Battle of Leuctra
The Battle of Leuctra (Greek: Λεῦκτρα , Leûktra) was a battle fought on 6 July 371 BC between the Boeotians led by the Thebans, and the Spartans along with their allies  amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict. The battle took place in the neighbourhood of Leuctra, a village in Boeotia in the territory of Thespiae.  The Theban victory shattered Sparta's immense influence over the Greek peninsula, which Sparta had gained with its victory in the Peloponnesian War a generation earlier.
The war in Parthia resulted from political arrangements intended to be mutually beneficial for Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompeius Magnus, and Julius Caesar, the so-called First Triumvirate. In March and April 56 BC, meetings were held at Ravenna and Luca, in Caesar's province of Cisalpine Gaul, to reaffirm the weakening alliance formed four years earlier. It was agreed that the Triumvirate would marshal its supporters and resources to secure legislation for prolonging Caesar's Gallic command and to influence the upcoming elections for 55 BC, with the objective of a second joint consulship for Crassus and Pompeius.  The Triumvirate aimed to expand their faction's power by traditional means: military commands, placing political allies in office and advancing legislation to promote their interests. Pressure in various forms was brought to bear on the elections: money, influence from patronage and friendship and the force of 1000 troopers brought from Gaul by Crassus's son Publius. The faction secured the consulship and most of the other offices that were sought. Legislation passed by the tribune Trebonius (the Lex Trebonia) granted extended proconsulships of five years, matching that of Caesar in Gaul, to the two outgoing consuls. The Spanish provinces would go to Pompeius. Crassus arranged to have Syria with the transparent intention of going to war with Parthia. 
Developments in Parthia Edit
Meanwhile in Parthia, a war of succession had broken out in 57 BC after King Phraates III had been killed by his sons Orodes II and Mithridates IV, who then began fighting each other over the throne. In the first stage, Orodes emerged victorious and appointed his brother as king of Media (his de facto governor) as a compromise.  However, another armed clash made Orodes force Mithridates to flee to Aulus Gabinius, the Roman proconsul of Syria.  Gabinius sought to interfere in the succession dispute on behalf of Mithridates so that Rome could make him its puppet king and seize control of Parthia in the process. However, Gabinius abandoned his plans and opted to intervene in Ptolemaic Egyptian affairs instead. 
Mithridates proceeded to invade Babylonia on his own with some initial success but was soon confronted by the army of the Parthian commander Surena. 
Gabinius's successor, Crassus, also sought to ally himself with Mithridates and invaded Parthia's client-state Osroene in 54 BC but wasted most of his time in waiting for reinforcements on the Balikh River's left bank while Surena besieged, defeated and executed Mithridates in Seleucia on the Tigris. Orodes, now unopposed in his own realm, marched north to invade Rome's ally Armenia, where King Artavasdes II soon defected to the Parthian side. 
Crassus's preparations Edit
The notoriously-wealthy Marcus Crassus was around 62 when he embarked on the Parthian invasion. Greed is often regarded by the ancient sources, particularly his biographer Plutarch, as his major character fault and his motive for going to war.  The historian Erich S. Gruen believed that Crassus's purpose was to enrich the public treasury since personal wealth was not what Crassus most lacked.  Most modern historians tend to view insatiable greed, envy of Pompey's military exploits and rivalry as his motivations since his long-faded military reputation had always been inferior to that of Pompeius and, after five years of war in Gaul, to that of Caesar. His major military achievements had been the defeat of Spartacus in 71 BC and his victory at the Battle of the Colline Gate for Sulla a decade earlier.  Plutarch noted that Caesar wrote to Crassus from Gaul and endorsed the plan to invade Parthia, an indication that he regarded Crassus's military campaign as complementary and not merely rivalrous to his own. 
Another factor in Crassus's decision to invade Parthia was the expected ease of the campaign. The Roman legions had easily crushed the numerically superior armies of other eastern powers such as Pontus and Armenia, and Crassus expected Parthia to be an easy target. 
Cicero, however, suggested an additional factor: the ambitions of the talented Publius Crassus, who had commanded successful campaigns in Gaul under Caesar. Upon his return to Rome as a highly decorated officer, Publius took steps to establish his own political career. Roman sources view the Battle of Carrhae not only as a calamity for Rome and a disgrace for Marcus Crassus but also as a tragedy that cut short Publius Crassus's promising career. 
Some Romans objected to the war against Parthia. Cicero calls it a war nulla causa ("with no justification") on the grounds that Parthia had a treaty with Rome.  The tribune Ateius Capito put up strenuous opposition and infamously conducted a public ritual of execration as Crassus prepared to depart. 
Despite protests and dire omens, Marcus Crassus left Rome on November 14, 55 BC.  Publius Crassus joined him in Syria during the winter of 54–53 BC and brought with him the thousand Celtic cavalry troopers from Gaul who remained loyal to their young leader until their death.
Crassus arrived in Syria in late 55 BC and immediately set about using his immense wealth to raise an army. According to Plutarch, he assembled a force of seven legions for a total of about 28,000 to 35,000 heavy infantry.  He also had about 4,000 light infantry, and 4,000 cavalry, including the 1000-strong Gallic cavalry that Publius had brought with him.  With the aid of Hellenic settlements in Syria and the support of about 6,000 cavalry from Artavasdes, the Armenian king, Crassus marched on Parthia. Artavasdes advised him to take a route through Armenia to avoid the desert and offered him reinforcements of a further 10,000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry. 
Crassus refused the offer and decided to take the direct route through Mesopotamia and to capture the great cities in the region. In response, the Parthian king, Orodes II , divided his army and took most of the soldiers, mainly foot archers with a small amount of cavalry, to punish the Armenians himself. He sent the rest of his forces, an all-cavalry force under the command of spahbod Surena, to scout out and harass Crassus's army. Orodes did not anticipate that Surena's heavily outnumbered force would be able to defeat Crassus and merely wanted to delay him. Plutarch described Surena's force as "a thousand mail-clad horsemen and a still greater number of light-armed cavalry". Including slaves and vassals, Surena's expedition numbered ten thousand in total, support by a baggage train of one thousand camels. 
Crassus received directions from the Osroene chieftain Ariamnes, who had assisted Pompey in his eastern campaigns.  Crassus trusted Ariamnes, who, however, was in the pay of the Parthians. He urged Crassus to attack at once and falsely stated that the Parthians were weak and disorganized. He then led Crassus's army into the most desolate part of the desert, far from any water. Crassus then received a message from Artavasdes that claimed that the main Parthian army was in Armenia, and the letter begged him for help. Crassus ignored the message and continued his advance into Mesopotamia.  He encountered Surena's army near the town of Carrhae.
After being informed of the presence of the Parthian army, Crassus's army panicked. Cassius recommended that the army should be deployed in the traditional Roman fashion, with infantry forming the centre and cavalry on the wings. At first, Crassus agreed, but he soon changed his mind and redeployed his men into a hollow square, each side formed by twelve cohorts.  That formation would protect his forces from being outflanked but at the cost of mobility. The Roman forces advanced and came to a stream. Crassus's generals advised him to make camp and to attack the next morning to give his men a chance to rest. Publius, however, was eager to fight and managed to convince Crassus to confront the Parthians immediately. 
The Parthians went to great lengths to intimidate the Romans. Firstly, they beat a great number of hollow drums and the Roman troops were unsettled by the loud and cacophonous noise. Surena then ordered his cataphracts to cover their armour in cloths and advance. When they were within sight of the Romans, they simultaneously dropped the cloths and revealed their shining armour. The sight was designed to intimidate the Romans. 
Though he had originally planned to shatter the Roman lines with a charge by his cataphracts, he judged that it would not yet be enough to break them. Thus, he sent his horse archers to surround the Roman square. Crassus sent his skirmishers to drive the horse archers off, but they were driven back by the latter's arrows. The horse archers then engaged the legionaries. The legionaries were protected by their large shields (scuta) and armour, but they could not cover the entire body. Some historians describe the arrows partially penetrating the Roman shields and nailing the shields to the limbs of the Roman infantry and nailing their feet to the ground. However, Plutarch wrote in his accounts that the Romans were met with a shower of arrows that passed through every kind of cover, hard and soft alike. Other historians state that most wounds inflicted were nonfatal hits to exposed limbs. 
The Romans repeatedly advanced towards the Parthians to attempt to engage in close-quarters fighting, but the horse archers were always able to retreat safely and loosed Parthian shots as they withdrew. The legionaries then formed the testudo formation by locking their shields together to present a nearly-impenetrable front to missiles.  However, that formation severely restricted their ability in melee combat. The Parthian cataphracts exploited that weakness and repeatedly charged the Roman line, which caused panic and inflicted heavy casualties.  When the Romans tried to loosen their formation to repel the cataphracts, the latter rapidly retreated, and the horse archers resumed shooting at the legionaries, who were now more exposed. 
Crassus now hoped that his legionaries could hold out until the Parthians ran out of arrows.  However, Surena used thousands of camels to resupply his horse archers. Upon his realisation, Crassus dispatched his son Publius with 1,300 Gallic cavalry, 500 archers and eight cohorts of legionaries to drive off the horse archers. The horse archers feigned retreat and drew off Publius' force, which suffered heavy casualties from arrow fire.
Once Publius and his men were sufficiently separated from the rest of the army, the Parthian cataphracts confronted them while the horse archers cut off their retreat. In the ensuing combat, the Gauls fought bravely, but their inferiority in weapons and armor was evident. They eventually retreated to a hill, where Publius committed suicide while the rest of his men were slaughtered, with only 500 being taken alive. 
Crassus, unaware of his son's fate but realising that Publius was in danger, ordered a general advance. He was confronted with the sight of his son's head on a spear. The Parthian horse archers began to surround the Roman infantry and shot at them from all directions. Meanwhile, the cataphracts mounted a series of charges that disorganised the Romans.
The Parthian onslaught did not cease until nightfall. Crassus, deeply shaken by his son's death, ordered a retreat to the nearby town of Carrhae and left behind 4000 wounded, who were killed by the Parthians the next morning. 
Four Roman cohorts got lost in the dark and were surrounded on a hill by the Parthians, with only 20 Romans surviving. 
The next day, Surena sent a message to the Romans and offered to negotiate with Crassus. Surena proposed a truce to allow the Roman army to return to Syria safely in exchange for Rome giving up all territory east of the Euphrates. Surena either sent an embassy to the Romans by the hills or went himself to state he wanted a peace conference on an evacuation.  
Crassus was reluctant to meet with the Parthians, but his troops threatened to mutiny otherwise.  At the meeting, a Parthian pulled at Crassus's reins and sparked violence in which Crassus and his generals were killed.
After his death, the Parthians allegedly poured molten gold down his throat in a symbolic gesture mocking Crassus's renowned greed  . Plutarch reports that Crassus' severed head was then used as a prop for part of a play, Euripides' Bacchae, performed at a banquet before the king.   The remaining Romans at Carrhae attempted to flee, but most were captured or killed. According to the ancient historian Plutarch, Roman casualties amounted to about 20,000 killed and 10,000 captured,  [ third-party source needed ] which made the battle one of the costliest defeats in Roman history. However, Parthian casualties were minimal.
Rome was humiliated by this defeat, which was made even worse by the fact that the Parthians had captured several Legionary Eagles.  It is also mentioned by Plutarch that the Parthians found the Roman prisoner-of-war who most resembled Crassus, dressed him as a woman and paraded him through Parthia for all to see.  Orodes II , with the rest of the Parthian Army, defeated the Armenians and captured their country. However, Surena's victory invoked the jealousy of the Parthian king, who ordered Surena's execution. Following Surena's death, Orodes II himself took command of the Parthian army and led an unsuccessful military campaign into Syria.
The Battle of Carrhae was one of the first major battles between the Romans and Parthians. It was the victory that led Parthia to invade Syria and Armenia several times, with varying successes. Rome also realised that its legionaries could not effectively fight against Parthian cavalry. 
Gaius Cassius Longinus, a quaestor under Crassus, led approximately 10,000 surviving soldiers from the battlefield back to Syria, where he governed as a proquaestor for two years, defending Syria from Orodes II 's further attacks. He received praise from Cicero for his victory. Cassius later played a key role in the conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar in 44 BC.
The 10,000 Roman prisoners of war appear to have been deported to Alexandria Margiana (Merv) near the Parthian Empire's northeastern border in 53 BC, where they reportedly married to local people. It has been hypothesized that some of them founded the Chinese city of Liqian after they had become soldiers for the Xiongnu during the Battle of Zhizhi against the Han dynasty, but that is disputed. 
The capture of the golden aquilae (legionary battle standards) by the Parthians was considered a grave moral defeat and evil omen for the Romans. When he was assassinated, Caesar was planning a retaliatory war. It was said that there would have been harsh retribution if Caesar won because the surviving son of Crassus would be among the Roman forces. 
However, the fall of the Roman Republic intervened, and the beginning of imperial monarchy at Rome followed. Sulla's first march on Rome in 88 BC had begun the collapse of the republican form of government, but the death of Crassus and the loss of his legions utterly reconfigured the balance of power at Rome.  An old theory ran that the death of Crassus, along with the death of Julia in 54, Pompey's wife and Caesar's daughter, may have severed the ties between Caesar and Pompey, and the First Triumvirate no longer existed. As a result, civil war broke out. Caesar won, and the Republic quickly became an autocratic dictatorship.
Several historians note the lapse of time between Crassus's death and the outbreak of civil war. Gaius Stern has claimed that the death nearly cut the links the First Triumvirate enjoyed with the blue-blooded aristocracy, leaving the entire state vulnerable to the friction that eventually turned into civil war.  Thus, an immediate effect of the battle may have been the elimination of certain private checks and balances (such as Crassus's relationship to Metellus Pius Scipio) that had kept a lid on political tensions.
It is rumoured that some of the survivors of Crassus's army ended up in China.  In the 1940s, Homer H. Dubs, an American professor of Chinese history at the University of Oxford, suggested that the people of Liqian were descended from Roman soldiers taken prisoner after the battle. The prisoners, Dubs proposed, were resettled by the Parthians on their eastern border and may have fought as mercenaries at the Battle of Zhizhi between the Chinese and the Xiongnu in 36 BC. Chinese chroniclers mention the use of a "fish-scale formation" of soldiers, which Dubs believed referred to the testudo formation. To date, no artifacts that might confirm a Roman presence, such as coins or weaponry, have been discovered in Zhelaizhai, and Dubs' theories have not been accepted by the vast majority of historians.
Rob Gifford, commenting on the theory, described it as one of many "rural myths". [ citation needed ] Alfred Duggan used the possible fate of the Roman prisoners as the kernel of his novel Winter Quarters, which suggested that they were employed as frontier guards on the eastern border of the Parthian Empire. [ citation needed ]
Map of the Battle of Gaugamela - Setup - History
Battle of Gaugamela &mdash October 1, 331 BC
The Battle of Gaugamela is also called the Battle of Arbela.
Who fought THE BATTLE OF GAUGAMELA?
Macedonia, led by Alexander the Great , fought against Persia, led by Darius III .
HOW MANY TROOPS ENGAGED IN THE BATTLE OF GAUGAMELA?
Alexander had about 40,000 infantry and 7,000 cavalry. Darius had employed an army of about 1,000,000 men plus 15 elephants, which he thought might come in handy when fighting against Alexander's phalanxes.
Battle starts, Darius' elephants charge, Alexander orders his army to shape some gaps in their formation, elephants instinctively prefer to zoom through gaps rather than to run into sharp objects, Alexander's army leaves elephants behind, Macedonian phalanxes charge as usual, Alex wins the battle of Gaugamela.
Killed were 300,000 Persians.
Alexander the Great (board game)
Printed when board wargaming was relatively new, this game was designed by Gary Gygax. The game recreates the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC between the Macedonians and the Persians. Players choose to portray either Alexander the Great or King Darius III. The game uses small cardboard counters and a hex-based movement system common to wargames of this era. Pieces represent infantry, cavalry, phalanx formations, various ranged weapons troops, chariots, and elephants. A unique feature of the game is a sliding morale track to determine which combat results table is used for combat resolution.
Alexander's Other Battles is a supplement to Alexander the Great published by Guidon Games in 1972. It provides additional counters and maps for Battle of the Granicus, Battle of Issus, and Battle of the Hydaspes.
When Guidon went out of business, Avalon Hill contacted Gygax to secure an agreement to revise and publish the game, and working with Donald Greenwood  the game was published again in 1974.
This board game-related article or section is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
This wargame-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
After Napoleon captured an Austrian army at Ulm in 1805, the Austrians&rsquo Russian allies retreated across the Danube, hoping to buy time to regroup by interposing the river between themselves and the French. To keep Napoleon from crossing, all bridges over the Danube were destroyed, or rigged with explosives for destruction to keep them out of French hands.
Meanwhile, as the French approached Vienna on the Danube, peace negotiations were underway. Because it might prove unnecessary if the negotiations bore fruit, the Austrians refrained from blowing up Vienna&rsquos bridges, but prepared them with explosives for destruction if the French tried to capture them. One of them was the Tabor Bridge, guarded by an officer named Auesberg.
On November 13th, advance French units, commanded by Joachim Murat and Jean Lannes, reached the bridge and stacked arms. Murat and Lannes then casually strolled across the bridge, conversing, laughing, and talking about the &ldquojust signed&rdquo armistice and peace treaty, while confused Austrian soldiers covered them with their muskets. Upon reaching the other side, they asked to see Auesberg, wondering if he had gone to witness the treaty signing.
While a message was sent to summon Auesberg, Murat and Lannes kept talking with the Austrian soldiers to distract them from French grenadiers now casually crossing the bridge. When Auesberg arrived, he believed the French officers, and when one of his sergeants voiced his suspicions, Murat berated Auesberg for allowing an enlisted man to mouth off, offend officers, and jeopardize the armistice.
The hapless Auesberg was shamed into arresting the sergeant, then turned control of the bridge over to the French. They promptly crossed the Danube, and within a month, destroyed the Austro-Russian armies at Austerlitz, the most brilliant of Napoleon&rsquos victories. The unfortunate Auesberg was tried for dereliction of duty, convicted, and executed.
The USS Indianola was a Union ironclad river gunboat that served in the Western Theater during the American Civil War with the US Navy&rsquos Mississippi Squadron, operating in the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. She ran past Confederate batteries in Vicksburg to reach the Red River and help block Confederate supplies from sailing down its waters, but once she got there she was set upon by Confederate rams on the night of February 24th, 1863, ran aground, and was captured.
The Indianola&rsquos capture derailed the plans to blockade the Red River, and its presence in Confederate hands was too great a threat to Union operations in the region to be endured. Plans were thus made to recapture the ironclad or destroy it so as to deprive the enemy of its use, setting in motion one of the war&rsquos most successful deception operations and hoaxes.
Union naval commander David Porter ordered the construction of a dummy ironclad out of an old coal barge that was made to resemble a real warship, with paddle boxes, fake gun emplacements out of which stuck &ldquocannons&rdquo that were actually wooden logs painted black, and barrels stacked to look like funnels, out of which poured smoke produced by smudge pots to mimic the smoke produced by a steam engine.
Wooden dummy ironclad used to hoax the Confederates into destroying their recently-captured Indianola. Wikimedia
The dummy warship was then floated past Vicksburg, and when word that a powerful &ldquoironclad&rdquo was headed their way reached the Confederate salvage crews working to repair and refloat the recently captured Indianola, they panicked, and in order to prevent the Indianola&rsquos recapture, the Confederates set fire to the ship&rsquos magazine and blew her up.
The Maeda Escarpment, also known as Hacksaw Ridge, was located atop a 400-foot vertical cliff. The American attack on the ridge began on April 26. It was a brutal battle for both sides.
To defend the escarpment, Japanese troops hunkered down in a network of caves and dugouts. They were determined to hold the ridge and decimated some American platoons until just a few men remained.
Much of the fighting was hand-to-hand and particularly ruthless. The Americans finally took Hacksaw Ridge on May 6.
All Americans who fought in the Battle of Okinawa were heroic, but one soldier at the escarpment stood out𠅌orporal Desmond T. Doss. He was an army medic and Seventh-Day Adventist who refused to raise a gun to the enemy.
Still, he remained on the escarpment after his commanding officers ordered a retreat. Surrounded by enemy soldiers, he went alone into the battle fray and rescued 75 of his wounded comrades. His heroic story was brought to life on the big screen in 2016 in the film Hacksaw Ridge and he won a Medal of Honor for his bravery.
d. 8000 Baktrian cavalry. Probably a mixture of spear and bow armed men, many partly armoured on mostly unarmoured horses (those on armoured horses probably supporting the Saka above). Morale would be average to good and they are willing to engage in close combat. Possibly best represented by 1/3 of “units” of good morale and 2/3 of average or “units” of mixed morale. DBM Irr Cv(S) and Irr Cv(O) or LH(S). The left wing commander Bessos should be initially deployed with these troops.
e. 1000 Dahai cavalry. Unarmoured skirmishing horse archers of average morale. Unwilling to engage in close combat and ill equipped to do so. DBM Irr LH(F).
f. 1000 Arachosians. Javelin armed unarmoured skirmishing cavalry of average morale. Unwilling to engage in close combat and poorly equipped to do so. DBM Irr LH(O).
g. 4000 Persian cavalry. Javelin armed and armoured in partial armour such as linen or lamellar corslets . Also armed with other close combat weapons such as swords and axes. Poor morale, weak in close combat and limited skirmishing ability. DBM Irr Cv(I).
h. 2000 Persian infantry. Probably mixed unarmoured missilemen using bows and slings. Unwilling to fight in close combat and ill equipped to do so. Probably in a relatively dispersed formation. DBM Irr Ps(O).
i. 1000 Susian cavalry. As Persian cavalry above.
j. 1000 Kadusian cavalry. As Persians above.
Map of the Battle of Gaugamela - Setup - History
Ancient Persia : Military History
Achaemenid Army After Kuroush (Cyrus) overthrew Astayges, unifying the Median and Persian tribes, with himself at the helm, he continued to expand his empire. Though Kuroush was immortalized in the bible for his great tolerance, his military genius helped him overcome many enemies in combat. He trained his soldiers through hefty routines to condition them for combat. During his expansion westward Kuroush battled the armies of Croseus, king of Lydia. Babylon was alarmed, but Kuroush in act of pure political savy, assured Babylon that he was not contemplating attacking them. At that time war in mountainous regions was seasonal. Fighting through the summers and taking a break during the harsh long winters. Kuroush decided to attack early in Spring, when the mountain passes had opened, but the Lydians were still unsuspecting. The Lydians had a formidable cavalry. To solve this issue Kuroush set camels up in front of his army. The ghastly smell from the camels terrified the Lydian horses who fled, leaving their masters hopeless. After conquering Lydia, with Babylon pacified for the time-being, Kuroush set his sights on his eastern domain. Attacking tribes in Afghanistan and Central Asia until his empire had expanded into kingdoms such as Bactria and Sogdiana. Prepared for Babylon, Kuroush moved to attack Babylon. Most people were discontent with their king Nabonidus. The battle was short as Nabonidus soon fled.
Achaemenid Imperial Army The Achaemenian/Achaemenid army is well known through descriptions by Herodotus, Xenophon, and Arrian as well as by illustrations on Persepolitan and Greco-Persian monuments. Of particular importance for the topic are the Greek representations of Persian warriors and the evidence of the so-called Alexander Sarcophagus from Sidon The Persians whom Cyrus united did not possess a professional army: as in days of old, the "people" of a region was represented by its backbone, the "military force," so the two words were used synonymously in one Old Persian term, k�gra (cognate with Lithuaniank�grias/k�gris "war, army," Gothic harjis "army," and German Heer "army," , a sense still retained in the New Persian term kas-o k�gr "relatives and supporters."
Alexander Defeats the Persians, 331 BC Alexander began his war against the Persians in 334 BC. At the time the Macedonian leader was twenty-two years old. At his death eleven years later, Alexander ruled the largest empire of the ancient world. His victory at the battle of Gaugamela on the Persian plains was a decisive conquest that insured the defeat of his Persian rival King Darius III.
Battle of Cunaxa 410 B.C. The Achaemenid King, Darius II died in 404 B.C. and was succeeded by his eldest son, Artaxerxes II. The death of Darius had precipitated a power struggle between Artaxerxes II and his brother, 'Cyrus, the younger', the satrap of Anatolia, which culminated in the battle of Cunaxa 401 B.C. near Babylon. A description of the battle is preserved in detail by Xenophon in his classic Anabasis as well as in Plutarch - Artaxerxes II.
Battle of Mycale The Battle of Mycale was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian Wars and returned freedom to the Greek city-states. The battle took place on or about August 27, 479 BC outside the Ionian city of Samos. Mycale resulted in the destruction of the main Persian forces in Ionia, as well as their Mediterranean fleet. The Battle of Plataea on the same day on the Greek mainland was a victory as well, and the Persians were forced to leave both Greece and Ionia and retreat inland, thereby ending Persian rule. The battle is known to history through the writings of Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
Battle of Salamis After the Battle of Thermopylae, Athens was in despair. The Athenians knew that their city would surely be destroyed by the Persians. There was simply no place between the Persians and Athens where the Greeks dared to risk battle. Most of the Athenians fled to the island of Salamis where they watched their city burn and placed their trust in the fleet.
Battles of Cyrus II Under the leadership of Cyrus II, the Persians revolted against Median rule and defeated the Median King Astages and gained their freedom. The victory was initiated by Harpagus (a Median general) who sought revenge for the death of his son by Astages. Harpagus persauded others in the Median nobility to overthrow the harsh rule of their king in favour of Cyrus. The Median army was defeated after a short battle as many changed sides or fled, Astages was captured. The Medians gained their freedom from Astages but now became the subjects of Persia.
Campaigns of Achaemenid Persia 550 - 330 BC The Achaemenid Kings and their Satraps were constantly involved in organising campaigns either to expand their empire or to fight in its defence. In doing so they showed themslves to be highly organised and capable of thorough planning in mobilising vast and hetergoneous forces.
Campaigns of Darius I - Ionian Revolt Ionia, on the central Western coast of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands was settled by the Greeks about 1000 BC. Between the 8th and 6th centuries BC, the Ionian cities of Miletus, Shmos, Ephesus, led the rest of Greece in trade, colonization, and culture. The region was dominated by Lydia from 550 BC and then by Persian rule after Cyrus the Great's conquest in 546 BC. The Ionian revolt against Persian rule in 499 BC was to last for 6 years and end, not only in defeat for the Ionians but with the enslavement of much of its people, economic ruin, subjugation, and the comparative eclipse of a once thriving culture.
First Persian War Marathon (First Persian War) After the Ionian Revolt of 499 BC, the Persians and their king Darius wanted to conquer Greece more than ever. Persia wanted to extend its territory. Also, the Greeks had helped the Ionians to revolt against the Persians, and had marched to Sardis and burned the city. The Persians condemned the Greeks as invading terrorists.
History of Iran: Achaemenid Army he Achaemenian/Achaemenid Army is well known through descriptions by Herodotus, Xenophon, and Arrian as well as by illustrations on Persepolitan and Greco-Persian monuments. Of particular importance for the topic are the Greek representations of Persian warriors and the evidence of the so-called Alexander Sarcophagus from Sidon. The Persians whom Cyrus the Great united did not possess a professional army: as in days of old, the "people" of a region was represented by its backbone, the "military force," so the two words were used synonymously in one Old Persian term, kara (cognate with Lithuanian karias/karis "war, army," Gothic harjis "army," and German Heer "army,"), a sense still retained in the New Persian term kas-o kar "relatives and supporters."
History of Iran: Parthian Army The Greco-Persian wars and Alexander's victories proved that light-armed troops could not stop heavy, well-trained, and brilliantly led infantry of the type of hoplites or phalanx. These could only be encountered with heavily armed and highly professional cavalry causing disorder in the massed ranks and then attacking them on vulnerable points with bowshots capable of piercing armour and lances effective against shields. This lesson went home with the Parthians who in ousting the Seleucids from Iran had ample opportunity to experience the effect of heavily armed professional infantry led by Macedonian kings, and soon came to learn about the armament, tactics, and strategy of the Roman empire as well. So they formed their armies on sound bases, taking into consideration what was needed and what was available to them.
Illustrated Persian Wars Dr. J's Illustrated Persian Wars. The Classical Age begins with the monumental Greek victory over the Persians in what have become known to us as the Persian Wars. Pericles makes reference to these wars when he boasts about the previous generation of Athenians' success in "stemming the tide of foreign aggression." The Persian Wars were really a series of Persian versus Greek battles, in which Greek citizens from many city-states fought against the barbarian (as they saw it) invaders. The Persian Wars are said to have been provoked by the gradual rejection of Persian authority by the Greek colonies along the Ionian coast (across the Aegean Sea from Athens, on the shore of the continent of Asia) from 499-494 BC. Living in the shadow of the Persian Empire, and tired of paying tribute, some of the colonies (founded during the Archaic period during the Age of Expansion/Colonization) tried flexing their muscles and were immediately and utterly trounced by the much more formidable Persians. Once the Persians invaded Eretria, one of the big naysayers, and enslaved her population, Athens (Persia's next target) knew that trouble was coming down the pike and prepared as best she could.
Ionian Revolt In 539 BC, Cyrus the Great made himself the King of Kings, and ruled all of West Asia. Along the coast of Anatolia (modern Turkey), Cyrus conquered first the Lydians and then the Greek cities that had been dependent on Lydia (LIH-dee-uh). The people who lived in these Greek cities in Turkey were called Ionians (eye-OH-nee-anns). Cyrus and the Persians made some changes in Ionia - they charged higher taxes and imposed tyrants who were loyal to the Persians. So the Ionians were not happy.
Persian Mythology, Gods and Goddesses - Part 2 Iran Politics Club: Persian Mythology, Gods & Goddesses Part 2. Persian Mythology, Gods and Goddesses. A Pictorial Research and Guide
Persian Wars of Conquest B.C. 550-512. Persian Empire versus Medes, Lydia, Babylon, Egypt and Scythia. The Persian Empire was the great rival of Ancient Greece during its Golden Age. It came to prominence under Cyrus the Great in 550 B.C., and lasted until it was overthrown by the Macedonians under Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.. During this period, Persia was the largest, richest and most powerful empire the world had known, encompassing the formerly great kingdoms of Medes (modern Iran), Babylon (modern Iraq and Syria), Lydia (modern Turkey), and Egypt, and at its peak stretched from Thrace in Europe to India.
Platea - Persian Wars - Battle of Platea Spartans, Tegeans, and Athenians fought the Persian army that remained in Greece, at the final battle on Greek soil of the Persian Wars, the Battle of Plataea, in 479 B.C. Xerxes and his fleet had returned to Persia, but Persian troops remained in Greece, under Mardonius. They stationed themselves for battle in a place suitable for their horsemen -- the plain. Under the Spartan leader Pausanias, the Greeks stationed themselves advantageously in the foothills of Mt. Cithaeron.
Salamis - Second Persian War The plan to stop the Persians at Thermopylae hadn't worked, and, in the late summer of 480 BC, the Persian army was marching south towards Athens. The Greeks got together to discuss what to do.
The Battle of Carrhae It was probably on the third or fourth day after he had quitted the Euphrates that Crassus found himself approaching his enemy. After a hasty and hot march he had approached the banks of the Belik, when his scouts brought him word that they had fallen in with the Parthian army, which was advancing in force and seemingly full of confidence. Abgarus had recently quitted him on the plea of doing him some undefined service, but really to range himself on the side of his real friends, the Parthians. His officers now advised Crassus to encamp upon the river, and defer an engagement till the morrow but he had no fears his son, Publius, who had lately joined him with a body of Gallic horse sent by Julius Caesar, was anxious for the fray and accordingly the Roman commander gave the order to his troops to take some refreshment as they stood, and then to push forward rapidly.
The Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C. The battle of Marathon is one of history's most famous military engagements. It is also one of the earliest recorded battles. Their victory over the Persian invaders gave the fledgling Greek city states confidence in their ability to defend themselves and belief in their continued existence. The battle is therefore considered a defining moment in the development of European culture. In September of 490 BC a Persian armada of 600 ships disgorged an invasion force of approximately 20,000 infantry and cavalry on Greek soil just north of Athens. Their mission was to crush the Greek states in retaliation for their support of their Ionian cousins who had revolted against Persian rule.
The Early Achaemenid Persian Army The Persian army was very multicultural in its make up. It consisted of trained regular units of Persian and Median infantry and cavalry supplemented by conscripts from subject nations within the empire and well as hired mercenaries or garrison troops from within or from outside the empire. The full time regular soldiers such as the Immortals were supplied with arms and armour and so are uniformly equipped, many allied contingents supplied their own equipment and fought in their own style. Hordes of lightly armed bow and javelin-man and non fighting camp attendants, wives, concubines and slaves account for the vast numbers that were characteristic of the Persian army.
The Early Achaemenid Persian Army - Equipment Herodotus described the equipment of the Median and Persian infantry: "They wore soft caps called tiaras, multicoloured sleeved tunics with iron scale armour looking like the scales of fish, and trousers. Instead of aspides they carried gerrha with their bows cases slung below them. They carried short spears, large bows, cane arrows and daggers hanging from their belts beside the right thigh."
The Persian Immortals Immortals: Greek name for an elite regiment in the ancient Achaemenid empire. In his description of the battle of Thermopylae (480 BCE), the Greek researcher Herodotus mentions a Persian elite corps which he calls the Ten Thousand or the Athanatoi, the 'Immortals'. He describes them as a body of picked Persians under the leadership of Hydarnes, the son of Hydarnes. This corps was known as the Immortals, because it was invariably kept up to strength if a man was killed or fell sick, the vacancy he left was at once filled, so that the total strength of the corps was never less -and never more- than ten thousand.
The Persian Wars In the 5th century BC the vast Persian Empire attempted to conquer Greece. If the Persians had succeeded, they would have set up local tyrants, called satraps, to rule Greece and would have crushed the first stirrings of democracy in Europe. The survival of Greek culture and political ideals depended on the ability of the small, disunited Greek city-states to band together and defend themselves against Persia's overwhelming strength. The struggle, known in Western history as the Persian Wars, or Greco-Persian Wars, lasted 20 years--from 499 to 479 BC.
Thermopylae Termopylae After the Athenians beat the Persians in the First Persian War, at the battle of Marathon, the Persians left the Greeks alone for ten years. The Persians were busy fighting a revolt in Egypt, and their king Darius had died. But as soon as Darius' son Xerxes (ZERK-sees) settled the Egyptian revolt, he began to plan how he would conquer those terrorists in Greece.