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Light Tank Mk IIB, A4


Light Tank Mk IIB, A4

The Light Tank Mark IIB was the designation given to twenty one Mark IIs built by Vickers-Armstrong during 1931. The main difference between the various versions of the Mark II was in the fuel tanks. While the Mark IIA had two smaller tanks, the Mark IIB had a single large tank on the right side. The Mark IIB was built with the No 1 Mk 2 turret, which had bullet-proofed air louvres on the side of the turrets, with anti-bullet splash guards. They were originally built with the two spring Horstmann suspension used on the Mark II, although some were later given the more advanced four spring system used on the Light Tank Mark III.

Names
Light Tank Mark IIB, A4
A4E17 (Prototype)

Stats
Production: 21 (1931)
Hull Length: 11ft 8in
Hull Width: 6ft 1in
Height: 6ft 9in
Crew: 2
Weight: 4.25 tons
Engine: 66 hp Rolls Royce 6-cylinder
Max Speed: 30mph
Max Range: 125 operational radius
Armament: One .303in Vickers machine guns
Armour: 10-4mm


Audi Maintenance Cost: What You Might Pay (2021)

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TOW Weapon System

The tube-launched, optically-tracked, wireless-guided TOW ® weapon system, with the multi-mission TOW 2A, TOW 2B Aero and TOW Bunker Buster missiles, is the premier long-range, heavy assault-precision anti-armor, anti-fortification and anti-amphibious landing weapon system used throughout the world today. The TOW missile enables ground forces to achieve overmatch against adversary armored and wheeled systems, regardless of the environment or conditions.

The EagleFire™ launcher offers improved capability for legacy TOW® missile operators to maintain overmatch against armored threats by incorporating structural and technological advancements. This includes day-and-night visibility, enhanced power and built-in test capability.

Raytheon Missiles & Defense is working on an upgraded TOW missile to meet the U.S. Army’s requirement for an extended-range, anti-tank, guided missile. The company is improving the missile’s propulsion system, giving it greater distance and speed.

The weapon system is deployed with more than 20 international armed forces and integrated on more than 15,000 ground, vehicle and helicopter platforms. It's also the preferred heavy assault, anti-armor weapon system for NATO, coalition, United Nations and peacekeeping operations worldwide.

The TOW weapon system has transitioned to wireless guidance and is being produced for the U.S. Army, U.S. Marines and all international customers.

TOW capabilities

The TOW 2A, TOW 2B Aero and TOW Bunker Buster missiles can be fired from all TOW weapon system launchers – including the ITAS ™ launcher, Stryker anti-tank guided missile vehicle (modified ITAS launcher) and Bradley Fighting Vehicles (improved Bradley Acquisition Subsystem).


Light Tank Mk IIB, A4 - History



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Engine light meaning: how to work it out

When a check engine light illuminates, your car also generates error codes, which indicate the specific problem. Garages download these using code readers that plug in to a data port, fitted to every new car.

These diagnostic readers can be bought by anyone and are often universal, so will work for any make of car. Particularly popular are Bluetooth readers, which plug in to the data port (called OBD-II) and communicate wirelessly with your phone, allowing the codes to be downloaded to your device. You can then use online manuals to work out what the codes mean. Our guide to the most common causes, below, explains what to do next.

In some cases, the codes can reveal a quick fix, but that's not always the case, according to Frank Massey, an expert in vehicle diagnostics whose company, Auto Inform, trains vehicle technicians in their use. "The fault code reflects the symptom but not its cause," he says. "It might mean ‘faulty sensor’ which might be true but the environment it’s operating in might actually be at fault or it may have a poor connection. That being so, you replace the sensor only for it to produce another error code. You need to know much more about vehicle diagnostics to use them successfully."

Universal code readers may miss extra details that are specific to manufacturers. For example, Volkswagen and Audi use additional codes that can only be read by specialist readers.


#22 British Shermans: Is It A Tank Or A Teapot?

The British took the Lee and Sherman into combat for the first time and they offered a lot of input into both tanks design. They even had a specific version of the Lee never used by US troops the M3A5 Grant. The Sherman and Lee tanks saved their bacon at El Alamein. As we saw in an earlier section of this document, the US produced a lot of Sherman tanks, and the British received more than 17,000 Shermans. It would become the backbone of their tank force and remain so until the end of the war. The British had a unique way of using tanks and preferred to send them into battle without direct infantry support. This coupled with their tendency to stuff every nook and cranny of the tank with ammo resulting in much higher Sherman losses than the US Army did.

Sherman MK III with the 4th County Of London Yeomanry. It is crossing an AT ditch near Gabes in North Africa

They came up with their own naming system for the tank:

The M4 was named the Sherman I in Commonwealth use, if it had a 105mm gun it was an Ib if it also had HVSS it was an Iby. The British received 2096 75mm Sherman Is, and an additional 593 105 armed Ib tanks, or M4 105 tanks. These numbers are not broken down further into submodels, so all the Ic Firefly tanks produced came from 2096 they received, and this number would include the composite hulls too. This version was the preferred US Army version, and many of the ones the Brits received came as replacements stripped from US Tank Divisions before the battle of El Alamein. They became much rarer because the US sent M4A2 and M4A4s as replacements.

The M4A1 was named the Sherman II and in most cases just that. It wasn’t until late in the war the Brits took some M4A1s with 76mm guns, and those they gave to the poles or other commonwealth allies. An M4A1 76 would be called a Sherman IIa, or an IIay for an M4A1 76 HVSS tank. These M4A1 76 HVSS tanks made it to depots in Europe during or just after the war ended, but none saw combat. The M4A1 was also the US Army’s preferred version because it was basically the same tank as the M4, and the Brits only received 942 75mm M4A1 Shermans. Something I found a bit of a surprise, the British received more M4A1 76 w tanks than 75mm tanks, 1330 total.

M4A2 was named the Sherman III and this was their second most common Sherman type. They received 5041 M4A2 75mm Sherman IIIs, far more than the Soviets got. They also received 5, M4A2 76 W or Sherman IIIa tanks as well, yes, that’s not a typo, five tanks. I wonder if the M4A2 76 HVSS or Sherman IIIaytank used in Fury was one of them?

M4A3 was named the Sherman IV in British use, but they only received 7 seventy five millimeter tanks and no 76mm tanks of this type. This became the US Army’s preferred model, and once they got it in numbers, they probably started sending more M4 and M4A1s to the Brits after this tank became common.

M4A4 was named the Sherman V in British use, and was by far the most common British Sherman they received 7167 M4A4s, or Sherman Vs, almost the whole production run. Chrysler really went to bat for this version of the tank and sent tech reps to Europe with the tanks to help manage the complicated, but less trouble than anyone could have expected, motors. There were no subtypes of the Sherman IV other than the Firefly since it was never produced with a 76mm gun or HVSS suspension. The Sherman Vc was the most common version of the 17 pounder Shermans, and a wide variety was probably converted to fireflies, and many of the A4s they got later in the war had been through a remanufacturing process, that made sure the tanks had turrets updated with all the late improvements, and all the hull upgrades like armored ammo racks and raised arm rollers and improved skids, along with a travel lock, on the front plate, for the gun.

Sherman MK I or IIIs. It looks like these men are being taught how an M1919A4 works.

The British had their own set of modifications for the Sherman that they received through LL. They added sand skirts, racks for jerry cans, and an armored box on the back of the turret in some cases. They installed their own radios as well, the British wireless set no 19, and this went into the armored box in the back of the turret on Firefly’s, or just replaced the US radios in their normal location in regular models. Legend has it they installed some sort of stove to cook tea. The only Sherman Mk I and Mk IIs they got was because Churchill practically begged Roosevelt for more Shermans just before El Alamein.

As the war progressed, the US Army put a priority on the M4 and M4A1 the British had to settle for M4A2 and the M4A4. Then when the Russians refused to take any Shermans but M4A2s, the Brits really had to rely on M4A4s. From what I’ve read they didn’t want the nightmare that everyone feared the A57 Multibank motor to be, in service it proved to be reliable enough, and more so than its British counterparts. The M4A4 was by far the most common Sherman type, and the Brits like them enough they took a batch of refurbished M4A4 and would have taken more if production hadn’t been stopped.

This presented a problem for the British, they did not like the M1A1 gun, and the T23 would not take the 17-pounder without major modifications to the gun or turret. The US did end production of 75mm tanks and when stocks of 75mm gun tanks ran low, they were forced to take M4A1 76 tanks these tanks would be designated Sherman IIB. The British sent most of the IIBs to their forces in the MTO or gave them to the Poles.

Sources: Armored Thunderbolt by Zaloga, Sherman by Hunnicutt, The Sherman Tank in British Service 1942-45 by John Sanders


Features of the A4 (M16A4 Rifle)

The Colt M16A4 Rifle is the fourth generation of the M16 series weapon system. Since Vietnam, the M16 has been the weapon of choice for the US and many of our allies for ground combat action. The A4, with a flat top upper receiver, a removable carrying handle, collapsible buttstock, and an integral rail mounting system for mounting of optics and other devices (lights/grenade launcher M203).

The M16A4 Rifle in combination with the M5 Rail Adapter forms the Modular Weapon System (rifle version) which provides soldiers the flexibility to configure their weapons with those accessories required to fulfill an assigned mission. There are no differences between the internal dimensions of the M16A2 Rifle and the M16A4 Rifle.

The M4 was produced in the 1990s at the request of the US Special Forces, which is a version of the M16A2, designated M4 Carbine. The M4 has several improvements. It is basically the M16A2 rifle, fitted with a retractable buttstock, a shorter barrel, handguards, removable carrying handle for the addition of optics on the now flat top fail, and also moved the gas port back a few inches. The changes enabled the M16A3 and A4 to be quickly adjustable when needed for different mission types.

The new updates to this weapon system enable soldiers, marines and special operations members to conduct a variety of operations from close quarters battle to a wide and open battlefield in the desert, jungle, and other environments.


A-10C – precision engagement upgrade programme

The precision engagement upgrade programme for the A-10 includes enhanced precision target engagement capabilities, which will allow the deployment of precision weapons such as JDAM (joint direct attack munition) and wind-corrected munitions dispenser (WCMD), as well as enabling an extension of the aircraft’s service life to 2028.

Improvements include: hands-on throttle and stick control, two new Raytheon Technical Services 5in×5in multifunction cockpit displays, situational awareness datalinks (SADL), digital stores management system, integrated flight and fire control computer (IFFCC) from BAE Systems Platform Solutions for automated continuously computed weapons delivery, Sniper XR or Litening targeting pods for precision-guided weapons and helmet-mounted sighting system.

Lockheed Martin Systems Integration-Owego is prime contractor for the program. First flight of the upgraded A-10C was in January 2005. A contract for low-rate initial production (LRIP) of 72 units was awarded in March 2005. The first was delivered to Baltimore Air National Guard in August 2006.

A contract for full-rate production of 107 units was placed in August 2006. The A-10C achieved initial operating capability in August 2007. 100 A-10s had been upgraded by January 2008. The A10C began operational deployment in Iraq in September 2007. 356 A-10 aircraft have been upgraded in the contract.

In February 2004, Lockheed Martin was awarded a contract for the integration of the Sniper XR targeting pod on the A-10 as part of the PE programme. Sniper XR includes mid-wave FLIR (forward-looking infrared), dual mode laser, CCD-TV, laser spot tracker and IR marker.


Light Tank Mk IIB, A4 - History

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FUZES

  • Point Detonating (PD). All PD fuzes are superquick - detonate on impact.
  • Proximity (VT). A proximity fuze is an electronic device that detonates a projectile by means of radio waves sent out from a small radio set in the nose of the projectile.
  • Mechanical Time (MT). These fuzes use a clockwork mechanism to delay functioning for a specific time.
  • Multioption (MO). These fuzes have multiple functions (proximity, impact, delay).
  • Dummy, Practice.
  • Is a single-purpose, powder-train, mechanical-time fuze used with the 81mm M301A1 and M301A2 illuminating cartridges.
  • It has a time setting of up to 25 seconds. The fuze consists of a brass head, body assembly, and expelling charge.
  • The fuze body is graduated from 0 to 25 seconds in 1-second intervals 5-second intervals are indicated by bosses. The 0-second boss is wider and differs in shape from the other body bosses the safe setting position is indicated by the letter "S" on the fuze body.
  • The adjustment ring has six raised ribs for use in conjunction with fuze setter, M25, and a setting indicator rib (marked SET) about half the height and width of the other six ribs.
  • Safety before firing is provided by a safety wire, which must be removed just before firing.
  • Length: 3.85 in (98 mm).
  • Weight: 1.82 lb (0.83 kg).
  • Is a single-purpose, tungsten-ring, mechanical-time fuze used with the 81mm M301A3 illumination cartridge. It has a time setting of up to 50 seconds.
  • The fuze consists of a brass head, body assembly, and expelling charge.
  • The fuze body is graduated from 0 to 50 seconds in 2-second intervals 10-second intervals are indicated by bosses. The 0-second boss is wider and differs in shape from the other body bosses the safe setting position is indicated by the letter "S" on the fuze body.
  • The adjustment ring has six raised ribs for use in conjunction with fuze setter, M25, and a setting indicator rib (marked SET) about half the height and width of the other six ribs.
  • Safety before firing is provided by a safety wire, which must be removed just before firing.
  • Length: 3.85 in (98 mm).
  • Weight: 1.82 lb (0.83 kg).
  • Has two function settings: Superquick/impact (SQ/IMP) and delay.
  • When set at delay, the fuze train causes a 0.05-second delay before functioning.
  • When set at SQ, the fuze functions on point impact or graze contact.
  • The fuze contains a delayed arming feature that ensures the fuze remains unarmed and detonator safe for a minimum of 1.25 seconds of flight.
  • It arms within a maximum of 2.50 seconds. The safety pull wire is removed just before inserting the cartridge into the mortar.
  • Length: 6.01 in (153 mm).
  • Weight: 1.27 lb (0.58 kg).
  • Fuze has a booster charge, delay arming mechanism, bore-riding pin, and safety wire.
  • Has an SQ/IMP function only.
  • Length: 3.53 in (90 mm).
  • Weight: 0.44 lb (0.2 kg).
  • Is a radio doppler fuze that has a proximity (PROX) or SQ/IMP function.
  • An internal clock mechanism provides nine seconds of safe air travel (610 to 2,340 meters along trajectory for charge 0 through 9, respectively).
  • Once set to act as an impact fuze, the mechanism cannot be reset for PROX.
  • The fuze arms and functions normally when fired at any angle of elevation between 0800 and 1406 mils at charges 1 through 9. The fuze is not intended to function at charge 0. However, at temperatures above 32 degrees Fahrenheit and at angles greater than 1068 mils, the flight time is sufficient to permit arming.
  • To convert the fuze from PROX to SQ/IMP, the top of the fuze must be rotated 120 degrees (one-third turn) in either direction. This action breaks an internal sheet pin and internal wire, thereby disabling the proximity function.
  • Length: 5.98 in (152 mm).
  • Weight: 1.28 lb (0.58 kg).
  • Is an impact fuze that has a SQ/IMP or D function.
  • It comes preset to function on SQ/IMP, and the selector slot should align with the SQ mark on the ogive.
  • To set for delay, the selector slot should be rotated clockwise until it is aligned with the "D" mark on the ogive.
  • The fuze has a safety wire that must be removed before firing.
  • Length: 5.97 in (152 mm).
  • Weight: 1.3 lb (0.59 kg).
  1. PRX (proximity) causes the cartridge to explode between 3 and 13 feet above the ground.
  2. NSB (near-surface burst) causes the cartridge to explode up to 3 feet above the ground.
  3. IM (impact) causes the cartridge to explode on contact.
  4. DLY (delay) incorporates a 0.05-second delay in the fuze train before exploding the cartridge.

There are two types: type 1 resembles the M734 fuze, and type 2 resembles the M935 fuze. The M751 is fitted with a smoke charge that operates on impact. The safety/packing clip should be removed when the cartridge is unpacked. M772 MTSQ Fuze

Is a mechanical time superquick (MTSQ) fuze.

Unit cost: $145 (Fiscal Year 2005). M772A1 MTSQ Fuze

Is a mechanical time superquick (MTSQ) fuze. It can be set from 3 to 55 seconds at half-second intervals. The safety wire must be removed before firing. M775 PD Practice Fuze

Point detonating practice fuze. Produces a visible flash, a cloud of smoke, and an audible sound on impact for spotting purposes.

Has multi-option type (PRX/NSB/IMP/DLY) dummy settings to simulate an M734 multioption fuze. The M775 PD fuze functions on impact with superquick action only. Setting of fuze is for practice only and has no effect upon actual functioning.

This is a training unique item not used in combat.

Unit cost: $16 (Fiscal Year 2005).

Has two function settings: impact and delay. It is fitted with a standard pull wire and safety pin that are removed immediately before firing.

Last updated: 10-MAY-2006: Added M879. Added more info for M819, M821, M853, M889
Copyright ©2006 Gary W. Cooke
To the best of my knowledge all military data and images presented in these pages are UNCLASSIFIED, NON-SENSITIVE, and approved for public release.

Sources:
FM 23-90 Mortars.
TM 9-1015-200-10 M29A1 Operator's Manual.
TM 9-1015-200-10 M29A1 Operator's Manual.
TM 9-1300-251-20&P Artillery Ammunition Maintenance Manual.
TM 9-1315-252-12&P M880 SRTR Manual.
2004/2005 ARMY PROCUREMENT OF AMMUNITION Budget.
2005 ARMY PROCUREMENT OF AMMUNITION Budget Estimate.
2007 ARMY PROCUREMENT OF AMMUNITION Budget Estimate.


Watch the video: Model Kit Build 1: Vickers-Armstrongs British Light Tank Mark VI B (January 2022).