Information

Bhagavad Gita Timeline


  • c. 1500 BCE - c. 500 BCE

    Indian scholars of the so-called Vedic Period commit the Vedas to written form; basic tenets of Hinduism are established.

  • c. 400 BCE - c. 200 CE

    The Bhagavad Gita, part of the Mahabharata, is written at some point between 400 BCE and 200 CE.


First documented pose

During this timespan, the first poses were recorded on stone tablets.

Tantra philisophy emerges

Tantra philosophy is the philosophy that the body is a temple and a spiritual vessel. The spiritual way of life that emerges from Tantra philosophies includes women and other members of society that previously had been barred from spiritual ritual. Tantra way of life was the first example of equality in spirituality, and it is the roots for the modern yogi.


Bhagavadgita

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Bhagavadgita, (Sanskrit: “Song of God”) an episode recorded in the great Sanskrit poem of the Hindus, the Mahabharata. It occupies chapters 23 to 40 of Book VI of the Mahabharata and is composed in the form of a dialogue between Prince Arjuna and Krishna, an avatar (incarnation) of the god Vishnu. Composed perhaps in the 1st or 2nd century ce , it is commonly known as the Gita.

On the brink of a great battle between warring branches of the same family, Arjuna is suddenly overwhelmed with misgivings about the justice of killing so many people, some of whom are his friends and relatives, and expresses his qualms to Krishna, his charioteer—a combination bodyguard and court historian. Krishna’s reply expresses the central themes of the Gita. He persuades Arjuna to do his duty as a man born into the class of warriors, which is to fight, and the battle takes place. Krishna’s argument incorporates many of the basic teachings of the Upanishads, speculative texts compiled between 1000 and 600 bce , as well as of the philosophy of Samkhya Yoga, which stresses a dualism between soul and matter (see mind-body dualism). He argues that one can kill only the body the soul is immortal and transmigrates into another body at death or, for those who have understood the true teachings, achieves release (moksha) or extinction (nirvana), freedom from the wheel of rebirth. Krishna also resolves the tension between the Vedic injunction to sacrifice and to amass a record of good actions (karma) and the late Upanishadic injunction to meditate and amass knowledge (jnana). The solution he provides is the path of devotion (bhakti). With right understanding, one need not renounce actions but merely the desire (kama) for the fruits of actions, acting without desire (nishkama karma).

The moral impasse is not so much resolved as destroyed when Krishna assumes his doomsday form—a fiery, gaping mouth, swallowing up all creatures in the universe at the end of the eon—after Arjuna asks Krishna to reveal his true cosmic nature. In the middle of this terrifying epiphany, Arjuna apologizes to Krishna for the many times when he had rashly and casually called out to him as a friend. He begs Krishna to return to his previous form, which the god consents to do, resuming his role as intimate human companion of the warrior Arjuna.

The Gita has always been cherished by many Hindus for its spiritual guidance, but it achieved new prominence in the 19th century, when the British in India lauded it as the Hindu equivalent of the New Testament and when American philosophers—particularly the New England Transcendentalists Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau—considered it to be the pivotal Hindu text. It was also an important text for Mohandas K. Gandhi, who wrote a commentary on it.


New Schools of Yoga

Between 500 and 1500 CE, several branches of yoga emerged. While they each maintained a similar overarching theme to Raja Yoga, they differed in techniques and practices.

Bhakti yoga began in southern India between the 6th and 9th centuries and is focused on loving devotion to a personal god.

It borrowed some practices from the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, predominantly meditation. Chapter 7 of the Bhagavad Gita mentions Bhakti Yoga. In this branch of yoga, practitioners practice mindful devotion to the god or goddess of their choice.

Jnana Yoga is concerned with the path of knowledge and is mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita as well as a means to achieving liberation.

Jnana Yoga includes meditative practices to help one realize his or her ultimate Self and relationship to Brahman, or the Absolute. This tradition is referred to in the Upanishads as well.

The third branch of yoga that is referred to in the Bhagavad Gita is Karma Yoga or the “yoga of action.” Karma Yoga focuses on selflessness and acting in accordance with one’s dharma, or Divine duty.

The Bhagavad Gita refers to Karma Yoga as a means of purifying the mind. The idea is that selfless action and living according to one’s dharma helps a person realize his or her likeness to the Absolute or, in other words, liberation.

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad alludes to karmic action, although it does not name Karma Yoga specifically.

Hatha Yoga came about during the 10th century or so and is attributed to Matsyendranath, a yogi who practiced in both the Buddhist and Hindu traditions.

Early Hatha Yoga was concerned with spiritual abilities such as levitation and liberation. Practices included bodily postures (asanas) and breath control to regulate one’s vital energy.

Hatha Yoga also delved into clearing the chakras, awakening the divine Kundalini spirit, and controlling the flow of bodily fluids.

The earliest Hatha Yoga texts still borrowed from the Vedic tradition and its focus on non-duality is attributed to its growth around India.


Contents

The Gita in the title of the Bhagavad Gita means "song". Religious leaders and scholars interpret the word Bhagavad in a number of ways. Accordingly, the title has been interpreted as "the word of God" by the theistic schools, [17] "the words of the Lord", [18] "the Divine Song", [19] [20] and "Celestial Song" by others. [21] In India, its Sanskrit name is often written as Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, श्रीमद् भगवद् गीता (the latter two words often written as a single word भगवद्गीता), where the Shrimad prefix is used to denote a high degree of respect. This is not to be confused with the Shrimad Bhagavatam, which is a Purana dealing with the life of the Hindu God Krishna and various avatars of Vishnu.

The work is also known as the Iswara Gita, the Ananta Gita, the Hari Gita, the Vyasa Gita, or simply the Gita. [22]

In the Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita, as well as the epic Mahabharata of which it is a part, is attributed to the sage Vyasa, [23] whose full name was Krishna Dvaipayana, also called Veda-Vyasa. [24] Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita. [25] [26] [note 3]

Scholars consider Vyasa to be a mythical or symbolic author, in part because Vyasa is also the traditional compiler of the Vedas and the Puranas, texts dated to be from different millennia. [25] [29] [30] The word Vyasa literally means "arranger, compiler", and is a surname in India. According to Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, a Gita scholar, it is possible that a number of different individuals with the same name compiled different texts. [31]

Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. [32] [33] Some infer, states Vivekananda, that "Shankaracharya was the author of Gita, and that it was he who foisted it into the body of the Mahabharata." [32] This attribution to Adi Shankara is unlikely in part because Shankara himself refers to the earlier commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, and because other Hindu texts and traditions that compete with the ideas of Shankara refer to much older literature referencing the Bhagavad Gita, though much of this ancient secondary literature has not survived into the modern era. [32]

According to J. A. B. van Buitenen, an Indologist known for his translations and scholarship on Mahabharata, the Gita is so contextually and philosophically well knit with the Mahabharata that it was not an independent text that "somehow wandered into the epic". [34] The Gita, states van Buitenen, was conceived and developed by the Mahabharata authors to "bring to a climax and solution the dharmic dilemma of a war". [34] [note 4]

According to Alexus McLeod, a scholar of Philosophy and Asian Studies, it is "impossible to link the Bhagavad Gita to a single author", and it may be the work of many authors. [25] [37] This view is shared by the Indologist Arthur Basham, who states that there were three or more authors or compilers of Bhagavad Gita. This is evidenced by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses with theistic or passionately theistic verses, according to Basham. [38] [note 5]

Theories on the date of the composition of the Gita vary considerably. Some scholars accept dates from the fifth century to the second century BCE as the probable range, the latter likely. The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition. [39] J. A. B. van Buitenen too states that the Gita was likely composed about 200 BCE. [40] According to the Indologist Arvind Sharma, the Gita is generally accepted to be a 2nd-century-BCE text. [41]

Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier. He states that the Gita was always a part of the Mahabharata, and dating the latter suffices in dating the Gita. [42] On the basis of the estimated dates of Mahabharata as evidenced by exact quotes of it in the Buddhist literature by Asvaghosa (c. 100 CE), Upadhyaya states that the Mahabharata, and therefore Gita, must have been well known by then for a Buddhist to be quoting it. [42] [note 6] This suggests a terminus ante quem (latest date) of the Gita to be sometime prior to the 1st century CE. [42] He cites similar quotes in the Dharmasutra texts, the Brahma sutras, and other literature to conclude that the Bhagavad Gita was composed in the fifth or fourth century BCE. [44] [note 7]

According to Arthur Basham, the context of the Bhagavad Gita suggests that it was composed in an era when the ethics of war were being questioned and renunciation to monastic life was becoming popular. [46] Such an era emerged after the rise of Buddhism and Jainism in the 5th century BCE, and particularly after the semi-legendary life of Ashoka in 3rd century BCE. Thus, the first version of the Bhagavad Gita may have been composed in or after the 3rd century BCE. [46]

Linguistically, the Bhagavad Gita is in classical Sanskrit of the early variety, states the Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant. [47] The text has occasional pre-classical elements of the Sanskrit language, such as the aorist and the prohibitive instead of the expected na (not) of classical Sanskrit. [47] This suggests that the text was composed after the Pāṇini era, but before the long compounds of classical Sanskrit became the norm. This would date the text as transmitted by the oral tradition to the later centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE, and the first written version probably to the 2nd or 3rd century CE. [47] [48]

According to Jeaneane Fowler, "the dating of the Gita varies considerably" and depends in part on whether one accepts it to be a part of the early versions of the Mahabharata, or a text that was inserted into the epic at a later date. [49] The earliest "surviving" components therefore are believed to be no older than the earliest "external" references we have to the Mahabharata epic. The Mahabharata – the world's longest poem – is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between "400 BCE or little earlier, and 2nd century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as 400 CE", states Fowler. The dating of the Gita is thus dependent on the uncertain dating of the Mahabharata. The actual dates of composition of the Gita remain unresolved. [49] While the year and century is uncertain, states Richard Davis, [50] the internal evidence in the text dates the origin of the Gita discourse to the Hindu lunar month of Margashirsha (also called Agrahayana, generally December or January of the Gregorian calendar). [51]

The Bhagavad Gita is the best known, [52] and most influential of Hindu scriptures. [13] While Hinduism is known for its diversity and its synthesis therefrom, the Bhagavad Gita has a unique pan-Hindu influence. [14] [53] Gerald James Larson – an Indologist and classical Hindu Philosophies scholar, states "if there is any one text that comes near to embodying the totality of what it is to be a Hindu, it would be the Bhagavad Gita." [13] [15]

The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Prasthanatrayi, which also includes the Upanishads and Brahma sutras. These are the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. [54] The Brahma sutras constitute the Nyāya prasthāna or the "starting point of reasoning canonical base", while the principal Upanishads constitute the Sruti prasthāna or the "starting point of heard scriptures", and the Bhagavad Gita constitutes the Smriti prasthāna or the "starting point of remembered canonical base". [54] The Bhagavad Gita is a "summation of the Vedanta", states Sargeant. [55] It is thus one of the key texts for the Vedanta, [56] [57] a school that provides one of the theoretical foundations for Hinduism, [58] and one that has had an enormous influence over time, becoming the central ideology of the Hindu renaissance in the 19th century, according to Gavin Flood – a scholar of Hinduism. [59]

Some Hindus give it the status of an Upanishad, and some consider it to be a "revealed text". [60] [61] [62] Others consider the Bhagavad Gita as an important Smriti, [63] or secondary text that exist in alternate versions such as one found in Kashmir though it does not affect the basic message of the text. [64] [65] [66]

Hindu synthesis Edit

The Bhagavad Gita is the sealing achievement of Hindu Synthesis, incorporating its various religious traditions. [10] [11] [12] The synthesis is at both philosophical and socio-religious levels, states the Gita scholar Keya Maitra. [67] The text refrains from insisting on one right marg (path) to spirituality. It openly synthesizes and inclusively accepts multiple ways of life, harmonizing spiritual pursuits through action (karma), knowledge (gyaana), and devotion (bhakti). [68] According to the Gita translator Radhakrishnan, quoted in a review by Robinson, Krishna's discourse is a "comprehensive synthesis" that inclusively unifies the competing strands of Hindu thought such as "Vedic ritual, Upanishadic wisdom, devotional theism and philosophical insight". [69] Aurobindo described the text as a synthesis of various Yogas. The Indologist Robert Minor, and others, [web 1] in contrast, state the Gita is "more clearly defined as a synthesis of Vedanta, Yoga and Samkhya" philosophies of Hinduism. [70]

The synthesis in Bhagavad Gita addresses the question as to what constitutes the virtuous path and one necessary for the spiritual liberation and a release from the cycles of rebirth (moksha). [71] [72] It discusses whether one should renounce a householder lifestyle for a life as an ascetic, or lead a householder life dedicated to one's duty and profession, or pursue a householder life devoted to a personalized god in the revealed form of Krishna. Thus Gita discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism: enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism. According to Deutsch and Dalvi, the Bhagavad Gita attempts "to forge a harmony" between these three paths. [12] [note 8]

The Bhagavad Gita's synthetic answer recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view. [73] [74] [75] It states the dharmic householder can achieve the same goals as the renouncing monk through "inner renunciation", that is "motiveless action". [71] [note 9] One must do the right thing because one has determined that it is right, states Gita, without craving for its fruits, without worrying about the results, loss or gain. [77] [78] [79] Desires, selfishness and the craving for fruits can distort one from the dharmic action and spiritual living. [78] The Gita synthesis goes further, according to its interpreters such as Swami Vivekananda, and the text states that there is Living God in every human being and the devoted service to this Living God in everyone – without craving for personal rewards – is a means to spiritual development and liberation. [80] [81] [82] According to Galvin Flood, the teachings in Gita differ from other Indian religions that encouraged extreme austerity and self-torture of various forms (karsayanta). The Gita disapproves of these, stating that not only is it against the tradition but against Krishna himself, because "Krishna dwells within all beings, in torturing the body the ascetic would be torturing him", states Flood. Even a monk should strive for the "inner renunciation", rather than external pretensions. [83]

The Gita synthesizes several paths to spiritual realization based on the premise that people are born with different temperaments and tendencies (guna). [84] According to Winthrop Sargeant, the text acknowledges that some individuals are more reflective and intellectual, some affective and engaged by their emotions, some are action driven, yet others favor experimenting and exploring what works. [84] It then presents different spiritual paths for each personality type respectively: the path of knowledge (jnana yoga), the path of devotion (bhakti yoga), the path of action (karma yoga), and the path of meditation (raja yoga). [84] [85] The guna premise is a synthesis of the ideas from the Samkhya school of Hinduism. According to Upadhyaya, the Gita states that none of these paths to spiritual realization are "intrinsically superior or inferior", rather they "converge in one and lead to the same goal". [86]

According to Hiltebeitel, Bhakti forms an essential ingredient of this synthesis, and the text incorporates Bhakti into Vedanta. [87] According to Scheepers, The Bhagavad Gita is a Brahmanical text which uses the shramanic and Yogic terminology to spread the Brahmanic idea of living according to one's duty or dharma, in contrast to the ascetic ideal of liberation by avoiding all karma. [88] According to Galvin Flood and Charles Martin, the Gita rejects the shramanic path of non-action, emphasizing instead "the renunciation of the fruits of action". [89] The Bhagavad Gita, states Raju, is a great synthesis of the ideas of the impersonal spiritual monism with personal God, of "the yoga of action with the yoga of transcendence of action, and these again with yogas of devotion and knowledge". [11]

The Bhagavad Gita manuscript is found in the sixth book of the Mahabharata manuscripts – the Bhisma-parvan. Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23–40, that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40. [90] The Bhagavad Gita is often preserved and studied on its own, as an independent text with its chapters renumbered from 1 to 18. [90]

The Bhagavad Gita manuscripts exist in numerous Indic scripts. [91] These include writing systems that are currently in use, as well as early scripts such as the Sharada script, now dormant. [91] [92] Variant manuscripts of the Gita have been found on the Indian subcontinent [64] [93] Unlike the enormous variations in the remaining sections of the surviving Mahabharata manuscripts, the Gita manuscripts show only minor variations and the meaning is the same. [64] [93]

According to Gambhirananda, the old manuscripts may have had 745 verses, though he agrees that 700 verses is the generally accepted historic standard. [94] Gambhirananda's view is supported by a few versions of chapter 6.43 of the Mahabharata. These versions state the Gita is a text where "Kesava [Krishna] spoke 620 slokas, Arjuna 57, Samjaya 67, and Dhritarashtra 1", states the Religious Studies and Gita exegesis scholar Robert Minor. [95] This adds to 745 verses. An authentic manuscript of the Gita with 745 verses has not been found. [96] Of all known extant historic manuscripts, the largest version contains 715 verses. [95] Adi Shankara, in his 8th-century commentary, explicitly states that the Gita has 700 verses, which was likely a deliberate declaration to prevent further insertions and changes to the Gita. Since Shankara's time, the "700 verses" has been the standard benchmark for the critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita. [96]

Structure Edit

The Bhagavad Gita is a poem written in the Sanskrit language. [97] Its 700 verses [93] are structured into several ancient Indian poetic meters, with the principal being the shloka (Anushtubh chanda). It has 18 chapters in total. [98] Each shloka consists of a couplet, thus the entire text consists of 1,400 lines. Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin. [97] [note 10] The metered verse does not rhyme. [99] While the shloka is the principal meter in the Gita, it does deploy other elements of Sanskrit prosody. [100] At dramatic moments, it uses the tristubh meter found in the Vedas, where each line of the couplet has two quarter verses with exactly eleven syllables. [99]

Narrative Edit

The Gita is a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna right before the start of the climactic Kurukshetra War in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. [101] [note 11] Two massive armies have gathered to destroy the other. The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those "so eager for war". [103] He sees that some among his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends, and revered teachers. He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield. [104] He drops his bow, wonders if he should renounce and just leave the battlefield. [103] He turns to his charioteer and guide Krishna, for advice on the rationale for war, his choices and the right thing to do. The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna's questions and moral dilemma, Krishna's answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts. [103] [105] The compiled dialogue goes far beyond the "a rationale for war" it touches on many human ethical dilemmas, philosophical issues and life's choices. [103] According to Flood and Martin, although the Gita is set in the context of a war epic, the narrative is structured to apply to all situations it wrestles with questions about "who we are, how we should live our lives, and how should we act in the world". [106] According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". [5]

Characters Edit

    , one of the five Pandavas , Arjuna's charioteer and guru who was actually an incarnation of Vishnu , counselor of the Kuru king Dhritarashtra (secondary narrator) , Kuru king (Sanjaya's audience) and father of the Kauravas

Chapters Edit

Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters (section 23 to 40) [109] [web 2] in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata. Because of differences in recensions, the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6.25–42 or as chapters 6.23–40. [web 3] The number of verses in each chapter vary in some manuscripts of the Gita discovered on the Indian subcontinent. However, variant readings are relatively few in contrast to the numerous versions of the Mahabharata it is found embedded in, and the meaning is the same. [93]

The original Bhagavad Gita has no chapter titles. Some Sanskrit editions that separate the Gita from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga. [110] [web 3] For example, Swami Chidbhavananda describes each of the eighteen chapters as a separate yoga because each chapter, like yoga, "trains the body and the mind". He labels the first chapter "Arjuna Vishada Yogam" or the "Yoga of Arjuna's Dejection". [111] Sir Edwin Arnold titled this chapter in his 1885 translation as "The Distress of Arjuna". [18] [note 12]

Chapter 1 (47 verses) Edit

Some translators have variously titled the first chapter as Arjuna vishada yoga, Prathama Adhyaya, The Distress of Arjuna, The War Within, or Arjuna's Sorrow. [18] [114] [115] The Bhagavad Gita opens by setting the stage of the Kurukshetra battlefield. Two massive armies representing different loyalties and ideologies face a catastrophic war. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. Arjuna requests Krishna to move the chariot between the two armies so he can see those "eager for this war". He sees family and friends on the enemy side. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow. [116] The issue is, states Arvind Sharma, "is it morally proper to kill?" [117] This and other moral dilemmas in the first chapter are set in a context where the Hindu epic and Krishna have already extolled ahimsa (non-violence) to be the highest and divine virtue of a human being. [117] The war feels evil to Arjuna and he questions the morality of war. He wonders if it is noble to renounce and leave before the violence starts, or should he fight, and why. [116]

Chapter 2 (72 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Sankhya Yoga, The Book of Doctrines, Self-Realization, or The Yoga of Knowledge (and Philosophy). [18] [114] [115] The second chapter begins the philosophical discussions and teachings found in Gita. The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about. Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, soul, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality. [118] Krishna answers. The chapter summarizes the Hindu idea of rebirth, samsara, eternal soul in each person (Self), universal soul present in everyone, various types of yoga, divinity within, the nature of Self-knowledge and other concepts. [118] The ideas and concepts in the second chapter reflect the framework of the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy. This chapter is an overview for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita. [118] [119] [120] Mahatma Gandhi memorized the last 19 verses of the second chapter, considering them as his companion in his non-violent movement for social justice during the colonial rule. [121]

Chapter 3 (43 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Karma yoga, Virtue in Work, Selfless Service, or The Yoga of Action. [18] [114] [115] Arjuna, after listening to Krishna's spiritual teachings in Chapter 2, gets more confounded and returns to the predicament he faces. He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. Krishna replies that there is no way to avoid action (karma), since abstention from work is also an action. [122] Krishna states that Arjuna has an obligation to understand and perform his duty (dharma), because everything is connected by the law of cause and effect. Every man or woman is bound by activity. Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad. [122] Those who act selflessly for the right cause and strive to do their dharmic duty do God's work. [122] Those who act without craving for fruits are free from the karmic effects, because the results never motivated them. Whatever the result, it does not affect them. Their happiness comes from within, and the external world does not bother them. [122] [123] According to Flood and Martin, chapter 3 and onwards develops "a theological response to Arjuna's dilemma". [124]

Chapter 4 (42 verses) Edit

Some translators title the fourth chapter as Jñāna–Karma-Sanyasa yoga, The Religion of Knowledge, Wisdom in Action, or The Yoga of Renunciation of Action through Knowledge. [18] [114] [115] Krishna reveals that he has taught this yoga to the Vedic sages. Arjuna questions how Krishna could do this, when those sages lived so long ago, and Krishna was born more recently. Krishna reminds him that everyone is in the cycle of rebirths, and while Arjuna does not remember his previous births, he does. Whenever dharma declines and the purpose of life is forgotten by men, says Krishna, he returns to re-establish dharma. [note 13] Every time he returns, he teaches about inner Self in all beings. The later verses of the chapter return to the discussion of motiveless action and the need to determine the right action, performing it as one's dharma (duty) while renouncing the results, rewards, fruits. The simultaneous outer action with inner renunciation, states Krishna, is the secret to the life of freedom. Action leads to knowledge, while selfless action leads to spiritual awareness, state the last verses of this chapter. [3] The 4th chapter is the first time where Krishna begins to reveal his divine nature to Arjuna. [125] [126]

Chapter 5 (29 verses) Edit

Some translators title this chapter as Karma–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Renouncing Fruits of Works, Renounce and Rejoice, or The Yoga of Renunciation. [18] [114] [115] The chapter starts by presenting the tension in the Indian tradition between the life of sannyasa (monks who have renounced their household and worldly attachments) and the life of grihastha (householder). Arjuna asks Krishna which path is better. [127] Krishna answers that both are paths to the same goal, but the path of "selfless action and service" with inner renunciation is better. The different paths, says Krishna, aim for—and if properly pursued, lead to—Self-knowledge. This knowledge leads to the universal, transcendent Godhead, the divine essence in all beings, to Brahman – the Krishna himself. The final verses of the chapter state that the self-aware who have reached self-realization live without fear, anger, or desire. They are free within, always. [128] [129] Chapter 5 shows signs of interpolations and internal contradictions. For example, states Arthur Basham, verses 5.23–28 state that a sage's spiritual goal is to realize the impersonal Brahman, yet the next verse 5.29 states that the goal is to realize the personal God who is Krishna. [38]

It is not those who lack energy
nor those who refrain from action,
but those who work without expecting reward
who attain the goal of meditation,
Theirs is true renunciation.

Bhagavad Gita 6.1
Eknath Easwaran [130] [note 14]

Chapter 6 (47 verses) Edit

Some translators title the sixth chapter as Dhyana yoga, Religion by Self-Restraint, The Practice of Meditation, or The Yoga of Meditation. [18] [114] [115] The chapter opens as a continuation of Krishna's teachings about selfless work and the personality of someone who has renounced the fruits that are found in chapter 5. Krishna says that such self-realized people are impartial to friends and enemies, are beyond good and evil, equally disposed to those who support them or oppose them because they have reached the summit of consciousness. The verses 6.10 and after proceed to summarize the principles of Yoga and meditation in the format similar to but simpler than Patanjali's Yogasutra. It discusses who is a true yogi, and what it takes to reach the state where one harbors no malice towards anyone. [136] [137]

Chapter 7 (30 verses) Edit

Some translators title this chapter as Jnana–Vijnana yoga, Religion by Discernment, Wisdom from Realization, or The Yoga of Knowledge and Judgment. [18] [114] [115] The chapter 7 once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse. He discusses jnana (knowledge) and vijnana (realization, understanding) using the Prakriti-Purusha (matter-soul) framework of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, and the Maya-Brahman framework of its Vedanta school. The chapter states that evil is the consequence of ignorance and the attachment to the impermanent, delusive Maya. It equates self-knowledge and the union with Purusha (Krishna) as the Self to be the highest goal of any spiritual pursuit. [138]

Chapter 8 (28 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Aksara–Brahma yoga, Religion by Devotion to the One Supreme God, The Eternal Godhead, or The Yoga of the Imperishable Brahman. [18] [114] [115] The chapter opens with Arjuna asking questions such as what is Brahman and what is the nature of karma. Krishna states that his own highest nature is the imperishable Brahman, and that he lives in every creature as the adhyatman. Every being has an impermanent body and an eternal soul, and that "Krishna as Lord" lives within every creature. The chapter discusses cosmology, the nature of death and rebirth. [139] This chapter contains eschatology of the Bhagavad Gita. Importance of the last thought before death, differences between material and spiritual worlds, and light and dark paths that a soul takes after death are described. [139]

Chapter 9 (34 verses) Edit

Some translators title the ninth chapter as Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya yoga, Religion by the Kingly Knowledge and the Kingly Mystery, The Royal Path, or The Yoga of Sovereign Science and Sovereign Secret. [18] [114] [115] Chapter 9 opens with Krishna continuing his discourse as Arjuna listens. Krishna states that he is everywhere and in everything in an unmanifested form, yet he is not in any way limited by them. Eons end, everything dissolves and then he recreates another eon subjecting them to the laws of Prakriti (nature). [140] He equates himself to being the father and the mother of the universe, to being the Om, to the three Vedas, to the seed, the goal of life, the refuge and abode of all. The chapter recommends devotional worship of Krishna. [140] According to theologian Christopher Southgate, verses of this chapter of the Gita are panentheistic, [141] while German physicist and philosopher Max Bernhard Weinstein deems the work pandeistic. [142] It may, in fact, be neither of them, and its contents may have no definition with previously-developed Western terms.

Chapter 10 (42 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Vibhuti–Vistara–yoga, Religion by the Heavenly Perfections, Divine Splendor, or The Yoga of Divine Manifestations. [18] [114] [115] Krishna reveals his divine being in greater detail, as the ultimate cause of all material and spiritual existence, one who transcends all opposites and who is beyond any duality. Krishna says he is the atman in all beings, Arjuna's innermost Self, also compassionate Vishnu, the Surya (sun god), Indra, Shiva-Rudra, Ananta, Yama, as well as the Om, Vedic sages, time, Gayatri mantra, and the science of Self-knowledge. Arjuna accepts Krishna as the purushottama (Supreme Being). [143]

Chapter 11 (55 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Vishvarupa–Darshana yoga, The Manifesting of the One and Manifold, The Cosmic Vision, or The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form. [18] [114] [115] On Arjuna's request, Krishna displays his "universal form" (Viśvarūpa). [144] This is an idea found in the Rigveda and many later Hindu texts, where it is a symbolism for atman (soul) and Brahman (Absolute Reality) eternally pervading all beings and all existence. [145] [146] Chapter 11, states Eknath Eswaran, describes Arjuna entering first into savikalpa samadhi (a particular), and then nirvikalpa samadhi (a universal) as he gets an understanding of Krishna. A part of the verse from this chapter was recited by Robert Oppenheimer as he witnessed the first atomic bomb explosion. [144]

Chapter 12 (20 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion. [18] [114] [115] In this chapter, Krishna glorifies the path of love and devotion to God. Krishna describes the process of devotional service (Bhakti yoga). This chapter of the Gita, states Easwaran, offers a "vastly easier" path to most human beings to identify and love God in an anthropomorphic representation, in any form. [147] He can be projected as "a merciful father, a divine mother, a wise friend, a passionate beloved, or even a mischievous child", according to Easwaran. The text states that combining "action with inner renunciation" with the love of Krishna as a personal God leads to peace. In the last eight verses of this chapter, Krishna states that he loves those who have compassion for all living beings, are content with whatever comes their way, who live a detached life that is impartial and selfless, unaffected by fleeting pleasure or pain, neither craving for praise nor depressed by criticism. [147] [148]

Chapter 13 (34 verses) Edit

Some translators title this chapter as Ksetra–Ksetrajna Vibhaga yoga, Religion by Separation of Matter and Spirit, The Field and the Knower, or The Yoga of Difference between the Field and Field-Knower. [18] [114] [115] The chapter opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter. He describes the difference between transient perishable physical body (kshetra) and the immutable eternal soul (kshetrajna). The presentation explains the difference between ahamkara (ego) and atman (soul), from there between individual consciousness and universal consciousness. The knowledge of one's true self is linked to the realization of the soul. [149] [150] The 13th chapter of the Gita offers the clearest enunciation of the Samkhya philosophy, states Basham, by explaining the difference between field (material world) and the knower (soul), prakriti and purusha. [151] According to Miller, this is the chapter which "redefines the battlefield as the human body, the material realm in which one struggles to know oneself" where human dilemmas are presented as a "symbolic field of interior warfare". [152]

Chapter 14 (27 verses) Edit

Some translators title the fourteenth chapter as Gunatraya–Vibhaga yoga, Religion by Separation from the Qualities, The Forces of Evolution, or The Yoga of the Division of Three Gunas. [18] [114] [115] The chapter once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter. Krishna explains the difference between purusha and prakriti, by mapping human experiences to three Guṇas (tendencies, qualities). [153] These are listed as sattva, rajas and tamas. All phenomena and individual personalities are a combination of all three gunas in varying and ever-changing proportions. The gunas affect the ego, but not the soul, according to the text. [153] This chapter also relies on the Samkhya theories. [154] [155] [156]

Chapter 15 (20 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Purushottama yoga, Religion by Attaining the Supreme Krishna, The Supreme Self, or The Yoga of the Supreme Purusha. [18] [114] [115] The fifteenth chapter expounds on Krishna theology, in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism. Krishna discusses the nature of God, according to Easwaran, wherein Krishna not only transcends impermanent body (matter), he also transcends the atman (soul) in every being. [157] According to Franklin Edgerton, the verses in this chapter in association with select verses in other chapters make the metaphysics of the Gita to be dualistic. Its overall thesis is, states Edgerton, more complex however, because other verses teach the Upanishadic doctrines and "thru its God the Gita seems after all to arrive at an ultimate monism the essential part, the fundamental element, in every thing, is after all One — is God." [158]

Chapter 16 (24 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga yoga, The Separateness of the Divine and Undivine, Two Paths, or The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demonic. [18] [114] [115] According to Easwaran, this is an unusual chapter where two types of human nature are expounded, one leading to happiness and the other to suffering. Krishna identifies these human traits to be divine and demonic respectively. He states that truthfulness, self-restraint, sincerity, love for others, desire to serve others, being detached, avoiding anger, avoiding harm to all living creatures, fairness, compassion and patience are marks of the divine nature. The opposite of these are demonic, such as cruelty, conceit, hypocrisy and being inhumane, states Krishna. [159] [160] [161] Some of the verses in Chapter 16 may be polemics directed against competing Indian religions, according to Basham. [46] The competing tradition may be the materialists (Charvaka), states Fowler. [161]

Chapter 17 (28 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Shraddhatraya-Vibhaga yoga, Religion by the Threefold Kinds of Faith, The Power of Faith, or The Yoga of the Threefold Faith. [18] [114] [115] Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas). [162]

Chapter 18 (78 verses) Edit

Some translators title the chapter as Moksha–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Deliverance and Renunciation, Freedom and Renunciation, or The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation. [18] [114] [115] In the final and long chapter, the Gita offers a final summary of its teachings in the previous chapters. [163] It covers many topics, states Easwaran. [164] It begins with discussion of spiritual pursuits through sannyasa (renunciation, monastic life) and spiritual pursuits while living in the world as a householder. It re-emphasizes the karma-phala-tyaga teaching, or "act while renouncing the fruits of your action". [164]

Chapters summary Edit

Chapter Title Verses
1 Arjuna's Vishada Yoga 47
2 Sankhya Yoga 72
3 Karma Yoga 43
4 Jnana Yoga 42
5 Karma-Sanyasa Yoga 29
6 Atma Samyama -Yoga 47
7 Vijnana Yoga 30
8 Aksara-ParaBrahma Yoga 28
9 Raja-Vidya-Raja-Guhya Yoga 34
10 Vibhuti-Vistara Yoga 42
11 Viswarupa-Darsana Yoga 55
12 Bhakti Yoga 20
13 Ksetra-Ksetrajna Vibhaga Yoga 34
14 Gunatraya-Vibhaga Yoga 27
15 Purushottama-Prapti Yoga 20
16 Daivasura-Sampad-Vibhaga Yoga 24
17 Shraddhatraya-Vibhaga Yoga 28
18 Moksha-Sanyasa Yoga 78
Total 700
This section contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

Theology Edit

The nature of God Edit

The Gita adopts the Upanishadic concept of Absolute Reality (Brahman), a shift from the earlier ritual-driven Vedic religion to one abstracting and internalizing spiritual experiences. [168] [169] According to Jeaneane Fowler, the Gita builds on the Upanishadic Brahman theme, conceptualized to be that which is everywhere, unaffected, constant Absolute, indescribable and nirguna (abstract, without features). This Absolute in Gita is neither a He nor a She, but a "neuter principle", an "It or That". [168] [169] Like some of the Upanishads, the Gita does not limit itself to the nirguna Brahman. It teaches both the abstract and the personalized Brahman (God), the latter in the form of Krishna. [168] [169] It accomplishes this synthesis by projecting the nirguna Brahman as higher than saguna or personalized Brahman, where the nirguna Brahman "exists when everything else does not", states Fowler. [170] [171] The text blurs any distinction between the personalized God and impersonal Absolute Reality by amalgamating their equivalence, using it interchangeably in the later chapters. [170] This theme has led scholars to call the Gita as panentheistic, [168] theistic and monistic. [172] [11] [12]

The nature of Self Edit

The Gita, states Fowler, "thoroughly accepts" atman as a foundational concept. [173] In the Upanishads, this is the Brahmanical idea that all beings have a "permanent real self", the true essence, the soul it refers to as Atman (Self). [174] [175] [176] [note 15] In the Upanishads that preceded the Gita such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the salvific goal is to know and realize this Self, a knowledge that is devoid of the delusions of instinctive "I, mine, egoistic" typically connected with the body, material life processes that are impermanent and transient. The Gita accepts atman as the pure, unchanging, ultimate real essence, experiencer of one's being. [179]

The nature of the world Edit

The Gita considers the world to be transient, all bodies and matter as impermanent. Everything that constitutes prakriti (nature, matter) is process driven and has a finite existence. It is born, grows, matures, decays and dies. It considers this transient reality as Maya. Like the Upanishads, the Gita focuses on what it considers as Real in this world of change, impermanence, and finitude. [180] [181] To build its theological framework about the world, the text relies on the theories found in Samkhya and Vedanta schools of Hinduism. [181]

Brahman-atman Edit

The Upanishads developed the equation "Atman = Brahman", states Fowler, and this belief is central to the Gita. [180] This equation is, however, interpreted in a number of ways by different sub-schools of Vedanta. In the Gita, the soul of each human being is considered to be identical to every other human being and all beings, but it "does not support an identity with the Brahman", according to Fowler. [180] According to Raju, the Gita supports this identity and spiritual monism, but as a form of synthesis with a personal God. [11] According to Edgerton, the author(s) of the Gita rely on their concept of personalized God (Krishna) to ultimately arrive at an ultimate monism, where the devotee ultimately realizes that Krishna is the essential part, the Real, the fundamental element in him, everyone and everything. Krishna is all and One. [158] According to Huston Smith, the Gita is teaching that "when one sees the entire universe as pervaded by the single Universal Spirit [Krishna], one contemplates, marvels, and falls in love with its amazing glory. [. ] Having experienced that Truth oneself, all doubts are dispelled. This is how the flower of devotion evolves into the fruit of knowledge." [182]

Means to God Edit

The Gita teaches several spiritual paths – jnana, bhakti and karma – to the divine. However, states Fowler, it "does not raise any of these to a status that excludes the others". [183] The theme that unites these paths in the Gita is "inner renunciation" where one is unattached to personal rewards during one's spiritual journey. [183]

Karma yoga Edit

The Gita teaches the path of Karma yoga in Chapter 3 and others. It upholds the necessity of action. [184] However, this action should "not simply follow spiritual injunctions", without any attachment to personal rewards or because of craving for fruits. The Gita teaches, according to Fowler, that the action should be undertaken after proper knowledge has been applied to gain the full perspective of "what the action should be". [185] [186]

The concept of such detached action is also called Nishkam Karma, a term not used in the Gita but equivalent to other terms such as karma-phala-tyaga. [185] This is where one determines what the right action ought to be and then acts while being detached to personal outcomes, to fruits, to success or failure. A karma yogi finds such work inherently fulfilling and satisfying. [187] To a karma yogi, right work done well is a form of prayer, [188] and karma yoga is the path of selfless action. [189]

According to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the object of the Gita is to show the way to attain self-realization, and this "can be achieved by selfless action, by desireless action by renouncing fruits of action by dedicating all activities to God, i.e., by surrendering oneself to Him body and soul." Gandhi called the Gita "The Gospel of Selfless Action". [190] According to Jonardon Ganeri, the premise of "disinterested action" is one of the important ethical concepts in the Gita. [191]

Bhakti yoga Edit

In the Bhagavad Gita, bhakti is characterized as the "loving devotion, a longing, surrender, trust and adoration" of the divine Krishna as the ishta-devata. [192] While bhakti is mentioned in many chapters, the idea gathers momentum after verse 6.30, and it is chapter 12 where the idea is sustainly developed. According to Fowler, the bhakti in the Gita does not imply renunciation of "action", but the bhakti effort is assisted with "right knowledge" and dedication to one's dharma. [192] Theologian Catherine Cornille writes, "The text [of the Gita] offers a survey of the different possible disciplines for attaining liberation through knowledge (Jnana), action (karma), and loving devotion to God (bhakti), focusing on the latter as both the easiest and the highest path to salvation." [193]

According to M. R. Sampatkumaran, a Bhagavad Gita scholar, the Gita message is that mere knowledge of the scriptures cannot lead to final release, but "devotion, meditation, and worship are essential." [194] The Gita likely spawned a "powerful devotionalism" movement, states Fowler, because the text and this path was simpler, available to everyone. [195]

Jnana yoga Edit

Jnana yoga is the path of knowledge, wisdom, and direct realization of the Brahman. [196] [197] In the Bhagavad Gita, it is also referred to as buddhi yoga and its goal is self-realization. [198] The text states that this is the path that intellectuals tend to prefer. [199] The chapter 4 of the Bhagavad Gita is dedicated to the general exposition of jnana yoga. [200] [201]

The Gita praises the path, calling the jnana yogin to be exceedingly dear to Krishna, but adds that the path is steep and difficult. [202]

Synthesis of yogas, Raja yoga Edit

Sivananda's commentary regards the eighteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita as having a progressive order, by which Krishna leads "Arjuna up the ladder of Yoga from one rung to another." [203] The influential commentator Madhusudana Sarasvati divided the Gita ' s eighteen chapters into three sections of six chapters each. Swami Gambhirananda characterises Madhusudana Sarasvati's system as a successive approach in which Karma yoga leads to Bhakti yoga, which in turn leads to Jnana yoga: [204]

  • Chapters 1–6 = Karma yoga, the means to the final goal
  • Chapters 7–12 = Bhakti yoga or devotion
  • Chapters 13–18 = Jnana yoga or knowledge, the goal itself

Some scholars treat the "yoga of meditation" to be a distinct fourth path taught in the Gita, referring to it as Raja yoga. [84] [85] [205] Others consider it as a progressive stage or a combination of Karma yoga and Bhakti yoga. [206] Some, such as Adi Shankara, have considered its discussion in the 13th chapter of the Gita and elsewhere to be an integral part of the Jnana yoga. [207] [208]

Asceticism, renunciation and ritualism Edit

The Gita rejects ascetic life, renunciation as well as Brahminical Vedic ritualism where outwardly actions or non-action are considered a means of personal rewards in this life, after-life or a means of liberation. It instead recommends the pursuit of an active life where the individual adopts "inner renunciation", acts to fulfill what he determines to be his dharma, without craving for or concerns about personal rewards, viewing this as an "inner sacrifice to the personal God for a higher good". [209] [210]

According to Edwin Bryant, the Indologist with publications on Krishna-related Hindu traditions, the Gita rejects "actionless behavior" found in some Indic monastic traditions. It also "relegates the sacrificial system of the early Vedic literature to a path that goes nowhere because it is based on desires", states Bryant. [211]

Dharma Edit

Dharma is a prominent paradigm of the Mahabharata, and it is referenced in the Gita as well. The term dharma has a number of meanings. [212] Fundamentally, it means "what is right". [212] Contextually, it also means the essence of "duty, law, class, social norms, ritual and cosmos itself" in the text, in the sense "the way things should be in all these different dimensions", states Fowler. [212] According to Zaehner, the term dharma means "duty" in Gita's context, in verse 2.7 refers to the "right [and wrong]", and in 14.27 to "eternal law of righteousness". [213]

Few verses in the Bhagavad Gita deal with dharma, according to the Indologist Paul Hacker, but the theme of dharma is important in it. [214] In Chapter 1, responding to Arjuna's despondency, Krishna asks him to follow his sva-dharma, [215] "the dharma that belongs to a particular man (Arjuna) as a member of a particular varna, (i.e., the kshatriya – the warrior varna)". [216] According to Paul Hacker, the term dharma has additional meanings in the context of Arjuna. It is more broadly, the "duty" and a "metaphysically congealed act" for Arjuna. [217] According to the Indologist Jacqueline Hirst, the dharma theme is "of significance only at the beginning and end of the Gita" and this may have been a way to perhaps link the Gita to the context of the Mahabharata. [218]

According to Malinar, "Arjuna's crisis and some of the arguments put forward to call him to action are connected to the debates on war and peace in the Udyoga Parva." [219] The Udyoga Parva presents many views about the nature of a warrior, his duty and what calls for heroic action. While Duryodhana presents it as a matter of status, social norms, and fate, Vidura states that the heroic warrior never submits, knows no fear and has the duty to protect people. [220] The Bhishma Parva sets the stage of two ideologies in conflict and two massive armies gathered for what each considers as a righteous and necessary war. In this context, the Gita advises Arjuna to do his holy duty (sva-dharma) as a warrior, fight and kill. [221] [222] [223]

According to the Indologist Barbara Miller, the text frames heroism not in terms of physical abilities, but instead in terms of effort and inner commitment to fulfill a warrior's dharma in the battlefield. [224] War is depicted as a horror, the impending slaughter a cause of self-doubts, yet at stake is the spiritual struggle against evil. [224] The Gita message emphasizes that the personal moral confusion and struggle must be addressed, the warrior needs to rise beyond "personal and social values" and understand what is at stake and "why he must fight", states Miller. The text explores the "paradoxical interconnectedness of disciplined action and freedom". [224]

The Field of Dharma Edit

The first reference to dharma in the Bhagavad Gita occurs in its first verse, where Dhritarashtra refers to the Kurukshetra, the location of the battlefield, as the Field of Dharma, "The Field of Righteousness or Truth". [212] According to Fowler, dharma in this verse may refer to the sanatana dharma, "what Hindus understand as their religion, for it is a term that encompasses wide aspects of religious and traditional thought and is more readily used for religion". [212] Therefore, 'Field of action' implies the field of righteousness, where truth will eventually triumph, states Fowler. [212] According to Jacqueline Hirst, the "field of dharma" phrase in the Gita epitomizes that the struggle concerns dharma itself. This dharma has "resonances at many different levels". [225]

"The Field of Dharma" is also called the "Field of action" by Sri Aurobindo, a freedom fighter and philosopher. [212] Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, a professor of philosophy at the Oxford University and the second president of India, saw "The Field of Dharma" as the world (Bhavsagar), which is a "battleground for moral struggle". [226]

Allegory of war Edit

Unlike any other religious scripture, the Bhagavad Gita broadcasts its message in the centre of the battlefield. [227] Several modern Indian writers have interpreted the battlefield setting as an allegory of "the war within". [228] Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita ' s subject is "the war within, the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious". [229]

Swami Nikhilananda, takes Arjuna as an allegory of Ātman, Krishna as an allegory of Brahman, Arjuna's chariot as the body, and Dhritarashtra as the ignorance filled mind. [note 16] Nikhilananda's allegorical interpretation is shared by Huston Smith. [55] Swami Vivekananda interprets the first discourse in the Gita as well as the "Kurushetra war" allegorically. [230] Vivekananda states, "when we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil". [231]

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, in his commentary on the Gita, [232] interprets the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, man's higher impulses struggling against evil". [233]

In Aurobindo's view, Krishna was a historical figure, but his significance in the Gita is as a "symbol of the divine dealings with humanity", [234] while Arjuna typifies a "struggling human soul". [235] However, Aurobindo rejected the interpretation that the Gita, and the Mahabharata by extension, is only "an allegory of the inner life", and it has nothing to do with our outward human life and actions. [235] [note 17]

Promotion of just war and duty Edit

Other scholars such as Steven Rosen, Laurie L. Patton and Stephen Mitchell have seen in the Gita a religious defense of the warrior class's (Kshatriya Varna) duty (svadharma), which is to conduct combat and war with courage and do not see this as only an allegorical teaching, but also a real defense of just war. [236] [237]

Indian independence leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak saw the Gita as a text which defended war when necessary and used it to promote armed rebellion against colonial rule. Lajpat Rai wrote an article on the "Message of the Bhagavad Gita". He saw the main message as the bravery and courage of Arjuna to fight as a warrior. [238] Bal Gangadhar Tilak saw the Gita as defending killing when necessary for the betterment of society, such as, for example, the killing of Afzal Khan. [238]

Moksha: Liberation Edit

Liberation or moksha in Vedanta philosophy is not something that can be acquired. Ātman (Soul) and Self-knowledge, along with the loss of egotistic ignorance, the goal of moksha, is something that is always present as the essence of the self, and must be realized by each person by one's own effort. While the Upanishads largely uphold such a monistic viewpoint of liberation, the Bhagavad Gita also accommodates the dualistic and theistic aspects of moksha. The Gita, while including impersonal Nirguna Brahman as the goal, mainly revolves around the relationship between the Self and a personal God or Saguna Brahman. A synthesis of knowledge, devotion, and desireless action is offered by Krishna as a spectrum of choices to Arjuna the same combination is suggested to the reader as a way to moksha. [239] Christopher Chapple – a Comparative Theology scholar focusing on Indian religions, in Winthrop Sargeant translation of the Gita, states, "In the model presented by the Bhagavad Gītā, every aspect of life is in fact a way of salvation." [240]

Pancaratra Agama Edit

According to Dennis Hudson, there is an overlap between Vedic and Tantric rituals with the teachings found in the Bhagavad Gita. [244] He places the Pancaratra Agama in the last three or four centuries of 1st-millennium BCE, and proposes that both the tantric and vedic, the Agama and the Gita share the same Vāsudeva-Krishna roots. [245] Some of the ideas in the Bhagavad Gita connect it to the Shatapatha Brahmana of Yajurveda. The Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, mentions the absolute Purusha who dwells in every human being. A story in this vedic text, states Hudson, highlights the meaning of the name Vāsudeva as the 'shining one (deva) who dwells (vasu) in all things and in whom all things dwell', and the meaning of Vishnu to be the 'pervading actor'. In Bhagavad Gita, similarly, 'Krishna identified himself both with Vāsudeva, Vishnu and their meanings'. [246] [note 18] The ideas at the center of Vedic rituals in Shatapatha Brahmana and the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita revolve around this absolute Person, the primordial genderless absolute, which is same as the goal of Pancaratra Agama and Tantra. [248]

The first English translation of the Bhagavad Gita was published by Charles Wilkins in 1785. [249] The Wilkins translation had an introduction to the Gita by Warren Hastings. Soon the work was translated into other European languages such as French (1787), German, and Russian. In 1849, the Weleyan Mission Press, Bangalore published The Bhagavat-Geeta, Or, Dialogues of Krishna and Arjoon in Eighteen Lectures, with Sanskrit, Canarese and English in parallel columns, edited by Rev. John Garrett, and the efforts being supported by Sir. Mark Cubbon. [250]

In 1981, Larson stated that "a complete listing of Gita translations and a related secondary bibliography would be nearly endless". [251] : 514 According to Larson, there is "a massive translational tradition in English, pioneered by the British, solidly grounded philologically by the French and Germans, provided with its indigenous roots by a rich heritage of modern Indian comment and reflection, extended into various disciplinary areas by Americans, and having generated in our time a broadly based cross-cultural awareness of the importance of the Bhagavad Gita both as an expression of a specifically Indian spirituality and as one of the great religious "classics" of all time." [251] : 518

According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". [252] Richard Davis cites a count by Callewaert & Hemraj in 1982 of 1,891 translations of the Bhagavad Gita in 75 languages, including 273 in English. [253] These translations vary, [254] and are in part an interpretative reconstruction of the original Sanskrit text that differ in their "friendliness to the reader", [255] and in the amount of "violence to the original Gita text" that the translation does. [256] [note 19]

The translations and interpretations of the Gita have been so diverse that these have been used to support apparently contradictory political and philosophical values. For example, state Galvin Flood and Charles Martin, these interpretations have been used to support "pacifism to aggressive nationalism" in politics, from "monism to theism" in philosophy. [261] According to William Johnson, the synthesis of ideas in the Gita is such that it can bear almost any shade of interpretation. [262] A translation "can never fully reproduce an original and no translation is transparent", states Richard Davis, but in the case of Gita the linguistic and cultural distance for many translators is large and steep which adds to the challenge and affects the translation. [263] For some native translators, their personal beliefs, motivations, and subjectivity affect their understanding, their choice of words and interpretation. [264] [265] [266] Some translations by Indians, with or without Western co-translators, have "orientalist", "apologetic", "Neo-Vedantin" or "guru phenomenon" bias. [251] : 525–530

A sample of English translations of the Bhagavad Gita [251]
Title Translator Year
The Bhagavat geeta, or Dialogue of Kreeshna and Arjoon in Eighteen Lectures with Notes Charles Wilkins 1785
Bhagavad-Gita August Wilhelm Schlegel 1823
The Bhagavadgita J.C. Thomson 1856
La Bhagavad-Gita Eugene Burnouf 1861
The Bhagavadgita K.T. Telang 1875
The Song Celestial Sir Edwin Arnold 1885
The Bhagavad Gita William Q. Judge 1890
The Bhagavad-Gita with the Commentary of Sri Sankaracarya A. Mahadeva Sastry 1897
Bhagavadgita: The Lord's Song L.D. Barnett 1905
Bhagavad Gita Anne Besant and Bhagavan Das 1905
Die Bhagavadgita Richard Garbe 1905
Der Gesang des Heiligen Paul Deussen 1911
Srimad Bhagavad-Gita Swami Paramananda 1913
La Bhagavad-Gîtâ Emile Sénart 1922
The Bhagavad-Gita Arthur W. Ryder 1929
The Song of the Lord, Bhagavad-Gita E.J. Thomas 1931
The Yoga of the Bhagavat Gita Sri Krishna Prem 1938
The Bhagavad Gita Franklin Edgerton 1944
The Song of God: Bhagavad Gita Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood 1944
The Bhagavad Gita Swami Nikhilananda 1944
The Bhagavadgita S. Radhakrishnan 1948
The Bhagavadgita Shakuntala Rao Sastri 1959
The Bhagavad Gita Juan Mascaro 1962
The Bhagavadgita Swami Chidbhavananda 1965
The Bhagavadgita Eliot Deutsch 1968
Bhagavad-gita As It Is A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada 1968
The Bhagavad Gita R.C. Zaehner 1969
The Bhagavad Gita: A New Verse Translation Ann Stanford 1970
The Bhagavad Gita Winthrop Sargeant (Editor: Christopher K Chapple) 1979
The Bhagavadgita in the Mahabharata J.A.B. van Buitenen 1980
The Bhagavadgita Eknath Easwaran 1985
The Bhagavad-Gita: Krishna's Counsel in Time of War Barbara S. Miller 1986
The Bhagavad-Gita Ramananda Prasad 1988
The Bhagavad-Gita W.J. Johnson 1994
The Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation George Thompson 2008
The Bhagavad Gita, A New Translation Georg Feuerstein 2011
The Bhagavad Gita: A Text and Commentary for Students Jeaneane D. Fowler 2012
The Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation Gavin Flood, Charles Martin 2012
Bhagavad Gita: Rhythm of Krishna (Gita in Rhymes) Sushrut Badhe 2015
Philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita Keya Maitra 2018
The Bhagavad Gita Chapter 1 to 13 – English ISBN 978-93-87578-96-8 Ravi Shankar 2018

According to the exegesis scholar Robert Minor, the Gita is "probably the most translated of any Asian text", but many modern versions heavily reflect the views of the organization or person who does the translating and distribution. In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. [267] According to Larson, the Edgerton translation is remarkably faithful, but it is "harsh, stilted, and syntactically awkward" with an "orientalist" bias and lacks "appreciation of the text's contemporary religious significance". [251] : 524

The Gita in other languages Edit

The Gita has also been translated into European languages other than English. In 1808, passages from the Gita were part of the first direct translation of Sanskrit into German, appearing in a book through which Friedrich Schlegel became known as the founder of Indian philology in Germany. [268] The most significant French translation of the Gita, according to J. A. B. van Buitenen, was published by Emile Senart in 1922. [269] Swami Rambhadracharya released the first Braille version of the scripture, with the original Sanskrit text and a Hindi commentary, on 30 November 2007. [web 4]

The Gita Press has published the Gita in multiple Indian languages. [270] R. Raghava Iyengar translated the Gita into Tamil in sandam metre poetic form. [271] The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust associated with ISKCON has re-translated and published A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's 1972 English translation of the Gita in 56 non-Indian languages. [272] [273] [note 20] Vinoba Bhave has written the Geeta in Marathi language as Geetai i.e. Mother Geeta in the similar shloka form.

Paramahansa Yogananda's commentary on the Bhagavad Gita called God Talks with Arjuna: The Bhagavad Gita has been translated into Spanish, German, Thai and Hindi so far. The book is significant in that unlike other commentaries of the Bhagavad Gita, which focus on karma yoga, jnana yoga, and bhakti yoga in relation to the Gita, Yogananda's work stresses the training of one's mind, or raja yoga. [276]

Bhagavad Gita integrates various schools of thought, notably Vedanta, Samkhya and Yoga, and other theistic ideas. It remains a popular text for commentators belonging to various philosophical schools. However, its composite nature also leads to varying interpretations of the text and historic scholars have written bhashya (commentaries) on it. [277] According to Mysore Hiriyanna, the Gita is "one of the hardest books to interpret, which accounts for the numerous commentaries on it–each differing from the rest in one essential point or the other". [278]

According to Richard Davis, the Gita has attracted much scholarly interest in Indian history and some 227 commentaries have survived in the Sanskrit language alone. [279] It has also attracted commentaries in regional vernacular languages for centuries, such as the one by Sant (Saint) Dnyaneshwar in Marathi language (13th century). [280]

Classical commentaries Edit

The Bhagavad Gita is referred to in the Brahma Sutras, and numerous scholars including Shankara, Bhaskara, Abhinavagupta of Shaivism tradition, Ramanuja and Madhvacharya wrote commentaries on it. [281] [282] Many of these commentators state that the Gita is "meant to be a moksa-shastra (moksasatra), and not a dharmasastra, an arthasastra or a kamasastra", states Sharma. [283]

Śaṅkara (c. 800 CE) Edit

The oldest and most influential surviving commentary was published by Adi Shankara (Śaṅkarācārya). [284] [285] Shankara interprets the Gita in a monist, nondualistic tradition (Advaita Vedanta). [286] Shankara prefaces his comments by stating that the Gita is popular among the laity, that the text has been studied and commented upon by earlier scholars (these texts have not survived), but "I have found that to the laity it appears to teach diverse and quite contradictory doctrines". He calls the Gita as "an epitome of the essentials of the whole Vedic teaching". [287] To Shankara, the teaching of the Gita is to shift an individual's focus from the outer, impermanent, fleeting objects of desire and senses to the inner, permanent, eternal atman-Brahman-Vasudeva that is identical, in everything and in every being. [288]

Abhinavagupta (c. 1000 CE) Edit

Abhinavagupta was a theologian and philosopher of the Kashmir Shaivism (Shiva) tradition. [285] He wrote a commentary on the Gita as Gitartha-Samgraha, which has survived into the modern era. The Gita text he commented on, is slightly different recension than the one of Adi Shankara. He interprets its teachings in the Shaiva Advaita (monism) tradition quite similar to Adi Shankara, but with the difference that he considers both soul and matter to be metaphysically real and eternal. Their respective interpretations of jnana yoga are also somewhat different, and Abhinavagupta uses Atman, Brahman, Shiva, and Krishna interchangeably. Abhinavagupta's commentary is notable for its citations of more ancient scholars, in a style similar to Adi Shankara. However, the texts he quotes have not survived into the modern era. [289]

Rāmānuja (c. 1100 CE) Edit

Ramanuja was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and an exponent of the Sri Vaishnavism (Vishnu) tradition in 11th and early 12th century. Like his Vedanta peers, Ramanuja wrote a bhashya (commentary) on the Gita. [290] Ramanuja's disagreed with Adi Shankara's interpretation of the Gita as a text on nondualism (Self and Brahman are identical), and instead interpreted it as a form of dualistic and qualified monism philosophy (Vishishtadvaita). [291] [292]

Madhva (c. 1250 CE) Edit

Madhva, a commentator of the Dvaita (modern taxonomy) Tatvavada (actually quoted by Madhva) Vedanta school, [285] wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, which exemplifies the thinking of the Tatvavada school (Dvaita Vedanta). [284] According to Christopher Chapelle, in the Madhva's school there is "an eternal and complete distinction between the Supreme, the many souls, and matter and its divisions". [293] His commentary on the Gita is called Gita Bhāshya. Madhva's commentary has attracted secondary works by pontiffs of the Dvaita Vedanta monasteries such as Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha, and Raghavendra Tirtha. [294]

Keśava Kāśmīri (c. 1479 CE) Edit

Keśava Kāśmīri Bhaṭṭa, a commentator of Dvaitādvaita Vedanta school, wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita by the name Tattva-prakāśikā. The text states that Dasasloki – possibly authored by Nimbarka – teaches the essence of the Gita the Gita tattva prakashika interprets the Gita also in a hybrid monist-dualist manner. [295] [296]

Vallabha (1481–1533 CE) Edit

Vallabha the proponent of "Suddhadvaita" or pure non-dualism, wrote a commentary on the Gita, the "Sattvadipika". According to him, the true Self is the Supreme Brahman. Bhakti is the most important means of attaining liberation.

Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Commentaries Edit

    (b. 1486 CE) commentaries on various parts of the Gita are in the Gaudiya Vaishnavism Bhakti (acintya bhedabheda) [note 21] Vedanta tradition in part a foundation of the ISKCON (Hare Krishna) interpretation of the Gita[298][297]

Others Edit

Other classical commentators include

    (c. 900 CE) disagreed with Adi Shankara, wrote his own commentary on both Bhagavad Gita and Brahma Sutras in the Bhedābheda tradition. [295] According to Bhaskara, the Gita is essentially Advaita, but not quite exactly, suggesting that "the Atman (soul) of all beings are like waves in the ocean that is Brahman". Bhaskara also disagreed with Shankara's formulation of the Maya doctrine, stating that prakriti, atman and Brahman are all metaphysically real. [295] , Ramanuja's teacher summarised the teachings of the Bhagavadgita in his Gitartha sangraham. (1162 CE) followed Bhaskara, but it is unclear if he ever wrote the commentary the commentary Gitatattvaprakashika is generally attributed to a student named Kesava Bhatta in his tradition the text states that Dasasloki – possibly authored by Nimbarka – teaches the essence of the Gita the Gita tattva prakashika interprets the Gita also in a hybrid monist-dualist manner. [295][296] (1290 CE), [280][299] the commentary is titled Dnyaneshwari also called Jnaneshwari or Bhavarthadipika [300] it is the oldest surviving literary work in the Marathi language, [301] one of the foundations of the Varkari tradition in Maharashtra (Bhakti movement, Eknath, Tukaram) [301][302][303] the commentary interprets the Gita in the Advaita Vedanta tradition [304] Dnyaneshwar belonged to the Nath yogi tradition. His commentary on the Gita is notable for stating that it is the devotional commitment and love with inner renunciation that matters, not the name Krishna or Shiva, either can be used interchangeably. [305][306]
  • Vallabha II, descendant of Vallabha (1479 CE) commentary Tattvadeepika is in the Suddha-Advaita tradition [277] commentary Gudhartha Deepika is in the Advaita Vedanta tradition [277]
  • Hanumat's commentary Paishacha-bhasya is in the Advaita Vedanta tradition [277]
  • Anandagiri's commentary Bhashya-vyakhyanam is in the Advaita Vedanta tradition [277]
  • Nilkantha's commentary Bhava-pradeeps is in the Advaita Vedanta tradition [277]
  • Shreedhara's (1400 CE) commentary Avi gita is in the Advaita Vedanta tradition [277]
  • Dhupakara Shastri's commentary Subodhini is in the Advaita Vedanta tradition [277] (1548-1596), commentary Prameyadīpikā Bhavabodha is in the Dvaita Vedanta tradition [307] (1595-1671), commentary Artha samgraha is in the Dvaita Vedanta tradition [277]
  • Vanamali Mishra (1650-1720), Gitagudharthacandrika is quite similar to Madhvacharya's commentary and is in the Dvaita Vedanta tradition [308]
  • Purushottama (1668–1781 CE), Vallabha's follower, also wrote a commentary on Bhagavadgita

Modern-era commentaries Edit

  • Among notable modern commentators of the Bhagavad Gita are Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Vinoba Bhave, Mahatma Gandhi (who called its philosophy Anasakti Yoga), Sri Aurobindo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, B. N. K. Sharma, Osho, and Chinmayananda. Chinmayananda took a syncretistic approach to interpret the text of the Gita. [309][310]
  • Tilak wrote his commentary Shrimadh Bhagavad Gita Rahasya while in jail during the period 1910–1911 serving a six-year sentence imposed by the colonial government in India for sedition. [311] While noting that the Gita teaches possible paths to liberation, his commentary places most emphasis on Karma yoga. [312]
  • No book was more central to Gandhi's life and thought than the Bhagavad Gita', which he referred to as his "spiritual dictionary". [313] During his stay in Yeravda jail in 1929, [313] Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati. The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai, who provided an additional introduction and commentary. It was published with a foreword by Gandhi in 1946. [314][315]
  • The version by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, entitled Bhagavad-Gita as It Is, is "by far the most widely distributed of all English Gīta translations" due to the efforts of ISKCON. [273] Its publisher, the Bhaktivēdānta Book Trust, estimates sales at twenty-three million copies, a figure which includes the original English edition and secondary translations into fifty-six other languages. [273] The Prabhupada commentary interprets the Gita in the Gaudiya Vaishnavism tradition of Chaitanya, [273] quite similar to Madhvacharya's Dvaita Vēdanta ideology. [316] It presents Krishna as the Supreme, a means of saving mankind from the anxiety of material existence through loving devotion. Unlike in Bengal and nearby regions of India where the Bhagavata Purana is the primary text for this tradition, the devotees of Prabhupada's ISKCON tradition have found better reception for their ideas by those curious in the West through the Gita, according to Richard Davis. [273]
  • In 1966, Mahārishi Mahesh Yogi published a partial translation. [273]
  • An abridged version with 42 verses and commentary was published by Ramana Maharishi. [317]
  • Bhagavad Gita – The song of God, is a commentary by Swami Mukundananda. [318] 's two-volume commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, called God Talks with Arjuna: The Bhagavad Gita, was released 1995 and is available in 5 language. [319] The book is significant in that unlike other commentaries of the Bhagavad Gita, which focus on karma yoga, jnana yoga, and bhakti yoga in relation to the Gita, Yogananda's work stresses the training of one's mind, or raja yoga. [276] It is published by Self-Realization Fellowship/Yogoda Satsanga Society of India. 's commentary interprets the Gita for his collection of problems of daily modern life. [320]
  • Other modern writers such as Swami Parthasarathy and Sādhu Vāsvāni have published their own commentaries. [321]
  • Academic commentaries include those by Jeaneane Fowler, [322] Ithamar Theodor, [323] and Robert Zaehner. [324]
  • A collection of Christian commentaries on the Gita has been edited by Catherine Cornille, comparing and contrasting a wide range of views on the text by theologians and religion scholars. [325]

Narendra Modi, the 14th prime minister of India, called the Bhagavad Gita "India's biggest gift to the world". [326] Modi gave a copy of it to the then President of the United States of America, Barack Obama in 2014 during his U.S. visit. [327]

With its translation and study by Western scholars beginning in the early 18th century, the Bhagavad Gita gained a growing appreciation and popularity. [web 1] According to the Indian historian and writer Khushwant Singh, Rudyard Kipling's famous poem "If—" is "the essence of the message of The Gita in English." [328]

Praise and popularity Edit

At a time when Indian nationalists were seeking an indigenous basis for social and political action against colonial rule, Bhagavad Gita provided them with a rationale for their activism and fight against injustice. [334] Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement. [note 22] [note 23] Mahatma Gandhi expressed his love for the Gita in these words:

I find a solace in the Bhagavadgītā that I miss even in the Sermon on the Mount. When disappointment stares me in the face and all alone I see not one ray of light, I go back to the Bhagavadgītā. I find a verse here and a verse there and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming tragedies – and my life has been full of external tragedies – and if they have left no visible, no indelible scar on me, I owe it all to the teaching of Bhagavadgītā. [335] [336]

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, commented on the Gita:

The Bhagavad-Gita deals essentially with the spiritual foundation of human existence. It is a call of action to meet the obligations and duties of life yet keeping in view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the universe. [337]

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, 11th President of India, despite being a Muslim, used to read Bhagavad Gita and recite mantras. [338] [339] [340] [341] [342]

J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project, learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original form, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life. Oppenheimer later recalled that, while witnessing the explosion of the Trinity nuclear test, he thought of verses from the Bhagavad Gita (XI,12):

दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥११- १२॥ If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one . [343]

Years later he would explain that another verse had also entered his head at that time:

We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried. Most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad Gita Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and, to impress him, takes on his multi-armed form and says, 'Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.' I suppose we all thought that, one way or another. [344] [note 24]

Ralph Waldo Emerson, remarked the following after his first study of the Gita, and thereafter frequently quoted the text in his journals and letters, particularly the "work with inner renunciation" idea in his writings on man's quest for spiritual energy: [347]

I owed – my friend and I owed – a magnificent day to the Bhagavad Geeta. It was the first of books it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us. [347]

The world's largest Bhagavad Gita is in the ISKCON Temple Delhi, which is the world's largest sacred book of any religion. It weighs 800 kg and measures over 2.8 metres. It was unveiled by Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India on 26 February 2019. [348] [349] On 27 February 2021, the Bhagavad Gita, was launched into outer space in a SD card, on a PSLV-C51 rocket launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. [350]

Criticisms and apologetics Edit

War with self Edit

The Gita presents its teaching in the context of a war where the warrior Arjuna is in inner crisis about whether he should renounce and abandon the battlefield, or fight and kill. He is advised by Krishna to do his sva-dharma, a term that has been variously interpreted. According to the Indologist Paul Hacker, the contextual meaning in the Gita is the "dharma of a particular varna". [351] Neo-Hindus such as Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, states Hacker, have preferred to not translate it in those terms, or "dharma" as religion, but leave Gita's message as "everyone must follow his sva-dharma". [352] According to Chatterjee, the Hindus already understand the meaning of that term. To render it in English for non-Hindus for its better understanding, one must ask what is the sva-dharma for the non-Hindus? The Lord, states Chatterjee, created millions and millions of people, and he did not ordain dharma only for Indians [Hindus] and "make all the others dharma-less", for "are not the non-Hindus also his children"? According to Chatterjee, the Krishna's religion of Gita is "not so narrow-minded". [352] This argument, states Hacker, is an attempt to "universalize Hinduism". [352]

The Gita has been cited and criticized as a Hindu text that supports varna-dharma and the caste system. [353] [354] [355] B. R. Ambedkar, born in a Dalit family and the principal architect of the Constitution of India, criticized the text for its stance on caste and for "defending certain dogmas of religion on philosophical grounds". [355] According to Jimmy Klausen, Ambedkar in his essay Krishna and his Gita stated that the Gita was a "tool" of Brahmanical Hinduism and for its latter-day saints such as Mahatma Gandhi and Lokmanya Tilak. To Ambedkar, states Klausen, it is a text of "mostly barbaric, religious particularisms" offering "a defence of the kshatriya duty to make war and kill, the assertion that varna derives from birth rather than worth or aptitude, and the injunction to perform karma" neither perfunctorily nor egotistically. [356] Similar criticism of the Gita has been published by Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi, another Marxist historian. [357]

The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste]

Nadkarni and Zelliot present the opposite view, citing early Bhakti saints of the Krishna-tradition such as the 13th-century Dnyaneshwar. [359] According to Dnyaneshwar, the Gita starts off with the discussion of sva-dharma in Arjuna's context but ultimately shows that caste differences are not important. For Dnyaneshwar, people err when they see themselves distinct from each other and Krishna, and these distinctions vanish as soon as they accept, understand and enter with love unto Krishna. [360] [361]

According to Swami Vivekananda, sva-dharma in the Gita does not mean "caste duty", rather it means the duty that comes with one's life situation (mother, father, husband, wife) or profession (soldier, judge, teacher, doctor). For Vivekananda, the Gita was an egalitarian scripture that rejected caste and other hierarchies because of its verses such as 13.27—28, which states "He who sees the Supreme Lord dwelling equally in all beings, the Imperishable in things that perish, he sees verily. For seeing the Lord as the same everywhere present, he does not destroy the Self by the Self, and thus he goes to the highest goal." [362] [note 25]

Aurobindo modernises the concept of dharma and svabhava by internalising it, away from the social order and its duties towards one's personal capacities, which leads to a radical individualism, [365] "finding the fulfilment of the purpose of existence in the individual alone." [365] He deduced from the Gita the doctrine that "the functions of a man ought to be determined by his natural turn, gift, and capacities", [365] that the individual should "develop freely" [365] and thereby would be best able to serve society. [365]

Gandhi's view differed from Aurobindo's view. [366] He recognised in the concept of sva-dharma his idea of svadeshi (sometimes spelled swadeshi), the idea that "man owes his service above all to those who are nearest to him by birth and situation." [366] To him, svadeshi was "sva-dharma applied to one's immediate environment." [367]

According to Jacqueline Hirst, the universalist neo-Hindu interpretations of dharma in the Gita is modernism, though any study of pre-modern distant foreign cultures is inherently subject to suspicions about "control of knowledge" and bias on the various sides. [368] Hindus have their own understanding of dharma that goes much beyond the Gita or any particular Hindu text. [368] Further, states Hirst, the Gita should be seen as a "unitary text" in its entirety rather than a particular verse analyzed separately or out of context. Krishna is presented as a teacher who "drives Arjuna and the reader beyond initial preconceptions". The Gita is a cohesively knit pedagogic text, not a list of norms. [369]

Modern-Hinduism Edit

Novel interpretations of the Gita, along with apologetics on it, have been a part of the modern era revisionism and renewal movements within Hinduism. [370] Bankim Chandra Chatterji, the author of Vande Mataram – the national song of India, challenged orientalist literature on Hinduism and offered his interpretations of the Gita, states Ajit Ray. [371] [216] Bal Gangadhar Tilak interpreted the karma yoga teachings in Gita as a "doctrine of liberation" taught by Hinduism, [372] while S Radhakrishnan stated that the Bhagavad Gita teaches a universalist religion and the "essence of Hinduism" along with the "essence of all religions", rather than a private religion. [373]

Vivekananda's works contained numerous references to the Gita, such as his lectures on the four yogas – Bhakti, Jnana, Karma, and Raja. [374] Through the message of the Gita, Vivekananda sought to energise the people of India to reclaim their dormant but strong identity. [375] Aurobindo saw Bhagavad Gita as a "scripture of the future religion" and suggested that Hinduism had acquired a much wider relevance through the Gita. [376] Sivananda called Bhagavad Gita "the most precious jewel of Hindu literature" and suggested its introduction into the curriculum of Indian schools and colleges. [377]

According to Ronald Neufeldt, it was the Theosophical Society that dedicated much attention and energy to the allegorical interpretation of the Gita, along with religious texts from around the world, after 1885 and given H. P. Blavatsky, Subba Rao and Anne Besant writings. [378] Their attempt was to present their "universalist religion". These late 19th-century theosophical writings called the Gita as a "path of true spirituality" and "teaching nothing more than the basis of every system of philosophy and scientific endeavor", triumphing over other "Samkhya paths" of Hinduism that "have degenerated into superstition and demoralized India by leading people away from practical action". [378]

Political violence Edit

In the Gita, Krishna persuades Arjuna to wage war where the enemy includes some of his own relatives and friends. In light of the Ahimsa (non-violence) teachings in Hindu scriptures, the Gita has been criticized as violating the Ahimsa value, or alternatively, as supporting political violence. [379] The justification of political violence when peaceful protests and all else fails, states Varma, has been a "fairly common feature of modern Indian political thought" along with the "mighty antithesis of Gandhian thought on non-violence". During the independence movement in India, Hindus considered active "burning and drowning of British goods" while technically illegal under colonial legislation, were viewed as a moral and just war for the sake of liberty and righteous values of the type Gita discusses. [380] According to Paul Schaffel the influential Hindu nationalist V.D. Savarkar "often turned to Hindu scripture such as the Bhagavad Gita, arguing that the text justified violence against those who would harm Mother India." [381]

Mahatma Gandhi credited his commitment for ahimsa to the Gita. For Gandhi, the Gita is teaching that people should fight for justice and righteous values, that they should never meekly suffer injustice to avoid a war. According to the Indologist Ananya Vajpeyi, the Gita does not elaborate on the means or stages of war, nor on ahimsa, except for stating that "ahimsa is virtuous and characterizes an awakened, steadfast, ethical man" in verses such as 13.7–10 and 16.1–5. [382] For Gandhi, states Vajpeyi, ahimsa is the "relationship between self and other" while he and his fellow Indians battled against the colonial rule. Gandhian ahimsa is in fact "the essence of the entire Gita", according to Vajpeyi. [382] The teachings of the Gita on ahimsa are ambiguous, states Arvind Sharma, and this is best exemplified by the fact that Nathuram Godse stated the Gita as his inspiration to do his dharma after he assassinated Mahatma Gandhi. [117] Thomas Merton, the Trappist monk and author of books on Zen Buddhism, concurs with Gandhi and states that the Gita is not teaching violence nor propounding a "make war" ideology. Instead, it is teaching peace and discussing one's duty to examine what is right and then act with pure intentions, when one's faces difficult and repugnant choices. [383]

Adaptations Edit

Philip Glass retold the story of Gandhi's early development as an activist in South Africa through the text of the Gita in the opera Satyagraha (1979). The entire libretto of the opera consists of sayings from the Gita sung in the original Sanskrit. [web 5]

In Douglas Cuomo's Arjuna's dilemma, the philosophical dilemma faced by Arjuna is dramatised in operatic form with a blend of Indian and Western music styles. [web 6]

The 1995 novel by Steven Pressfield, and its adaptation as the 2000 golf movie The Legend of Bagger Vance by Robert Redford has parallels to the Bhagavad Gita, according to Steven J. Rosen. Steven Pressfield acknowledges that the Gita was his inspiration, the golfer character in his novel is Arjuna, the caddie is Krishna, states Rosen. The movie, however, uses the plot but glosses over the teachings unlike in the novel. [384]


History of Yoga – Exploring Its Origins and the 6 Major Periods That Define It

Most of us have gone to at least one yoga class as a way to do more physical exercise.

And many of us practice yoga on a regular basis now.

In fact, according to the United Nations, about 2 billion people worldwide practice yoga today. (1)

And you’ll find more than 20 million yogis in the United States alone. (2)

Is yoga practice just about yoga poses?

Here’s how this ancient timeless practice evolved into what it is today…

Yoga: A Definition

Yoga is the journey of the self,

through the self,

to the self.

– Bhagavad Gita

The word ‘yoga’ comes from the Sanskrit root ‘yuj’ which literally means “to unite.”

The general meaning of yoga is union.

Yoga is also a mental, physical, and spiritual discipline stemming from ancient India.

But despite its Indian roots, the benefits and gifts of this practice have now spread throughout the world.

As a spiritual discipline, it’s primarily intended to help create a union of our mind, emotions, body, and energy.

Yogic practices can include mindful body movement, meditation, contemplation, breathwork, and sensory withdrawal.

Yoga: A Brief History of the Major Periods

Few people realize that the tree of Yoga has grown in the rich soil of three great cultural complexes or traditions—Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

These are not merely religions, as often thought, but entire and largely self-contained cultures which all have their cradle in India.

– Georg Feuerstein, Ph.D., Yogic philosophy scholar & historian

Think of the “Big Picture” of Yoga as a giant tree with many branches.

This huge tree was planted in fertile soil that contains elements and echoes of not just Hinduism as is commonly thought, but also Buddhist influence as well.

Yoga’s long rich history can be divided into six main periods: Pre-Vedic, Vedic, Pre-Classical Yoga, Classical Yoga, Post-Classical Yoga, and Modern Yoga.

Let’s discuss each one briefly.

1. Pre-Vedic Period:

The Pashupati seal was discovered during the excavation of the Mohenjodaro archaeological site in the Indus Valley. It’s drawn attention as a possible representation of a “yogi” figure. (source: Wikimedia)

Despite more than a century of research, we still don’t know much about the earliest beginnings of Yoga.

We do know, though, that it originated in India 5,000 or more years ago.

– Georg Feuerstein, Ph.D., Yogic philosophy scholar & historian

The exact history of Yoga is unknown.

The initial development of yoga can be traced to over 5,000 years ago, thanks to evidence of yoga poses found on stone drawings.

Archaeological findings from the Indus Valley Civilization revealed a portrait of a Yogi meditating in what looks like an asana. This is known as the Pashupati seal.

The Indus Valley Civilization has also been attributed to indirectly give rise to Buddhism and Jainism as well.

2. Vedic Period:

Rig Veda Manuscript (source: Wikimedia)

The Vedas are the most ancient Hindu scriptures and are a group of hymns and rituals.

The Sanskrit word ‘Veda’ means “knowledge”.

The Vedas contain the oldest known Yogic teachings (Vedic Yoga) and are centered around transcending the visible material world and the limitations of the mind.

During this time, the Vedic people relied on rishis (prophets) to teach them how to live in divine harmony and understanding of the world.

Later, texts known as the Brahmanas were written as commentaries explaining the hymns of the Vedas.

The actual word “Yoga” was first mentioned in the Rigveda.

The Rigveda is a collection of hymns describing the practice and discipline of meditation dating back to approximately 1,500 Before the Common Era (B.C.E).

3. Pre-Classical Yoga Period:

From ignorance, lead me to truth.

From darkness, lead me to light.

From death, lead me to immortality.

– Upanishads chant

The Pre-Classical Yoga period covers an extensive period of approximately 2,000 years.

The creation of the Upanishads marks the beginning of this period.

The Upanishads contain over 200 scriptures which describes the idea of karma, the cycle of birth and death and explain three subjects:

1) The ultimate reality (Brahman)

2) The transcendental self (Atman)

3) The relationship between the two

The self is a friend for him who masters himself by the Self

but for him who is not self mastered, the self is the cruelest foe.

– Bhagavad-Gita 6:6

Around 500 B.C.E. (Before the Common Era), the Bhagavad-Gita was created.

It’s a beautiful story of a conversation between the God-man Krishna and the soldier Prince Arjuna.

In the Bhagavad-Gita (or simply “Gita” as it’s often referred to as), three aspects must be brought mutually in our existence:

The Gita unifies the Yogic traditions of Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Karma Yoga through a common thread:

Sacrificing the ego through self-knowledge, humility, and reverence leads to higher states of consciousness and self-realization.

During this time Yoga found its way into Buddhism too.

The Buddha saw that suffering is caused by desire, greed, and delusion.

This is also the case in Yogic Philosophy.

4. Classical Yoga Period:

The stilling of the ripples of the mind is Yoga.

– Sutra 1.2, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras

The classical Yoga period is defined by the Yoga Sutras, composed by sage Patanjali.

In Patanjali’s Sutras Yoga is presented in a standardized and approachable way.

The word ‘sutra’ comes from the word ‘a thread’ and so the 195 Yoga Sutras are known as threads of wisdom.

Patanjali believed that every individual can achieve the “stilling of the ripples of the mind” and so composed the Sutras based on an 8-step system for mental and emotional purification and self-transcendence.

This 8-step system and 8-fold yogic path are also known as Raja Yoga:

1- Yamas – Self-regulating behaviors

2- Niyamas – Personal observances

Ishvara Pranidhana – Surrender

3- Asana – Mindful body movement & meditational postures

4- Pranayama – Regulation of one’s vital energy through breathwork and nutrition.

5- Pratyahara – Withdrawing the senses from the outer world and directing them to the internal world.

6- Dharana – One-pointed focus and sustained concentration

7- Dhyana – Meditation

8- Samadhi – A state of calm balance, the transcendence of the lower self, and the union with the higher self.

5. Post-Classical Yoga Period:

When the breath wanders the mind is also unsteady.

But when the breath is calmed the mind too will be still and the yogi achieves long life.

– Yogi Svatmarama, The Hatha Yoga Pradipika

Because of the Yoga Sutras’ focus on the mind, yogis of the past hadn’t paid as much attention to the physical body as they were focused on meditation and contemplation.

A few centuries after Patanjali, Yoga took a turn.

The new generation of yoga masters began to probe the hidden powers of the human body and developed a system where different exercises, in conjunction with deep breathing and meditation, would help to rejuvenate the physical body, prolong life and achieve transcendence.

The human body was regarded as the temple of the immortal soul.

The body is your temple.

Keep it pure and clean for your soul to reside in.

– B.K.S. Iyengar, Yoga teacher & author of “Light on Yoga”

The Post-Classical Yoga period brought with it big changes to the Yoga scene.

It was during this period that Tantra Yoga and Hatha Yoga were developed.

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika is a Sanskrit manual considered to be the most influential surviving text on Hatha Yoga.

It was written in the 15th century.

6. Modern Yoga (Western Yoga):

Indra Devi opened one of the first yoga studios in Hollywood, CA. in the 1950s (source: Earl Leaf/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

Yoga is a way to freedom. By its constant practice, we can free ourselves from fear, anguish, and loneliness.

– Indra Devi, Yoga teacher who helped bring yogic practices & yoga tradition to the U.S. by way of her yoga studio in Hollywood, CA.

Yoga arrived in the West during the late 19th century.

The history of the modern yoga era is said to begin with the 1893 Parliament of Religions in Chicago.

It was here that Swami Vivekananda left a lasting impression on the American people.

Vivekananda was prompted by his teacher Ramakrishna to travel to America to share the message of Yoga.

Without knowing anyone in the U.S. he began to attract students who were eager to learn from him.

There were other Yogic teachers before Vivekananda who left India for Europe but their influence hadn’t taken off as much as his.

Paramahansa Yogananda (source: Wikimedia)

Paramahansa Yogananda came to the U.S. after Vivekananda, in the early 20th century (1920.)

Yogananda’s influence on the West was most notable, and five years after his arrival he established the Self-Realization Leadership in Los Angeles, CA where it still remains today.

His teachings mainly centered around Kriya Yoga, which we will discuss a bit further ahead.

In 1946 he published his famous book “Autobiography of a Yogi.”

The book has impacted countless people around the world but perhaps most notably the late Apple CEO Steve Jobs.

So much so that when Jobs planned every detail of his own funeral he made sure that each attendee received a copy of the book as his last message and gift. (3)

Other important Modern Yogis include:

Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya:

(source: Book cover of “Krishnamacharya: His Life and Teachings” by A.G. Mohan, Wikimedia)

Also known as the “Father of Modern Yoga.”

He’s widely regarded as one of the most influential figures in the Modern Yoga period of the 20th century.

He’s also attributed to helping develop the practice of Vinyasa Yoga – combining breath with movement.

He called this style of Yoga Viniyoga/ Vinyasa Krama Yoga.

Krishnamacharya’s main teaching principle was this: “Teach what is appropriate for the individual.”

He taught many students who then moved on to become influential teachers themselves: Indra Devi, K. Pattabhi Jois (founder of modern Ashtanga yoga), B.K.S. Iyengar (founder of Iyengar Yoga and his own brother-in-law), and his son T.K.V. Desikachar.

Swami Sivananda Saraswati:

(source: Nobody60, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, Wikimedia)

This physician turned Yoga master taught many students who then carried the torch of Yogic knowledge to the West. He founded the Divine Life Society in Rishikesh, India where he taught the Five Points of Yoga:

  1. Proper Relaxation (Savasana)
  2. Proper Exercise (Asanas)
  3. Proper Breathing (Pranayama)
  4. Proper Nutrition
  5. Proper Thinking and Meditation (Dhyana)

(source: www.ahymsin.org)

Founder of the Himalayan Institute.

He is best known for his incredible bodily command.

When he came to the U.S. he became a research test subject and it was documented that he voluntarily stopped his heart from pumping the blood for 17 seconds by increasing its speed to about 300 beats per minute. (4)

In another experiment, he was found to create a temperature difference of ten degrees between the two sides of his palm. (4)

These amazing results led to there being an increased interest in his teachings.

(source: www.facebook.com/SwamiSatchidananda)

Yoga practice is like an obstacle race many obstructions are purposefully put on the way for us to pass through.

They are there to make us understand and express our own capacities.

We all have that strength but we don’t seem to know it.

We seem to need to be challenged and tested in order to understand our own capacities.

– Swami Satchidananda

Founder of Integral Yoga and the author and translator of one of the most-read versions of The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi:

(source: tmhome.com)

Popularized Transcendental Meditation and mantra chanting in the 1960s.

(source: www.3ho.org)

Brought his version of Kundalini Yoga to the West in the late 1960s. He founded the 3HO (Happy Healthy Holy Organization), and is also the founder of the popular tea brand Yogi Tea. His appearance at Woodstock Festival in 1969 helped his teachings spread throughout the hippie era in the U.S.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama:

(source: www.dalailama.com)

Although you many not initially consider the Dalai Lama a yoga teacher, his teachings and message are indeed Yoga in practice. This great yogi from Tibet who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and has inspired many westerners to learn more about Buddhism and the Yogic Path.

What are the different types of Yoga?

Yoga is an internal practice. The rest is just a circus.

– Pattabhi Jois, Ashtanga yoga teacher

There are 4 commonly accepted Pillars of Yoga:

Raja Yoga (the Yoga of the mind and emotions)

Bhakti Yoga (the Yoga of love and devotion)

Karma Yoga (the Yoga of inspired action and service)

Jnana Yoga (the Yoga of inner wisdom and knowledge)

Of course, there is also Hatha Yoga, which has become the most widely known form of yoga practice in the West today.

Hatha Yoga’s focus is on the body and mainly on the physical postures or asanas.

The word “hatha” can be translated as “willful” or “forceful,” but also as “sun” (ha) and “moon” (tha) creating internal physical balance.

Other styles of asana-based yoga include:

Yin yoga is peculiar in that it’s a modern multi-layered practice based on ancient traditions.

Yin yoga is influenced by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Buddhist mindfulness practice, and Hindu Hatha Yoga.

Unlike most other physical styles of Yoga, in Yin Yoga poses are held in stillness for a prolonged period of time.

Also unlike other physical styles, Yin Yoga focuses on connective tissues such as ligaments and tendons and not on activating muscles.

Tantric Yoga:

Tantra Yoga arose as a response to the denial of the body and a denial of the feminine in yogic practice long, long ago.

This type of yogic practice honors the feminine (shakti) and masculine (shiva) energies within us all and aims to unite them once more through the tools such as pranayama (breathwork), mantra (sounds or syllables of vibrational power), mudra (symbolic hand gestures), yantra (geometrical visual mantras used in meditation).

Kriya yoga was made popular by Paramahansa Yogananda.

As per the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Kriya means action.

Kriya Yoga is also known as the Yoga of Action.

It’s practiced by observing three out of the five of the Niyamas (remember this is the 2nd limb of yoga, Personal Observances):

  1. Tapas – Acceptance of pain as a means of purification & self-discipline
  2. Svadhyaya – Self-study, introspection, mindfulness, & self-observation
  3. Ishvara Pranidhana – Surrender and devotion to a higher power and a higher cause

What’s the difference between Raja Yoga and Hatha Yoga?

Raja Yoga is known as the Yoga of the Mind and Emotions. Its focus is on introspection and contemplation more so than the physical aspect of asanas (poses).

The main text of Raja Yoga are the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali which outlines the 8-limbed Yogic Path.

Raja Yoga has been around longer, so think of it as the grandparent of Hatha Yoga.

Hatha Yoga is the Yoga of the Body. Its focus is on creating balance in the body and all its bio-energetic parts.

The main text of Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika.

Asana (poses) practice is the main focal point here.

Hatha Yoga is an integral part of the Raja Yoga because asana is the third limb in Patanjali’s 8-fold path.


History of Yoga

First mention of science of yoga is in ancient texts of vedas, which are more than 10000 years old. The oldest copy of vedas found is about 7500 years old. But it is believed that Vedas were orally transmitted for much longer than 10 000yrs or even more.

The Vedas were a collection of science of Mother Nature, agriculture, mathematics, astronomy, social sciences, ethics & morality, culture, arts, Ayurveda, and much more. Vedas are composed in to sacred songs, mantras and rituals which were taught during that time. Vedas have four parts, Aranyaka, Samhita, Brahman and Upanishads. In Upanishads, the first explicit references to yoga appear. Concepts of withdrawing the senses, controlling the mind, and attaining liberation are the main objectives in Upanishads.

There are four vedas, Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda
Archaeological Remains

The earliest verifiable traces of yoga date back over 5,000 years ago to the Aryan civilization in the Indus Valley. Archaeological excavations from the region uncovered numerous seals depicting a human figure sitting in a meditative position.

Ramayana

About 7000 years old, a true story of Lord Rama, is very important to the science of Yoga. The Ramayana consists of 24,000 verses and tells the story of King Rama of Ayodhya kingdom whose life is all about pain and suffering. But in this testing and difficult time, King Rama maintains his balance, lives virtuous life without compromising on principles and values of life.

All his actions are for fulfilling duties and responsibilities for others. Despite of this altruistic and unselfish life, he is happy and peaceful at every moment. This is the real idea of yoga.

Mahabaharata

Another very important true story for science of yoga is Mahabharata. It is the story of most important Yoga Master, Lord Krishna who lived about 5000 years ago. The Mahabharata is written by the Sage Vyasa, which is one of the longest known epic poems consisting of over 200,000 individual verse lines. This text includes the Bhagavad Gita, which is most relevant ancient text for yoga. Bhagavad Gita is also known as Yoga Psychology, or Science of life. It contains solutions to the problems of human life. Bhagavad Gita has inspired generations, and great civilizations who followed the teachings of Bhagavad Gita. Many wise people, seers, yoga masters regarded Gita as the most precious knowledge.

Bhagavad Gita is a dialogue between Lord Krishna who symbolises supreme consciousness and Prince Arjuna who represents human consciousness. Prince Arjuna asks questions to Lord Krishna about his problems. Arjuna is in a state of depression, and despondency. Lord Krishna helps him realise the purpose of life, meaning of life and inspires Prince Arjuna to live his life in contentment and peace. Lord Krishna explains the concepts of dharma, karma yoga, bhakti yoga and jnana yoga.

Classical Yoga – 500 BC

Very systematic processes of yoga were written by great Sage Patanjali in 500BC. He wrote Yoga Sutras to explain the process and systematic analysis of practical methods for awakening and expanding the higher faculties of mind, intellect, quality of consciousness. His path of Ashtanga yoga included yamas and niyamas, Asanas, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyan, Samadhi. Yoga Sutras are concisely packed 196 lines in Sanskrit which are divided into 4 chapters.

Post-Classical Yoga - 800 AD

Shankaracharya – A revolutionary Yoga Master who lived in 800 AD, reenergized the yoga culture. He united various yoga traditions, sorted the ideological differences and gave science of yoga a wider appeal. He wrote commentaries on Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads, Vedant philosophy, which are wonderful insights in to science of yoga. He founded the tradition of Swami Sannyasa or monks who played a very positive role in society after that.

(Hatha Yoga) 600 AD - 1500 AD

Hatha Yoga, the most popular tradition of yoga was developed during 600 to 1500 AD. Hatha Yoga focuses on strengthening and purification of body – mind. Harmony of body and mind is the main objective and is achieved by practice of asanas, cleansing, pranayama, mudras, bandhas. Hatha yoga was founded by Sage Matsyendranath and Gorakhnath. This form of yoga was more practical and helped everyone improve their health.

Modern Times 1890's

In the late 19th century, yoga started traveling to the west. The first of the masters was Swami Vivekananda who wowed the audience at a lecture on yoga in Chicago in 1897. He was a disciple of Ramakrishna Paramhansa from Kolkata in india. Swami Vivekananda was a sannyasi (monk) and he presented the true picture of science of yoga and convinced intellectuals in the west about importance of yoga for humanity. His lectures on Bhagavad Gita, Karma Yoga, Ashtanga yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga are real inspirations to every yoga follower. He founded an organization Ramkrishna Mission which works for keeping the pure spiritual traditions of yoga alive and to uplift the society.


During the centuries in which Buddhism was establishing itself in the east of India, the older Brahmanism in the west was undergoing the changes which resulted in the Hinduism which is now the prevailing religion of India. The main ancient sources of information with regard to these Hindu beliefs and practises are the two great epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The former is a highly artificial production based on legend and ascribed to one man, Valmiki. The latter, a "huge conglomeration of stirring adventure, legend, myth, history, and superstition," is a composite production, begun probably as early as the fourth or fifth century before Christ, and completed by the end of the sixth century of our era. It represents many strata of religious belief.

The Bhagavad-Gita," of which a translation is here given, occurs as an episode in the Mahabharata, and is regarded as one of the gems of Hindu literature. The poem is a dialogue between Prince Arjuna, the brother of King Yudhisthira, and Vishnu, the Supreme God, incarnated as Krishna, and wearing the disguise of a charioteer. The conversation takes place in a war-chariot, stationed between the armies of the Kauravas and Pandavas, who are about to engage in battle.

To the Western reader much of the discussion seems childish and illogical but these elements are mingled with passages of undeniable sublimity. Many of the more puzzling inconsistencies are due to interpolations by later re-writers. "It is," says Hopkins, "a medley of beliefs as to the relation of spirit and matter, and other secondary matters it is uncertain in its tone in regard to the comparative efficacy of action and inaction, and in regard to the practical man's means of salvation but it is at one with itself in its fundamental thesis, that all things are each a part of one Lord, that men and gods are but manifestations of the One Divine Spirit."


The History of the Bhagavad Gita

The following article on the history of the Bhagavad-gita is presented on Sri Gita Jayanti, the 5144th anniversary of Sri Krsna speaking the Gitopanisad/Bhagavad-gita.

Since time immemorial, Srimad Bhagavad Gita has been a prime source of inspiration for many great thinkers and philosophers in both the east and the west. In ancient times, the first commentary on the Gita was written by Adi Shankara, who was the first acarya to treat it as a freestanding text. Subsequently, other great acaryas such as Ramanuja, Madhva, Sridhara Svami and others wrote commentaries on the Gita that presented its essential devotional significance, in stark contrast to Adi Shankara’s impersonal interpretation.

In the western world, Srimad Bhagavad Gita has been highly appreciated by erudite scholars and philosophers such as Henry David Thoreau, Friedrich Schlegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Carl Jung and Herman Hesse. Upon reading the Gita, the famous American transcendentalist, Ralph Waldo Emerson commented:

“I owed a magnificent day to Bhagavad Gita. It was the first of books it was if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us.” (Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson)

Originally, Srimad Bhagavad Gita is part of the ancient historical epic, the Mahabharata, composed by the great sage Vyasa in approximately 3100 BCE. The eighteen chapters of Bhagavad Gita are found within the Sixth Canto of the Mahabharata known as the Bhishma-parva, which altogether contains 117 chapters. Initially Vyasa wrote the 8,800 core verses of the Mahabharata and later his disciples Vaishampayana and Suta added further historical details until the Mahabharata finally consisted of 100,000 verses – seven times the size of Homer’s Illiad and fifteen times the size of the King James Bible.

The word Mahabharata means ‘The History of Greater India’ and recounts the story of two feuding royal families, the Pandavas (the sons of Pandu) and their cousins, the Kauravas (the sons of Dhrtarashtra). Both Pandu and his brother Dhrtarashtra belonged to the royal Kuru Dynasty of Hastinapura (modern day Delhi). Although Dhrtarashtra was the elder of the two, he was born blind and so the throne was passed on to Pandu, who became the heir-apparent.

However Pandu died untimely, leaving five children – Yudhishthira, Arjuna, Bhima, Nakula and Sahadeva. While the Pandavas were still young, their uncle Dhrtarashtra assumed the throne as regent until they were of age to rule the kingdom. Yet due to his excessive paternal attachment, Dhrtarashtra schemed that his own sons, led by the corrupt Duryodhana, would ascend the imperial throne. To this end, and with the consent of his father, Duryodhana made several assassination attempts upon the lives of the Pandavas. Despite the wise counsel of his grandfather Bhishma, his uncle Vidura and his military teacher Drona, Duryodhana continued to plot against his cousins. Yet, due to the protection of Sri Krsna, the Pandavas were able to foil all his murderous attempts.

Historically speaking, Sri Krsna was the nephew of Pandu’s wife Queen Kunti and was thus the cousin of the Pandavas. However, Krsna was not simply a royal prince, but the Supreme Person Himself who had descended to earth to perform His pastimes and to establish the principles of dharma. Due to their righteous behavior, Sri Krsna always favored the Pandavas.

After numerous failed murder attempts, Duryodhana finally challenged the Pandavas to a rigged game of dice. Duryodhana cheated and won the game, and the Pandavas lost their kingdom. The result was that the Pandavas were forced into exile for thirteen years.

After completing their thirteen years of exile, the Pandavas returned to the capital and requested Duryodhana to return their rightful kingdom. When the proud Duryodhana flatly refused, they requested him to at least give them five villages to rule over. At this Duryodhana curtly remarked that he would not even give them enough land in which to drive a pin.

Although the Pandavas sent Sri Krsna as an ambassador to sue for peace, Duryodhana blatantly refused to listen. War was now inevitable.

Rulers as far west as Syria and as far east as China came to take part in the battle – some supporting the Kauravas due to their political designs, and others favoring the Pandavas due to their piety. During this fratricidal war, Krsna stated that He would not take up arms for either side, but accepted the position as Arjuna’s charioteer. Thus, in the month of December, in 3138 BCE, both armies assembled on the planes of the holy place known as Kuruksetra.

The significance of Kuruksetra is related in the Vamana Purana that narrates how the virtuous king Kuru, the ancestral patriarch of the Pandava and Kaurava Dynasty, performed rigorous austerities at Kuruksetra. Because of this act, Kuru was given two blessings – firstly that Kuruksetra would be named after Kuru and secondly, that anyone who died at Kuruksetra would attain the celestial planets.

Bhagavad Gita is spoken on the first day of the war at Kuruksetra. As the two armies prepare to fight, the blind Dhrtarashtra sits in his court with his faithful servant Sanjaya and inquires from him as to what the virtuous Pandavas are doing. Sanjaya, a disciple of the great sage Vyasa, had been blessed with the mystic power to observe the conflict far from the battlefield at the palace in Hastinapura. Sanjaya then narrates to the old emperor the sacred conversation between Shri Krishna and Arjuna. Thus Srimad Bhagavad Gita was received by Sanjaya and repeated to Dhrtarashtra for the spiritual benefit of all humanity.


CHRONOLOGICAL LIST

Charles Wilkins. The Bhagavat-gēētā, or Dialogues of Kreeshna and Arjoon, in Eighteen Lectures with Notes. London: C. Nourse.

First scholarly English translation, in continuous prose.

Letter of endorsement by Warren Hastings. Translator&rsquos preface and notes.

J. Cockburn Thomson. Bhagavad-gita or, The Sacred Lay, a Colloquy between Krishna and Arjuna on Divine Matters. Hertford, UK: Stephen Austin.

Historical and scholarly orientation. Continuous prose translation with explanatory footnotes.

Lengthy historical introduction on schools of Indian philosophical thought.

John Davies. Hindu Philosophy: The Bhagavad gītā, or the Sacred Lay, a Sanskrit Philosophical Poem, the English and Foreign Philosophical Library. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co.

Historical and scholarly orientation. Verse-by-verse prose translation with &ldquophilological notes&rdquo for each chapter.

Introduction along with appendix discussing date of text and possibility of Christian influence on its composition.

Kashinath Trimbak Telang. The Bhagavadgītā with the Sanatsugātīya and the Anugītā. Vol 8 of Sacred Books of the East. Edited by M. Muller. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Scholarly orientation. Continuous prose translation with footnotes.

Historical introduction. Volume also includes two other philosophical portions of the Mahābhārata.

Edwin Arnold. The Song Celestial or, Bhagavad-gītā (from the Mahābhārata). Boston: Roberts Brothers.

Poetic orientation. Verse translation in continuous unrhymed iambic pentameter.

Swami Abhedananda. Bhagavad Gītā: The Divine Message. 2 vols. New York: Ramakrishna Vedanta Math.

Sri Aurobindo [Ghose]. The Message of the Gita. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram Trust.

Religious and philosophical orientation. Verse-by-verse prose translation: Devanagari and translation with notes drawn from his Essays on the Gita.

Franklin Edgerton. The Bhagavad gītā. Harvard Oriental Series. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Scholarly orientation. Verse-by-verse translation in quatrains (corresponding to quarters of Sanskrit shlokas) with Sanskrit text in transliteration on opposing pages. Volume 2 includes lengthy interpretation of Gita in historical contexts and Arnold&rsquos Song Celestial.

Swami Nikhilananda. The Bhagavad Gita. New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center.

Advaita Vedanta philosophical orientation. Verse-by-verse prose translation with commentary based mainly on Shankara&rsquos Advaita commentary. Introduction and brief overview of the Mahabharata. Glossary.

Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood. Bhagavad Gita: The Song of God. Hollywood: Marcel Rodd Co.

Vedanta and literary orientation. Translation in mixture of verse and prose.

Introduction by Aldous Huxley. Appendixes on cosmology and &ldquoThe Gita and War&rdquo by Isherwood.

Mahadev Desai. The Gospel of Selfless Action, or the Gita according to Gandhi. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.

Gandhian orientation. Verse-by-verse prose translation: Devanagari and translation with bracketed commentary by Desai adhering to Gandhi&rsquos Gujarati translation. Lengthy introduction by Desai. &ldquoAnasaktiyoga&rdquo by Gandhi.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. The Bhagavadgītā. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers.

Vedanta philosophical orientation. Verse-by-verse prose translation: transliteration, translation, and brief comments.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Bhagavad-Gita: Chapters 1&ndash6. London: International SRM Publications.

Religious orientation. Verse-by-verse translation into varied lines of verse: Devanagari, translation, and commentary based mainly on Shankara.

Brief introduction. Appendixes on transcendental meditation and other topics.

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami [Swami Prabhupada]. The Bhagavad Gita As It Is. New York: Macmillan Company.

Vaishnava devotional orientation. Verse-by-verse prose translation: Devanagari, transliteration, word-by-word gloss, translation, and commentary.

Swami Vidyaprakashananda. Gita Makaranda. Kalahasti, Andhra Pradesh: Sri Suka Brahma Ashram. First published 1963.

Religious orientation. Verse-by-verse prose translation: Devanagari, transliteration, word gloss, &ldquosubstance&rdquo (translation), and commentary.

J.A.B. Van Buitenen. The Bhagavadgītā in the Mahābhārata. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Scholarly orientation. Translation in continuous prose with some interspersed verse. Transliterated Sanskrit text on opposing pages.

Translation of several Mahābhārata chapters before and after the Gītā proper.

Scholarly and historical introduction.

Barbara Stoler Miller. The Bhagavad-Gita: Krishna&rsquos Counsel in Time of War. New York: Bantam Books.

Combined scholarly and poetic orientation. Verse-by-verse translation in quatrains.

Introduction. Afterword on Thoreau and the Gītā.

Glossary of key Sanskrit terms.

A. Parthasarathy. Śrīmad Bhagavad Gītā. 3 vols. Bombay: Vakil and Sons Ltd.

Advaita Vedanta philosophical orientation. Verse-by-verse translation: Devanagari, transliteration, word-by-word gloss, translation, and commentary.

Stephen Mitchell. Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Poetic orientation. Verse-by-verse translation in loose trimester quatrain.

Laurie Patton. The Bhagavad Gita. London: Penguin Books.

Combined scholarly and poetic orientation. Verse-by-verse translation in octaves.


The Hidden Truths in the Bhagavad Gita


The timeless and universal message of the Gita is all-encompassing in its expression of truth.

Bhagavad Gita means "Song of the Spirit," the divine communion of truth-realization between man and his Creator, the teachings of Spirit through the soul, that should be sung unceasingly…. The underlying essential truths of all great world scriptures can find common amity in the infinite wisdom of the Gita's mere 700 concise verses.

The entire knowledge of the cosmos is packed into the Gita. Supremely profound, yet couched in revelatory language of solacing beauty and simplicity, the Gita has been understood and applied on all levels of human endeavor and spiritual striving—sheltering a vast spectrum of human beings with their disparate natures and needs. Wherever one is on the way back to God, the Gita will shed its light on that segment of the journey.

Cracking the Code of the Gita's Yogic Symbolism and Allegory

The ancient sacred writings do not clearly distinguish history from symbology rather, they often intermix the two in the tradition of scriptural revelation. Prophets would pick up instances of the everyday life and events of their times and from them draw similes to express subtle spiritual truths. Divine profundities would not otherwise be conceivable by the ordinary man unless defined in common terms. When, as they often did, scriptural prophets wrote in more recondite metaphors and allegories, it was to conceal from ignorant, spiritually unprepared minds the deepest revelations of Spirit.

Thus, in a language of simile, metaphor, and allegory, the Bhagavad Gita was very cleverly written by Sage Vyasa by interweaving historical facts with psychological and spiritual truths, presenting a word-painting of the tumultuous inner battles that must be waged by both the material and the spiritual man. In the hard shell of symbology, he hid the deepest spiritual meanings to protect them from the devastation of the ignorance of the Dark Ages toward which civilization was descending concurrent with the end of Sri Krishna's incarnation on earth.

The words of Lord Krishna to Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita are at once a profound scripture on the science of yoga, union with God, and a textbook for everyday living. The student is led step by step with Arjuna from the mortal consciousness of spiritual doubt and weakheartedness to divine attunement and inner resolve.

The Bhagavad Gita—a comprehensive metaphysical and psychological treatise—describes all experiences that will come to the spiritual traveler on the path of emancipation…. the positive states the devotee is striving toward [and] the negative states that try to intimidate the devotee and turn him from his goal. "Forewarned is forearmed!" The devotee who understands the route he must travel will never feel unsure or dismayed at inevitable opposition.

The Spiritual Battle and Ultimate Victory in Everyday Life

The timeless message of the Bhagavad Gita does not refer only to one historical battle, but to the cosmic conflict between good and evil: life as a series of battles between Spirit and matter, soul and body, life and death, knowledge and ignorance, health and disease, changelessness and transitoriness, self-control and temptations, discrimination and the blind sense-mind.

The devotee should analyze his daily mental and physical actions to determine just how much of his life is ruled by the ego's ignorance (delusion) and body consciousness, and how much he is able to express of the soul's wisdom and divine nature.

Yoga meditation is the process of cultivating and stabilizing the awareness of one's real nature, through definite spiritual and psychophysical methods and laws by which the narrow ego, the flawed hereditary human consciousness, is displaced by the consciousness of the soul.

Each person has to fight his own battle of Kurukshetra. It is a war not only worth winning, but in the divine order of the universe and of the eternal relationship between the soul and God, a war that sooner or later must be won.

In the holy Bhagavad Gita, the quickest attainment of that victory is assured to the devotee who, through undiscourageable practice of the divine science of yoga meditation, learns like Arjuna to hearken to the inner wisdom-song of Spirit.

The Gita's Balanced Path: Meditation Plus Right Activity

[Lord Krishna's] life demonstrates the ideal not of renunciation of action—which is a conflicting doctrine for man circumscribed by a world whose life breath is activity—but rather the renunciation of earth-binding desires for the fruits of action.… Man should so train his mind by constant meditation that he can perform the necessary dutiful actions of his daily life and still maintain the consciousness of God within.

Sri Krishna's message in the Bhagavad Gita is the perfect answer for the modern age, and any age: Yoga of dutiful action, of nonattachment, and of meditation for God-realization. To work without the inner peace of God is Hades and to work with His joy ever bubbling through the soul is to carry a portable paradise within, wherever one goes.

The path advocated by Sri Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita is the moderate, medium, golden path, both for the busy man of the world and for the highest spiritual aspirant. To follow the path advocated by the Bhagavad Gita would be their salvation, for it is a book of universal Self-realization, introducing man to his true Self, the soul—showing him how he has evolved from Spirit, how he may fulfill on earth his righteous duties, and how he may return to God. The Gita's wisdom is not for dry intellectualists to perform mental gymnastics with its sayings for the entertainment of dogmatists but rather to show a man or woman living in the world, householder or renunciant, how to live a balanced life that includes the actual contact of God, by following the step-by-step methods of yoga.

The Eternal Science of Raja Yoga

In the beginning of creation and the advent of man, the Infinite impregnated His intelligent creative Cosmic Energy (Maha-Prakriti or Holy Ghost) with not only the power of repulsion—the individualizing of Cosmic Consciousness into souls and a universe of matter—but also with the power of recalling souls from their prodigal wanderings in matter back to unity with Spirit. All things come from, are made of and sustained by, and ultimately resolve into this intelligent Cosmic Energy, and thence into Spirit. Ascension follows in reverse the exact course of descension. In man, that course is the inner highway to the Infinite, the only route to divine union for followers of all religions in all ages. By whatever bypath of beliefs or practices a being reaches that singular highway, the final ascension from body consciousness to Spirit is the same for everyone: the withdrawal of life and consciousness from the senses upward through the gates of light in the subtle cerebrospinal centers, dissolving the consciousness of matter into life force, life force into mind, mind into soul, and soul into Spirit. The method of ascension is Raja Yoga, the eternal science that has been integral in creation from its inception.

The Kriya Yoga technique, taught by Krishna to Arjuna and referred to in Gita chapters IV:29 and V:27–28, is the supreme spiritual science of yoga meditation. Secreted during the materialistic ages, this indestructible yoga was revived for modern man by Mahavatar Babaji and taught by the Gurus of Self-Realization Fellowship/Yogoda Satsanga Society of India. Babaji himself ordained me to spread this holy science of God-union.

Any devotee who will emulate Arjuna—epitome of the ideal disciple—and perform his rightful duty with nonattachment, and perfect his practice of yoga meditation through a technique such as Kriya Yoga, will similarly draw the blessings and guidance of God and win the victory of Self-realization.

As God talked with Arjuna, so will He talk with you. As He lifted up the spirit and consciousness of Arjuna, so will He uplift you. As He granted Arjuna supreme spiritual vision, so will He confer enlightenment on you.

We have seen in the Bhagavad Gita the story of the soul's journey back to God—a journey each one must make. O divine soul! like Arjuna, "Forsake this small weakheartedness (of mortal consciousness). Arise!" Before you is the royal path.