Information

Cowell DD- 167 - History


Cowell I

(DD-167: dp. 1,060; l. 314'6"; b. 31'9"; dr. 9'2"; s. 36 k.; cpl. 101; a. 4 4", 4 21" tt.; cl. Wickes)

Cowell (DD-167) was launched 23 November 1918 by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass.; sponsored by Miss E. P. Garney; and commissioned 17 March 1919, Lieutenant Commander
C. E. Van Hook in command.

Cowell cleared Boston, Mass., 3 May 1919, to take station at Trepassey Bay, Nfld., first stopping point for the Navy seaplanes which that month began the historic first aerial crossing of the
Atlantic. After patrolling her station, she returned to Boston 22 May to prepare for European service, and on 30 June sailed from New York to join the American naval force in the Adriatic. Here she
served as dispatch ship for the Allied Peace Commission, and as station ship at Fiume, Istria, at Spalato, and at Trau, Dalmatia, in turn until 23 October, when she cleared for home

In reserve at Boston and Charleston from 1 December 1919, Cowell put to sea for a training period out of Newport, R.I., with a reserve organization from April through October 1921, returning to
Charleston. On 27 June 1922, she was decommissioned at Philadelphia Navy Yard, where she lay until recommissioned 17 June 1940 for patrol duty in the Atlantic. She cruised along the east
coast on this duty until 18 September 1940 when she arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia, there to be decommissioned 23 September 1940 and transferred to the Royal Navy the same day in the land
bases for destroyer exchange.

Commissioned as HMS Brighton, the destroyer served with minelayers in the Denmark Strait and off the Faeroes Islands. On 27 February 1941, she rescued from the sea 19 survivors of
torpedoed SS Baltisan. After refit, she served during 1943 and 1944 as target ship for naval aircraft training in the Western Approaches and at Rosyth, Scotland. On 16 July 1944 she was
transferred to Russia, in whose Navy she served as Jarkyi until returned to the British at Rosyth 28 February 1 1949.


Central Pacific campaigns [ edit | edit source ]

Sailing from San Pedro 28 October 1943, Cowell arrived at Pearl Harbor 2 November to join the Fast Carrier Task Force (then TF 58, later TF 38). From 10 November to 13 December she screened the carriers as they launched air attacks during the invasion of the Gilbert Islands, then sailed from Espiritu Santo for strikes on Kavieng, New Ireland at the turn of the year and on Kwajalein, Ebeye, and Eniwetok Islands at the close of January. Returning to Majuro, she put to sea for the strike on Truk of 16 and 17 February 1944, then sailed to Pearl Harbor to replenish.

Cowell returned to Majuro 22 March 1944 and rejoined TF 58 for the strikes on Palau, Yap and Ulithi of 30 March to 1 April the invasion of Hollandia from 21 to 23 April and the raids on Truk, Satawan and Ponape of 29 April to 1 May. After the air attacks on Marcus Island and Wake Island from 19 to 23 May, Cowell continued to screen the carriers during the Marianas operation. She sortied from her base at Majuro from 6 June to 14 July for strikes on Guam and Rota, raids to neutralize Japanese bases in the Bonins, and to give protective antiaircraft cover for the carriers in the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June.

After an overhaul at Eniwetok, Cowell put to sea 29 August 1944 with Task Group 36.5 (TG 38.5) for air strikes on the western Carolines, the Philippines and the Palaus, and the Manila and Subic Bay area, as well as to support the landings on Morotai on 15 September. She arrived at Manus on 28 September to replenish, then sortied 2 October supporting air strikes on Okinawa, Luzon, and Formosa preparing for the Leyte assault. When Canberra and Houston were torpedoed in heavy Japanese air attacks on 13 and 14 October, Cowell stood by to furnish light, power, and pumping facilities as the cripples slowly retired from the danger area. She rejoined her task force to sail for the far-flung Battle for Leyte Gulf, and aircraft from her carriers were in time to launch telling strikes against the retreating Japanese ships. Cowell returned to Ulithi 28 October for patrol and training duty until 26 December when she sailed for Seattle and an overhaul.


Cowell DD- 167 - History

After shakedown training, Cowell arrived at Pearl Harbor on 2 November. There, she joined San Pedro-built sisters Bradford and Brown in Destroyer Divison 92 of Destroyer Squadron 46, the first squadron of 2,100-tonners attached to Admiral Mitcher&rsquos newly-formed Fast Carrier Forces.

Operating with Task Force 58, Cowell screened the carriers as they launched air attacks during the invasion of the Gilbert Islands, 10 November to 13 December, and then sailed from Espiritu Santo for strikes on Kavieng, New Ireland at the turn of the year and on Kwajalein, Ebeye, and Eniwetok Islands at the close of January. Returning to Majuro, she put to sea for the strike on Truk of 16 and 17 February, and then sailed to Pearl Harbor to replenish.

Cowell returned to Majuro 22 March 1944 and rejoined TG 58 for the strikes on Palau, Yap and Ulithi of 30 March to 1 April the invasion of Hollandia from 21 to 23 April and the raids on Truk, Satawan and Ponape of 29 April to 1 May. After the air attacks on Marcus Island and Wake Island from 19 to 23 May, Cowell continued to screen the carriers during the Marianas operation. She sortied from her base at Majuro from 6 June to 14 July for strikes on Guam and Rota, raids to neutralize Japanese bases in the Bonins, and to give protective antiaircraft cover for the carriers in the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June.

After an overhaul at Eniwetok, Cowell put to sea 29 August 1944 with TG 38.5 for air strikes on the western Carolines, the Philippines and the Palaus, and the Manila and Subic Bay area, as well as to support the landings on Morotai on 15 September. She arrived at Manus 28 September to replenish, and then sortied 2 October supporting air strikes on Okinawa, Luzon, and Formosa preparing for the Leyte assault. When Canberra (CA 70) and Houston (CL 81) were torpedoed in heavy Japanese air attacks on 13 and 14 October, Cowell, stood by to furnish light, power and pumping facilities as she, Boyd and Grayson screened the slow-moving &ldquoCripDiv&rdquo or &ldquoBaitDiv&rdquo retired from the danger area. She rejoined her task force to sail for the far-flung Battle for Leyte Gulf, and aircraft from her carriers were in time to launch telling strikes against the retreating Japanese ships. Cowell returned to Ulithi 28 October for patrol and training duty until 26 December when she sailed for Seattle and an overhaul.

Returning to action, Cowell sailed from Saipan 27 March 1945 for the invasion of Okinawa. She covered the diversionary landings during the assault on 1 April, and then took up the radar picket duty which was to bring her a Presidential Unit Citation. Until 20 June Cowell braved the hazards of the picket line to direct combat air patrol successfully and to splash her own share of Japanese aircraft with antiaircraft fire. On at least three occasions skillful maneuvering, accurate fire and courage saved Cowell from severe damage. On 4 May, she splashed two planes within 50 feet of the ship, receiving a shower of gasoline and burning debris, and then aided Gwin (DM 33) by firing on another suicider. On 13 May, Cowell fired on several attacking planes, then brought firefighting and medical assistance to the stricken Bache (DD 470), screening her from further attack. In another attack on 25 May, Cowell splashed a diving suicider which exploded in midair scattering shell fragments and its cockpit door on Cowell&rsquos deck and causing small fires. Relieved of picket duty 20 June, Cowell joined TG 32.15 to patrol off Okinawa in the East China Sea. On 22 July she sent rescue and fire-fighting parties to aid Marathon (APA 200).

Cowell sailed from Okinawa 20 September 1945 to support the occupation landings at Matsuyama. She cleared for home from Nagoya 31 October and arrived at San Diego 17 November, where she was placed out of commission in reserve 22 July 1946.

Recommissioned on 21 September 1951, Cowell was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, and sailed from San Diego 4 January 1952 to arrive at Norfolk 19 January. She joined in fleet exercises and training, then sailed from Norfolk 7 January 1953 for the Far East. She joined TF 77 off Korea on patrol, and then operated with British ships in the West Coast Blockade Force. She escorted Missouri (BB 63) to a bombardment of the east coast of Korea and then joined TG 95.2 for shore bombardment in Wonsan Harbor, minesweeping and coastal patrols. She cleared Sasebo 26 June to complete her cruise around the world calling at Manila, and passing through the Indian Ocean, the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean Sea to return to Norfolk 22 August. From 4 September to 23 November she conducted local hunter-killer exercises and then cruised the Atlantic and Mediterranean for like operations from 4 January to 11 March 1954.

Cowell cleared Norfolk 7 January 1955 and arrived at Long Beach 28 January to join the Pacific Fleet. During her 1955 tour of duty in the western Pacific, she joined in guided missile exercises en route to Pearl Harbor, served as plane guard for Essex (CV 9), served on the Taiwan Patrol, and participated in hunter-killer exercises with TF 77. Cowell returned to the Far East for similar duty annually through 1960, joining in exercises and training from Long Beach when not deployed.

On 17 August 1971, Cowell was decommissioned and transferred to Argentina, in whose navy she served as ARA Almirante Storni until 1982, when she was stricken and scrapped.


Зміст

1919—1940 [ ред. | ред. код ]

«Ковелл» після введення до американського флоту перебував у складі сил, що діяли в Атлантичному океані, а пізніше в Адріатичному морі. 27 червня 1922 року виведений до резерву, де перебував протягом 18 років. 17 червня 1940 року знову введений до сил Атлантичного флоту й увійшов до 79-го дивізіону есмінців, який входив до Нейтрального патруля. 18 вересня 1940 року прибув до Галіфакса у Новій Шотландії для подальшої передачі Королівському британському флоту. 23 вересня перейшов у розпорядження британців.

У складі британського флоту [ ред. | ред. код ]

29 вересня 1940 року корабель вийшов з британським екіпажем та новим ім'ям «Брайтон» до берегів Британських островів. «Брайтон» ніс службу близько данського узбережжя спільно з тральщиками і базувався на Фарерських островах. 27 лютого 1941 на його борт було прийнято 19 моряків із затонулого корабля «Балтісан». «Брайтон» був спеціально відремонтований для супроводу ескортів: були прибрані три гармати і одна потрійна торпедна установка для полегшення маси і установки протичовнової зброї.

1 жовтня 1941 року есмінець увійшов до складу ескорту конвою WS 12 [Прим. 2] .

31 жовтня 1941 року, спільно з есмінцями «Оффа», «Орібі», «Онслоу» і крейсером «Шеффілд» забезпечував мінні постановки на «Північному баражі» в районі Фарерських островів.

У складі радянського флоту [ ред. | ред. код ]

16 липня 1944 року переданий до складу Північного флоту ВМФ СРСР, де отримав назву «Жаркий». 28 лютого 1949 року повернутий до Великої Британії, де у квітні 1949 розібраний на брухт у Росайті.


Sailing from San Pedro 28 October 1943, Cowell arrived at Pearl Harbor 2 November to join fast carrier TF 58. From 10 November to 13 December she screened the carriers as they launched air attacks during the invasion of the Gilbert Islands, and then sailed from Espiritu Santo for strikes on Kavieng, New Ireland at the turn of the year and on Kwajalein, Ebeye, and Eniwetok Islands at the close of January. Returning to Majuro, she put to sea for the strike on Truk of 16 and 17 February, and then sailed to Pearl Harbor to replenish.

Cowell returned to Majuro 22 March 1944 and rejoined TG 58 for the strikes on Palau, Yap and Ulithi of 30 March to 1 April the invasion of Hollandia from 21 to 23 April and the raids on Truk, Satawan and Ponape of 29 April to 1 May. After the air attacks on Marcus Island and Wake Island from 19 to 23 May, Cowell continued to screen the carriers during the Marianas operation. She sortied from her base at Majuro from 6 June to 14 July for strikes on Guam and Rota, raids to neutralize Japanese bases in the Bonins, and to give protective antiaircraft cover for the carriers in the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June.

After an overhaul at Eniwetok, Cowell put to sea 29 August 1944 with TG 38.5 for air strikes on the western Carolines, the Philippines and the Palaus, and the Manila and Subic Bay area, as well as to support the landings on Morotai on 15 September. She arrived at Manus 28 September to replenish, and then sortied 2 October supporting air strikes on Okinawa, Luzon, and Formosa preparing for the Leyte assault. When Canberra (CA 70) and Houston (CL 81) were torpedoed in heavy Japanese air attacks on 13 and 14 October, Cowell stood by to furnish light, power, and pumping facilities as the cripples slowly retired from the danger area. She rejoined her task force to sail for the far-flung Battle for Leyte Gulf, and aircraft from her carriers were in time to launch telling strikes against the retreating Japanese ships. Cowell returned to Ulithi 28 October for patrol and training duty until 26 December when she sailed for Seattle and an overhaul.

Returning to action, Cowell sailed from Saipan 27 March 1945 for the invasion of Okinawa. She covered the diversionary landings during the assault on 1 April, and then took up the radar picket duty which was to bring her a Presidential Unit Citation. Until 20 June Cowell braved the hazards of the picket line to direct combat air patrol successfully and to splash her own share of Japanese aircraft with antiaircraft fire. On at least three occasions skillful maneuvering, accurate fire and courage saved Cowell from severe damage. On 4 May, she splashed two planes within 50 feet of the ship, receiving a shower of gasoline and burning debris, and then aided Gwin (DM 33) by firing on another suicider. On 13 May, Cowell fired on several attacking planes, then brought firefighting and medical assistance to the stricken Bache (DD 470), screening her from further attack. In another attack on 25 May, Cowell splashed a diving suicider which exploded in midair scattering shell fragments and its cockpit door on Cowell&rsquos deck and causing small fires. Relieved of picket duty 20 June, Cowell joined TG 32.15 to patrol off Okinawa in the East China Sea. On 22 July she sent rescue and fire-fighting parties to aid Marathon (APA 200).

Cowell sailed from Okinawa 20 September 1945 to support the occupation landings at Matsuyama. She cleared for home from Nagoya 31 October and arrived at San Diego 17 November, where Cowell was placed out of commission in reserve 22 July 1946.

Recommissioned on 21 September 1951, Cowell was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, and sailed from San Diego 4 January 1952 to arrive at Norfolk 19 January. She joined in fleet exercises and training, then sailed from Norfolk 7 January 1953 for the Far East. She joined TF 77 off Korea on patrol, and then operated with British ships in the West Coast Blockade Force. She escorted Missouri (BB 63) to a bombardment of the east coast of Korea and then joined TG 95.2 for shore bombardment in Wonsan Harbor, minesweeping and coastal patrols. She cleared Sasebo 26 June to complete her cruise around the world calling at Manila, and passing through the Indian Ocean, the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean Sea to return to Norfolk 22 August. From 4 September to 23 November she conducted local hunter-killer exercises and then cruised the Atlantic and Mediterranean for like operations from 4 January to 11 March 1954.

Cowell cleared Norfolk 7 January 1955 and arrived at Long Beach 28 January to join the Pacific Fleet. During her 1955 tour of duty in the western Pacific, she joined in guided missile exercises en route to Pearl Harbor, served as plane guard for Essex (CV 9), served on the Taiwan Patrol, and participated in hunter-killer exercises with TF 77. Cowell returned to the Far East for similar duty annually through 1960, joining in exercises and training from Long Beach when not deployed.

In addition to the Presidential Unit Citation, Cowell received 11 battle stars for World War II service and two for Korean War service.


Sisällysluettelo

Yhdysvaltain laivasto tilasi aluksen Fore River Shipbuilding Companyltä Quincystä Massachusettsista, missä köli laskettiin 15. heinäkuuta 1918. Alus laskettiin vesille puoli vuotta myöhemmin 23. marraskuuta nimettynä USS Cowelliksi kumminaan neiti E. P. Garney ja otettiin palvelukseen 17. maaliskuuta 1919 ensimmäisenä päällikkönään kapteeniluutnantti C. E. van Hook. [1]

Yhdysvaltain laivaston lentäjät tekivät toukokuussa historiallisen Atlantin ylilennon, jonka varmistamiseksi laivaston aluksia lähetettiin merelle. Cowell lähti 3. toukokuuta 1919 Bostonista Trepassey Bayhin, joka oli ensimmäinen pysähdyspaikka Atlantin ylilennettäessä. Alus palasi 22. toukokuuta Bostoniin valmistautuakseen palvelukseen Euroopassa. Se lähti 30. kesäkuuta New Yorkista liittyäkseen Adrianmerellä olevaan Yhdysvaltain laivaston osastoon, jossa se oli yhteysaluksena sekä satama-aluksena Fiumessa Istriassa sekä Dalmatiassa Spalatossa ja Traussa. Alus lähti paluumatkalle Yhdysvaltoihin 23. lokakuuta. [1]

Alus siirrettiin 1. joulukuuta 1919 reserviin ja se sijoitettiin ensin Bostoniin ja myöhemmin Charlestoniin. Alus osallistui muiden reserviläisten mukana harjoitukseen Rhode Islandilla Newportin edustalla huhtikuusta lokakuuhun 1921, mistä se palasi Charlestoniin. Alus poistettiin 27. kesäkuuta 1922 palveluksesta Philadelphian laivastontelakalla, missä se oli ankkuroituna aina 17. kesäkuuta 1940 saakka, jolloin alus palautettiin palvelukseen Atlantin partio-osastoon. Alus risteili pitkin itärannikkoa aina 18. syyskuuta saakka, jolloin se saapui Halifaxiin Nova Scotiaan. Alus poistettiin palveluksesta 23. syyskuuta ja se luovutettiin Britannian kuninkaalliselle laivastolle vielä samana päivänä osana tukikohtia hävittäjistä -sopimuksen mukaisesti. [1]

HMS Brighton Muokkaa

Alus otettiin Kuninkaallisen laivaston palvelukseen 23. syyskuuta 1940 Halifaxissa nimellä HMS Brighton. Alus saapui 12. lokakuuta Plymouthiin, jossa se siirrettiin muutostöitä varten Devonportin telakalle. Alus määrättiin samalla palvelukseen 1. miinalaivueeseen Kyleen Lochalshiin. [2]

Tammikuussa 1941 muutostöiden valmistuttua alus siirtyi Kyleen liittyen laivueeseensa, jossa se suojasi miinalaivueen miinalaivoja luoteisen reitin alueen miinanlaskuissa sekä suojasi Islannin ja Britteinsaarten välisiä saattueita. Alus saattoi 6. helmikuuta HMS Lancasterin, HMS St. Albansin ja HMS Charlestownin kanssa apumiinalaivoja HMS Southern Prince ja HMS Port Quebec laskettaessa pohjoistasulkua operaatiossa SN7A, jolloin osaston suojana oli risteilijä HMS Nigeria. Se saattoi 17. helmikuuta miinalaivoja operaatioissa SN7B ja SN68A Kotilaivaston suojatessa operaatioita. [2]

Kotilaivasto suojasi 24. huhtikuuta operaatiota SN7D, jossa Brighton saattoi apumiinalaivoja HMS Menestheus ja Southern Prince laskettaessa miinoja Tanskan salmeen. 7. toukokuuta Kotilaivasto suojasi operaatiota SN9A, jolloin Brighton saattoi apumiinalaiva HMS Agamemnonin laskemaan miinoja Färsaarten kapeikkoon. [2]

Laivueen komentosuhteiden 13. toukokuuta vaihtuessa 1. miinalaivueen hävittäjät siirrettiin 17. hävittäjäviirikköön. Alus suojasi 18. toukokuuta joukkojenkuljetussaattueet DS1 ja SD1 Islantiin ja takaisin. Alus liittyi 31. toukokuuta HMS Legionin, HMCS Saguenayn, HMS St. Mary'sin, HMS Sherwoodin, HMS Vansittartin, HMS Wild Swanin, HMS Wivernin ja Puolan laivaston ORP Piorunin kanssa saattueeseen WS8X, mistä se erkani 3. kesäkuuta paikallissaattueen mukana palaten Clydeen, jossa se jatkoi paikallissaattueiden suojaamista. [2]

Alusta tarvittiin 8. kesäkuuta Kylessä, josta se saattoi 10. kesäkuuta HMS Impulsiven ja St. Mary'sin kanssa apumiinalaivat Agamemnonin ja Menestheuksen laskemaan miinoja Färsaarten kapeikkoon operaatioissa SN64A ja 64B, joiden suojana oli Kotilaivasto. Alus saattoi 16. kesäkuuta St. Mary'sin ja HMS Wellsin kanssa samoja aluksia laskettaessa miinoja Färsaarten pohjoispuolelle operaatiossa SN66 Kotilaivaston suojaamana. [2]

Brighton saattoi 25. kesäkuuta St. Mary'sin ja HMS Castletonin kanssa Kotilaivaston alusten suojatessa Menestheusta ja Agamemnonia laskettaessa miinoja Islannin rannikolle operaatiossa SN70B. Alus kolaroi Färsaarten lähellä tiheässä sumussa risteilijä HMS Kenyan kanssa, jolloin se kärsi pahoja vaurioita, mitkä johtivat lopulta keulan katkeamiseen. Pahoin vaurioitunut alus hinattiin 27. kesäkuuta tilapäiskorjauksia varten Islantiin, mistä se lähti 30. kesäkuuta hinattuna Clydeen. [2]

Alus siirrettiin 2. heinäkuuta Clydessä telakalle, mistä se palasi 30. lokakuuta 1. miinalaivueeseen. Se saattoi 31. lokakuuta HMS Offan, HMS Oribin ja HMS Onslowin kanssa HMS Welshamin, Menestheuksen ja Port Quebecin laskemaan miinoja Färsaarten pohjoispuolelle operaatiossa SN83A, jota suojasi risteilijä HMS Sheffield. Alus saattoi 9. marraskuuta HMS Newarkin, HMS Charlestonin ja HMS Montrosen kanssa Menestheuksen ja Port Quebecin jatkamaan miinanlaskua samalle alueelle operaatiossa SN83A, jonka suojana oli Kenya. Se joutui erkanemaan osastosta seuraavana päivänä myrskyn aiheuttaman konevian vuoksi, ja alus liittyi Islantiin matkanneeseen saattueeseen. [2]

Alus siirrettiin 8. joulukuuta Clydessä telakalle, mistä se palasi 30. maaliskuuta 1942 suojaamaan Islannin reitin saattueita. Alus palasi toukokuussa Kyleen miinalaivueen saattajaksi. Se saattoi 8. toukokuuta laivueen miinalaivat laskemaan miinoja Färsaarten matalikolle operaatiossa SN3A. Alus erkani 10. toukokuuta osastosta suojaamaan Islannin reitin saattueita. [2]

Alus palasi 1. miinalaivueeseen ja se suojasi 11. kesäkuuta laivueen miinalaivat uudelleen Färsaarten matalikolle operaatiossa SN3B. Alus saattoi 20. kesäkuuta apumiinalaiva Southern Princen laskemaan miinoja Butt of Lewisiin operaatiossa SN27B. Seuraavana päivänä alus siirtyi laivueesta erikoistehtävää varten Kotilaivastoon. [2]

Brighton, Southern Prince, Agamemnon, Menestheus, Castleton ja St. Mary's muodostivat Force X:n, joka kasattiin Kotilaivaston operaation ES valesaattueen suojaten Jäämeren saattuetta PQ17. Force X vapautui saattueen hajaannuttua tehtävästään palaten miinalaivueeseen. [2]

Alus saattoi 10. heinäkuuta Kotilaivaston alusten suojaamana miinalaivat Färsaarten matalikon miinoittamiseen operaatiossa SN3C. Se saattoi 31. heinäkuuta miinalaivat Färsaarten ja Islannin välisen kapeikon miinoittamiseen operaatiossa SN82. Alus saattoi 21. elokuuta risteilijä HMS Auroran ja kolmen Kotilaivaston hävittäjän suojaamana miinalaivat Tanskan salmen miinoittamiseen operaatiossa SN73. Alus saattoi 2. syyskuuta risteilijä HMS Jamaican suojaamana miinalaivat uudelleen Tanskan salmeen operaatiossa SN89. Se siirrettiin 5. syyskuuta luoteisen reitin alaisuuteen suojaamaan saattueita. [2]

Lokakuun lopulla alus palasi miinalaivueeseen. Alus saattoi 1. marraskuuta miinalaivat täydentämään pohjoista sulkua operaatiossa SN3F, mitä oli siirretty huonon sään vuoksi. Operaatiosta vapauduttuaan alus siirrettiin huollettavaksi Rosythiin. Joulukuussa alus määrättiin ilmavoimien maalilaivaksi. [2]

Alus poistettiin tammikuussa 1943 1. miinalaivueen 17. hävittäjäviiriköstä ja se muutettiin huhtikuuhun mennessä maalilaivaksi. Alus aloitti toukokuussa Irlannin merellä ja Clyden alueella palveluksensa maalilaivana. Se määrättiin joulukuussa siirtymään Pohjanmerelle, jonne se siirtyi tammikuussa 1944. [2]

Alus kolaroi 13. tammikuuta troolari HMS Star of the Waven kanssa ja se joutui Invergordoniin korjattavaksi. Vaurioiden kartoituksen jälkeen korjaukset keskeytettiin helmikuussa ja alus siirrettiin reserviin. Se siirtyi Tyneen, jossa se ankkuroitiin. Maaliskuussa alus oli valmis reserviin. Huhtikuussa alus valittiin korjausten jälkeen toimitettavaksi Neuvostoliiton pohjoiselle laivastolle. Alus oli toukokuussa Tynessä korjattavana. [2]

Alus siirrettiin 16. heinäkuuta Neuvostoliiton laivastolle, joka nimesi sen Zharkiksi. Alus lähti 17. elokuuta yhdessä muiden siirrettävien alusten kanssa saattueen JW69 mukana Kuolan niemimaalle. [2]

Se oli pohjoisessa laivastossa saattajana, kunnes palautettiin 4. maaliskuuta 1949 Rosythissä kuninkaalliselle laivastolle. Alus todettiin käyttökelvottomaksi ja se sijoitettiin poistolistalle. Alus myytiin välittömästi BISCOlle, joka siirsi romuttamisen MacLellanille. Se saapui vielä samana vuonna hinattuna romutettavaksi Bo'nessiin 18. toukokuuta. [2]


Relationships, Son & Personal

After dating entertainment journalist Terri Seymour, Cowell got engaged to Idol makeup artist Mezhgan Hussainy in 2010. However, the couple broke off their engagement the following year, with Cowell noting, "We came to the conclusion that I&aposm a hopeless boyfriend." He went on to briefly date actress and model Carmen Electra.

By 2013 the famed TV personality was secretly seeing New York City socialite Lauren Silverman, then married to a friend of Cowell&aposs. When their affair resulted in a pregnancy, Silverman&aposs husband filed for divorce. Cowell became a father with the birth of son Eric on February 14, 2014.

Despite earlier insisting that he never wanted children, Cowell had changed his tune by the time his own son came into the world. "Eric is absolutely incredible and so funny," he told the Daily Star. "[Being a father] is the best thing that ever happened to me."

In 2019 Cowell revealed that he had adopted a vegan diet as part of a healthier lifestyle.


Disability History: The Disability Rights Movement

President George H.W. Bush signing the Americans with Disabilities Act. Photo inscribed to Justin Dart, Jr., 1990.

Image from the National Museum of American History (CC BY-SA 2.0 https://www.flickr.com/photos/nationalmuseumofamericanhistory/20825041956/)

Treatment and perceptions of disability have undergone transformation since the 1900s. This has happened largely because people with disabilities have demanded and created those changes. Like other civil rights movements, the disability rights movement has a long history. Examples of activism can be found among various disability groups dating back to the 1800s. Many events, laws, and people have shaped this development. To date, the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the subsequent ADA Amendments Act (2008) are the movement’s greatest legal achievements. The ADA is a major civil rights law that prohibits discrimination of people with disabilities in many aspects of public life. The disability rights movement continues to work hard for equal rights.

Organizations by and for people with disabilities have existed since the 1800s. However, they exploded in popularity in the 1900s. The League of the Physically Handicapped organized in the 1930s, fighting for employment during the Great Depression. In the 1940s a group of psychiatric patients came together to form We Are Not Alone. [2] They supported patients in the transition from hospital to community. In 1950, several local groups came together and formed the National Association for Retarded Children (NARC). By 1960, NARC had tens of thousands of members, most of whom were parents. They were dedicated to finding alternative forms of care and education for their children. [3] Meanwhile, people with disabilities received assistance through the leadership of various presidents in the 1900s. President Truman formed the National Institute of Mental Health in 1948. Between the years 1960 and 1963, President Kennedy organized several planning committees to treat and research disability. [3]

The US Congress has passed many laws that support disability rights either directly or by recognizing and enforcing civil rights. Civil rights laws such as Brown v. Board of Education and its decision that school segregation is unconstitutional laid the groundwork for recognizing the rights of people with disabilities. Several sections of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act, which specifically address disability discrimination, are especially important to the disability rights movement. Section 501 supports people with disabilities in the federal workplace and in any organization receiving federal tax dollars. Section 503 requires affirmative action, which supports employment and education for members of traditionally disadvantaged minority groups. Section 504 prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in the workplace and in their programs and activities. Section 508 guarantees equal or comparable access to technological information and data for people with disabilities. The regulations for Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 were written but not implemented. In 1977, the disability rights community was tired of waiting, and demanded that President Carter sign the regulations. Instead, a task force was appointed to review them. Afraid that the review would weaken the protections of the Act, the American Coalition of Citizens with Disabilities (ACCD) insisted they be enacted as written by 5 April 1977, or the coalition would take action. When the date arrived and the regulations remained unsigned, people across the country protested by sitting-in at federal offices of Health, Education, and Welfare (the agency responsible for the review). In San Francisco, the sit-in at the Federal Building lasted until April 28, when the regulations were finally signed, unchanged. This was, according to organizer Kitty Cone, the first time that “disability really was looked at as an issue of civil rights rather than an issue of charity and rehabilitation at best, pity at worst.” [4]

The 1975 Education of All Handicapped Children Act guaranteed children with disabilities the right to public school education. These laws have occurred largely due to the concerted efforts of disability activists protesting for their rights and working with federal government. In all, the United States Congress passed more than 50 pieces of legislation between the 1960s and the passage of the ADA in 1990.

Self-advocacy groups have also shaped the national conversation around disability. Self-advocacy means representing one's own interests. Such groups include DREDF (Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund), ADAPT (Americans Disabled for Accessible Public Transportation, later changed to Americans Disabled Attendant Programs Today), and the CIL (Center for Independent Living). The CIL provides services for people with disabilities in the community. The CIL began in the early 1960s at Cowell Memorial Hospital . Located in California, Cowell Memorial Hospital was once listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The building is now demolished, but its legacy remains. The hospital supported the "Rolling Quads" and the "Disabled Students Program” at University of California Berkeley. Students Ed Roberts and John Hessler founded both organizations. Both men lived with physical disabilities and needed to find housing options after their acceptance to the university. University dormitories could not manage Roberts' iron lung, an assistive breathing device for people with polio, or Hessler's physical needs. Hessler and Roberts instead lived at Cowell Memorial Hospital when they arrived at college in the early 1960s. With the assistance of College of San Mateo counselor Jean Wirth, they demanded access to the school and encouraged other students with physical disabilities to attend UC Berkeley. They also influenced school architecture and planning. UC Berkeley eventually created housing accommodations for these students. It was there that the students planted the seed of the independent living movement. The independent living movement supports the idea that people with disabilities can make their own decisions about living, working, and interacting with the surrounding community. This movement is a reaction to centuries of assisted living, psychiatric hospitals, and doctors and parents who had made decisions for individuals with disabilities.

Roberts, Hessler, Wirth and others established the Disabled Students Program at UC Berkeley. Although this was not the first program of its kind-- Illinois offered similar services beginning in the 1940s-- the UC Berkeley Program was groundbreaking. They promoted inclusion for all kinds of students on campus. The program inspired universities across the country to create similar organizations. Many of these organizations are still active today.

Dr. Frank Kameny at Pride, 2010.

Photo by David (CC BY-2.0 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frank_Kameny_June_2010_Pride_1.jpg)

The Rolling Quads and CIL are among two groups from the disability rights movement. Disability activists also work with other communities to attain their goals. People form communities based on shared values, ideas, and identity. The strength and activism of a community can help change attitudes across society at large. Perceptions of disability and resulting treatment often intersect with other groups advocating for their civil and human rights. One example of this change is the treatment of the the Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Queer (LGBTQ) community. Doctors regarded homosexuality as a disease well into the 20th century. They could send men and women to psychiatric hospitals for their sexual preference. It was not until the 1970s that this "diagnosis" changed.

The Dr. Franklin Kameny Residence is part of this important history. Kameny had served as an astronomer and worked with the U.S. Army Map Service. In the 1950s, he refused to reveal his sexual orientation to the government. In response, the US government fired Kameny from his job. Kameny spent the rest of his life working as an activist and advocate for LGBTQ rights. His home provided the space for people to safely express and identify themselves. In 1973, Kameny successfully led the fight to abolish homosexuality from the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM is the official handbook used by healthcare professionals to diagnose psychiatric issues and disabilities. This decision legally removed the status of homosexuality as a disorder. It also helped shift perceptions of homosexuality. More and more people began to understand it was not wrong or defective. The Kameny Residence continues to help us recognize and embrace the work of the gay civil rights community.

Other activists also took to the streets and demonstrated for disability rights. Some of these protests occurred at locations that are today listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1988, students at Gallaudet University, the only American university specifically for deaf students, led the "Deaf President Now" protest. Students made several demands, calling for a Deaf president and majority Deaf population on the Board of Trustees. This week-long protest resulted successfully in the appointment of deaf president, Dr. I. King Jordan. Their protest inspired inclusion and integration across communities. [5]

Two years later in 1990, protesters gathered on the steps of the United States Capitol building. They were anxiously awaiting the passage of the ADA, which had stalled due to issues around transportation. Public transit companies fought against the strict regulations for accessibility, and their lobbying efforts slowed the entire process. In response, a group of individuals with disabilities headed for the Capitol. They tossed aside their wheelchairs, walkers, and crutches and ascended the steps. This event has since become known as the "Capitol Crawl." By dragging themselves up the stairs, these protesters expressed their daily struggles due to physical barriers. In so doing, they highlighted the need for accessibility. Iconic images of this event spread across the country. The Americans with Disabilities Act ultimately passed in July of 1990 and was signed by President George H.W. Bush. The ADA and other civil rights legislation have transformed opportunities for people with disabilities. However, over 25 years later, there is still much work to be done.

This article is part of the Telling All Americans’ Stories Disability History Series. The series focuses on telling selected stories through historic places. It offers a glimpse into the rich and varied history of Americans with disabilities.


References:
[1] Disability Minnesota. The ADA Legacy Project: A Magna Carta and the Ides of March to the ADA, 2015
[2] Disability History. Disability Militancy - the 1930s Fountain House. The Origin of Fountain House.
[3] Michael Rembis, “Introduction,” in Michael Rembis, ed. Disabling Domesticity (Palgrave Macmillen).
[4] Grim, Andrew. “Sitting-in for disability rights: The Section 504 protests of the 1970s.” O Say Can You See? Stories from the National Museum of American History, July 8, 2015.
[5] Disability History. Disability Militancy - the 1930s Fountain House. The Origin of Fountain House.


USS Monaghan (DD 354)


USS Monaghan during the Second World War

After her commission, USS Monaghan served in the Atlantic as a training ship. Then she was relocated to the Pacific, and on Dec 7, 1941, she was stationed in Pearl Harbor, she was about to join USS Ward in pursuing some unidentified submerged vessels (the attacking Japanese midget-subs) at the entrance of the harbor, when the first wave of aircraft stuck Oahu. She opened fire with her AA guns, then a lookout spotted a midget submarine inside the harbor. Monaghan rammed the sub, then finished it off with two depth charges. After the attack Monaghan left Pearl Harbor, escorting the Lexington to relieve Wake, but they were late, and had to turn back. On the way home while protecting the capital ship, with two other escorts Monaghan chased away and possibly damaged a Japanese submarine. Apart from a brief escort duty, she spent the rest of the spring in the task force around the Lexington.

At the Battle of the Coral Sea, the day before the major engagement Monaghan carried messages, keeping this way the radio silence, and missing out on the thick of the battle. With the loss of the Lexington, she was attached to the screen of the Enterprise. In the Battle of Midway she was ordered to save a downed pilot, when she came across the badly damaged Yorktown, and joined other escorts to prevent the Japanese to inflict further damage to the ship. However, one of Japan's most skilled sub-skippers, Cmdr Tanaka manages to sinks the Yorktown and the destroyer Hammann.

After the battle she was sent North, to the Aleutians, where in bad weather she collided with another vessel, forcing her into the repair dock. On 17 November, near the Fijis she suffered damage again, bending her propellers in shallow waters. After repairs she was sent again to the Aleutians, participating in the battle off Komandorski Islands. She spent the summer cruising around the Aleutians. On 20 June, she fought an unidentified foe, without seeing it, directing her fire solely based on information from the radar. 2 days later she pursued and attacked a submarine, wich ran aground in the shallow waters, and was abandoned. She was identified as the I-7. After she escorted convoys, then she was attached to three escort carriers, and took part in the invasion of Tarawa. The following months she fulfilled convoy escort duties, as well as screening task forces, engaged in landings like Kwajalein, Truk and Saipan.

USS Monaghan sinks during a typhoon on the 18 Dec, with two other destroyers, east of Samar, Philippines in position 14º57'N, 127º58'E. Only six of her crew were ever found by the destroyer USS Brown. Amongst the 257 crew who died was the Commanding officer Lt.Cdr. Floyd Bruce Garrett, USN). The six survivors were transferred to the hospital ship USS Solace on Christmas eve. They had been in the water for 4 days. All were treated for shock, exposure and dehydration otherwise in fair shape considering their experience.

Before her loss, USS Monaghan received 12 Battle Stars for her services.

Commands listed for USS Monaghan (DD 354)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

CommanderFromTo
1Lt.Cdr. Daniel Fisher Worth, Jr., USN10 Jun 19385 Sep 1939 ( 1 )
2Kenmore Mathew McManes, USN5 Sep 19397 Jun 1940 ( 1 )
3Lt.Cdr. Nicholas Bauer van Bergen, USN7 Jun 194027 Sep 1941 ( 1 )
4Lt.Cdr. William Page Burford, USN27 Sep 19412 Feb 1943 ( 1 )
5T/Cdr. Peter Harry Horn, USN2 Feb 194321 Dec 1943 ( 1 )
6T/Lt.Cdr. Waldemar Frederick August Wendt, USN21 Dec 194330 Nov 1944 ( 1 )
7Lt.Cdr. Floyd Bruce Garrett, Jr., USN30 Nov 194418 Dec 1944 (+) ( 1 )

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Notable events involving Monaghan include:

Lt. Cmdr Garrett was Exec Officer on the USS Cowell (DD 547) in 1943 - 1944 prior to assuming command of the USS Monaghan. He served also as the ship's navigator, and as QM2C,I was fortunate to be assigned duty as his assistant and spent much time with him taking star sights, calculating our position, maintaining charts, etc. After being detached to take over command of the USS Monaghan, on his first cruise as Captain and sailing with a task force off the Philippines, his ship ran low on fuel during the onset of a typhoon. With the ballast pumped out in anticipation of refuelling, the ship was top heavy and could not handle the heavy waves and capsized, with the loss of its Captain and all but six hands of his crew. This tragic information was received on the USS Cowell shortly after the disaster, whose crew was greatly saddened by the unexpected loss of its former Executive Officer - a slender, short man but a seasoned naval officer who was much respected by the entire crew of the Cowell. ( 2 )

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Pizarro executes last Inca emperor

Atahuallpa, the 13th and last emperor of the Incas, dies by strangulation at the hands of Francisco Pizarro’s Spanish conquistadors. The execution of Atahuallpa, the last free reigning emperor, marked the end of 300 years of Inca civilization.

High in the Andes Mountains of Peru, the Inca built a dazzling empire that governed a population of 12 million people. Although they had no writing system, they had an elaborate government, great public works and a brilliant agricultural system. In the five years before the Spanish arrival, a devastating war of succession gripped the empire. In 1532, Atahuallpa’s army defeated the forces of his half-brother Huascar in a battle near Cuzco. Atahuallpa was consolidating his rule when Pizarro and his 180 soldiers appeared.

Francisco Pizarro was the son of a Spanish gentleman and worked as a swineherder in his youth. He became a soldier and in 1502 went to Hispaniola with the new Spanish governor of the New World colony. Pizarro served under Spanish conquistador Alonso de Ojeda during his expedition to Colombia in 1510 and was with Vasco Nunez de Balboa when he discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513. Hearing legends of the great wealth of an Indian civilization in South America, Pizarro formed an alliance with fellow conquistador Diego de Almagro in 1524 and sailed down the west coast of South America from Panama. The first expedition only penetrated as far as present-day Ecuador, but a second reached farther, to present-day Peru. There they heard firsthand accounts of the Inca empire and obtained Inca artifacts. The Spanish christened the new land Peru, probably after the Vire River.

Returning to Panama, Pizarro planned an expedition of conquest, but the Spanish governor refused to back the scheme. In 1528, Pizarro sailed back to Spain to ask the support of Emperor Charles V. Hernan Cortes had recently brought the emperor great wealth through his conquest of the Aztec Empire, and Charles approved Pizarro’s plan. He also promised that Pizarro, not Almagro, would receive the majority of the expedition’s profits. In 1530, Pizarro returned to Panama.

In 1531, he sailed down to Peru, landing at Tumbes. He led his army up the Andes Mountains and on November 15, 1532, reached the Inca town of Cajamarca, where Atahuallpa was enjoying the hot springs in preparation for his march on Cuzco, the capital of his brother’s kingdom. Pizarro invited Atahuallpa to attend a feast in his honor, and the emperor accepted. Having just won one of the largest battles in Inca history, and with an army of 30,000 men at his disposal, Atahuallpa thought he had nothing to fear from the bearded white stranger and his 180 men. Pizarro, however, planned an ambush, setting up his artillery at the square of Cajamarca.

On November 16, Atahuallpa arrived at the meeting place with an escort of several thousand men, all apparently unarmed. Pizarro sent out a priest to exhort the emperor to accept the sovereignty of Christianity and Emperor Charles V., and Atahuallpa refused, flinging a Bible handed to him to the ground in disgust. Pizarro immediately ordered an attack. Buckling under an assault by the terrifying Spanish artillery, guns, and cavalry (all of which were alien to the Incas), thousands of Incas were slaughtered, and the emperor was captured.

Atahuallpa offered to fill a room with treasure as ransom for his release, and Pizarro accepted. Eventually, some 24 tons of gold and silver were brought to the Spanish from throughout the Inca empire. Although Atahuallpa had provided the richest ransom in the history of the world, Pizarro treacherously put him on trial for plotting to overthrow the Spanish, for having his half-brother Huascar murdered, and for several other lesser charges. A Spanish tribunal convicted Atahuallpa and sentenced him to die. On August 29, 1533, the emperor was tied to a stake and offered the choice of being burned alive or strangled by garrote if he converted to Christianity. In the hope of preserving his body for mummification, Atahuallpa chose the latter, and an iron collar was tightened around his neck until he died.

With Spanish reinforcements that had arrived at Cajamarca earlier that year, Pizarro then marched on Cuzco, and the Inca capital fell without a struggle in November 1533. Huascar’s brother Manco Capac was installed as a puppet emperor, and the city of Quito was subdued. Pizarro established himself as Spanish governor of Inca territory and offered Diego Almagro the conquest of Chile as appeasement for claiming the riches of the Inca civilization for himself. In 1535, Pizarro established the city of Lima on the coast to facilitate communication with Panama. The next year, Manco Capac escaped from Spanish supervision and led an unsuccessful uprising that was quickly crushed. That marked the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule.

Diego Almagro returned from Chile embittered by the poverty of that country and demanded his share of the spoils of the former Inca empire. Civil war soon broke out over the dispute, and Almagro seized Cuzco in 1538. Pizarro sent his half brother, Hernando, to reclaim the city, and Almagro was defeated and put to death. On June 26, 1541, allies of Diego el Monzo𠅊lmagro’s son—penetrated Pizarro’s palace in Lima and assassinated the conquistador while he was eating dinner. Diego el Monzo proclaimed himself governor of Peru, but an agent of the Spanish crown refused to recognize him, and in 1542 Diego was captured and executed. Conflict and intrigue among the conquistadors of Peru persisted until Spanish Viceroy Andres Hurtado de Mendoza established order in the late 1550s.


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