Bird Haniwa


The Haniwa ( 埴輪 ? ) are terracotta clay [2] [3] figures which were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th centuries AD) of the history of Japan. Haniwa were created according to the wazumi technique, in which mounds of coiled clay were built up to shape the figure, layer by layer. [4]

The Haniwa were made with water-based clay and dried into a coarse and absorbent material that stood the test of time. Their name means “circle of clay” referring to how they were arranged in a circle above the tomb. The protruding parts of the figures were made separately and then attached, while a few things were carved into them. They were smoothed out by a wooden paddle. Earth terraces were arranged to place them with a cylindrical base into the ground, where the earth would hold them in place.

During the Kofun period, a highly aristocratic society with militaristic rulers developed. The cavalry wore iron armor, carried swords and other weapons, and used advanced military methods like those of Northeast Asia. Many of them are represented in haniwa figurines for funerary purposes.

The most important of the haniwa were found in southern Honshū—especially the Kinai region around Nara—and northern Kyūshū. Haniwa grave offerings were made in numerous forms, such as horses, chickens, birds, fans, fish, houses, weapons, shields, sunshades, pillows, and male and female humans. Besides decorative and spiritual reasons of protecting the deceased in his afterlife, these figures also served as a sort of retaining wall for the burial mound.

Because these haniwa display the contemporary clothing, hairstyle, farming tools, and architecture, these sculptures are important as a historical archive of the Kofun Period.

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About the exhibition

Consisting of eight theme-based sections, the exhibition displays wonderfully expressive art with animal motifs from as long ago as the 5th and 6th centuries all the way up to modern times, including depictions of animals by contemporary artists. Featuring mythical creatures as well as real animals not native to Japan, such as lions and elephants, which Japan learned about from China and far away India through trade and the introduction of Buddhism, the exhibition covers a broad range, spanning national borders, eras, genres, and media.

We sincerely hope that a large audience will enjoy getting to know the animals that have been companions of the Japanese people since ancient times, and leave the exhibition with an increased interest in the culture that underlies this art.

Exhibition structure and key exhibits

This show consists of the following eight sections. (Section titles are working titles.)


Haniwa Waterfowl
Kofun period, c. 5th century
Tokyo National Museum

Haniwa were made and placed on burial mounds during the Kofun period. Depicting a variety of things, including people and animals as well as houses and shields, they are thought to have been used in combination to reenact stories or ceremonies.
Haniwa depicting animals, together with those depicting people, were made in abundance in the 6th century, and were generally shaped in the form of chickens, waterfowl, falcons, cormorants, and other birds, as well as dogs, wild boars, cattle, deer, and horses. Although fewer in number, haniwa depicting fish, monkeys, and flying squirrels have also been found.

Twelve Zodiac Animals

Twelve Zodiac Animals at War
Edo period, 1840
Tokyo National Museum

The twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac are calendar terms that originated in ancient China. They were also used to represent the twelve-hour clock, points on the compass, and the twelve-year cycle Jupiter makes in the heavens as seen from earth. Ancient astronomers divided the course Jupiter takes through the sky into twelve sections, assigning one of the characters of the Chinese zodiac to each. This enabled people to determine which year it was based on Jupiter’s position. The system would eventually be adopted by Japan. At some point—some speculate that it was during the Han Dynasty—the characters representing each of the years in the twelve-year zodiac cycle became associated with ordinary animals, resulting in the current system in which each symbolizes an animal—rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, and boar.

Religion: Buddhism, Zen, Shinto

Pair of Guardian Lions
Heian period, 10th century
Collection of Lynda and Stewart Resnick

One of the most familiar animal statues in Japan is the komainu , a stone-carved guardian dog found at the gates of Shinto shrines. Although the origins of this statue can be traced back to distant locations in Western Asia and India, the shape and name of komainu statues in Japan stem from Japan&rsquos adoption of a variant that was merged with a mythical Chinese animal. Although these statues are typically placed so that they are oriented towards each other but facing straight ahead towards the approach to the shrine, these particular komainu are thought to have been placed at an angle.

Shaka Passing into Nirvana
Edo period, 1727
Seiraiji, Aichi Prefecture

When Buddhism came to Japan, it brought with it images of animals from India and China that did not exist in Japan, such as lions, elephants, and water buffalo. The arrival of mythical creatures from China, such as the Chinese dragon and phoenix, however, preceded the introduction of Buddhism. These creatures were, therefore, already well established in Japanese society, and can often be seen featured in designs on plates and clothing. One of the most frequent depictions of animals was in the nehanzu images of the supine Buddha entering nirvana. In these scenes portraying the passing of Buddha being mourned by a variety of living beings, animals are shown situated beneath Buddha&rsquos disciples and believers. Some images even include creatures such as crabs, frogs, and centipedes.

Kōen, Monju Bosatsu Seated on a Lion, with Standing Attendants
Kamakura period, 1273
Tokyo National Museum

The origins of this grouping of Manjushri (Monju Bodhisattva) seated on a lion with four standing attendants emerged from the belief in the sacred Mount Wutai in China, considered the earthly abode of Manjushri. Waves are shown below the rock the lion stands on because Japanese worshippers believed Manjushri crossed the seas from Mount Wutai to come to Japan.

Many images of Manjushri seated on a lion are shown as part of the Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism, in which Manjushri together with fellow bodhisattva Samantabhadra, seated on an elephant, flank Gautama Buddha.

Myth and folklore

Kawanabe Kyōsai, Monster Cat from Seisei Kyōsai Picture Album
Edo–Meiji periods, before 1870
Private collection

Animals are sometimes incorporated into amusing stories in order to personify or caricaturize someone or something as a metaphor or to convey a moral. The artist Kawanabe Kyosai(1831-1889) was proud of his skill at depicting animals, and although little is known about the story behind this painting, the depiction of the cat is unforgettably intense.

Muromachi period, 14th century

The phoenix is a mythical bird from Chinese folklore that is said to appear when a wise man rules the realm. This phoenix adorned the top of the roof of the Golden Pavilion in Kyoto, which was built by the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu in 1398. It was removed during repairs to the Golden Pavilion during the Meiji period and left in storage, and, therefore, escaped the fire that burned down the pavilion in 1950. Originally, it would have been a shiny gold color, like the Golden Pavilion itself.

Nara Yoshitomo, Harmless Kitty
Heisei period, 1994
National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo

Yoshitomo Nara is known for producing paintings depicting children who seem to glare at the viewer. This child appears to be something between a human and an animal, giving the impression that Nara is fascinated by the close relationship between the two.

Uchikake with Phoenix and Birds
Meiji period, 19th century
Kyoto National Museum

This yuzen-dyed uchikake outer robe depicting a large number of birds ( momodorizu ) was made as the wedding gown for the daughter of a wealthy Osaka merchant. Centered prominently on the back is a phoenix with wings spread out wide, surrounded by 99 birds, including a peacock, dove, pheasant, parrot, chicken, and quail. Inside the robe is a sunrise and a red-crowned crane.

The World of the Samurai

Suit of Armor with Dark Blue and Red Lacing
Edo period, 18th century
Okazaki City Museum

Among the armor and weapons expressing the aesthetic sense of samurai warriors, many masterpieces were produced that incorporated animal designs.

This suit of armor belonged to Honda Tadataka (1698-1709), who became head of the Murakami Domain in Echigo Province (modern-day Niigata Prefecture) at the age of seven. Tadataka&rsquos ancestor, Honda Tadakatsu (1548-1610), was a general who served Tokugawa Ieyasu, and whose helmet with deer antlers was very famous. Some Edo period feudal lords marked their rise to the head of their clan by emulating the shape or characteristics of their ancestor&rsquos armor in their own armor. This suit of armor is an example of such a practice.

Owari School, Sword Guard with Crab
Muromachi period, 16th century
Tokyo National Museum

From around the 16th century, samurai wore their long and short swords through the left side of the belt of their hakama trousers with the blade facing up, and it was right around this time that sword guards of various designs began to be made. This particular sword guard has a bold composition depicting nothing but a crab with large raised claws in the middle of a circle, and with the background completely cut out. The meticulous and refined technology used for making sword guards and other metal fittings for swords became the basis for modern craftsmanship in the Meiji period onwards.

Helmet Shaped like a Turbo Shell and Half Mask
Edo period, 17th century
Tokyo National Museum

Demand for suits of armor increased dramatically at the end of the 16th century, when infantry lines armed with spears and firearms were central to the art of war. Producing an iconoclastic helmet design became the subject of competition, and various forms became fashionable. These were referred to as tosei kabuto (&ldquomodern helmets&rdquo) or kawari kabuto (&ldquodistinctive helmets&rdquo). Helmets that were actually used in battle were of simple design and made of materials that would break on impact with the branch of a tree, but once the era of long, stable peace was established in the middle of the 17th century, very unusual helmets boasting great craftsmanship came to be made in large numbers. This headpiece, modelled after a turban shell, channels the hardness of the shell and its horns.

The Study of Nature

Charger with Elephant
Edo period, 19th century
Segawa Takeo

The study of animals through observation and realistic representation became a popular pastime in the 18th and 19th centuries.

A large Imari ware plate from the late Edo period, well over 30 centimeters wide. Such plates had previously been considered no more than ordinary tableware in general use, but they are now being reevaluated. Expanding the potential of simple ransai pottery through the use of cobalt pigment during the time of the middle to late Edo period when the government often issued decrees prohibiting extravagance in order to promote frugality, the plates demonstrate a pure form of the edogonomi aesthetic, which prioritized the removal of unnecessary distractions from the main focus or subject. This plate depicting a giant white elephant would probably have served as the centerpiece of a festive banquet.

The Nature World: On Land, in the Air, and in Rivers and Seas

ManabuMiyazaki, Black Bear Plays with Camera
Heisei period, 2006
Izu Photo Museum

Human interest in animals that live in a broad range of environments is growing. How has our view of animals changed?

Since the 1970s, Miyazaki Manabu has been photographing animals using an automatic camera set up outdoors that operates 24 hours a day. In front of the mechanical eye of a camera, free from feelings of caution, animals display a nobility that they never would show when face to face with people. However, this image of a bear acting like a cameraman also reveals something very human.

Itō Jakuchū, Pair of Cranes and Morning Sun
Edo period, c. 1755–1756
Tekisuiken Memorial Foundation of Culture

Many pictures of flowers and birds carry a meaning of good omen, and are typically exhibited at festive occasions. The rising sun depicted in this picture represents a New Year&rsquos Day sunrise, with both the crane and the evergreen pine tree symbolizing long life.

The World of Leisure

Kyōgen Monkey Mask
Edo period, 17th–18th century
Tokyo National Museum

This section presents designs featuring humorous animal depictions used to parody authority and representations of charming animals that were used in the performing arts.

The life of a Kyogen actor is said to start by portraying a monkey and end by portraying a fox, and actors often do play a monkey in Utsubo-zaru (&ldquoThe Monkey's Quiver&rdquo) when appearing on stage for the first time. Child actors are a good choice for this because Utsubo-zaru deals with a feudal lord whose heart is moved by the innocence of a monkey who performs tricks. Other plays, such as Saru Muko (&ldquoMonkey Son-in-law&rdquo), have many monkey parts, so numerous monkey masks remain.


Editors: Robert T. Singer, Masatomo Kawai
Published by Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford
First published in May 2019
Total pages: 323 pages
Languages: English
Book size: 9 x 12 in.
ISBN: 978-0-691-19116-4 (hardcover)/978-0-89468-413-5 (softcover)
Price: $65.00 (hardcover)/$39.95(softcover)

The Relations Between Sutra Mounds and Social and Religious Movements in Japan from the 10th to 12th Centuries


The sutra mound built by the nun Hoyaku at Oku-no-In on Mt. Koya has three main characteristics: (1) for a sutra mound built by a woman it contains extremely high quality objects (2) the stated strong desire that, under the divine protection of Kukai, it would encounter the future coming of the Maitreya and be placed under the grace of the Buddha and (3) the existence of the philosophy of nirvana. The author considers Hoyaku as Chugu Atsuko Naishinno, wife of the Emperor Horikawa, and argues that the mound was built as a memorial service for the Emperor, the sutras being buried shortly before the death of the empress. It can be presumed that this rare support for Maitreya beliefs derived from the particular ardent belief of those who cherished the memory of the emperor that they would be able to meet him again in the event of the coming of the Maitreya. The empress was a devout Buddhist who also accepted popular Buddhist beliefs.

It is rare that the identity of a person who erected a sutra mound is known in many cases we also have no clues as to the beliefs of that person. On the other hand, there are a few cases where sutra mounds are known to have been built by individuals such as Fujiwara-no-Michinaga, Fujiwara-no-Moromichi and the retired emperor Shirakawa for whom there is a massive quantity of available information. If we consider Hoyaku's Oku-no-In sutra mound as having been built by the Horikawa Empress, then we have another such example of an identifiable mound. The custom of erecting sutra mounds began with Michinaga burying sutras on Mt. Kinpu. These four individuals all belonged to the highest level of society. Michinaga lived a few decades earlier, but the other three were all closely related. Political power was concentrated in the hands of Michinaga and retired emperor Shirakawa who consequently held practical, worldly beliefs in contrast, the Horikawa Empress clearly had beliefs that negated the mundane and it is interesting that such popular ideas should have also spread to the highest echelons of society.

The priest Saichu who practiced on Mt. Hiei emphasized that everyone has the potential to achieve Buddhahood. Michinaga's great-grandfather and grandfather had used their marital relations with the imperial family to strengthen their political power. At the same time, their financial support for Mt. Hiei increased their influence over the priests there. The political power of these Sekkanke Regents reached its peak during the time of Michinaga who built sutra mounds based on the beliefs found on Mt. Hiei. The Regents were opposed by the imperial family who took back power during the time of the Emperor Go-Sanjo. In the following generation, retired emperor Shirakawa followed Michinaga's custom and buried sutras on Mt. Kinpu he later became passionate about Kumano shrine and his grandson Toba also placed sutras in that shrine.

The Pure Land sect and nirvana beliefs that supported the construction of sutra mounds were popular movements that grew mainly through the proselytism of hijiri (holy men). In the Kyoto area, these hijiri were based in the holy parts of Rakuhoku and traveled between the believers in Kyoto and the main temples of Mt. Hiei and the southern capital. Within this wide area of operations, there are also examples of hijiri traveling between Kyoto and shoen estates and between different estates owned by the same landowner. These beliefs and practices spread both geographically and socially and gradually developed into Kamakura Buddhism.


Heian Buddhism, sutra mounds, Mt. Hiei

4. Towering tumuli of the Kofun era

The Kofun era lasted from AD 250 – 538. This era is marked by the feverish fad of tumuli-building activity that began in Japan from around late 3rd century which did not end till AD 710.

Inariyama burial mound (120 meters), mid late 5th century, Saitama Prefecture (above:plane view below:aerial view)

Large to very large tumuli known as kofun in Japanese, were built for prominent deceased elite rulers and kings. There are about 30,000 known Kofun tomb mounds. Over 5,000 of these can still be visited in Japan today.

OZlab: Map of kofun larger than 100 meters in Japan

Along with the tumuli today has been uncovered evidence of an amazing culture of the kofun mound-builders. The irrigation techniques of the day were extremely advanced the construction techniques for building the tombs were mind-blowing and as the tombs got more massive and monumental in size, so did the treasures within them – the technology for all these achievements is attributed to influences from the Asian continent.

The period is protohistoric, which means that while Japan didn’t yet have its own written language, there were historical records and chronicles by neighboring peoples on the Chinese continent and the Korean peninsula, snatches of which, described events and happenings of the Kofun period.

Sometime during the Kofun period, emerged the first state in Japan – Yamato, though experts argue among themselves over exactly when Yamato became a centralized state.

The last two centuries of the Kofun period is known as the Asuka period when Buddhism teachings and art arrived and proliferated throughout the land, with Asuka city as the center of Buddhist enlightenment. Buddhism along with a new administrative and bureaucratic system were introduced by large numbers of incoming toraijin immigrants mainly from the Korean peninsula most of whom came to stay on and integrated with the Yamato society.

However, the spread of the Buddhist religion and the ensuing temple-building activities requisitioned all he labour and efforts previously expended on building large tumuli so the Kofun culture came to an end.


no Chinese documents on events in Japan

mound tombs common in Kinki and coastal Seto Naikai

Wa defeats Paekche and Silla, and battles with Koguryo

the “mysterious” five kings of Wa — San, Chin, Sei, Kou and Bu — send regular emissaries to China

massive kofun being built everywhere

writing on iron sword in the Inariyama Kofun in Saitama Pref., saying that the nation was already unified

groups of small kofun appear in Kinki

the first register of immigrants was made

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43 responses to &ldquo 4. Towering tumuli of the Kofun era &rdquo

I am extremely interested in Kofun and the entire era, and earlier.

I tavel to Japan, but few Japanese know anything about the very kofun which are located all around them.

I hope to see the kofun in Okayama, and Sakai-City in May of 2009, and hopefully I can also go to Saitobaru in Kyushu then, or in the Fall.

Happy to hear from any interested in Japanm, ancient or modern.

Nice to meet you here, Kerry. I’m CharlyPanda. All of Japanese tumuli have their roots in Buryatia. Fancy Square Platform Burial, or Corner Ramped Platform Burial to the north of Okayama, Izumo, has its root in Angarariver region of Buryatia and others have their roots in Transbaikal Palace Burial, and both of them belong to Slabstone (Menhir fenced cemetry) Culture of Buryatia, paralell to Xiajiandian Lower Culture.

Correct to: parallel to Xiajiadian Upper Culture.
Sorry for misstyping.

I have an information that Irkutsk researchers discovered “Tevsh Culture” with Fancy Square Grave around Mt. Tevsh in Gobi Altai, birthplace of famous Sumo wrestler Harumafuji.

More exactly, it was in the middle of these wreslers’ birthplaces and closer to Upper Xiajiadian Culture, in time scale as well,
Mt. Tevsh Uul

According to this website Archaeology and Landscape in the Altai mountains of Mongolia, one gallery of images shows two clearly keyhole mounds from the Bronze Age at Tsagaan Salaa and at Tsagaan Asgat … which has possible fascinating implications … although these are nowhere near the size or sophistication of kofun structures in Japan. Some of the standing stones and stone circles also resemble the ones in Japan though those seem to have been made at a later time than the ones in Japan.

Do you have a more specific reference and more details? In volume 7 of Silk Road, there are good sections with detailed drawings and photos of Xiongnu culture’s Shombuuziin-belchir cemetery and 1st century Noyon uul cemetery complex of burial graves, the coffins and burial goods. The slab graves and coffin techniques, and ear-rings do look similar to some of those found in Japan, but the bronze bells differ considerably in shape, size and material. I also need to compare the patterns on the coffins / bronze mirror / and bows with those in the photos in my possession to know what to make of those though. Another resource on slab grave culture is Slab graves

The ancestors to Slabstone culture, Glazkov Culture shows a unique burial of putting coffins along the riverside. The Yayoi immigrants Doigahama people also buried deceased along waterfront of Sea of Japan, at westernmost Honshu. They were archaic and pulled certain tooth off for ritual. There are many ancient deer worship shrines and some poem dedicated to deer queen-godess nearby Northern Kyushu as well, the cult of deer is a typical feature of Buryats.

In Angara river region of Buryatia, archaeologists found ancient necklace of female Siberian deer teeth, implying exsistence of Quenn Deer Cult which is also mentionedc in ancient Japanese poem. Teeth extraction practice might be connected to this cult.
Queen deer, now regarded as a cony, see bottom right, is painted red, meaning it was Sun Goddess. Apparently this heritage is in danger.

Now a pony (not a cony) none-the-less, isn’t a phony at all, endangered because in use for kids amusement in a park.

Toponym Kudara in Buryat means “sneakingly”, “stealingly” and near to “retreat”, “hiding place”, however, in Japanese it means Baekje
This is a telltale where they hid themselves and who they feared when you localise followings
by Google or Yahoo map
Kudara-Somon (Кудара-Сомон) has an area of 1.0 km2 and an estimated population of 1 500.
Kudara (Кудара) has an area of 1.2 km2 and an estimated population of 1 500.
Kudara RS STM 51.8333333 119.9666667
Kudara RS PPL 50.1988889 107.0430556
Kudara RS PPL 50.1547222 107.4013889
Kudara RS STM 50.1938889 107.0366667
Kudara RS PPL 52.2202778 106.6566667
Apparently they were running out of Hun’s chase. In Japan, Shinano province, peref. Nagano, means hiding place/retreat and emigrant Baekje royal families sought assylum there.

Whereas this Deer Hunter Clan was Tungusic, Jomon and this Tungusic Cultures were changed to Altaic language with Himiko coming to the throne of Yamatai, head chifdom of Wa confederation with bronze mirrors as main fetish, pushing aboriginese and Tungusic away to further east. Where Himiko mastered the devilish dao, as Wei chronicle describe it, is a big pozzle. But now we got an information from Munisinsk Basin of finding of hundreds of bronze mirrors and, as I noticed, of same kind of shri yantra and god-beast figures on the back ot the mirrors, strongly associated with warrior-priestess of Shang Fuhao and Scythian ones.

Yet one thing to consider is
Eastward spread of Mountain Fort sites (like Sve in Okunev Culture) a culture typical for Altai/Koguryo

I think that an ancient Yenisei tribe Kamo landed beach near p. Sakaiminato and settled at Izumu along the river Hi (name so after river Biya river in Altai) because there are so many Ice River Shrines (Hikawa Jinja) in Tokyo and its vicinities with a head shrine in Saitama city which has legend of coming from Izumo province. There is a 10 Kings Sutra in Japan, a pseudo-sutra (non-orthodox buddhist sutra)
in which sinful dead souls are to be ground to pieces in a “ice river” by verdict of Yama. Every shrine in Japan is guarded by 2 dogs as Rigveda says the way to paradise is guarded by 2 dogs.
The biggest hoard of bronze swords, knives, bells, guarded by shrines Suwa (similar to Sve in Okunev Culture of Khakasia) was unearthed near this Hi river in Izumo.
This Kamo Tribe (Duck Tribe) moved further east to Yamatai where they built Upper Duck Shrine in Kongo Mountain. zoom=11
Finally in accordance with the move of Yamato court, they settled in Kyoto, where they built Parent Duck Shrine, Lower Duck shrine and Upper Duck Srine.
Apparently their background paradigm is from the following Sayano-Altai turkolinguistic mythology:
Mifologii sajano-altajskih tjurkojazychnyh narodov.
Nesmotrja na to, chto sredi altajcev, hakasov i shorcev rasprostranjalos’ hristianstvo, a sredi tuvincev — lamaizm, u nih sohranjalas’ prezhnjaja ≪jazycheskaja≫ mifologija. Naibolee znachitel’nuju gruppu sostavljajut kosmogonicheskie mify. Vselennaja sostoit iz trjoh sfer: verhnego (neba), srednego (zemli) i nizhnego (podzemnogo) mirov (inogda govoritsja ob osobyh mirah ili zemljah, so svoimi nebesami ili bez nih, morjami, rekami i podzemnym mirom, gde tusklo svetjat luna i solnce). Nebo v vide kupola prikryvaet zemlju, to i delo soprikasajas’ s nej krajami. Podobnye predstavlenija otmecheny v jakutskom jepose (≪kraja neba i zemli stukajutsja drug o druga≫) i u mongolov. Vhod v podzemnyj mir nahoditsja gde-to na zapade. V razlichnyh mifah tri sfery vselennoj svjazyvaet libo drevo mirovoe (paj kajyng, ≪bogataja berjoza≫, ili temir-terek, ≪zheleznyj topol’≫, na vetvjah kotorogo nahodjatsja zarodyshi detej i skota), libo gora, upirajuwajasja vershinoj v nebesa. Sohranilos’ neskol’ko variantov mifa o proishozhdenii mira, mnogie iz kotoryh podverglis’ sil’nomu vlijaniju hristianskih i buddijskih predstavlenij. Soglasno odnomu iz variantov, v iznachal’no suwestvovavshem ogromnom vodnom prostranstve plavali dve utki. Odna iz nih reshila sotvorit’ zemlju iz ila. Vtoraja nyrnula i so dna prinesla il v kljuve. Pervaja utka stala razbrasyvat’ ego po vode, i pojavilas’ zemlja. Vtoraja utka, vyjdja na sushu, stala razbrasyvat’ kameshki, i pojavilis’ gory (obraz pticy-demiurga shiroko rasprostranjon u sibirskih narodov).

The Altai connection to the duck totem is very strong on the Eurasian continent, and in Korea. In Japan, the duck motif shows up a few times during the Yayoi, but much more in haniwa during the Kofun, so the Altaic lineage very likely penetrated the elite founding kings of the Kofun period. Here is an interesting paper “Human Sacrifices in the Altay-Sayan Area: the Duck and its People” on the significance of the duck symbol as related to human sacrifice. MtDNA D haplogroup found in central and northeastern Asian populations – I think it most likely that the duck (and maybe the deer totems and beliefs were commonly held throughout central and northeast Asia correlating to the spread of mtDNA D4 peoples who were expanding “nomadic warrior” migrating groups filtering into Japanese populations.

Excuse me, I’m afraid, if so, you might be messing together Male sspecific Y chromosome DNA haplogroup and Female specific mtDNA haplogroup. If this is the case, please explain once more in discrete term of each separate haplogroup. Thank you in advance.

Sophia Lorens, Silvana Manganas, however good they may plant rice in paddy, could hardly have brought wet rice culture into Japan. I think we must first look into YDNA haplogroups.


We just learned about the Shakōki-dogū.

Another type of ancient Japanese sculpture is the Haniwa.

These are small figures made out of clay, that were made for special times like funerals.

Some people believed that the soul of the person who had died would go into the haniwa if they put the sculpture on top of the place where they were buried.

Sometimes the sculptures were warriors with swords or other weapons, and sometimes they were bowls, or animals like horses, chickens or fish.
These were all meant to become part of the afterlife of the person who died.

(from: wikipedia - haniwa)


The Haniwa ( 埴輪 ) are terracotta clay [2] [3] figures that were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th centuries AD) of the history of Japan. Haniwa were created according to the wazumi technique, in which mounds of coiled clay were built up to shape the figure, layer by layer. [4]

Haniwa were made with water-based clay and dried into a coarse and absorbent material that stood the test of time. Their name means "circle of clay", referring to how they were arranged in a circle above the tomb. The protruding parts of the figures were made separately and then attached, while a few things were carved into them. They were smoothed out by a wooden paddle. Terraces were arranged to place them with a cylindrical base into the ground, where the earth would hold them in place.

During the Kofun period, a highly aristocratic society with militaristic rulers developed. The cavalry wore iron armor, carried swords and other weapons, and used advanced military methods like those of northeast Asia. Many of them are represented in haniwa figurines for funerary purposes.

The most important of the haniwa were found in southern Honshū—especially the Kinai region around Nara—and northern Kyūshū. Haniwa grave offerings were made in many forms, such as horses, chickens, birds, fans, fish, houses, weapons, shields, sunshades, pillows, and humans. Besides decorative and spiritual reasons of protecting the deceased in the afterlife, these figures served as a sort of retaining wall for the burial mound.

Because these haniwa display the contemporary clothing, hairstyle, farming tools, and architecture, these sculptures are important as a historical archive of the Kofun Period.


At the September 13th, 2018 Nintendo Direct, Nintendo unveiled a trailer for New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe for the Nintendo Switch (trailer shown below). The trailer also introduced an unique power for Toadette, the Super Crown, which allows her to transform into a character called Peachette (based on the series' Princess Peach).

On September 19th, 2018, Twitter [2] user @ayyk92, aka Haniwa, posted a comic in which, after Mario and Bowser are romantically rejected by Peach (inspired by the events of Super Mario Odyssey), Bowser undergoes the same transformation as Toadette into "Peachette," turning into a human woman. The female Bowser and Mario then appear to be dating. The comic gained over 15,000 retweets and 42,000 likes within the next few days. Alongside they also uploaded the comic to their DeviantART a few minutres prior to the Twitter post, [4] although this version only managed to collect over 4,600 favourities in the next 10 days.

Eboshi (烏帽子)

Eboshi refers to a class of hats seen from at least the Nara period. They are uniformally of black cloth, usually hemp or similar, and later versions even used paper. The black color gave them their name, the Chinese characters translating to “bird hat” because it resembled the feathers of a black bird. Originally they were soft and pliable, going around the head and covering the hair, while often falling back, a style which remained common with commoners and was known as nae-eboshi (pliable eboshi). Eventually, the fabric was starched and lacquered, such that it took on a tall, upright shape. For nobles allowed into the palace, or tenjōbito, the erect tate-eboshi was the preferred style, while the lower ranking jige made do with the rakish kazaori-eboshi. The shape varied with the rank and position of the wearer, but nonetheless these were everyday hats, as opposed to the formal kanmuri.

As the bushi rose in power and stature, they initially adopted more refined versions of the nae-eboshi, such as the hikitate-eboshi, which was convenient for wearing under a kabuto, particularly with the way it often was tied on. As the movement towards a more strong, crisp appearance came into fashion with emondō the samurai adopted a folded ori-eboshi that became the iconic headwear for centuries to come.

Though originally of starched or lacquered cloth, which was light and semi-opaque, later eboshi used thickly lacquered cloth or even paper to achieve the appropriate appearance. This style can still be seen at Shinto shrines and festivals, even today.

These hats are almost exclusively worn by men. Exceptions, such as shirabyōshi dancers, are wearing explicitly male garments. This is likely largely due to to the fact that they were made to fit with the common male hairstyle, the motodori, which often caused the eboshi to extend slightly off the back of a man's head, though there were cords to help with those who could not otherwise achieve the desired effect.

Nae-eboshi (萎烏帽子)

Nae-eboshi, or “soft” eboshi, is most commonly seen on commoners and men without official court rank. These hats were so called because their black fabric was pliable, allowing them to bend and twist. Unlike the more heavily lacquered hats of the court nobles, they would not be expected to stand on their own. This style actually encompasses a number of hats that were later utilized, including the heirei-eboshi, the hitai-eboshi, and the hikitate-eboshi.

Tate-eboshi (立烏帽子)

The tate-eboshi, or “standing eboshi,” is your classic eboshi shape. Early Heian versions are usually tall, as seen here, and worn just off the back of the head (held in place by the motodori). For those without a motodori or similar hairstyle, the hat could incorporate cords that tie under the chin. These ties were thin, white cords that could be hidden in the eboshi construction or might be wrapped around the outside (particularly in later and smaller variations). These hats are typically straight along the sides, with a rounded, flat top. In the high center front there is a depression, called an “uya,” which helps the hat hold its shape. Around the rim it typically a band of leather or similar material where the hat rests on the head.

Though lacquered, the weave for the Heian period version was open, and the hat itself was only semi-opaque, much like any single layer of clothing.

The tate-eboshi was worn by high ranking court nobles, generally those who had been granted access to the palace (tenjōbito). Others would wear the kazaori-eboshi, instead.

There was also a smaller version, which was more practical, and appears to be the progenitor of later versions.

Though originally made of cloth, later versions were made of lacquered paper and other, more opaque, materials (as would other eboshi). These tended to have a very distinct, “crinkled” appearance on the outside. Today you still see these tate-eboshi worn by Shinto priests conducting ceremonies.

While originally just a dimple, the uya is typically reinforced by thread that can be seen on the outside. Depending on the school, these threads may be symmetrical or they may be uneven on the left or on the right.

Watch the video: Harry Potter And The Cursed Child 2022 Teaser Trailer. Warner Bros. Pictures Wizarding World (January 2022).