calling for recognition of Cuban belligerency and Cuban independence. This resolution signaled to President Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney that the Cuban crisis needed attention.

2 March
The U.S. House of Representatives passed decisively its own version of the Morgan-Cameron Resolution which called for the recognition of Cuban belligerency.

9 August
Great Britain foils Spain's attempt to obtain European support for Spanish policies in Cuba.

26 August
Grito de Balintawak begins the Philippine Revolution.

7 December
President Cleveland says that the United States may take action in Cuba if Spain fails to resolve crisis there.

William Warren Kimball, U.S. Naval Academy graduate and intelligence officer, completed a strategic study of the implications of war with Spain. His plan called for an operation to free Cuba through naval action, which included blockade, attacks on Manila, and attacks on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

19 January
Both William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer's New York World , through its sensational reporting on the Cuban Insurrection, helped strengthen anti-Spanish sentiment in the United States. On this date the execution of Cuban rebel Adolfo Rodríguez by a Spanish firing squad, was reported in the article "Death of Rodríguez" in the New York Journal by Richard Harding Davis. On October 8, 1897, Karl Decker of the New York Journal reported on the rescue of Cuban Evangelina Cisneros from a prison on the Isle of Pines.

Theodore Roosevelt was appointed assistant U.S. Secretary of the Navy. Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of the new republic of the Philippines Andrés Bonifacio was demoted to the director of the interior.

25 April
General Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte became governor-general of the Philippines, replacing General Camilo García de Polavieja his adjutant was Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, his nephew.

8 August
Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Cánovas is assassinated prompting change in government.

1 November
Philippine revolutionary constitution approved creating Biak-na-Bato Republic.

14-15 December
Spain reacted quickly to the Biak-na-Bato Republic and sought negotiations to end the war. With Pedro Paterno, a noted Filipino intellectual and lawyer, mediating, Aguinaldo representing the revolutionists and Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera representing the Spanish colonial government, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was concluded. The Pact paid indemnities to the revolutionists the sum of 800,000 pesos, provided amnesty, and allowed for Aguinaldo and his entourage voluntary exile to Hong Kong.

1 January
Spain grants limited autonomy to Cuba.

8 February
Spain's ambassador to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, resigned.

9 February
Pulitzer-owned New York Journal publishes Spanish Minister Enrique Dupuy de Lóme's letter criticizing President McKinley.

14 February
Luís Polo de Bernabé named Minister of Spain in Washington.

15 February
U.S.S. Maine explodes in Havana Harbor.

3 March
Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Fernando Primo de Rivera informed Spanish minister for the colonies Segismundo Moret y Prendergast that Commodore George Dewey had received orders to move on Manila.

9 March
U.S. Congress passes Fifty Million Bill to strengthen military.

17 March
U.S. Senator Redfield Proctor (R-Vt.) influences Congress and U.S. business community in favor of war with Spain.

19 March
The battleship U.S.S. Oregon left the port of San Francisco, California on its famous voyage to the Caribbean Sea and Cuban waters.

28 March
Report of U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry finds U.S.S. Maine explosion caused by a mine.

29 March
The United States Government issued an ultimatum to the Spanish Government to terminate its presence in Cuba. Spain did not accept the ultimatum in its reply of April 1, 1898.

Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Fernando Primo de Rivera, in a surprise move, was replaced by Governor-General Basilo Augustín Dávila in early April. Upon his departure from the Philippines, the insurgent movement renewed revolutionary activity due mainly to the Spanish government's failure to abide by the terms of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.

4 April
The New York Journal issued a million copy press run dedicated to the war in Cuba. The newspaper called for the immediate U.S. entry into war with Spain.

10 April
Spanish Governor General Blanco in Cuba suspended hostilities in the war in Cuba.

11 April
The U.S. President William McKinley requested authorization from the U.S. Congress to intervene in Cuba, with the object of putting an end to the war between Cuban revolutionaries and Spain.

13 April
The U.S. Congress agreed to President McKinley's request for intervention in Cuba, but without recognition of the Cuban Government.

The Spanish government declared that the sovereignity of Spain was jeopardized by U.S. policy and prepared a special budget for war expenses.

19 April
The U.S. Congress by vote of 311 to 6 in the House and 42 to 35 in the Senate adopted the Joint Resolution for war with Spain. Included in the Resolution was the Teller Amendment, named after Senator Henry Moore Teller (Colorado) which disclaimed any intention by the U.S. to exercise jurisdiction or control over Cuba except in a pacification role and promised to leave the island as soon as the war was over.

20 April
U.S. President William McKinley signed the Joint Resolution for war with Spain and the ultimatum was forwarded to Spain.

Spanish Minister to the United States Luís Polo de Bernabé demanded his passport and, along with the personnel of the Legation, left Washington for Canada.

21 April
The Spanish Government considered the U.S. Joint Resolution of April 20 a declaration of war. U.S. Minister in Madrid General Steward L. Woodford received his passport before presenting the ultimatum by the United States.

A state of war existed between Spain and the United States and all diplomatic relations were suspended. U.S. President William McKinley ordered a blockade of Cuba.

Spanish forces in Santiago de Cuba mined Guantánamo Bay.

22 April
U.S. fleet left Key West, Florida for Havana to begin the Cuban blockade at the principal ports on the north coast and at Cienfuegos.

23 April
President McKinley called for 125,000 volunteers.

24 April
Spanish Minister of Defense Segismundo Bermejo sent instructions to Spanish Admiral Cervera to proceed with his fleet from Cape Verde to the Caribbean, Cuba and Puerto Rico.

President of the Cuban Republic in arms, General Bartolomé Masó issued the Manifiesto de Sebastopol and reiterated the mambí motto "Independencia o Muerte".

25 April
War was formally declared between Spain and the United States.

26 April
Willaim R. Day became U.S. Secretary of State.

29 April
The Portuguese government declared itself neutral in the conflict between Spain and the United States.

30 April
The Spanish Governor General Blanco ordered hostilities resumed with the Cuban insurrectionists.

1 May
Opening with the famous quote "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley" U.S. Commodore George Dewey in six hours defeated the Spanish squadron, under Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón, in Manila Bay, the Philippines Islands. Dewey led the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy, which had been based in Hong Kong, in the attack. With the cruisers U.S.S. Olympia, Raleigh, Boston, and Baltimore, the gunboats Concord and Petrel and the revenue cutter McCulloch and reinforcements from cruiser U.S.S. Charleston and the monitors U.S.S. Monadnock and Monterey the U.S. Asiatic Squadron forced the capitulation of Manila. In the battle the entire Spanish squadron was sunk, including the cruisers María Cristina and Castilla, gunboats Don Antonio de Ulloa, Don Juan de Austria, Isla de Luzón, Isla de Cuba, Velasco, and Argos.

"The message to García". U.S. Army Lieutenant Andrew S. Rowan, through the assistance of the U.S. government, the Cuban Delegation in New York, and the mambises in Cuba, made contact with General Calixto García in Bayamo to seek his cooperation and to obtain military and political assessment of Cuba. This contact benefitted the Cuban Liberation Army and the Cuban Revolutionary Army and totally ignored the Government of the Republic in arms.

2 May
The U.S. Congress voted a war emergency credit increase of $34,625,725.

General Máximo Gómez opens communication with U.S. Admiral Sampson.

4 May
A joint resolution was introduced into the U.S. House of Representatives, with the support of President William McKinley, calling for the annexation of Hawaii.

10 May
Secretary of the Navy John D. Long issued orders to Captain Henry Glass, commander of the cruiser U.S.S. Charleston to capture Guam on the way to Manila.

11 May
Charles H. Allen succeeded Theodore Roosevelt as assistant secretary of the navy.

President William McKinley and his cabinet approve a State Department memorandum calling for Spanish cession of a suitable "coaling station", presumably Manila. The Philippine Islands were to remain Spanish possessions.

18 May
Prime Minister Sagasta formed the new Spanish cabinet. U.S. President McKinley ordered a military expedition, headed by Major General Wesley Merritt, to complete the elimination of Spanish forces in the Philippines, to occupy the islands, and to provide security and order to the inhabitants.

19 May
Emilio Aguinaldo returned to Manila, the Philippine Islands, from exile in Hong Kong. The United States had invited him back from exile, hoping that Aguinaldo would rally the Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government.

24 May
With himself as the dictator, Emilio Aguinaldo established a dictatorial government, replacing the revolutionary government, due to the chaotic conditions he found in the Philippines upon his return.

25 May
First U.S. troops were sent from San Francisco to the Philippine Islands. Thomas McArthur Anderson (1836-1917) commanded the vanguard of the Philippine Expeditionary Force (Eighth Army Corps), which arrived at Cavite, Philippine Islands on June 1.

27 May
U.S. Navy, under Admiral William Thompson Sampson and Commodore Winfield Scott Schley, formally blockaded the port of Santiago de Cuba.

28 May
General William Rufus Shafter, U.S. Army, received orders to mobilize his forces in Tampa, Florida for the attack on Cuba.

U.S. business and government circles united around a policy of retaining all or part of the Philippines

3 June
First contact of the commanders of the U.S. Marines and leaders of the Cuban Liberation Army, aboard the armored cruiser U.S.S. New York at which the revolutionary forces provided detailed information for the campaign.

10 June
U.S. Marines land at Guantánamo, Cuba.

11 June
McKinley administration reactivated debate in Congress on Hawaiian annexation, using the argument that "we must have Hawaii to help us get our share of China."

12 June
Philippines proclaim independence. German squadron under Admiral Diederichs arrives at Manila.

13 June
The Rough Riders sailed from Tampa, Florida bound for Santiago de Cuba.

14 June
McKinley administration decided not to return the Philippine Islands to Spain.

15 June
Anti-war American Anti-Imperialist League assembles. Admiral Cámara's squadron received orders to relieve Spanish garrison in Philippines.

Congress passed the Hawaii annexation resolution, 209-91. On July 6, the U.S. Senate affirmed the measure.

American Anti-Imperialist League was organized in opposition to the annexation of the Philippine Islands. Among its members were Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, William James, David Starr Jordan, and Samuel Gompers. George S. Boutwell, former secretary of the treasury and Massachusetts senator, served as president of the League.

Admiral Dewey's defeat of the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 ignited impassioned nationalistic feelings in Spain. Spanish Admiral Manuel de la Cámara y Libermoore's squadron received orders to relieve the Spanish garrison in the Philippine Islands. His fleet consisted of the battleship Pelayo, the armored cruiser Carlos V, the cruisers Rápido and Patriota, the torpedo boats Audaz, Osado, and Proserpina, and the transports Isla de Panay, San Francisco, Cristóbal Colón, Covadonga, and Buenos Aires.

18 June
U.S. Secretary of the Navy John D. Long ordered Commodore William T. Sampson to create a new squadron, the Eastern Squadron, for possible raiding and bombardment missions along the coasts of Spain.

20 June
Spanish authorities surrendered Guam to Captain Henry Glass and his forces on the cruiser U.S.S. Charleston.

The main U.S. force appeared off Santiago de Cuba, with more than 16,200 soldiers and various material in 42 ships. A total of 153 ships of the U.S. forces assembled off of the harbor.

Lieutenant General Calixto García (Cuba) and Admiral Sampson and General Shafter (US) met in El Aserradero (south coast of Oriente Province, Cuba) to complete the general strategy of the campaign. Cuban forces occupied positions west, northwest and east of Santiago de Cuba.

22 June
U.S. General Shafter's troops land at Daiquirí, Cuba.

27 June
Lieutenant General Calixto García requested that Tomás Estrada Palma and the Cuban Committee ask President McKinely to recognize the Cuban Council of Government.

1 July
U.S. and Cuban troops took El Viso Fort, the town of El Caney, and San Juan Heights. Spanish General Vara del Rey died in the fighting. San Juan Hill was taken at the same time, with the help of the Rough Riders under Teddy Roosevelt and Leonard Wood at the battle on Kettle Hill. These victories opened the way to Santiago de Cuba. General Duffield, with 3,000 soldiers, took the Aguadores Fort at Santiago de Cuba. Spanish General Linares and Navy Captain Joaquín Bustamante died in battle.

2 July
Admiral Cervera and the Spanish fleet prepared to leave Santiago Bay.

3 July
The Spanish fleet attempt to leave the bay was halted as the U.S. squadron under Admiral Schley destroyed the Spanish destroyer Furor, the torpedo boat Plutón, and the armored cruisers Infanta María Teresa, Almirante Oquendo, Vizcaya, and Cristóbal Colón. The Spanish lost all their ships, 350 dead, and 160 wounded.

7 July
U.S. President McKinley signed the Hawaii annexation resolution, following its passage in the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate.

8 July
U.S. acquired Hawaii.

15 July
Spanish forces under General Toral capitulated to U.S. forces at Santiago de Cuba.

17 July
Santiago surrenders to U.S. troops.

18 July
The Spanish government, through the French Ambassador to the United States, Jules Cambon, initiated a message to President McKinley to suspend the hostilities and to start the negotiations to end the war. Duque de Almodóvar del Río (Juan Manuel Sánchez y Gutiérrez de Castro), Spanish Minister of State, directed a telegram to the Spanish Ambassador in Paris charging him to solicit the good offices of the French Government to negotiate a suspension of hostilities as a preliminary to final negotiations.

U.S. General Leonard Wood was named military governor of Santiago de Cuba.

Clara Barton of the Red Cross cared for wounded soldiers at Santiago de Cuba.

25 July
General Wesley Merritt, commander of Eighth Corps, U.S. Expeditionary Force, arrived in the Philippine Islands.

26 July
French Government contacted the United States Government regarding the call for suspension of hostilities at the request of the Spanish Government.

28 July
Duque de Almodóvar del Río called for the U.S. annexation of Cuba.

U.S. officials instruct General Shafter to return troops immediately to the United States to prevent an outbreak of yellow fever.

30 July
U.S. President McKinley and his Cabinet submitted to Ambassador Cambon a counter-proposal to the Spanish request for ceasefire.

2 August
Spain accepted the U.S. proposals for peace, with certain reservations regarding the Philippine Islands. McKinley called for a preliminary protocol from Spain before suspension of hostilities. That document was used as the basis for discussion between Spain and the United States at the Treaty of Peace in Paris.

11 August
U.S. Secretary of State Day and French Ambassador Cambon, representing Spain, negotiated the Protocol of Peace.

12 August
Peace protocol that ended all hostilities between Spain and the United States in the war fronts of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines was signed in Washington, D.C.

13 August
Manila falls to U.S. troops.

14 August
Capitulation was signed at Manila and U.S. General Wesley Merritt established a military government in the city, with himself serving as first military governor.

President of the Governing Council of the Republic of Cuba Bartolomé Masó called for elections of Revolutionary Representatives to meet in Assembly.

15 August
U.S. General Arthur MacArthur appointed military commandant of Manila and its suburbs.

12 September
The U.S (General Wade, General Butler and Admiral Sampson) and Spanish Military Commission (Generals Segundo Cabo and González, Admiral Vicente Manterola, and Doctor Rafael Montoro) met in Havana, Cuba, to discuss the evacuation of Spanish forces from the island.

13 September
The Spanish Cortes (legislature) ratified the Protocol of Peace.

15 September
The inaugural session of the Congress of the First Philippine Republic, also known as the Malolos Congress, was held at Barasoain Church in Malolos, province of Bulacan, for the purpose of drafting the constitution of the new republic.

16 September
The Spanish and U.S. Commissioners for the Peace Treaty were appointed. U.S. Commissioners were William R. Day (U.S. Secretary of State), William P. Frye (President pro tempore of Senate, Republican-Maine), Whitelaw Reid, George Gray (Senator, Democrat- Delaware), and Cushman K. Davis (Chairman, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Republican-Minnesota). The Spanish Commissioners were Eugenio Montero Ríos (President, Spanish Senate), Buenaventura Abarzuza (Senator), José de Garnica y Diaz (Associate Justice of the Supreme Court), Wenceslao Ramírez de Villa Urrutia (Envoy Extraordinary), and Rafael Cerero y Saenz (General of the Army).

William R. Day resigned as U.S. Secretary of State and was succeeded by John Hay.

22 September
When Major General Calixto García and his Cuban forces arrived in Santiago de Cuba, General Leonard Wood formally recognized his efforts in the war since General Shafter had failed to recognize the Cuban leader's participation in the capitulation of Santiago.

26 September
Commission established under U.S. General Grenville Dodge to investigate mismanagement by U.S. War Department.

1 October
The Spanish and United States Commissioners convened their first meeting in Paris to reach a final Treaty of Peace.

25 October
McKinley instructed the U.S. peace delegation to insist on the annexation of the Philippines in the peace talks.

10 November
In accord with the Assembly of Representatives of the Revolution, a commission of Major General Calixto García, Colonel Manuel Sanguily, Dr. Antonio González Lanuza, General José Miguel Gómez and Colonel José R. Villalón met to seek support for needs of the Liberation Army and to establish a Cuban government. The U.S. did not recognize this commission. The U.S. instead stated that the U.S. had declared war on Spain and all of its possessions because of the destruction of the battleship U.S.S. Maine and other acts against the United States.

26 November
Captain General Ramón Blanco y Erenas resigned as Governor General of Cuba.

28 November
The Spanish Commission for Peace accepted the United States' demands in the Peace Treaty.

29 November
The Philippine revolutionary congress approved a constitution for the new Philippine Republic.

10 December
Representatitves of Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Peace in Paris. Spain renounced all rights to Cuba and allowed an independent Cuba, ceded Puerto Rico and the island of Guam to the United States, gave up its possessions in the West Indies, and sold the Philippine Islands, receiving in exchange $20,000,000.

21 December
President McKinley issued his Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation, ceding the Philippines to the United States, and instructing the American occupying army to use force, as necessary, to impose American sovereignity over the Philippines even before he obtained Senate ratification of the peace treaty with Spain.

23 December
Guam placed under control of U.S. Department of the Navy.

1 January
Emilio Aguinaldo was declared president of the new Philippine Republic, following the meeting of a constitutional convention. United States authorities refused to recognize the new government.

17 January
U.S. claims Wake Island for use in cable link to Philippines. U.S. Commander Edward Taussig, U.S.S. Bennington, landed on the island and claimed it for the United States.

21 January
The constitution of the Philippine Republic, the Malolos Constitution, was promulgated by the followers of Emilio Aguinaldo.

4 February
The Philippine Insurrection began as the Philippine Republic declared war on the United States forces in the Philippine Islands, following the killing of three Filipino soldiers by U.S. forces in a suburb of Manila.

6 February
U.S. Senate ratified the Treaty of Paris by a vote of 52 to 27.

19 March
The Queen regent of Spain, María Cristina, signed the Treaty of Paris, breaking the deadlock in the Spanish Cortes.

1898 - 1902

Action in the Philippines - At the end of the Spanish-American War the 10th Cavalry is sent to the Philippines to help put down what is called "Philippine Insurrection" at the time, but will later be known as the "Philippine-American War.

Despite the controversy the conflict engenders, all of the Buffalo Soldier units, both infantry and cavalry, serve honorably. There time in the Philippines will be short, though. The first American Governer General in the Philippines, future President William H. Taft, does not want these four African American units serving in the Philippines and bars them from serving there.

The War of 1812 (1812-1815) was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, and over national honour after humiliations on the high seas.

The American Civil War (1861-1865) was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ("the Confederacy") the other 25 states supported the federal government ("the Union"). After four years of warfare, mostly within the Southern states, the Confederacy surrendered and slavery was outlawed everywhere in the nation. Issues that led to war were partially resolved in the Reconstruction Era that followed, though others remained unresolved.

Watch the video: The Spanish-American War (January 2022).