Information

Mikhail Rodzianko in 1914


Mikhail Rodzianko, the son of a wealthy landowner, was born in Ekaterinoslav, on 9th March, 1859. A senior army officer, Rodzianko became involved in politics and favoured an extension of democracy in Russia.

Rodzianko was elected to the third Duma and in March, 1911, became its leader. He was a loyal supporter of Nicholas II but was willing to criticize failings in his administration. He strongly disapproved of Gregory Rasputin and told the Tsar that he believed him to be a German spy.

Mikhail Rodzianko

1. Was a loyal supporter of Nicholas II and the autocracy.

2. Wanted Russia to have universal suffrage.

3. Wanted the Russian government to allow freedom of expression and an end to political censorship of newspapers and books.

4. Thought Russia should support Serbia against the Triple Alliance.

5. Thought Russia should honour its obligations and support the Triple Entente against the Triple Alliance.

6. As the Russian Army was the largest army in the world he was convinced that Russia would defeat Austria-Hungary and Germany in a war.


Who's Who - Mikhail Rodzianko

Mikhail Vladimirovich Rodzianko (1859-1924) was President of the Russia Duma from 1912 until the outbreak of revolution in 1917.

Rodzianko was born in Ekaterinoslav, on 9th March 1859, the son of a wealthy landowner. After a career in the Russian Army he opted for a political career.

Rodzianko was regarded as a moderate Octobrist deputy - a factor which served to alienate him to both the Tsar, Nicholas II, and (moreover) to the Tsarina, Alexandra. This was in spite of Rodzianko's evident patriotism and support for the continuation of the monarchy.

During the First World War Rodzianko served on various War Industry Committees from 1915 onwards, in which he strived to find means of stimulating Russia's mordant industrial economy in support of the country's war effort. In this he was hampered by the royal family's unwillingness to consider social or political change which might prove helpful in stimulating economic production.

Rodzianko further increased his unpopularity at court with his counsel - along with virtually the entire Cabinet - that the Tsar refrain from personally leading his armies from the Front in the summer of September 1915. Rodzianko further advised the Tsar that he regarded the latter's 'special advisor' Grigory Rasputin as a German spy.

The outbreak of revolution in 1917 - which Rodzianko tried to stave off by repeatedly advising the Tsar to implement sweeping changes to his Cabinet - and the Tsar's consequent abdication (which Rodzianko belatedly recognised as essential) ironically brought with it an end to Rodzianko's own career.

His moderate stance bore little credibility with the incoming Bolshevik government. He therefore sought exile in Yugoslavia in 1920. He died in Belgrade on 24 January 1924 aged 64.

Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Michael Duffy

'Whippet' was a term used to describe any light tank.

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Russia’s February Revolution Was Led by Women on the March

“I can’t remember a single day when I didn’t go hungry…I’ve been afraid, waking, eating and sleeping…all my life I’ve trembled-afraid I wouldn’t get another bite…all my life I’ve been in rags-all through my wretched life – and why?”- Anna, wife of a locksmith in The Lower Depths (1903), Maxim Gorky

When we think of the Russian Revolution today, the most well-known event is the Bolshevik Revolution in November 1917 when Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party seized power, laying the foundation for the creation of the Soviet Union. But 1917 was a year of two revolutions in Russia. First came the February Revolution, which precipitated the collapse of the ruling Romanov dynasty and introduced new possibilities for the future of the Russian state. (Note that below we use the Gregorian calendar dates, even though Russia used the Julian calendar, which was 13 days behind. That’s why the revolution happened in March on the former calendar, but in the titular February on the latter.)

The eventful month brought a too-little-too-late realization on behalf of the Czar, Nicholas II, that three years of fighting in World War had depleted Russian infrastructure. Soldiers faced munitions shortages and the cities suffered through food scarcity. A particularly cold and punishing winter exacerbated the situation. On February 17, Nicholas wrote to his cousin and wartime ally, George V of the United Kingdom, “The weak state of our railways has long since preoccupied me. The rolling stock has been and remains insufficient and we can hardly repair the worn out engines and cars, because nearly all the manufactories and fabrics of the country work for the army. That’s why the question of transport of store and food becomes acute, especially in winter, when the rivers and canals are frozen.”

In his letter, Nicholas assured George that “everything is being done to ameliorate the state of things” but he seems to have hoped that the spring thaw and the eventual end to the hostilities would solve the problem.

His hopes were misplaced, however, as his problems were about to get much worse, especially with his female subjects.

In the country’s urban centers, with men on the battlefield, women took on new roles in the workforce, as they did throughout Europe during the war. Between 1914 and 1917, 250,000 more women began working outside the home for the first time. By the outbreak of the February Revolution, close to one million female workers lived in Russia’s cities, but were paid half the wages of men and endured substandard living conditions. The journalist Ariadna Tyrkova wrote, “Day by day, the war has changed attitudes about woman. It has become increasingly clear that the unseen effort of a woman and her labour often support the entire economy of a country.”

Like the French Revolution in 1789, a bread shortage in the capital precipitated unrest. After long shifts in the factories, female factory workers stood in bread lines alongside other women including domestic servants, housewives and soldiers’ widows. In these bread lines, news and rumors about planned rationing spread. When Saint Petersburg municipal authorities announced on March 4 that rationing would begin ten days later, there was widespread panic bakeries were sacked, their windows broken and supplies stolen.

As he had throughout the previous months, Nicholas once again underestimated the extent of the unrest and again departed for military headquarters more than 400 miles away in Mogliev, which is now in Belarus, against the advice of his ministers.  In the czar’s mind, leadership of the military took precedence during wartime, and he was concerned by the mass desertions occurring in the aftermath of munitions shortages and defeats at the hands of the Germans.

The next day, March 8, was the annual celebration of International Women’s Day. The weather had improved and comparatively warm 23 degrees Fahrenheit temperatures and bright sunshine seemed to encourage crowds to assemble in public spaces. Since 1913, Russian revolutionary factions, including the Bolsheviks, had encouraged women to celebrate the occasion as an opportunity to build solidarity. ..At the textile factories, women went on strike and marched to the metal works to persuade the men employed there to join them.

An employee of the Nobel Engineering works recalled, “We could hear women’s voices in the lane overlooked by the windows of our department: ‘Down with high prices!  Down with hunger! Bread for the workers!’ I and several comrades rushed to the windows…Masses of women workers in a militant frame of mind filled the lane. Those who caught sight of us began to wave their arms, shouting ‘Come out! Stop work!’ Snowballs flew through the windows. We decided to join the demonstration.”

By the end of the day 100,000 workers went on strike, holding banners that said “Bread” and “Down with the Czar.” The number of demonstrators increased to 150,000 by the next day. The crowds were swelled by the presence of curious onlookers from all social backgrounds. Street theatres performed scenes from plays including Maxim Gorky’s The Lower Depths, which was widely viewed as an indictment of the treatment of the urban poor under czarist rule. 

Nicholas and his wife, Empress Alexandra, who remained at the Alexander Palace just outside Saint Petersburg with their five children, continued to underestimate the seriousness of the discontent. Alexandra was dismissive of the protestors, writing to Nicholas at military headquarters, “The rows in town and strikes are more than provoking…It’s a hooligan movement, young boys and girls running about and screaming that they have no bread, only to excite – then the workmen preventing others from work – if it were very cold they would probably stay indoors. But this will all pass and quieten down – if the Duma would only behave itself – one does not print the worst speeches.”

The Duma, the representative assembly Nicholas reluctantly granted following unrest in 1905, struggled to maintain order as the strikes and demonstrations continued. Duma chairman Mikhail Rodzianko telegraphed Nicholas at military headquarters on March 11, “The government is completely paralyzed, and totally incapable of restoring order where it has broken down…Your Majesty, without delay summon a person whom the whole country trusts, and charge him with forming a government, in which the population can have confidence.” Instead, Nicholas placed his confidence in the military reserves stationed in Saint Petersburg to restore his authority.

Though in past moments of revolutionary sentiment, the military had stood by its czar, by 1917, the armed force was demoralized and sympathetic to the demonstrators’ cause. The presence of large groups of women among the demonstrators made soldiers particularly reluctant to fire on the crowds. When the soldiers joined the demonstrators, as opposed to firing upon them, the end of the Romanov dynasty was near.

In his history of the Russian Revolution, Leon Trotsky, who joined the Bolsheviks in September 1917 and became one of the party’s most prominent figures, wrote, “A great role is played by women workers in the relations between workers and soldiers. They go up to the cordons more boldly than men, take hold of the rifles, beseech, almost command, ‘Put down your bayonets join us!’” Instead of suppressing the demonstrations, the regiments stationed in Saint Petersburg joined them, expressing their own grievances against the Czarist regime.

In exile in Switzerland, Vladimir Lenin followed events in Russia with interest but he distrusted the growing leadership role of Duma, fearing that the result of the unrest would be the replacement of one privileged elite with another, with the workers and peasants again excluded from any real influence.

The involvement of the military in demonstrations against his rule finally persuaded Nicholas to take the unrest seriously. In the early hours of March 13 , Nicholas departed military headquarters by train to address the collapse of his authority in Saint Petersburg. He would lose his throne over the course of the journey.


You've only scratched the surface of Mikhail family history.

Between 1972 and 2004, in the United States, Mikhail life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1991, and highest in 1986. The average life expectancy for Mikhail in 1972 was 81, and 60 in 2004.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Mikhail ancestors lived in harsh conditions. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. You can find birthdates, death dates, addresses and more.


Mikhail Baryshnikov

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Mikhail Baryshnikov, in full Mikhail Nikolayevich Baryshnikov, (born January 28, 1948, Riga, Latvia, U.S.S.R.), Soviet-born American actor and ballet dancer who was the preeminent male classical dancer of the 1970s and ’80s. He subsequently became a noted dance director.

The son of Russian parents in Latvia, Baryshnikov entered Riga’s opera ballet school at age 12. The success that he achieved there convinced him to devote himself to dancing. In 1963 he was admitted to the Vaganova ballet school (the training school for the Kirov (now Mariinsky) Ballet in Leningrad [St. Petersburg]), where he was instructed by Aleksandr Pushkin. In 1966 he joined the Kirov Ballet as a soloist without having to serve the customary apprenticeship as a member of the corps de ballet. As the Kirov Ballet’s premier danseur noble, Baryshnikov appeared in the leading roles in Gorianka (1968) and Vestris (1969), two original ballets that had been especially choreographed for him.

Baryshnikov was extremely popular with Soviet audiences, but he began to chafe at the official restrictions that were placed upon him as an artist, particularly the prohibition on his performance of contemporary foreign ballets. While on a dance tour in Toronto in June 1974, Baryshnikov defected and was granted asylum by the Canadian government. Soon thereafter he began a series of highly successful appearances before North American audiences. As a dancer, his great physical prowess and unsurpassed leaping ability enabled him to perform the most difficult combinations of steps with remarkable elegance of line.

Baryshnikov joined the American Ballet Theatre (ABT) in 1974 and danced with that company for four years, during which time he rechoreographed the Russian classics The Nutcracker (in 1976) and Don Quixote (in 1978). He danced with the New York City Ballet under George Balanchine in 1978–79, but from 1980 to 1989 he returned to the ABT as that company’s artistic director. In 1990 Baryshnikov created the White Oak Dance Project, a small touring company of experienced dancers, and served as its director until 2002. Three years later he founded the Baryshnikov Arts Center in New York City, a creative space that supports multidisciplinary artists from around the world.


Mikhail Rodzianko in 1914 - History

Project 1917 is a series of events that took place a hundred years ago as described by those involved. It is composed only of diaries, letters, memoirs, newspapers and other documents

According to the facts, the distribution of bread to the localities will proceed go on schedule throughout February the thaw begins in March and April, and it won’t be possible to bring bread to the stations transporting grain to mills can only be expected in late April and early May. The mills, however, lack fuel. As a result, we should expect for at least three months should expect extreme crisis in the food market, verging on a nationwide starvation. The situation with fuel is no better. Almost all of Russia is experiencing an acute shortage of liquid and solid mineral fuels, firewood, and peat.

Source: Ekonomicheskoe polozhenie Rossii nakanune Velikoy Oktyabr'skoy socialisticheskoy revolyutsii , Moscow-Leningrad, 1957.

Tereshchenko has arrived from Kiev, where he’s been thick with Count Dolgoruky. There, in Kiev, the two friends pleasantly whiled away the time in the Continental Hotel, discussing current events. Tereshchenko took Count Dolgoruky to one side and informed him that he was leaving for Petrograd, where calls would start to be made for the Emperor’s abdication. The Empress, meanwhile, would be confined to a monastery. He told him, too, that officers from His Majesty’s Own Regiment and Convoy were implicated in the plot, naming names and even the name of one commander. The coup had been arranged for February 21. When asked by Count Dolgoruky what would be done if His Majesty refused to abdicate, Tereshchenko replied that he would be removed… Tereshchenko departed.


Radio broadcasts and world role

In 1949, with a change in policies by the Tito government and with the intercession of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Fr. Vladimir was released from prison and reunited with his wife, Marya, and their two sons, Vladimir and Michael. After his release they first traveled to France and then on to England where the family settled. Again functioning as a priest, Fr. Vladimir entered into his passion with radio when he was offered a position broadcasting on BBC services. With the BBC, and other radio facilities, he produced for the next forty years religious programs that were broadcast to the Soviet Union. He also lectured widely on Orthodoxy and was active with the Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius.

The effectiveness of his broadcasts made him a target of the Soviet KGB. This attention would bring tragedy to the family when his teenage grandson was killed in an assassination attempt upon Fr. Vladimir's life. This tragedy was followed by the death of his wife, Mary, in 1978.

Following the death of his wife, Fr. Vladimir was tonsured a monk in 1979, taking the name Basil. After taking his vows in England, Hieromonk Basil was received by the Orthodox Church in America from the Moscow Patriarchate. Then, on January 12, 1980, after his arrival in the United States, Hieromonk Basil was consecrated Bishop of Washington as auxiliary to Metropolitan Theodosius, the primate of the OCA. In November 1980, Bishop Basil became bishop of the Diocese of San Francisco and West. He served the San Francisco diocese until his retirement on April 25, 1984, which was forced as a result of what Archimandrite Tikhon Shevkunov has described in his chapter on the bishop's life in his book Everyday Saints as opposition to him by a clique within the jurisdiction. Yet his stature within world Orthodoxy only continued to grow.

After his retirement Bp. Basil returned to Washington, DC where he again began his religious broadcasts to the Soviet Union. As conditions changed in Russia with the fall of the Bolshevik government Bp. Basil was able to present his broadcasts directly over the Russian radio and television facilities. Then, in May 1991, Patriarch Aleksei asked Bp. Basil to lead a pilgrimage to the Holy Land to bring back to Russia for a celebration commemorating Ss. Cyril and Methodius the holy fire from the tomb of Christ that miraculously ignites each Pascha. Bp. Basil and his pilgrims returned, first stopping in Constantinople for the blessing of the Ecumenical Patriarch, then traveling through the countries of southeastern Europe where SS Cyril and Methodius preached arriving at the Uspensky Sobor (Dormition Cathedral) in the Kremlin. After the Liturgy, the Patriarch with Bp. Basil led through the streets of Moscow a procession that had not been seen in Moscow for over seventy years.

Bp. Basil remained active among the Orthodox of Washington DC, especially among the new Russian immigrants, until his death on September 17, 1999. He was 84 years old. He was buried at Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, DC.


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The behavior of the Russian authorities was so heavy-handed that it was denounced as a "European scandal" in the Russian Duma by the Russian statesman Pavel Milyukov. ⎚] Between 1914 and 1915, Jewish newspapers throughout Austria vividly described Russian policy as barbaric and described gruesome details of alleged Russian atrocities against Jews. Zionists in particular identified Jewish and Austrian aims against the common Russian enemy. Δ]


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Later Career

In 1990, Baryshnikov left the ABT to create the avant-garde White Oak Dance Project with Mark Morris𠅊 move reflecting a shift toward contemporary dance. "It&aposs less mannered, more democratic, more transparent and, from my point of view, closer to the hearts of people," Baryshnikov told the New Statesman. Through this new company, he worked and supported new pieces created by the likes of Twyla Tharp, Jerome Robbins and Mark Morris.

In December 2000, Baryshnikov was recognized, along with other cultural luminaries, for a lifetime of extraordinary achievement at the Kennedy Center Honor Awards.

In 2002, Baryshnikov disbanded the White Oak Project to focus on his next big project. Through his foundation, he opened the Baryshnikov Arts Center in New York City in 2004. This facility was created as "a gathering place for artists from all disciplines," according to its website. It houses a theater and a performance space as well as studios and offices to use for different creative endeavors.

While he spent a lot of time working behind the scenes on BAC, Baryshnikov never stepped away from performing. He made a memorable guest appearance in the TV comedy Sex and the City as a Russian artist and the love interest of Sarah Jessica Parker from 2003 to 2004. Despite knee troubles, Baryshnikov continued to dance into his 50s and 60s.

Baryshnikov put aside his dancing shoes for some of his most recent projects, however. He starred in the play In Paris in 2011 and 2012, which is based on a story by Ivan Bunin. The following year, Baryshnikov starred in an experimental theater production called Man in a Case in Hartford, Connecticut.


Watch the video: 1914 - Karpathenschlacht Dezember 1914 - März 1915 (January 2022).