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December 3, 2010 Fire Ravages Carmel Range - Implications for the Future - History


A Daily Analysis
By Marc Schulman

December 3, 2010 Fire Ravages Carmel Range - Implications for the Future

It's been a sad two days in Israel. The sadness has been multi-layered. The first level is, of course human; the loss of at least 42 young lives, with at least two more presumed dead is a tremendous tragedy in and of itself. The second level of tragedy is seeing the Israeli government so incapable of handling the problem. While Prime Minister Netanyahu has referred to the tragedy as "a natural disaster of International proportions", it is not a very large forest fire by American standards. Still, the fact remains that Israel is not equipped to deal with it.

Sadly, this is not a surprise. For twenty years there have been reports and investigations calling on Israel to invest in a better-equipped and larger fire departments. Unfortunately, only a tragedy of this magnitude results in a changes taking place. The obvious question being asked now is, how can it be that outgoing Chief of Intelligence stated that in the next war the population centers will be the front line, and the very fire department that will have to fight part of that war is so underfunded and poorly organized.

Many countries have sent Israel help. While this has been an embarrassment on one hand, that Israel needed the help, on the other hand, as one Israeli TV commentator said today, it seems people care about us more then we think. Even the Turks sent aid.

Prime Minister Netanyahu wrote a timely note, while on a helicopter watching the Greek planes try to put out the fire. He wrote what an irony that on the second day of Chanukah, Greek pilots are flying to put out a fire in Israel.

I cannot help but comment on a series of e-mail appeals I received today from different organization asking for support because of the fire. First, they appear way too early. Some even seem unnecessary-- one of the appeals talked about opening camps to house those who have been displaced. I have been watching Israeli TV for the last 24 hours and while 17.000 people have evacuated their homes, all have gone to stay with friends and family. This is not like the Lebanon war, or the fire from Gaza. This is bad, but it will end within a couple of days or sooner, long before money will get to Israel.


Reichstag fire

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Reichstag fire, burning of the Reichstag (parliament) building in Berlin on the night of February 27, 1933, a key event in the establishment of the Nazi dictatorship and widely believed to have been contrived by the newly formed Nazi government itself to turn public opinion against its opponents and to assume emergency powers.

Adolf Hitler had secured the chancellorship after the elections of November 1932, but his Nazi Party had not won an overall majority. He therefore obtained Cabinet consent to hold new elections on March 5, 1933. Meanwhile, his propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, was supposed to have devised the scheme whereby 10 agents led by Karl Ernst were to gain access to the Reichstag through a tunnel leading from the official residence of Hermann Göring, Reichstag president and Hitler’s chief minister, who was then to conduct an official investigation, which would fix responsibility for the fire on the communists. The supposed arsonist was a Dutchman, Marinus van der Lubbe, whom some have claimed was brought to the scene of the crime by Nazi agents. Others have contended that there was no proof of Nazi complicity in the crime, but that Hitler merely capitalized on van der Lubbe’s independent act. The fire is the subject of continued debate and research.

On February 28, 1933, the day after the fire, Hitler’s dictatorship began with the enactment of a decree “for the Protection of the People and the State,” which dispensed with all constitutional protection of political, personal, and property rights. Though the ensuing elections still did not give the Nazis an outright majority, they were able to persuade the Reichstag to pass an Enabling Act (March 23) whereby all its legislative powers were transferred to the Reich Cabinet by a vote of 444 to 94, so sanctioning the dictatorship.

In the ensuing arson trial, van der Lubbe was convicted of treason he was executed by guillotine in January 1934. Also tried in connection with the fire were Ernst Torgler, the chairman of the German Communist Party in the Reichstag, and three Bulgarian communists— Simon Popov, Vassili Tanev, and Georgi Dimitrov. Dimitrov in particular won international fame for his fearless and skilled defense against Nazi prosecutors. All four of the accused communists were acquitted because of the lack of evidence.


George Washington resigns as commander in chief

On December 23, 1783, following the signing of the Treaty of Paris, General George Washington resigns as commander in chief of the Continental Army and retires to his home at Mount Vernon, Virginia.

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Washington addressed the assembled Congress:

“Happy in the confirmation of our independence and sovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded the United States of becoming a respectable nation, I resign with satisfaction the appointment I accepted with diffidence a diffidence in my abilities to accomplish so arduous a task which however was superseded by a confidence in the rectitude of our cause, the support of the supreme power of the Union, and the patronage of Heaven."

Washington’s willingness to return to civilian life was an essential element in the transformation of the War for Independence into a true revolution. During the war, Congress had granted Washington powers equivalent to those of a dictator and he could have easily taken solitary control of the new nation. Indeed, some political factions wanted Washington to become the new nation’s king. His modesty in declining the offer and resigning his military post at the end of the war fortified the republican foundations of the new nation.

Although he asked nothing for himself, Washington did enter a plea on behalf of his officers:

“While I repeat my obligations to the army in general, I should do injustice to my own feelings not to acknowledge, in this place, the peculiar services and distinguished merits of the gentlemen who have been attached to my person during the war. It was impossible the choice of confidential officers to compose my family should have been more fortunate. Permit me, sir, to recommend in particular, those who have continued in the service to the present moment, as worthy of the favorable notice and patronage of Congress."

The patronage Washington requested seemed most pressing as the army had narrowly survived several mutinies and a near-attempted coup the previous autumn. The veteran officers who had helped to keep the army intact desired western lands in thanks for their service. Their claims would constitute a major issue for the new American government as it attempted to organize the settlement of what had been the colonial backcountry.

“Having now finished the work assigned to me, I retire from the great theatre of action and bidding an affectionate farewell to this august body, under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my commission, and take any leave of all the employments of public life.”

General Washington’s respite proved extremely brief. He was unanimously elected to the first of two terms as president of the United States in 1788.


Contents

The concept for business trusts, especially those that involve the holding of property, dates back to 16th century English Common Law. [5] In Delaware, it was not until 1947 that Common Law began recognizing statutory trusts. [6] No legal recognition of statutory trusts existed until the passage of the Delaware Statutory Trust Act (DSTA), 12 Del. C. 3801 et. Seq., in 1988. [6] Under The Act, developed on the premise of trust law, [7] statutory trusts were now recognized as their own legal entity, separate from their trustee(s), [8] offering freedom from the corporate law template. [7] Within the tradition of trust law, freedom of contract allows the trustee(s) to structure their entity in a way that is most beneficial to the relationship of all parties and their expertise, while offering liability protection similar to that of a Limited liability company or Partnership. [7] Since the year 2000, Delaware statutory trusts have increasingly been used as a form of tax deferral, asset protection, and balance sheet advantages in real estate, securitization, mezzanine financing, real estate investment trusts (REITs), and mutual funds. [7] Massachusetts, another state that has trust law, refers to its legal entity as a Massachusetts business trust. Most states, however, still rely on Common Law to oversee the trusts within their jurisdiction. [5]

The formation of a Delaware statutory trust is relatively simple and inexpensive, when compared to that of the more complex filings of other entity types. To form a statutory trust, a private trust agreement must be developed by all involved parties to ensure that individual interests are protected. [5] The private trust agreement need not be shown to any official of the State. [5] Once the agreement is completed, a Certificate of Trust can be obtained from the Delaware Division of Corporations and completed. [5] The signatures of the trustee(s) involved are then required, followed by submission of the forms to the Division of Corporations, along with a one-time $500 processing fee. If the statutory trust is, or will become, a registered investment company, it must maintain a registered agent and a registered office within the State of Delaware. [2] If no desire for the statutory trust to be an investment company exists, the only remaining requirement is that it must have at least one trustee who resides in, or has a principal place of business within the State of Delaware. [2] [5]

Federal/1031 Exchange Edit

On August 16, 2004, Internal Revenue Bulletin 2004-33 was published in reference to Rev. Rul. 2004-86. This involved a Delaware Statutory Trust that came before the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Treasury Department, who offered a ruling on the following two issues: [8] [9]

  1. "[H]ow is a Delaware statutory trust, described in Del. Code Ann. title 12, §§ 3801 - 3824, classified for federal tax purposes?" [8][9] "The Delaware statutory trust described above is an investment trust, under § 301.7701-4(c), that will be classified as a trust for federal tax purposes." [8][9]
  2. "[M]ay a taxpayer exchange real property for an interest in a Delaware statutory trust without recognition of gain or loss under § 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code?" [8][9] "A taxpayer may exchange real property for an interest in the Delaware statutory trust described above without recognition of gain or loss under § 1031, if the other requirements of § 1031 are satisfied." [8][9][10]

These holdings of the federal government offered a clearer notion that Delaware statutory trusts are legal entities, separate from their trustee(s), offering them limited liability. In addition, Delaware statutory trusts were shown to be considered a trust for federal tax purposes, making them a pass through entity that mitigates taxation for their trustee(s). [8] [9] The second holding offers the opinion that real property, being held under a Delaware statutory trust, is eligible to use a 1031 exchange, without the recognition of gain or loss, as long as the following seven restrictions are met: [8] [9]

  1. Once the offering is closed, there can be no future contributions to the DST by either current or new beneficiaries.
  2. The trustee cannot renegotiate the terms of the existing loans and cannot borrow any new funds from any party, unless a loan default exists as a result of a tenant bankruptcy or insolvency.
  3. The trustee cannot reinvest the proceeds from the sale of its real estate.
  4. The trustee is limited to making capital expenditures with respect to the property for normal repair and maintenance, minor nonstructural capital improvements, and those required by law.
  5. Any reserves or cash held between distribution dates can only be invested in short-term debt obligations.
  6. All cash, other than necessary reserves, must be distributed on a current basis.
  7. The trustee cannot enter into new leases, or renegotiate the current leases unless there is a need due to a tenant bankruptcy or insolvency.

Local Edit

As an entity that was created within the boundaries of Delaware and is written into the Delaware state charter, Title 12 Chapter 38, there is no question as to where the state stands on the backing of the Delaware statutory trust. [11] Limited liability is offered for DSTs, affording each trustee the benefit of personal asset protection. DSTs can be structured as a pass through entity, so that any income will go straight to each individual trustee's Form 1040 and state's tax returns, thus avoiding income tax at the entity level. [2] [11]

Features of a Delaware statutory trust are very attractive to many business entities. These features include: [7] [12] [13]


Eight Futures of Work: Scenarios and their Implications

Eight Futures of Work: Scenarios and their Implications presents various possible visions of what the future of work might look like by the year 2030. Based on how different combinations of three core variables—the rate of technological change and its impact on business models the evolution of learning among the current and future workforce and the magnitude of talent mobility across geographies—are likely to influence the nature of work in the future, the White Paper provides a starting point for considering a range of options around the multiple possible futures of work.

Eight Futures of Work: Scenarios and their Implications presents various possible visions of what the future of work might look like by the year 2030. Based on how different combinations of three core variables—the rate of technological change and its impact on business models the evolution of learning among the current and future workforce and the magnitude of talent mobility across geographies—are likely to influence the nature of work in the future, the White Paper provides a starting point for considering a range of options around the multiple possible futures of work.

It is imperative that governments, businesses, academic institutions and individuals consider how to proactively shape a new, positive future of work—one that we want rather than one created through inertia. Accordingly, while the scenarios presented in this White Paper are designed to create a basis for discussion among policy-makers, businesses, academic institutions and individuals, they are not predictions. Instead, they are a practical tool to help identify and prioritize key actions that are likely to promote the kind of future that maximizes opportunities for people to fulfil their full potential across their lifetimes.

World Economic Forum reports may be republished in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License, and in accordance with our Terms of Use.


Pardee Center Hosts Webinar on Implications of RCEP for the Future of the Asia-Pacific

On March 11, 2021, the Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future hosted a webinar exploring the long-term implications of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). The webinar, titled, “In the Wake of the RCEP: Asia-Pacific or Indo-Pacific?” featured Alice Ba (University of Delaware), Sreeram Sundar Chaulia (Jindal Global University), Wang Huiyao (Center for China and Globalization), and Amb. Jorge Heine (Boston University).

The conversation focused on the future of the region following the November 2020 signing of the RCEP by 15 nations in Asia and Australasia, but with the notable exception of India. The panelists discussed the origins and significance of the RCEP — particularly the role played by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) — and the respective roles of India and China in the future of the world’s fastest-growing region.

Watch the full webinar above or on the Pardee Center’s YouTube channel.

This event was part of the Rising Powers Initiative (RPI), a new research program at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future. The mission of RPI is to understand why rising powers flourish or fail in terms of security, governance, and health, and to understand the impact they have on the international orders of their time. RPI conducts interdisciplinary and policy-relevant research on five emerging powers with increasing global impact: China, India, Brazil, the European Union/Germany, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Learn more about RPI at www.bu.edu/pardee/rpi.

Pardee Center Hosts Webinar on Implications of RCEP for the Future of the Asia-Pacific

Pardee Center News


Everybody was telling me there was nothing wrong with me

Jackie’s experience is typical. She first fell ill at age 16, and for years, she suffered from chronic kidney problems, fevers, fatigue, and terrible menstrual and joint pain. She saw a primary care doctor, a urologist, and a pulmonologist. “Everybody was telling me there was nothing wrong with me,” she says.

With tests revealing nothing amiss, Jackie’s primary care doctor decided that she must be depressed and prescribed antidepressants. They didn’t help at all, but Jackie was “accepting whatever the doctors said”.

The tendency to attribute women’s physical complaints to mental illness has its roots in the history of ‘hysteria’ – that mythical female disorder that, over the centuries, was blamed on a ‘wandering womb’ or sensitive nerves and eventually, post-Freud, came to be seen as a psychological problem. The terms have changed over the last century, but the concept – that the unconscious mind can ‘produce’ physical symptoms – has remained alive and well in medicine.

There is a high risk of misdiagnosis inherent in this concept, whether it’s called hysteria, somatisation, or ‘medically unexplained symptoms’ due to stress.

Back in 1965, British psychiatrist Eliot Slater warned that too often a label of hysteria allowed doctors to believe they’d solved the mystery when, in fact, usually they hadn’t. After following up with 85 patients who’d been diagnosed with ‘hysteria’ at the National Hospital in London throughout the 1950s – including by Slater himself – he discovered that, nine years later, more than 60% had been found to have an organic neurological disease, including brain tumours and epilepsy. A dozen of them had died.

Both misdiagnoses and diagnostic delays cause unnecessary deaths (Credit: Getty Image)

Women have long been considered the typical patients with psychogenic symptoms, so it’s no wonder that they are especially likely to find their symptoms dismissed as “all in their heads”. In a 1986 study, for example, researchers looked at a group of patients with serious organic neurological disorders who’d initially been diagnosed with hysteria. They identified the characteristics that made a patient vulnerable to such a misdiagnosis. One was having a prior diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Another was being a woman.

The fact that women have higher rates of mood disorders is, itself, likely one reason that it’s so common for women to get a psychogenic label. In the US, women are about twice as likely to have a diagnosis of depression or an anxiety disorder as men.


How Did the Holocaust Affect the World?

The Holocaust had many effects on the world, including millions of displaced Jews, financial problems in Germany, the destruction of a social class, struggling cities and worldwide outrage. The effects of the Holocaust can still be seen in the world today.

One of the immediate effects of the Holocaust was the displacement of between 7 million and 9 million Jews. This vast number of refugees had worldwide implications as countries struggled to take in the multitudes of homeless.

Not only were millions of Jews displaced, but upward of 1 million Jews were killed, creating a gaping chasm in the social structure. Almost an entire social class was destroyed because the Jews occupied the educated and productive levels of society. As a result, those cities that had large Jewish populations have suffered poor economic growth ever since, especially in Russia. Jews made up a large part of the Russian middle class because they filled the majority of white-collar jobs. Once they were eliminated, there was no one to do skilled work, including in areas such as healthcare and the trades.

Germany had to give the families and victims restitution, a financial responsibility that it could ill afford given the devastation of its economy in the aftermath of World War II.


Many people blame the federal budget deficit on mandatory spending, but that's just part of the story. The biggest contributors to the current federal budget deficit have been COVID-19, tax cuts, mandatory programs (including entitlement programs), and military spending.

COVID-19

In March and April 2020, Congress passed several laws to offset the damage done by the coronavirus pandemic:

  1. The Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act provided $8.3 billion to federal agencies to respond to the pandemic.  
  2. The Families First Coronavirus Response Act provided $3.5 billion for paid sick leave, insurance coverage of coronavirus testing, and unemployment benefits.  
  3. The largest, at over $2 trillion, was the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act). It sent $1,200 stimulus checks to eligible taxpayers, expanded unemployment insurance, assisted small businesses, and funded state and local governments.  
  4. The Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) and Health Care Enhancement Act allocated $483.4 billion for small businesses, hospitals, and testing.  

This spending largely increased the federal budget deficit, but it was necessary to keep the U.S. economy afloat during stay-at-home orders throughout the country.

The 2021 American Rescue Plan provided $1,400 stimulus checks to individuals and families, provided funding for COVID-19 testing, vaccinations, and prevention, and more.   However, it's estimated to have added $1.1 trillion to the deficit.  

Tax Cuts

Tax cuts immediately reduce revenue and add to the national debt. For example, the Bush tax cuts added $5.6 trillion to the national debt between 2001 and 2018.   The national debt and the federal deficit are related because the national debt is the accumulation of each year's deficit. So every year, tax cuts add to the deficit by reducing revenue.

The Trump tax cut reduced revenue by lowering taxes on personal income, small businesses, and corporations. These cuts are projected to add nearly $1.5 trillion to the debt between 2018 and 2027, according to the Joint Committee on Taxation.  

Some economists say that tax cuts boost the economy so much that additional revenues in the long term will offset short-term losses. The National Bureau of Economic Research found that in the long run, only 17% of revenue from income tax cuts may be regained, while half of the revenue from corporate tax cuts may be regained.  

Unfunded Mandatory Spending

Congress has mandated spending on some programs without raising taxes to pay for them. Some of these are also known as "entitlement programs," like Medicare, where people have paid taxes into the program while they were working. They are entitled to those benefits once they retire.

The most expensive mandatory program is Medicaid, which provides healthcare to those who can't afford it. About $448 billion is budgeted for Medicaid in 2021.  

Next is Medicare, which is projected to cost $722 billion in 2021. However, only 40% of its cost goes toward the deficit. The remaining 60% of it is paid for by payroll taxes and premiums.  

The mandatory budget also includes $645 billion for a variety of programs. These include welfare programs like TANF, EITC, and Housing Assistance. Other programs are entitlements, such as unemployment benefits and federal retirement programs.

Some people mistakenly point to the $1 trillion that Social Security spends on an annual basis as a contributor to the deficit.   However, that's funded through payroll taxes and the Social Security Trust Fund until 2034, so it's not a factor.

U.S. Military Spending

The War on Terror and related defense spending have added trillions to the national debt since 2001. That includes increases to the budgets of the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and Overseas Contingency Operations. Unfortunately, it's difficult to reduce the budget deficit without cutting U.S. military spending.

U.S. military spending is greater than the next 10 largest government expenditures combined. It's almost three times greater than China's military budget, and 10 times bigger than Russia's defense spending.   It plays a large factor in the federal budget deficit because of its size.


Wildland Fire

Founded in 1936, Fire Management Today has served the wildland fire community for more than 70 years as a clearinghouse for new techniques, technologies, and ideas. It has provided a forum open to anyone with anything useful to share with other wildland fire professional.

The Forest Service and other federal, tribal, state, and local government agencies work together to respond to tens of thousands of wildfires annually. Each year, an average of more than 73,000 wildfires burn about 7 million acres of federal, tribal, state, and private land and more than 2,600 structures.

Listen to inspiring stories from the men and women with careers in wildland fire and also learn how the Forest Service is managing wildland fires before, during and after they start to help restore our National Forest System lands.

Wildland fires are a force of nature that can be nearly as impossible to prevent, and as difficult to control, as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods.

Wildland fire can be a friend and a foe. In the right place at the right time, wildland fire can create many environmental benefits, such as reducing grass, brush, and trees that can fuel large and severe wildfires and improving wildlife habitat. In the wrong place at the wrong time, wildfires can wreak havoc, threatening lives, homes, communities, and natural and cultural resources.

The Forest Service has been managing wildland fire on National Forests and Grasslands for more than 100 years. But the Forest Service doesn’t – and can’t – do it alone. Instead, the agency works closely with other federal, tribal, state, and local partners.

This is more important than ever because over the last few decades, the wildland fire management environment has profoundly changed. Longer fire seasons bigger fires and more acres burned on average each year more

extreme fire behavior and wildfire suppression operations in the wildland urban interface (WUI) have become the norm.

To address these challenges, the Forest Service and its other federal, tribal, state, and local partners have developed and are implementing a National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy that has three key components: Resilient Landscapes, Fire Adapted Communities, and Safe and Effective Wildfire Response.


Watch the video: ISRAEL FIRE TRAGEDY CARMEL 2010 (January 2022).