In July 1944, Operation Cobra broke the stalemate in Normandy and sent the Allies racing across France. The Allied commanders had ignored Paris in their planning for this campaign, considering that the risk of intense street fighting and heavy casualties outweighed the city's strategic importance. However, Charles de Gaulle persuaded the Allied commanders to take direct action to liberate his nation's capital. Steven J Zaloga first describes the operations of Patton's Third Army as it advanced towards Paris before focussing on the actions of the Resistance forces inside the city and of the Free French armoured division that fought its way in and joined up with them to liberate it on the 24th August. On the back of this morale-boosting victory, De Gaulle could finally proclaim Paris to be liberated, as one of the world's loveliest cities survived Hitler's strident command that it should be held at all costs or razed to the ground.
In this book, maritime expert Angus Konstam explores the fledging Tudor Navy, tracing its history from its origins as a merchant fleet under Henry VII through to its emergence as a powerful force under Henry VIII. Examining the operational use of Henry VIII's warships the author analyses the battle of the Solent in 1545, in which Henry's fleet took on a French fleet of 200 ships - much larger than the Spanish Armada decades later. Despite the well-documented loss of his flagship, the Mary Rose, Henry's smaller force succeeded in preventing a French victory. Although many people will have heard of the mighty Mary Rose, this book will tell the story of more than just the tragic sinking of Henry's flagship, describing how one of history's most dynamic kings grew the navy from the five warships that were his father's legacy to 53 deadly gunships at the forefront of his empire-building strategy. Through contemporary illustrations and intricate artwork, the author traces the changing face of warship design during the Renaissance as Henry paved the way for English dominance of the sea.
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The True Story of the Battle of Midway
“At the present time we have only enough water for two weeks. Please supply us immediately,” read the message sent by American sailors stationed at Midway, a tiny atoll located roughly halfway between North America and Asia, on May 20, 1942.
The plea for help, however, was a giant ruse the base was not, in fact, low on supplies. When Tokyo Naval Intelligence intercepted the dispatch and relayed the news onward, reporting that the “AF” air unit was in dire need of fresh water, their American counterparts finally confirmed what they had long suspected: Midway and “AF,” cited by the Japanese as the target of a major upcoming military operation, were one and the same.
This codebreaking operation afforded the United States a crucial advantage at what would be the Battle of Midway, a multi-day naval and aerial engagement fought between June 3 and 7, 1942. Widely considered a turning point in World War II’s Pacific theater, Midway found the Imperial Japanese Navy’s offensive capabilities routed after six months of success against the Americans. As Frank Blazich, lead curator of military history at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History, explains, the battle leveled the playing field, giving U.S. forces “breathing room and time to go on the offensive” in campaigns such as Guadalcanal.
Midway, a new movie from director Roland Emmerich, known best for disaster spectacles like The Day After Tomorrow, traces the trajectory of the early Pacific campaign from the December 7, 1941, bombing of Pearl Harbor to the Halsey-Doolittle Raid in April 1942, the Battle of the Coral Sea in May of that same year, and, finally, Midway itself.
Ed Skrein (left) and Luke Kleintank (right) play dive bombers Dick Best and Clarence Dickinson. (Reiner Bajo/Lionsgate)
Traditional military lore suggests a Japanese victory at Midway would have left the U.S. West Coast vulnerable to invasion, freeing the imperial fleet to strike at will. The movie’s trailer outlines this concern in apt, albeit highly dramatic, terms. Shots of Japanese pilots and their would-be American victims flash across the screen as a voiceover declares, “If we lose, then [the] Japanese own the West Coast. Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles will burn.”
The alternative to this outcome, says Admiral Chester Nimitz, played by Woody Harrelson in the film, is simple: “We need to throw a punch so they know what it feels like to be hit.”
According to the National WWII Museum, Japan targeted Midway in hopes of destroying the U.S. Pacific Fleet and using the atoll as a base for future military operations in the region. (Formally annexed in 1867, Midway had long been a strategic asset for the United States, and in 1940, it became a naval air base.) Although the attack on Pearl Harbor had crippled the U.S. Navy, destroying three battleships, 18 assorted vessels and 118 aircraft, the Doolittle Raid—a bombing raid on the Japanese mainland—and the Battle of the Coral Sea—a four-day naval and aerial skirmish that left the Imperial Navy’s fleet weakened ahead of the upcoming clash at Midway—showed Japan the American carrier force was, in Blazich’s words, “still a potent threat.”
Cryptanalysts and linguists led by Commander Joseph Rochefort (played by Brennan Brown in the film) broke the Japanese Navy’s main operational code in March 1942, enabling the American intelligence unit—nicknamed Station Hypo—to track the enemy’s plans for an invasion of the still-unidentified “AF.” Rochefort was convinced “AF” stood for Midway, but his superiors in Washington disagreed. To prove his suspicions, Rochefort devised the “low supplies” ruse, confirming “AF”’s identity and spurring the Navy to take decisive counter-action.
Per the Naval History and Heritage Command, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto (Etsushi Toyokawa), commander of Japan’s imperial fleet, grounded his strategy in the assumption that an attack on Midway would force the U.S. to send reinforcements from Pearl Harbor, leaving the American fleet vulnerable to a joint strike by Japanese carrier and battleship forces lying in wait.
“If successful, the plan would effectively eliminate the Pacific Fleet for at least a year,” the NHHC notes, “and provide a forward outpost from which ample warning of any future threat by the United States would come.”
Midway, in other words, was a “magnet to draw the American forces out,” says Blazich.
Japan’s plan had several fatal flaws, chief among them the fact that the U.S. was fully aware of how the invasion was supposed to unfold. As Blazich explains, “Yamamoto does all his planning on intentions of what he believes the Americans will do rather than on our capabilities”—a risky strategy made all the more damaging by the intelligence breach. The Japanese were also under the impression that the U.S.S. Yorktown, an aircraft carrier damaged at Coral Sea, was out of commission in truth, the ship was patched up and ready for battle after just two days at the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard.
Blazich emphasizes the fact that Japan’s fleet was built for offense, not defense, likening their Navy to a “boxer with a glass jaw that can throw a punch but not take a blow.” He also points out that the country’s top military officers tended to follow “tried and true” tactics rather than study and learn from previous battles.
“The Japanese,” he says, “are kind of doomed from the start.”
The first military engagement of the Battle of Midway took place during the afternoon of June 3, when a group of B-17 Flying Fortress bombers launched an unsuccessful air attack on what a reconnaissance pilot had identified as the main Japanese fleet. The vessels—actually a separate invasion force targeting the nearby Aleutian Islands—escaped the encounter unscathed, and the actual fleet’s location remained hidden from the Americans until the following afternoon.
"Dauntless" dive bombers approach the burning Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma on June 6, 1942. (National Archives) The U.S.S. Yorktown was struck by Japanese torpedo bombers during a mid-afternoon attack on June 4. (National Archives) Ensign Leif Larsen and rear gunner John F. Gardener in their Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless bombers (U.S. Navy National Museum of Naval Aviation)
In the early morning hours of June 4, Japan deployed 108 warplanes from four aircraft carriers in the vicinity: the Akagi, Kaga, Hiryu and Soryu. Although the Japanese inflicted serious damage on both the responding American fighters and the U.S. base at Midway, the island’s airfield and runways remained in play. The Americans counterattacked with 41 torpedo bombers flown directly toward the four Japanese carriers.
“Those men went into this fight knowing that it was very likely they would never come home,” says Laura Lawfer Orr, a historian at the Hampton Roads Naval Museum in Norfolk, Virginia. “Their [Douglas TBD-1 Devastators] were obsolete. They had to fly incredibly slowly … [and] very close to the water. And they had torpedoes that, most of the time, did not work.”
In just minutes, Japanese ships and warplanes had shot down 35 of the 41 Devastators. As writer Tom Powers explains for the Capital Gazette, the torpedo bombers were “sitting ducks for fierce, incessant fire from shipboard batteries and the attacks of the swift, agile defending aircraft.” Despite sustaining such high losses, none of the Devastators scored a hit on the Japanese.
Ensign George Gay, a pilot in the U.S.S. Hornet’s Torpedo Squadron 8, was the sole survivor of his 30-man aircrew. According to an NHHC blog post written by Blazich in 2017, Gay (Brandon Sklenar) crash landed in the Pacific after a showdown with five Japanese fighters. “Wounded, alone and surrounded,” he endured 30 hours adrift before finally being rescued. Today, the khaki flying jacket Gay wore during his ordeal is on view in the American History Museum’s “Price of Freedom” exhibition.
Around the time of the Americans’ failed torpedo assault, Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo—operating under the erroneous assumption that no U.S. carriers were in the vicinity—rearmed the Japanese air fleet, swapping the planes’ torpedoes for land bombs needed to attack the base at Midway a second time. But in the midst of rearmament, Nagumo received an alarming report: A scout plane had spotted American ships just east of the atoll.
The Japanese switched gears once again, readying torpedo bombers for an assault on the American naval units. In the ensuing confusion, sailors left unsecured ordnance, as well as fueled and armed aircraft, scattered across the four carriers’ decks.
Black smoke pours from the U.S.S. Yorktown on June 4, 1942. (Naval History and Heritage Command)
On the American side of the fray, 32 dive bombers stationed on the Enterprise and led by Lieutenant Commander Wade McClusky (Luke Evans) pursued the Japanese fleet despite running perilously low on fuel. Dick Best (Ed Skrein), commander of Bombing Squadron 6, was among the pilots participating in the mission.
Unlike torpedo bombers, who had to fly low and slow without any guarantee of scoring a hit or even delivering a working bomb, dive bombers plummeted down from heights of 20,000 feet, flying at speeds of around 275 miles per hour before aiming their bombs directly at targets.
“Dive bombing was a death defying ride of terror,” says Orr in Battle of Midway: The True Story, a new Smithsonian Channel documentary premiering Monday, November 11 at 8 p.m . “It’s basically like a game of chicken that a pilot is playing with the ocean itself. … A huge ship is going to appear about the size of a ladybug on the tip of a shoe, so it’s tiny.”
The Enterprise bombers’ first wave of attack took out the Kaga and the Akagi, both of which exploded in flames from the excess ordnance and fuel onboard. Dive bombers with the Yorktown, meanwhile, struck the Soryu, leaving the Japanese fleet with just one carrier: the Hiryu.
Close to noon, dive bombers from the Hiryu retaliated, hitting the Yorktown with three separate strikes that damaged the carrier but did not disable it. Later in the afternoon, however, a pair of torpedoes hit the partially repaired Yorktown, and at 2:55 p.m., Captain Elliott Buckmaster ordered his crew to abandon ship.
Dusty Kleiss is seated second from the right in this photograph of the U.S.S. Enterprise's Scouting Squadron Six. (William T. Barr/U.S. Navy)
Around 3:30 p.m., American dive bombers tracked down the Hiryu and struck the vessel with at least four bombs. Rather than continuing strikes on the remainder of the Japanese fleet, Rear Admiral Raymond Spruance (Jake Weber) opted to pull back. In doing so, Blazich explains, “He preserves his own force while really destroying Japanese offensive capability.”
Over the next several days, U.S. troops continued their assault on the Japanese Navy, attacking ships including the Mikuma and Mogami cruisers and the Asashio and Arashio destroyers. By the time hostilities ended on June 7, the Japanese had lost 3,057 men, four carriers, one cruiser and hundreds of aircraft. The U.S., comparatively, lost 362 men, one carrier, one destroyer and 144 aircraft.
Best and Dusty Kleiss, a bomber from the Enterprise's Scouting Squadron Six, were the only pilots to score strikes on two different Japanese carriers at Midway. Kleiss—whose exploits are at the center of the Smithsonian Channel documentary—scored yet another hit on June 6, sinking the Japanese cruiser Mikuma and upping his total to three successful strikes.
In Midway's trailer, Admiral Chester Nimitz, played by Woody Harrelson, says, "We need to throw a punch so they know what it feels like to be hit." (Lionsgate)
George Gay, the downed torpedo bomber memorialized at the American History Museum, watched this decisive action from the water. He later recalled, “The carriers during the day resembled a very large oil-field fire. … Billowing big red flames belched out of this black smoke, . and I was sitting in the water hollering hooray, hooray.”
The U.S. victory significantly curbed Japan’s offensive capabilities, paving the way for American counteroffensive strikes like the Guadalcanal Campaign in August 1942—and shifting the tide of the war strictly in the Allies’ favor.
Still, Blazich says, Midway was far from a “miracle” win ensured by plucky pilots fighting against all odds. “Midway is a really decisive battle,” the historian adds, “. an incredible victory.
But the playing field was more level than most think: While historian Gordon W. Prange’s Miracle at Midway suggests the Americans’ naval forces were “inferior numerically to the Japanese,” Blazich argues that the combined number of American aircraft based on carriers and the atoll itself actually afforded the U.S. “a degree of numerical parity, if not slight superiority,” versus the divided ranks of the Imperial Japanese Navy . (Yamamoto, fearful of revealing the strength of his forces too early in the battle, had ordered his main fleet of battleships and cruisers to trail several hundred miles behind Nagumo’s carriers.)
Naval historians Jonathan Parshall and Anthony Tully’s Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway deconstructs central myths surrounding the battle, including notions of Japan’s peerless strategic superiority. Crucially, Parshall and Tully write, “The imperial fleet committed a series of irretrievable strategic and operational mistakes that seem almost inexplicable. In so doing, it doomed its matchless carrier force to premature ruin.”
George Gay's khaki flying jacket is on view at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. (NMNH)
Luck certainly played a part in the Americans’ victory, but as Orr says in an interview, attributing the win entirely to chance “doesn’t give agency to the people who fought” at Midway. The “training and perseverance” of U.S. pilots contributed significantly, she says, as did “individual initiative,” according to Blazich. Ultimately, the Americans’ intelligence coup, the intrinsic doctrinal and philosophical weaknesses of the Imperial Japanese Navy, and factors from spur-of-the-moment decision-making to circumstance and skill all contributed to the battle’s outcome.
Orr says she hopes Midway the movie reveals the “personal side” of the battle. “History is written from the top down,” she explains, “and so you see the stories of Admiral Nimitz, [Frank Jack] Fletcher and Spruance, but you don’t always see the stories of the men themselves, the pilots and the rear seat gunners who are doing the work.”
Take, for instance, aviation machinist mate Bruno Gaido, portrayed by Nick Jonas: In February 1942, the rear gunner was promoted from third to first class after he singlehandedly saved the Enterprise from a Japanese bomber by jumping into a parked Dauntless dive bomber and aiming its machine gun at the enemy plane. During the Battle of Midway, Gaido served as a rear gunner in Scouting Squadron 6, working with pilot Frank O’Flaherty to attack the Japanese carriers. But the pair’s plane ran out of fuel, leaving Gaido and O’Flaherty stranded in the Pacific. Japanese troops later drowned both men after interrogating them for information on the U.S. fleet.
Blazich cherishes the fact that the museum has George Gay’s khaki flying jacket on display. He identifies it as one of his favorite artifacts in the collection, saying, “To the uninformed you ignore it, and to the informed, you almost venerate it [as] the amazing witness to history it is.”
People Who Voted On This List (3375)
I really wish I could disqualify anything that has the words 'epic story' in the title. Great history books make an argument based on an interpretation of the past a history book that just tells you a story has a seriously limited value.
I cant seem to add books to the list but could I suggest A Short History of Byzantium by John Julius Norwich.
I went ahead and did disqualify a couple of works of fiction. But really, I don't think the "epic story" label should eliminate a work from consideration. You could start with Herodotus and Thucydides whose work is undeniably epic, but also epochal, in that we would have no history without them. Serious history has scholarly obligations, but it has artistic ones as well. If the matter isn't interesting, then ultimately no one is going to care about the footnotes or the argument.
Water for Elephants is most emphatically not a work of history.
Removed for being fiction:
Water for Elephants, by Sara Gruen
The Red Tent, by Anita Diamant
I am of two minds about The Devils of Loudun, so I left it.
The Devils of Loudun is really not a novel, despite Huxley's reputation as a novelist. It is as "literary" as Barbara Tuchman. If you are thinking of the dreadful Ken Russell film based on the book, all I can say is, please don't.
Adding "Benedict Arnold's Navy" by James Nelson.
Had it not been for Horatio Gates, who stole Arnold's genius at Saratoga and threw him to the wolves causing Arnold to "turn coat", Benedict Arnold could quite possibly been a greater American Hero than George Washington.
This book is of Benedict Arnolds building of a small fleet in the harbor of Skenesborough (modern day Whitehall, NY) to sail north and interdict the British fleet arriving via the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Richelieu river.
The ensuing "Battle of Valcour Island" is considered to be the very first naval engagement by the American Navy.
/> All of the Edward Rutherfurd books on the list (Sarum, London, Russka, New York) are novels. If you include them, you have to open the field to Michener.
I was only able to find Russka. I have deleted it. Cheers.
I found the others, on page 3. I'll delete them.
ETA: Also removed "The Great Indian Novel." Because it, too, is a novel.
Too much american history.You're not the world y'know ?
You could, of course, add works about non-American history to the list.
Removed: The Killer Angels - a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel.
Midwives, by Chris Bohjalian
Chesapeake, by James A. Michener
The Ballad of the White Horse, by G.K. Chesterton
Where is the Venerable Bede?
You could add him. It's easy to add books to lists at the top of the page, at the tab next to "all votes."
David & Russ - any clue as to what book "Unknown Book 9379560" is at No. 147 on this list? You were the ones who voted for it.
The list is a little ethnocentric. Just a thought. if you know of a good book that is also the history of women, or Native Americans, or any other underrepresented group, you may want to add it. I added a few, but it could still use some rounding out.
D. wrote: "The Guns of August is a great, great book. but it is HISTORICAL FICTION. It is strong, well-researched historical fiction, but it is fiction This list is supposed to be strictly nonfiction."
It is most certainly not historical fiction. What is your evidence that it is?
It won the Pulitzer for "general nonfiction."
Gates of Fire, by Steven Pressfield
The Pale Criminal, by Philip Carr
Queen Margot, by Alexandre Dumas
A Philosophical Investigation, by Philip Kerr
Oh, it's a great book. It really does "read like a novel."
Revisited Feb 10 and asked the system to find duplicates, because I spotted one (Sherman's memoirs). The system found and removed 5 duplicates.
I sympathize with the person who pointed out there is too much American history here. I went back and found some good books I had read (primarily Russian Revolution and Cuba) and added those I can't reasonably add anything I haven't read, but have added some "want to reads" from the wider world.
And this is one of the times when I wish I had more than 100 votes!
/> I admire your fantastic library of golden books. Thank you.
I only had a hundred books I could add!
/> Wow, so many great sounding books that I've missed. Might have to read John Adams now, since it's at the top of the list. How about a history book that was just "fun" to read? Like "One of a Kind" about Stu Ungar, or "Vegas and the Mob," about, well, Las Vegas? Or are those too low-brow to admit at guilty pleasures?
Ron wrote: "Wow, so many great sounding books that I've missed. Might have to read John Adams now, since it's at the top of the list. How about a history book that was just "fun" to read? Like "One of a Kind" . "
Not familiar with these, but in order to qualify as history books, they must refer to a period at least 50 years before the publication date. at least I think so. Susanna CBG would know for sure.
I'm having a terrible time whittling my choices down to 100!
I wish I could pull books OFF this list. How about anything by Joseph Ellis is on this list is beyond me.
Socraticgadfly wrote: "I wish I could pull books OFF this list. How about anything by Joseph Ellis is on this list is beyond me."
Exactly how I feel when I see Gone With the Wind as "best" historical fiction, when it is myth, and not even benign myth. But on the other hand, the First Amendment right to say what books we like is even more critical.
You don't give any reason for writing that Joseph Ellis shouldn't be on the list. At least one historian places him among the five best historywriters today (http://practicallyhistorical.net/2011. )
1 duplicate found and removed.
/> A New Age Now Begins: A People's History of the American Revolution, Vol 1
This 8 volume set written as a popular history is essential to understand the continuity of the development of the United States. This history is readable, does not focus on politics, politicians or generals and warfare. Rather all the above are included as they apply to the social fabric, and cultural development that caused America to become what it has. Here you will understand why normal people did what they did and the events that impacted peoples lives for good or evil. This set can be collected for about $8 or less per volume in used book stores. If you have any interest in history find any volume in a library and read a chapter.
Cameron wrote: "Siddhartha, being a novel, should be removed."
Open ended listopia such as this one rely largely upon volunteer librarians, such as myself. If a title is misplaced on this list and you want to see it removed, please indicate on what page of the list you found it. This is a very long list, and I can't see scrolling through 18+ pages searching for 1 book, but I will zap it if I know where it is. Thanks.
page 2 Neil Shubin Your Inner Fish is not a history book. The only way that it is historical is if broad-stroke paleontology can be classified as historical
Whats wrong with novels? My interest in history started from The Other Boleyn Girl that is pretty much fiction. I wanted to know how the real story went, and the rest is "history". Recently I went to Amsterdam. As usual, before I have read few books about history of Netherlands. Some were unnecessary long and boring. In between I read The Coffee Trader, a novel, intertaining and very close to reality.
So, whatever gets you going. Besides, the author disclaims in the book what is fiction and whats not.
Irina wrote: "Whats wrong with novels? My interest in history started from The Other Boleyn Girl that is pretty much fiction. I wanted to know how the real story went, and the rest is "history". Recently I went . "
Nothing is wrong with novels, but a fictional story set during an historic period is classified as historical fiction. There are a number of listopias for that genre. There are also some mixed listopias that include both history and historical fiction the first that comes to mind is the American Civil War listopia, where both genres are welcome.
The listmaker determines the parameters, and by definition a history book is nonfiction. The subscript below the title specifies no historical fiction, so it's as clear as a bell.
If you dislike the listmaker's parameters, you are also free to start a new list, but it's best to check and make sure (using the search bar for listopias) that the list you want to vote on doesn't already exist.
Jonas wrote: "page 2 Neil Shubin Your Inner Fish is not a history book. The only way that it is historical is if broad-stroke paleontology can be classified as historical"
History is defined as beginning when there is written language, so no, it's not historical.
The system found and removed 14 duplicates.
Dear Donna, goodreads is not University History department recommended reading, it's for people who like reading. How about Herodotus Histories? It is a history book, however I quote from experts "is bedevilled with the questions that still haunt it today concerning the relationship between truth and storytelling, SUBJECTIVE witnessing and objective record."
Irina wrote: "Dear Donna, goodreads is not University History department recommended reading, it's for people who like reading. How about Herodotus Histories? It is a history book, however I quote from experts ". "
Thanks for the education, yo. If you want the parameters of the list changed, talk to Goodreads employees. I'm a volunteer, and I'm done with this thread.
Same here - GR librarians are not GR staff we are all volunteers.
You want to change the parameters of this list, I suggest you either argue with its creator, or contact GR staff and make a persuasive argument.
Otherwise your choices are to follow the parameters of this list, or to start another one. There are a ton of lists here on Listopia, and more every day.
Battle at Bae de Bic Edit
According to Jacques Cartier, the Battle at Bae de Bic happened in the spring of 1534, 100 Iroquois warriors massacred a group of 200 Mi’kmaq camped on Massacre Island in the St. Lawrence River. Bae de Bic was an annual gather place for the Mi’kmaq along the St. Lawrence. Mi’kmaq scouting parties notified the village that the Iroquois attack the evening before the morning attack. They evacuated 30 of the infirm and elderly and about 200 Mi’kmaq vacated their encampment on the shore and retreated to an island in the bay. They took cover in a cave on the island and covered the entrance with branches. The Iroquois arrived at the vacant village in the morning. Finding it vacated, they divided into search parties but failed to find the Mi’kmaq until the morning of the next day.
The Mi’kmaq warriors defended the tribe against the Iroquois assault. Initially, after many had been wounded on both sides, with the rising tide, the Mi’kmaq were able to repulse the assault and the Iroquois retreated to the mainland. The Mikmaq prepared a fortification on the island in preparation for the next assault at low tide. The Iroquois were again repulsed and treated to the mainland with the rising tide. By the following morning, the tide was again low and the Iroquois made their final approach. They had prepared arrows that carried fire which burned down the fortification and wiped out the Mi’kmaq. Twenty Iroquois were killed and thirty wounded in the battle. The Iroquois divided into two companies to return to their canoes on the Bouabouscache River.  
Battle at Bouabouscache River Edit
Just prior to Battle at Bae de Bic, the Iroquois warriors had left their canoes and hid their provisions on the Bouabousche River, which the Mi’kmaq scouts had discovered and recruited assistance from 25 Maliseet warriors. The Mi’kmaq and Maliseet militia ambushed the first company of Iroquois to arrive at the site. They killed ten and wounded five of the Iroquois warriors before the second company of Iroquois arrived and the Mi’kmaq/ Maliseet militia retreated to the woods unharmed.
Their canoes having been lost, 50 Iroquois, leaving twenty wounded behind, then regrouped to find their hidden provisions. Unable to find their supplies, at the end of the day they returned to the camp, the 20 wounded soldiers having been slaughtered by the Mi’kmaq/ Maliseet militia. The following morning, the 38 Iroquois warriors left their camp, killing twelve of their own wounded who would not be able to survive the long journey back to their village. 10 of the Mi’kmaq/ Maliseet stayed with the canoes and provisions while the remaining 15 pursued the Iroquois. The Mi’kmaq/ Maliseet militia pursued the Iroquois for three days, killing eleven of the wounded Iroquois stragglers.  
Battle at Riviere Trois Pistoles Edit
Shortly after the Battle at Bouabouscache River, the retreating Iroquois set up camp on the Riviere Trois Pistoles to build canoes to return to their village. An Iroquois hunting party was sent to hunt for food. The Mi’kmaq/ Maliseet militia killed the hunting party. The Iroquois went to find their missing hunting party and were ambushed by the Mi’kmaq/ Maliseet militia. They killed nine of the Iroquois, leaving 29 warriors who retreated to their camp on Riviere Trois Pistoles. The Mi’kmaq/ Maliseet militia divided into two companies and attacked the remaining Iroquois warriors. The battle left 3 Maliseet warriors dead and many others wounded. The Mi’kmaq/ Maliseet militia was victorious, however, killing all but six of the Iroquois, whom they took prisoner and later tortured and killed.  
Siege of Pemaquid (1689) Edit
The Maliseet from Fort Meductic participated in the Siege of Pemaquid (1689). The siege was a successful attack by a large band of Abenaki Indians from Forts Penobscot and Meductic on the English fort at Pemaquid, then the easternmost outpost of colonial Massachusetts (present-day Bristol, Maine). Possibly organized by the French-Abenaki leader Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, the Indian force surrounded the fort, captured or killed most of the settlers outside it, and compelled its small garrison to surrender. On August 4, they burned the fort and the nearby settlement of Jamestown down. One of the captives the Maliseet took back to their main village Meductic on the Saint John River was John Gyles. Gyles' brother James was also captured by the Penobscot and taken to Fort Penobscot (present-day Castine, Maine) where he was tortured and burned alive at the stake. 
Battle of Fort Loyal (1690) Edit
During King William's War, the Battle of Fort Loyal (May 20, 1690) involved Mi'kmaq and Maliseet from Fort Meductic in New Brunswick capturing and destroying an English settlement on the Falmouth neck (site of present-day Portland, Maine), then part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
The earliest garrison at Falmouth was Fort Loyal (1678) in what was then the center of town, the foot of India Street. In May 1690, four hundred to five hundred French and Indian troops under the command of Hertel Portneuf and St. Castin attacked the settlement.  Grossly outnumbered, the settlers held out for four days before surrendering. Eventually two hundred were murdered and left in a large heap by the site of the fort. When a fresh Indian war broke out in 1716, authorities decided to demolish the fort and evacuate the city rather than risk another catastrophe. 
James Alexander was taken captive along with 100 other prisoners.  Alexander was taken back to the Maliseet headquarters on the Saint John River at Meductic, New Brunswick. "James Alexander, a Jersey man," was, with John Gyles, tortured at an Indian village on the St. John River.  In the spring of 1691, two families of Mi'kmaq, who had lost friends by some English fishermen, came these many miles to avenge themselves on the captives. They were reported to have yelled and danced around their victims tossed and threw them held them by the hair and beat them - sometimes with an axe - and did this all day, compelling them also to dance and sing, until at night they were thrown out exhausted. Alexander, after a second torture, ran to the woods, but hunger drove him back to his tormentors. His fate is unknown. 
In 1693-94 there swept over eastern Maine and New Brunswick a disease that proved very fatal to the Natives. Many of the warriors, including the chief of the Maliseet, died. 
After the defeat in the Battle of Port Royal (1690), Governor Joseph de Villebon moved the capital of Acadia to Fort Nashwaak on the St. John River for defensive purposes, and to better coordinate military attacks on New England with the natives at Meductic.
Raid on Oyster River Edit
The Raid on Oyster River (also known as the Oyster River Massacre) happened during King William's War on July 18, 1694. In 1693 the English at Boston had entered into peace and trade negotiations with the Abenaki tribes in eastern Massachusetts. The French at Quebec under Governor Frontenac wished to disrupt the negotiations and sent Claude-Sébastien de Villieu in the fall of 1693 into present-day Maine, with orders to "place himself at the head of the Acadian Indians and lead them against the English."  Villieu spent the winter at Fort Nashwaak (see Siege of Fort Nashwaak (1696)). The Indian bands of the region were in general disagreement whether to attack the English or not, but after discussions by Villieu and cajoling by the Indians' priest Fr. Thury (and with support from Fr. Bigot), they went on the offensive.
The English settlement of Oyster River (present-day Durham, New Hampshire) was attacked by Villieu with about 250 Abenaki Indians, composed of two main groups from Penobscot and the Norridgewock under command of their sagamore, Bomazeen (or Bomoseen). A number of Maliseet from Medoctec, led by Assacumbuit, took part in the attack. The Indian force was divided into two groups to attack the settlement, which was laid out on both sides of the Oyster River. Villieu led the Pentagoet and the Meductic/Nashwaaks. The attack commenced at daybreak, with the small forts quickly falling to the attackers. In all, 104 inhabitants were killed and 27 taken captive,  with half the dwellings, including the garrisons, pillaged and burned to the ground. Crops were destroyed and livestock killed, causing famine and destitution for survivors.
Siege of Pemaquid (1696) Edit
New France, led by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, along with the Maliseet and Mi'kmaq militias fought a naval battle in the Bay of Fundy before moving on to raid Bristol, Maine again. In the lead up to this battle in Fundy Bay, on July 5, 140 natives (Mi'kmaq and Maliseet), with Jacques Testard de Montigny and Chevalier, from their location of Manawoganish island, ambushed the crews of four English vessels. Some of the English were coming ashore in a long boat to get firewood. A native killed five of the nine men in the boat. The Mi'kmaq burned the vessel under the direction of Father Florentine (missionary to the Micmacs at Chignectou). 
Siege of Fort Nashwaak (1696) Edit
The Maliseet from Meductic were also involved in protecting the Acadian capital Fort Nashwaak (present-day Fredericton, New Brunswick) from a New England attack. In the Siege of Fort Nashwaak, Colonel Benjamin Church was the leader of the New England force of 400 men. The siege lasted two days, between October 18–20, 1696, and formed part of a larger expedition by Church against a number of other Acadian communities. Aware of the pending attack, on the October 11, Governor Villebon made a request to Father Simon-Gérard de La Place  to gather Maliseet militia from Meductic to defend the fort from an attack. On October 16, Father Simon-Gérard and Acadian Sieur de Clignancourt of Aukpacque led 36 Maliseet militia members to Nashwaak to defend Fort Nashawaak.  On October 18 Church and his troops arrived opposite the fort, landed three cannons and assembled earthworks on the south bank of the Nashwaak River.  Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste was there to defend the capital.  Baptiste joined the Maliseet from Meductic for the duration of the siege. There was a fierce exchange of gunfire for two days, with the advantage going to the better sited French guns. The New Englanders were defeated, having suffered eight killed and seventeen wounded. The French lost one killed and two wounded. 
In response to Church's failed siege, Acadian Rene d'Amour of Aukpacque and Father Simon-Gérard accompanied an expedition of the Maliseet militia (who joined Louis de Buade de Frontenac's expedition), which, although one of the largest gatherings of natives ever assembled in Acadia, did not, after all, accomplish very much. 
Father Rale's War was the first and only time Wabanaki would fight New Englanders and the British on their own terms and for their own reasons and not principally to defend French imperial interests.  In response to Wabanaki hostilities toward territorial expansion, the governor of Nova Scotia, Richard Phillips, built a fort in traditional Mi'kmaq territory at Canso in 1720, and Massachusetts Governor Samuel Shute built forts on traditional Abenaki territory around the mouth of the Kennebec River: Fort George at Brunswick (1715) St. George's Fort at Thomaston (1720) and Fort Richmond (1721) at Richmond.  The French claimed the same territory by building churches in the Abenaki villages of Norridgewock (on the Kennebec River) and Medoctec (on the St. John River, four miles upriver from present-day Meductic, New Brunswick).  
Dummer's treaty, made in Boston in 1726, afforded a momentary peace to the tribes of Acadia. Three chiefs and about twenty-six warriors from Medoctec went to Annapolis Royal, in May 1728, to ratify this treaty. 
During King George's War, the Maliseet and Mi'kmaq sought revenge for the Ranger John Gorham's killing of Mi'kmaq families during the Siege of Annapolis Royal (1744). During the Siege of Annapolis Royal (1745) the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet took prisoner William Pote and some of Gorham's (Mohawk) Rangers. Among other places, Pote was taken to the Maliseet village of Aukpaque on the Saint John River. While at the village, Mi'kmaq from Nova Scotia arrived and on July 6, 1745, tortured him and a Mohawk ranger from Gorham's company named Jacob, as retribution for the killing of their family members by Gorham.  On July 10, Pote witnessed another act of revenge when the Mi'kmaq tortured a Mohawk ranger from Gorham's company at Meductic. 
In 1749, before the outbreak of Father Le Loutre's War, a deputation of Maliseet, including the chief of Medoctec, went to Halifax and renewed the treaty. 
By the end of the 17th century, Meductic had a Jesuit mission and was incorporated into a French seigneury. The mission changed the landscape of Meductic, and by 1760 the Maliseet, who left to settle in other communities, abandoned the village.
After the close of the war, Meductic continued to decline. In 1767 Father Charles Fransois Baillie entered into his register: "The last Indian at Medoctec having died, I cause the bell and other articles to be transported to Ekpahaugh [Aukpaque]."  (The bell eventually made it to the church of St. Ann at Kingsclear but was damaged by lightning in 1904. The bell was melted down into smaller bells. One is at St. Ann at Kingsclear and another at the Acadian Museum, University of Moncton.)  By the time the Loyalists arrived in 1783, the chapel and fort were still standing. 
Maugerville Rebellion Edit
During the American Revolution, in 1776, George Washington sent a letter to the Maliseet of the Saint John River asking for their support in their contest with Britain. Led by Chief Ambroise Saint Aubin, the Maliseets immediately began to plunder the British in the community of Maugerville, New Brunswick, burning some of their homes and taking others prisoner back to New England.  (Shortly after, the rebellion continued at the nearby Battle of Fort Cumberland.) In 1779, Maugerville was raided again by Maliseets working with John Allan in Machias, Maine. A vessel was captured and two or three residents' homes were plundered. In response, a blockhouse was built at the mouth of Oromocto River named Fort Hughes (named after the Lt. Governor of NS Sir Richard Hughes). 
St. John River expedition Edit
During the St. John River expedition, American Patriot Col. John Allan's untiring efforts to gain the friendship and support of the Indians during the four weeks he had been at Aukpaque were somewhat successful. There was a significant exodus of Maliseet from the region to join the American forces at Machias.  On Sunday, July 13, 1777, a party of between 400 and 500 men, women, and children, embarked in 128 canoes from the Old Fort Meduetic (8 miles below Woodstock) for Machias. The party arrived at a very opportune moment for the Americans and afforded material assistance in the defence of that post during the attack made by Sir George Collier on the 13th to 15 August. The British did only minimal damage to the place, and the services of the Indians on the occasion earned for them the thanks of the council of Massachusetts. 
Barry Stuart Strauss
Barry Strauss is a classicist and a military and naval historian and consultant. As the Series Editor of the Princeton History of the Ancient World and author of seven books on ancient History, Professor Strauss is a recognized authority on the subject of leadership and the lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the greatest political and military leaders of the ancient world (Caesar, Hannibal, Alexander among many others).
He is a former director of Cornell’s Judith Reppy Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies, where he studied modern engagements from Bosnia to Iraq and from Afghanistan to Europe. He is an expert on military strategy. He is currently director as well as a founder of Cornell’s Program on Freedom and Free Societies, which investigates challenges to constitutional liberty at home and abroad. He holds fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the German Academic Exchange Service, the Korea Foundation, the MacDowell Colony, the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, the American Academy in Rome, among others and is the recipient of Cornell’s Clark (now Russell) Award for Excellence in Teaching. In recognition of his scholarship, he received he received the Lucio Colletti Journalism Prize for literature and he was named an Honorary Citizen of Salamis, Greece.
His Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece—and Western Civilization was named one of the best books of 2004 by the Washington Post. His Masters of Command: Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar and the Genius of Leadership was named one of the best books of 2012 by Bloomberg. His latest book, The Death of Caesar: The Story of History’s Most Famous Assassination, (Simon & Schuster, March 2015) has been hailed as “clear and compelling” by TIME, “brilliant” by the Wall Street Journal, “engrossing, exhaustive yet surprisingly easy to read” by Barrons, and “an absolutely marvelous read” by The Times of London.
Professor Strauss recently completed six years as Chair of Cornell's Department of History. On leave in academic year 2016-2017, he is writing a book on leadership lessons from Roman emperors. He will be a visitor at research institutions in Italy and the United States.
Indexes and Sources
Congressional Information Service (CIS) Annual (Call No. KF49 .C62). Indexes and abstracts congressional publications including House and Senate reports, hearings, committee prints and public laws since 1970. From 1970 – 1983, Abstracts volume includes a condensed &ldquoLegislative History&rdquo section listing congressional documents by public law number. From 1984 forward, includes separate Legislative Histories volume. Other Indexes by CIS are available for researching pre-1970 legislation (see Chart below).
ProQuest Congressional Online version of the CIS Annual.
United States Code, Congressional & Administrative News (USCCAN) (Call No. KF48 .W45). Reprints all public laws appearing in the Statutes at Large since 1941. Beginning in 1948, includes selected legislative history materials (e.g., excerpts of selected congressional reports and Congressional Record date references) beginning in 1986, includes Presidential signing statements.
United States Statutes at Large (Call No. KF50 .U5). Beginning in 1963, contains legislative history citations for all public laws. For volumes 77-88 (1963-1974), includes a table entitled &ldquoGuide to Legislative History of Bills Enacted into Public Law.&rdquo For volume 89 forward, includes legislative history references at the end of individual public laws.
Congressional Record Index (Call No. KF35). From 1873 to the present, each volume contains a &ldquoHistory of Bills and Resolutions&rdquo section, which includes citations to relevant floor debates as well as congressional reports and documents.
Congress.gov Offers free access to federal legislative information, including full-text access to public laws and congressional bills (103rd Congress forward), House and Senate reports (104th Congress forward), nominations (97th Congress forward), and the Congressional Record (104th Congress forward). Also includes bill status and summary information starting in 1973 (93rd Congress).
FDSys Full-text access to bills beginning with the 103rd Congress, the Congressional Record from 1994-present, selected House and Senate hearings from the 99th Congress forward, selected documents from the 94th Congress forward, selected reports from the 104th Congress forward, and &ldquoHistory of Bills and Resolutions&rdquo section of Congressional Record Index from 1983-present.
Century of Lawmaking Includes records and acts of Congress from the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention through the 43rd Congress, including the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, 1873-75.
HeinOnline This subscription database includes all historical volumes of the Statutes at Large, the Congressional Record, and predecessor publications, as well as a substantial number of compiled legislative histories.
Civil War: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies
"The matter of publishing the official records of the Civil War seems to have been considered by Congress as early as May 19, 1864 (Stat. L. v. 13, p. 406)." Other acts followed from time to time, and the work was carried on in a more or less desultory fashion until December 14, 1877, when Captain Robert N. Scott, later lieutenant-colonel, was detailed to take charge of the work. At that time, 47 of the 79 volumes, later known as "preliminary prints" (W45.9:) had been compiled and 30 copies of each had been printed.
Under Colonel Scott, the work was systematized and the plan finally adopted which has been carried on throughout the entire set know as the Official records. According to this plan, 4 series were issued as follows:
Series 1 Formal reports, both Union and Confederate, of the first seizures of United States property in the Southern States, and of all military operations in the field, with the correspondence, orders, and returns relating especially thereto. Series 2 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns, Union and Confederate, relating to prisoners of war and, so far as the military authorities were concerned, to state or political prisoners. Series 3 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns of the Union authorities, embracing their correspondence with the Confederate officials, not relating especially to the subjects of the 1st and 2d series. It embraces the annual and special reports of the Secretary of War, of the General-in-Chief, and of the chiefs of the several staff corps and departments the calls for troops and the correspondence between the national and the several State authorities. Series 4 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns of the Confederate authorities, similar to that indicated for the Union officials, as of the 3d series, but excluding the correspondence between the Union and Confederate authorities given in that series.
After the death of Colonel Scott, Col. H. M. Lazelle was placed in charge, and later a Board of Publication carried on the work under direction of the Secretary of War. The name most closely associated with the work from its inception to its completion is that of Joseph W. Kirkley, the compiler under whose personal examination each volume passed. In 1902, a revised edition of the additions and corrections, already printed with the general index (W45.5:130), was issued, a separate pamphlet for each volume, for insertion in the volumes of the set. The War Records Office (W45.) was merged into the Record and Pension Office, July 1, 1899. Previous to that time, of the total number of volumes of the Rebellion records, 116 volumes, that is, serial numbers 1 to 118, had been published by the War Records Office. The remaining 11 volumes and the general index were issued by the Record and Pension Office. It has seemed wise not to divide the few last volumes from the remainder of the set, hence, they are all entered under W45.5: The serial numbers as given below are the numbers assigned to the set by the issuing office as found in circular issued July 1, 1902, and also in preceding circulars. Most of the sets issued were bound in black cloth and, after series 1, v. 23 (serial no. 35), had the serial number stamped on the back, consequently, in the following list the serial numbers beginning with 36 are not bracketed.1909 Checklist, p. 1391.
(W45.7: and W45.8:) ["The atlas of the Official records consists of maps of battlefields, cities and their defenses, and parts of the country traversed by the armies. Parts 1, 25, and 26 contain view of besieged cities, forts, etc., and pt. 35 gives the uniforms and flags or the two armies, and other information. The location of Confederate troops or defenses is swhown in red and that of the Union troops in blue. This compilation was the work of Calvin D. Cowles. A sheet of additions and corrections was issued in 1902 to be inserted in the part containing the title-page, index, etc." W45.7:Part 1 and W45.7:Part 2 and Serial set 29981 and Serial set 29982.] 1909 Checklist, p. 1394. The atlas is not included in the reprint edition.
TRENDING LEGAL ANALYSIS
Mr. McKittrick has extensive trial experience in employment and business disputes. He has represented clients in a wide array of litigation, including (1) allegations of workplace discrimination and harassment (2) cases involving disputes over trade secrets, non-disclosure, non-competition and non-solicitation covenants in financial services, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, high technology and other industries and (3) the defense of class and collective actions, with particular experience in the hospitality and retail sectors. He also has extensive experience counseling and advising.
Like the 3rd and 38th Bomb Group projects, our research on the 43rd Bomb Group developed so much material that we either had to edit out hundreds of pages of text and photos from the book, or split it into two volumes. We’ve opted for the latter, in order to present a comprehensive and truly definitive history of the 43rd during WWII.
Activated less than a year before Pearl Harbor the 43rd was created in the rush to quickly build up American air power as the country’s involvement in another global war loomed. It soon moved to Bangor, Maine where it grew into a full-sized bomb group. Only a single prototype of America’s mightiest heavy bomber at that time, the B-17, nicknamed the Flying Fortress, was available to the unit at Bangor and that aircraft was soon destroyed in a crash. In February 1942, only weeks after the beginning of the war with Japan, the 43rd’s ground echelon prematurely deployed overseas aboard the greatest ocean liner of the time, the Queen Mary, in an epic, unescorted voyage across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans that skirted Africa and the southern perimeter of Asia to Australia.
However, it was not until mid-year that the air echelon began deploying to the Southwest Pacific Theater as B-17s became available and crews trained on the aircraft could be assigned. Initially flying missions out of Australia in B-17Es and Fs, the air echelon of the 43rd trained with and eventually absorbed the battered remnants of the 19th Bomb Group, which had been worn out as a combat unit during the early fighting in the Philippines at the end of 1941 and during the first ten months of 1942 over the Netherlands East Indies and Rabaul. When the tired veterans from the 19th returned to the States in late-1942 to recuperate and rebuild the unit, many of its remaining planes and less-experienced personnel were turned over to the 43rd to continue the fight. A cadre of experienced 19th Bomb Group pilots remained behind to help fill out the leadership positions within the unit.
The 43rd began full-scale operations under its own headquarters in mid-November 1942 from bases in northern Australia and later, Port Moresby, New Guinea, conducting missions in the northern Solomons, Papua New Guinea and against Japanese island bases on New Britain and New Ireland, winning a Distinguished Unit Citation for its participation in the Papuan Campaign. For the next year, the 43rd was one of the two heavy bombardment groups in MacArthur’s Fifth Air Force, that carried the war to the Japanese at Salamaua, Lae, Wewak and Rabaul.
During this period, on a special mapping mission in the Solomons on June 16, 1943, the crew of a B-17 piloted by Capt. Jay Zeamer was awarded two Medals of Honor, and the rest Distinguished Service Crosses, becoming the most decorated aircraft flight crew in U.S. history. This is the only book to contain the full and complete story of the mission using all available sources. After participating in the watershed Battle of the Bismarck Sea, for which the unit was also awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation, the Group began gradually re-equipping with the B-24 Liberator after the decision was made to discontinue support for two heavy bomber types in the theater, thereafter diverting all B-17 aircraft resources to Europe.
Ken’s Men Against the Empire: The B-17 Era tells an amazing and important story of the early air war in the Pacific, created from all available surviving unit records integrated with the stories, records and accounts of hundreds of veterans who served with the nascent unit. The narrative is supplemented by hundreds of photographs, five comprehensive appendices, three spectacular color paintings and 24 detailed color profiles by aviation artist Jack Fellows. As Volume 4 of the Eagles over the Pacific book series, the story of the B-24 Era will continue in Volume II.