Information

Hatch Act/ An Act To Prevent Pernicious Political Activities [August 2, 1939] - History


Be it enacted, That it shall be unlawful for any person to intimidate, threaten, or coerce, or to attempt to intimidate, threaten, or coerce, any other person for the purpose of interfering with the right of such other person to vote or to vote as he may choose, or of causing such other person to vote for, or not to vote for, any candidate for the office of President, Vice President, Presidential elector, Member of the Senate, or Member of the House of Representatives at any election....

SEC. 2. It shall be unlawful for any person employed in any administrative position by the United States, or by any department, independent agency, or other agency of the United States (including any corporation controlled by the United States or any agency thereof, and any corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by the United States or any agency thereof ), to use his official authority for the purpose of interfering with, or affecting the election or the nomination of any candidate for the office of President, Vice President, Presidential electors Member of the Senate, or Member of the House of Representatives, Delegates or Commissioners from the Territories and insular possessions.

SEC. 3. It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to promise any employment, position, work, compensation, or other benefit, provided for or made possible ill whole or in part by any Act of Congress, to give consideration, favor, or reward for any political activity or for the support of or opposition to any candidate or any political party in any election.

SEC. 4. Except as may be required by the provisions of subsection (b), section 9 of this Act, it shall be unlawful for any persons to deprive, attempt to deprive, or threaten to deprive, by any means, any person of any employment, position, work, compensation, or other benefit provided for or made possible by any Act of Congress appropriating funds for work relief or relief purposes, on account of race, creed, color, or any political activity, support of, or opposition to any candidate or any political party in any election.

SEC. 5. It shall be unlawful for any person to solicit or receive or be in any manner concerned in soliciting or receiving any assessment, subscription, or contribution for any political purpose whatever from any person known by him to be entitled to or receiving compensation, employment, or other benefit provided for or made possible by any Act of Congress appropriating funds for work relief or relief purposes.

SEC. 6. It shall be unlawful for any person I for political purposes to furnish or to disclose, or to aid or assist in furnishing or disclosing, any list or names of persons receiving compensation, employment, or benefits provided for or made possible by any Act of Congress appropriating, or authorizing the appropriation of, funds for work relief or relief purposes, to a political candidate, committee, campaign manager, or to any person for delivery to a political candidate, committee, or campaign manager, and it shall be unlawful for any person to receive any such list or names for political purposes.

SEC. 7. No part of any appropriation made by any Act, heretofore or hereafter enacted making appropriations for work relief, relief, or otherwise to increase employment by providing loans and grants for public-works projects, shall be used for the purpose of, and no authority conferred by any such Act upon any person shall be exercised or administered for the purpose of, interfering with, restraining, or coercing any individual in the exercise of his right to vote at any election.

SEC. 8. Any person who violates any of the foregoing provisions of this Act upon convict; on thereof shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

SEC. 9. (a) It shall be unlawful for any person employed in the executive branch of the Federal Government, or any agency or department thereof, to use his official authority or influence for the purpose of interfering; with an election or affecting the result thereof. No officer or employee in the executive branch of the Federal Government, or any agency or department thereof, shall take any active part in political management or in political campaigns. All such persons shall retain the right to vote as they may choose and to express their opinions on all political subjects. For the purposes of this section the term "officer" or "employee" shall not be construe to include (1) the President and the Vice Presdent of the United States; (2) persons whose compensation is paid from the appropriation for the office of the President;

(l) heads and assistant heads of executive departments; (4) officers who are appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who determine policies to be pursued by the United States in its relations with foreign powers or in the Nation-wide administration of Federal laws.

(b) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be immediately removed from the position or office held by him, and thereafter no part of the funds appropriated by any Act of Congress for such position or office shall be used to pay the compensation of such person.

SEC. 9A. (1) It shall be unlawful for any person employed in any capacity by any agency of the Federal Government, whose compensation, or any part thereof, is paid from funds authorized or appropriated by any Act of Congress, to have membership in any political party or organization which advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government in the United States.

(2) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be immediately removed from the position or office held by him, and thereafter no part of the funds appropriated by any Act of Congress for such position or office shall be used to pay the compensation of such person.

SEC. 10. All provisions of this Act shall be in addition to, not in substitution for, of existing law.

SEC. 11. If any provision of this Act, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of the Act, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.


Hatch Act of 1939

The Hatch Act of 1939, An Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities, is a United States federal law. Its main provision prohibits civil service employees in the executive branch of the federal government, [3] except the president and vice president, [4] from engaging in some forms of political activity. It became law on August 2, 1939. The law was named for Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico. [5] It was most recently amended in 2012.

  • Introduced in the Senateas S. 1871 byCarl Hatch (D-NM)
  • Passed the House on July 20, 1939 [2]
  • Signed into law by PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelton August 2, 1939

The Hatch Act - A Federal Law "To Prevent Pernicious Political Activities" By Government Workers

The following informational flyer appears on the website of the County of Delaware, New York, our neighboring county to the northwest. This warning concerning the Hatch Act (5 U.S. Code Subchapter III) applies not only to that particular location, but to generally employees of the employees of Federal, State, and local governments, as well as private organizations that receive loans or grants originating with the U.S. government.

Federal funding to the Village of Monticello include grants for public housing (HUD), roads and bridges (DOT), law-enforcement (HSA), water and sewer department (USDA), emergency management (FEMA), and numerous other streams. Some such vital funds flow directly from Federal sources to our Village while some Federal dollars are channeled through the State and/or private foundations such as Sullivan Renaissance.

In general, covered employees who violate this law risk not only their jobs, but potentially place in jeopardy the Federal funds received by their employing agency. An OSC investigation into a potential violation raises the possibility of a reprimand, suspension, reduction in grade, removal, debarment from federal employment for up to five years, or civil fines against the employee.

Of particularly timely local interest, see Hatch Act Social Media Quick Guide (US Office of Special Counsel, 2/2018) and Hatch Act Social Media and Email Guidance (US Office of Special Counsel, 2/2018).


The Hatch Act: Political Activity and the Federal Employee

The Hatch Act restricts federal employee participation in certain partisan political activities. The political activity restrictions apply during the entire time of an employee’s federal service. Certain rules prohibit both on-duty and off-duty conduct.

Partisan political activities are those activities directed at the success or failure of a political party, candidate for partisan political office, or partisan political group. While most Federal employees are permitted to take an active part in partisan political management and partisan political campaigns, the Hatch Act does prohibit certain participation by all Federal employees. Federal employees may not seek public office in partisan elections, use their official title or authority when engaging in political activity, solicit or receive contributions for partisan political candidates or groups, and engage in political activity while on duty.

FDA employees are categorized into “less restricted” and “further restricted” employees.

Further Restricted Employees

Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) officers, Administrative Law Judges (ALJs), and Career Senior Executive Service (SES) employees are subject to further restrictive rules and cannot engage in partisan political activities even during off-duty hours or while away from work. These employees are largely limited to exercising the most basic rights of civic participation, such as voting, making political contributions, and expressing individual opinions.

Less Restricted Employees

All other civilian FDA employees are considered “less restricted’ employees.


Hatch Act Amendments

There have been several Hatch Act Amendments since the law was established in 1939. The first occurred only a year later, in 1940, when Congress extended the Act’s influence, by including more types of federal employees, and employees of state and local governments which receive federal funds. Though, some of the restrictions of this new amendment were later relaxed.

In 1975, the House passed an amendment that would permit federal employees to both participate in partisan elections, and run for public office, though the Senate did not respond. In 1987, another Hatch Act amendment was passed by the House to allow federal workers to actively participate in political campaigns, though it failed to gain Senate approval. A similar bill was approved by both houses of Congress in 1990, but President George H.W. Bush vetoed it.

Currently, examples of Hatch Act restrictions still imposed upon federal employees include prohibitions against:

  • Using their political positions to sway an election.
  • Running for public office.
  • Campaigning for, or receiving political contributions.
  • Engaging in political activities while either on the job, or on federal property.

However, they can now participate in political management and/or taking an active role in a political campaign, thanks to the Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993, which lifted these prohibitions. Additionally, the 1993 amendments barred elected officials from offering unsolicited recommendations for those in the job market who were seeking federal positions.

In 2012, President Barack Obama signed the Hatch Act Modernization Act of 2012 though, rather than arguing for more rights for federal employees, this Hatch Act amendment actually served to clarify the punishments one might receive, should he or she choose to break the law. Now, disciplinary actions can be taken against the employee, including termination of employment, or removal from office. The new amendment also permits federal employees whose salaries are paid entirely via federal loans or grants to run for elective office.

Over the years, examples of Hatch Act penalties that a federal employee could face for violating the law have varied. For instance, an offending employee could face suspension without pay for violating the Hatch Act. At the state level, the Hatch Act has been significantly revised over time in accordance with the statutes for each particular state.


Hatch Act: Important political activity guidance reminder

WASHINGTON, D.C. – With the start of 2020, the national election campaign season is moving more prominently into high gear across our nation. It is important for all federal employees to remember the applicable statutory restrictions on political activity imposed by the Hatch Act. Previously USDA issued a Hatch Act guidance memorandum, dated September 25, 2019, to all employees via a Departmental e-mail. More recently, USDA also issued a 2020 Hatch Act Guidance Refresher Memorandum, dated January 23, 202. Both of these documents can be found here.

Resources Available to Help You Learn More About the Hatch Act

To further assist USDA employees, we are sending out this refresher notice to all employees about the Hatch Act and the resources readily available to you for obtaining answers to questions about personal political activities. There are several resources available to all USDA employees:

  • All employees are encouraged to direct any questions about the Hatch Act to the USDA Office of Ethics at its “Hatch Act Hotline” (202) 720-2251 or via e-mail at [email protected]
  • Additionally, employees can readily locate the Office of Ethics advisors assigned to service their Mission Areas at: www.ethics.usda.gov
  • Further information about the Hatch Act can be found on the USDA Ethics App (you can search “USDA Ethics” and download the App on any smart phone)
  • Also, you can view several short videos about the Hatch Act located on the Video Section of the USDA Ethics App as well as on USDA’s official YouTube page 1

Overview of the Hatch Act Rules: Determining if You Are “Less Restricted” or “Further Restricted”

1- The Rules for “Less Restricted” Employees :

Although all Executive Branch employees are covered by the Hatch Act, not all employees are covered by the same restrictions. The majority of USDA employees are considered under the Hatch Act to be “Less Restricted” and may engage in political activity while off-duty, outside of Federal buildings, out of uniform, and without using their USDA position title or Federal resources. The “Less Restricted” category includes all GS-level, SL and ST career employees, and all political appointees. Those employees who wish to volunteer for political campaigns should seek prior guidance on the relevant rules by contacting the Office of Ethics at (202) 720-2251 or via e-mail at: [email protected] Senate-confirmed Presidential appointees are also “Less Restricted” and because the set of rules governing these officials are more complex, those officials should seek further guidance from the Office of Ethics prior to engaging in political activities.

2- The Rules for “Further Restricted” Employees (Career-SES and ALJs)

The rules apply more stringently to certain senior employees, such as those employees in career Senior Executive Service positions and Administrative Law Judges. Because of their leadership positions as the most senior career officials within the Executive Branch, SES and ALJs are considered under the Hatch Act to be “Further Restricted” and may not engage in certain political activities, even on their own time. Career SES and ALJs interested in learning more are encouraged to contact the Office of Ethics.

3- Volunteering for a Political Campaign in Your Personal Capacity Off-Duty

Under the Hatch Act, if you are a “less restricted” employee, you are permitted to volunteer for a political campaign of your choice, provided that you are:

  • Off-duty
  • Outside of a Federal building
  • Not using government resources, government e-mails, or computer equipment
  • Not soliciting or receiving campaign contributions
  • Not wearing an official USDA insignia or apparel with government insignia (such as a Forest Service uniform or an FSA or RD polo shirt)

* Important Note: You cannot enlist your subordinate employees to assist in any partisan political campaign.

Volunteer activities for employees who are “Less Restricted” could include:

  • An active part in managing or volunteering on a political campaign
  • Serving as an officer of a political party or other political group, or as a member of a national, state, or local committee of a political party
  • Canvassing for votes in support of, or in opposition to, a political candidate
  • Addressing a convention, rally, caucus, or similar gathering of a political party in support of, or in opposition to, a partisan candidate for public office
  • Assisting in “get out the vote” partisan phone banks
  • Attending political fundraisers, but not soliciting political contributions
  • Distributing campaign literature in partisan elections
  • Assisting in voter registration drives
  • Circulating nominating petitions

Please remember, these allowances apply only to employees who are volunteering in their personal capacity, on their own time, and not in a Federal building. USDA Employees must not enlist subordinate employees to assist any partisan political campaign. Additionally, employees who are “Further Restricted” (career SES and Administrative Law Judges) cannot volunteer to assist any partisan political campaign.

4- Restrictions on Political Contributions and Fundraising

  • Federal employees are prohibited from soliciting political contributions from any person or organization at any time. The restriction against political fundraising is a complete ban on a 24/7 basis. This means, for example, that you:
    • Cannot host a political fundraiser at your personal residence
    • Cannot solicit donations to a Campaign, Political Party or Political Action Committee
    • Cannot join a host committee (or permit your name to be used) for a fundraising event
    • Cannot send or forward campaign fundraising e-mails, solicit campaign donations on Facebook, or retweet fundraising solicitations that you may receive to others

    'NOTE: If you choose to, you can always contribute your own personal funds to political candidates, parties, or groups and may attend political fundraisers in your personal capacity.

    5- Social Media and the Hatch Act

    You must be especially vigilant to comply with the Hatch Act when using social media while in the workplace, on duty, or anytime while using your USDA e-mail account or using government-issued computer equipment or communications devices.

    For Social Media, this means:

    • Don't post, like, share or retweet a message or comment in support of or opposition to a political party, candidate, or partisan political group while you are on official duty or are in the workplace, even if your social media account is private
    • Never post, like, share or retweet a message or comment to solicit a political contribution for a political party, candidate in a partisan race or partisan political group
    • Never use your official authority or government social media resources (including government e-mail and twitter accounts) to post, like, share or retweet a message or comment to influence the outcome of an election

    When in doubt, contact the USDA Office of Ethics for the latest Hatch Act guidance.

    6- Other Hatch Act Limitations

    As a Federal employee, you cannot:

    • Run as a candidate in a partisan political election for a Federal, State, or local elected office
    • Use your official authority or influence for the purpose of interfering with or affecting the result of an election (e.g., using your official title when participating in political activity, using your authority to coerce another to participate in political activity, or soliciting or receiving services from a subordinate for any political purpose)
    • Knowingly solicit or discourage the participation in any political activity of any person who has an application for any compensation, grant, contract, ruling, license, permit, or certificate pending before the staff member's office
    • Knowingly solicit or discourage the participation in any political activity of any person who is the subject of, or a participant in, an ongoing audit, investigation, or enforcement action being carried out by your office
    • Coerce any Federal employee to engage in or not engage in any political activity
    • You cannot wear any campaign apparel into the office or while you are on duty. This means, for example, that when you are on duty or in the Federal workplace, you cannot wear any campaign buttons, stickers, ballcaps, or t-shirts with political campaign messages, slogans, logos, or items purchased from a political campaign’s website
    • You cannot display pictures of candidates for partisan political office in your Federal office or in a Federal building, unless it is a personal photo and all of the following apply:
      • The photograph was on display in advance of the election season
      • The employee is in the photograph with the candidate
      • The photograph is a personal one (i.e., taken at a personal event or function such as a wedding, and not at a campaign event or other partisan political event)
      • The employee must not have a political purpose for displaying the photograph, namely promoting or opposing a political party or a candidate for partisan political office

      This memorandum summarizes highlights of the Hatch Act rules. Direct any questions to the Office of Ethics at (202) 720-2251 or at [email protected] Additionally, employees can direct any questions to the Office of Ethics advisors assigned to service their Mission Areas at: www.ethics.usda.gov.

      1 As a resource readily available to employees on demand, the USDA Office of Ethics has created three short videos on USDA’s Official YouTube site:


      Our database of roll call votes from 1789-1989 (1990 for House votes) comes from an academic data source, VoteView.com, that has digitized paper records going back more than 200 years. Because of the difficulty of this task, the accuracy of these vote records is reduced.

      From October 2014 through July 2015, we displayed incorrect vote totals in some cases. Although the total correctly reflected the announced positions of Members of Congress, the totals incorrectly included &ldquopaired&rdquo votes, which is when two Members of Congress, one planning to vote in favor and the other against, plan ahead of time to both abstain.

      In addition, these records do not always distinguish between Members of Congress not voting (abstaining) from Members of Congress who were not eligible to vote because they had not yet taken office, or for other reasons. As a result, you may see extra not-voting entries and in these cases Senate votes may show more than 100 senators listed!

      &ldquoAye&rdquo and &ldquoYea&rdquo mean the same thing, and so do &ldquoNo&rdquo and &ldquoNay&rdquo. Congress uses different words in different sorts of votes.

      The U.S. Constitution says that bills should be decided on by the &ldquoyeas and nays&rdquo (Article I, Section 7). Congress takes this literally and uses &ldquoyea&rdquo and &ldquonay&rdquo when voting on the final passage of bills.

      All Senate votes use these words. But the House of Representatives uses &ldquoAye&rdquo and &ldquoNo&rdquo in other sorts of votes.

      Vote District Party Representative Score
      Yea LA 8 th D Allen, Asa
      Yea PA 28 th D Allen, Robert
      Yea MO 12 th D Anderson, Charles
      Yea OH 17 th D Ashbrook, William
      Yea TX 3 rd D Beckworth, Lindley
      Yea IN 8 th D Boehne, John
      Yea LA 4 th D Brooks, Overton
      Yea NC 8 th D Burgin, William
      Yea TN 5 th D Byrns, Joseph
      Yea OK 3 rd D Cartwright, Wilburn
      Yea KY 6 th D Chapman, Virgil
      Yea OH 11 th D Claypool, Harold
      Yea MO 13 th D Cochran, John
      Yea NE 5 th D Coffee, Harry
      Yea MD 2 nd D Cole, William
      Yea MS 6 th D Colmer, William
      Yea TN 8 th D Cooper, Jere
      Yea CA 15 th D Costello, John
      Yea TN 6 th D Courtney, William
      Yea OH 21 st D Crosser, Robert
      Yea VA 2 nd D Darden, Colgate
      Yea LA 7 th D De Rouen, René
      Yea NM 1 st D Dempsey, John
      Yea OK 1 st D Disney, Wesley
      Yea MS 2 nd D Doxey, Wall
      Yea VA 4 th D Drewry, Patrick
      Yea PA 12 th D Flannery, John
      Yea SC 2 nd D Fulmer, Hampton
      Yea TX 17 th D Garrett, Clyde
      Yea AR 1 st D Gathings, Ezekiel
      Yea TN 4 th D Gore, Albert
      Yea TX 13 th D Gossett, Ed
      Yea LA 6 th D Griffith, John
      Yea IA 9 th D Harrington, Vincent
      Yea OH 14 th D Harter, Dow
      Yea KS 5 th D Houston, John
      Yea OH 9 th D Hunter, John
      Yea IA 2 nd D Jacobsen, William
      Yea OK 6 th D Johnson, Jed
      Yea TX 6 th D Johnson, Luther
      Yea TX 18 th D Jones, John
      Yea TX 20 th D Kilday, Paul
      Yea AR 7 th D Kitchens, Wade
      Yea TX 14 th D Kleberg, Richard
      Yea TX 12 th D Lanham, Fritz
      Yea CO 1 st D Lewis, Lawrence
      Yea IN 12 th D Ludlow, Louis
      Yea TX 19 th D Mahon, George
      Yea LA 2 nd D Maloney, Paul
      Yea MA 12 th D McCormack, John
      Yea MS 7 th D McGehee, Daniel
      Yea NE 2 nd D McLaughlin, Charles
      Yea LA 5 th D Mills, Newt
      Yea OK 5 th D Monroney, Almer
      Yea LA 3 rd D Mouton, Robert
      Yea OK 2 nd D Nichols, John
      Yea AR 6 th D Norrell, William
      Yea GA 3 rd D Pace, Stephen
      Yea TX 7 th D Patton, Nat
      Yea TN 7 th D Pearson, Herron
      Yea TX 11 th D Poage, William
      Yea OH 6 th D Polk, James
      Yea GA 5 th D Ramspeck, Robert
      Yea WV 2 nd D Randolph, Jennings
      Yea MS 1 st D Rankin, John
      Yea TX 4 th D Rayburn, Samuel
      Yea VA 7 th D Robertson, Absalom
      Yea CT 5 th D Smith, John
      Yea IL D Smith, Thomas
      Yea TX 21 st D South, Charles
      Yea AL 5 th D Starnes, Joe
      Yea NJ 3 rd D Sutphin, William
      Yea OH 20 th D Sweeney, Martin
      Yea AR 5 th D Terry, David
      Yea TX 8 th D Thomas, Albert
      Yea TX 16 th D Thomason, Robert
      Yea CA 12 th D Voorhis, Jerry
      Yea PA 21 st D Walter, Francis
      Yea MD 1 st D Ward, David
      Yea TX 15 th D West, Milton
      Yea GA 9 th D Whelchel, Benjamin
      Yea MS 3 rd D Whittington, William
      Yea WI 10 th Progressive Gehrmann, Bernard
      Yea WI 9 th Progressive Hull, Merlin
      Yea MN 3 rd R Alexander, John
      Yea IL 13 th R Allen, Leo
      Yea MN 7 th R Andersen, Herman
      Yea MN 1 st R Andresen, August
      Yea OR 3 rd R Angell, Homer
      Yea IL 17 th R Arends, Leslie
      Yea CT 4 th R Austin, Albert
      Yea CT 2 nd R Ball, Thomas
      Yea NY 17 th R Barton, Bruce
      Yea MA 6 th R Bates, George
      Yea OH R Bender, George
      Yea MI 6 th R Blackney, William
      Yea WI 1 st R Bolles, Stephen
      Yea OH 22 nd R Bolton, Chester
      Yea MI 11 th R Bradley, Frederick
      Yea ME 3 rd R Brewster, Ralph
      Yea OH 7 th R Brown, Clarence
      Yea KS 6 th R Carlson, Frank
      Yea CA 6 th R Carter, Albert
      Yea SD 2 nd R Case, Francis
      Yea IL 15 th R Chiperfield, Robert
      Yea IL 10 th R Church, Ralph
      Yea MA 2 nd R Clason, Charles
      Yea OH 5 th R Clevenger, Cliff
      Yea NY 37 th R Cole, William
      Yea PA 30 th R Corbett, Robert
      Yea MI 8 th R Crawford, Fred
      Yea NY 30 th R Crowther, Frank
      Yea NY 32 nd R Culkin, Francis
      Yea NE 4 th R Curtis, Carl
      Yea PA 7 th R Darrow, George
      Yea IL 16 th R Dirksen, Everett
      Yea PA 17 th R Ditter, John
      Yea MI 17 th R Dondero, George
      Yea NY 33 rd R Douglas, Fred
      Yea IA 6 th R Dowell, Cassius
      Yea ID 2 nd R Dworshak, Henry
      Yea NJ 5 th R Eaton, Charles
      Yea OH 1 st R Elston, Charles
      Yea MI 9 th R Engel, Albert
      Yea CA 2 nd R Englebright, Harry
      Yea PA 13 th R Fenton, Ivor
      Yea NY 26 th R Fish, Hamilton
      Yea CA 16 th R Ford, Leland
      Yea NY 25 th R Gamble, Ralph
      Yea PA 5 th R Gartner, Fred
      Yea CA 9 th R Gearhart, Bertrand
      Yea PA 9 th R Gerlach, Charles
      Yea IA 8 th R Gilchrist, Fred
      Yea IN 4 th R Gillie, George
      Yea PA 26 th R Graham, Louis
      Yea IN 3 rd R Grant, Robert
      Yea PA 22 nd R Gross, Chester
      Yea KS 2 nd R Guyer, Ulysses
      Yea IA 3 rd R Gwynne, John
      Yea NY 1 st R Hall, Leonard
      Yea IN 2 nd R Halleck, Charles
      Yea NY 35 th R Hancock, Clarence
      Yea IN 5 th R Harness, Forest
      Yea NY 41 st R Harter, John
      Yea NJ 10 th R Hartley, Fred
      Yea WI 2 nd R Hawks, Charles
      Yea NE 1 st R Heinke, George
      Yea OH 2 nd R Hess, William
      Yea CA 11 th R Hinshaw, John
      Yea MI 4 th R Hoffman, Clare
      Yea MA 4 th R Holmes, Pehr
      Yea KS 7 th R Hope, Clifford
      Yea WY R Horton, Frank
      Yea PA 20 th R Jarrett, Benjamin
      Yea NJ 2 nd R Jeffries, Walter
      Yea OH 10 th R Jenkins, Thomas
      Yea NH 1 st R Jenks, Arthur
      Yea IA 7 th R Jensen, Benton
      Yea WI 8 th R Johns, Joshua
      Yea IL 14 th R Johnson, Anton
      Yea IN 6 th R Johnson, Noble
      Yea OH 4 th R Jones, Robert
      Yea NJ 12 th R Kean, Robert
      Yea WI 6 th R Keefe, Frank
      Yea PA 10 th R Kinzer, John
      Yea MN 6 th R Knutson, Harold
      Yea PA 19 th R Kunkel, John
      Yea KS 1 st R Lambertson, William
      Yea IN 7 th R Landis, Gerald
      Yea IA 5 th R Le Compte, Karl
      Yea ND R Lemke, William
      Yea OH 18 th R Lewis, Earl
      Yea MA 9 th R Luce, Robert
      Yea MN 4 th R Maas, Melvin
      Yea MI 5 th R Mapes, Carl
      Yea OH R Marshall, Lycurgus
      Yea MA 14 th R Martin, Joseph
      Yea IA 1 st R Martin, Thomas
      Yea IL 12 th R Mason, Noah
      Yea PA 31 st R McDowell, John
      Yea NJ 6 th R McLean, Donald
      Yea MI 13 th R McLeod, Clarence
      Yea MI 2 nd R Michener, Earl
      Yea CT 1 st R Miller, William
      Yea CT R Monkiewicz, Boleslaus
      Yea OR 1 st R Mott, James
      Yea SD 1 st R Mundt, Karl
      Yea WI 7 th R Murray, Reid
      Yea ME 1 st R Oliver, James
      Yea NJ 9 th R Osmers, Frank
      Yea NY 38 th R O’Brien, Joseph
      Yea NY 31 st R Pierce, Wallace
      Yea MN 8 th R Pittenger, William
      Yea VT R Plumley, Charles
      Yea NJ 4 th R Powers, David
      Yea TN 1 st R Reece, Brazilla
      Yea IL 11 th R Reed, Chauncey
      Yea KS 4 th R Rees, Edward
      Yea PA 16 th R Rich, Robert
      Yea RI 1 st R Risk, Charles
      Yea KY 9 th R Robsion, John
      Yea NY 27 th R Rockefeller, Lewis
      Yea PA 29 th R Rodgers, Robert
      Yea MA 5 th R Rogers, Edith
      Yea OH 3 rd R Routzohn, Harry
      Yea PA 15 th R Rutherford, Albert
      Yea RI 2 nd R Sandager, Harry
      Yea WI 4 th R Schafer, John
      Yea WV 1 st R Schiffler, Andrew
      Yea OH 16 th R Seccombe, James
      Yea NJ 8 th R Seger, George
      Yea MI 3 rd R Shafer, Paul
      Yea MO 7 th R Short, Dewey
      Yea PA 18 th R Simpson, Richard
      Yea ME 2 nd R Smith, Clyde
      Yea IN 10 th R Springer, Raymond
      Yea NH 2 nd R Stearns, Foster
      Yea NE 3 rd R Stefan, Karl
      Yea IL 18 th R Sumner, Jessie
      Yea NY 36 th R Taber, John
      Yea IA 4 th R Talle, Henry
      Yea TN 2 nd R Taylor, James
      Yea WI 5 th R Thill, Lewis
      Yea NJ 7 th R Thomas, John
      Yea PA 27 th R Tibbott, Harve
      Yea MA 10 th R Tinkham, George
      Yea MA 1 st R Treadway, Allen
      Yea PA 23 rd R Van Zandt, James
      Yea OH 12 th R Vorys, John
      Yea NJ 11 th R Vreeland, Albert
      Yea NY 39 th R Wadsworth, James
      Yea CA 5 th R Welch, Richard
      Yea IL 19 th R Wheat, William
      Yea OH 13 th R White, Dudley
      Yea MA 13 th R Wigglesworth, Richard
      Yea DE R Williams, George
      Yea KS 3 rd R Winter, Thomas
      Yea MI 7 th R Wolcott, Jesse
      Yea NJ 1 st R Wolverton, Charles
      Yea MI 10 th R Woodruff, Roy
      Yea MN 5 th R Youngdahl, Oscar
      Nay NY 20 th American Labor Marcantonio, Vito
      Nay IL 23 rd D Arnold, Laurence
      Nay NC 3 rd D Barden, Graham
      Nay IL 20 th D Barnes, James
      Nay NY 2 nd D Barry, William
      Nay KY 8 th D Bates, Joseph
      Nay IL 4 th D Beam, Harry
      Nay MO 4 th D Bell, Charles
      Nay VA 1 st D Bland, Schuyler
      Nay NY 19 th D Bloom, Sol
      Nay PA 11 th D Boland, Patrick
      Nay AL 1 st D Boykin, Frank
      Nay PA 3 rd D Bradley, Michael
      Nay GA 10 th D Brown, Paul
      Nay CA 3 rd D Buck, Frank
      Nay NC 10 th D Bulwinkle, Alfred
      Nay FL 3 rd D Caldwell, Millard
      Nay FL 4 th D Cannon, Pat
      Nay MO 9 th D Cannon, Clarence
      Nay MA 3 rd D Casey, Joseph
      Nay NY 10 th D Celler, Emanuel
      Nay TN 9 th D Chandler, Clift
      Nay NC 7 th D Clark, Jerome
      Nay WA 6 th D Coffee, John
      Nay MS 5 th D Collins, Ross
      Nay GA 2 nd D Cox, Edward
      Nay KY 4 th D Creal, Edward
      Nay IN 9 th D Crowe, Eugene
      Nay NY 4 th D Cullen, Thomas
      Nay NY 7 th D Delaney, John
      Nay NY 12 th D Dickstein, Samuel
      Nay MI 15 th D Dingell, John
      Nay NC 9 th D Doughton, Robert
      Nay MO 3 rd D Duncan, Richard
      Nay PA 34 th D Dunn, Matthew
      Nay NC 6 th D Durham, Carl
      Nay MD 3 rd D D’Alesandro, Thomas
      Nay PA 32 nd D Eberharter, Herman
      Nay WV 3 rd D Edmiston, Andrew
      Nay CA 10 th D Elliott, Alfred
      Nay AR 3 rd D Ellis, Clyde
      Nay PA 25 th D Faddis, Charles
      Nay NY 16 th D Fay, James
      Nay MA 11 th D Flaherty, Thomas
      Nay VA 9 th D Flannagan, John
      Nay CA 14 th D Ford, Thomas
      Nay IL 21 st D Fries, Frank
      Nay NY 21 st D Gavagan, Joseph
      Nay GA 8 th D Gibbs, Willis
      Nay AL 2 nd D Grant, George
      Nay FL 2 nd D Green, Lex
      Nay KY 1 st D Gregory, Noble
      Nay NJ 14 th D Hart, Edward
      Nay CA 4 th D Havenner, Franck
      Nay MA 8 th D Healey, Arthur
      Nay FL 5 th D Hendricks, Joseph
      Nay MO 11 th D Hennings, Thomas
      Nay WA 4 th D Hill, Knute
      Nay AL 4 th D Hobbs, Samuel
      Nay MI 12 th D Hook, Frank
      Nay CA 20 th D Izac, Edouard
      Nay AL 6 th D Jarman, Pete
      Nay WV 4 th D Johnson, George
      Nay TX 10 th D Johnson, Lyndon
      Nay WV 5 th D Kee, John
      Nay IL 25 th D Keller, Kent
      Nay MD 4 th D Kennedy, Ambrose
      Nay NY 18 th D Kennedy, Martin
      Nay NY 15 th D Kennedy, Michael
      Nay NY 9 th D Keogh, Eugene
      Nay OH 19 th D Kirwan, Michael
      Nay IL 8 th D Kocialkowski, Leo
      Nay CA 13 th D Kramer, Charles
      Nay IN 11 th D Larrabee, William
      Nay WA 5 th D Leavy, Charles
      Nay MI 16 th D Lesinski, John
      Nay IL 6 th D Maciejewski, Anton
      Nay CO 3 rd D Martin, John
      Nay IL D Martin, John
      Nay KY 7 th D May, Andrew
      Nay IL 9 th D McAndrews, James
      Nay PA 33 rd D McArdle, Joseph
      Nay PA 2 nd D McGranery, James
      Nay IL 2 nd D McKeough, Raymond
      Nay SC 6 th D McMillan, John
      Nay SC 1 st D McMillan, Thomas
      Nay NY D Merritt, Matthew
      Nay AR 2 nd D Mills, Wilbur
      Nay IL 1 st D Mitchell, Arthur
      Nay PA 14 th D Moser, Guy
      Nay UT 1 st D Murdock, Abe
      Nay PA 6 th D Myers, Francis
      Nay MO 2 nd D Nelson, William
      Nay NJ 13 th D Norton, Mary
      Nay MT 2 nd D O’Connor, James
      Nay NY D O’Day, Caroline
      Nay NY 11 th D O’Leary, James
      Nay KY 3 rd D O’Neal, Emmet
      Nay NY 8 th D O’Toole, Donald
      Nay IL 24 th D Parsons, Claude
      Nay AL 9 th D Patrick, Luther
      Nay GA 1 st D Peterson, Hugh
      Nay FL 1 st D Peterson, James
      Nay OR 2 nd D Pierce, Walter
      Nay MI 14 th D Rabaut, Louis
      Nay SC 5 th D Richards, James
      Nay UT 2 nd D Robinson, James
      Nay OK D Rogers, Will
      Nay MO 1 st D Romjue, Milton
      Nay IL 5 th D Sabath, Adolph
      Nay PA 1 st D Sacks, Leon
      Nay VA 3 rd D Satterfield, Dave
      Nay IL 22 nd D Schaefer, Edwin
      Nay IL 7 th D Schuetz, Leonard
      Nay NV D Scrugham, James
      Nay CT 3 rd D Shanley, James
      Nay MO 5 th D Shannon, Joseph
      Nay CA 19 th D Sheppard, Harry
      Nay NY 14 th D Sirovich, William
      Nay WA 3 rd D Smith, Martin
      Nay PA 24 th D Snyder, John
      Nay NY 6 th D Somers, Andrew
      Nay AL 8 th D Sparkman, John
      Nay KY 5 th D Spence, Brent
      Nay AL 3 rd D Steagall, Henry
      Nay GA 7 th D Tarver, Malcolm
      Nay MI 1 st D Tenerowicz, Rudolph
      Nay KY 2 nd D Vincent, Beverly
      Nay GA 6 th D Vinson, Carl
      Nay NC 11 th D Weaver, Zebulon
      Nay ID 1 st D White, Compton
      Nay MO 8 th D Williams, Clyde
      Nay MO 6 th D Wood, Reuben
      Nay MO 10 th D Zimmerman, Orville
      No Vote VA 5 th D Burch, Thomas
      No Vote MD 6 th D Byron, William
      No Vote MS 4 th D Ford, Aaron
      No Vote IL 3 rd D Kelly, Edward
      No Vote WA 1 st D Magnuson, Warren
      No Vote TX 9 th D Mansfield, Joseph
      No Vote AZ D Murdock, John
      No Vote NY 3 rd D Pfeifer, Joseph
      No Vote MD 5 th D Sasscer, Lansdale
      No Vote NY 13 th D Sullivan, Christopher
      No Vote VA 6 th D Woodrum, Clifton
      No Vote CA 8 th R Anderson, John
      No Vote NY 40 th R Andrews, Walter
      No Vote NY 29 th R Cluett, Ernest
      No Vote MA 15 th R Gifford, Charles
      No Vote NY 43 rd R Reed, Daniel
      No Vote OH 8 th R Smith, Frederick
      No Vote MT 1 st R Thorkelson, Jacob
      No Vote PA 8 th R Wolfenden, James
      Present OK 4 th D Boren, Lyle
      Present SC 4 th D Bryson, Joseph
      Present NY 23 rd D Buckley, Charles
      Present NY 28 th D Byrne, William
      Present MA 7 th D Connery, Lawrence
      Present NC 4 th D Cooley, Harold
      Present CO 2 nd D Cummings, Fred
      Present NY 22 nd D Curley, Edward
      Present TX 2 nd D Dies, Martin
      Present NY 5 th D Evans, Marcellus
      Present OK 8 th D Ferguson, Phillip
      Present LA 1 st D Fernández, Joachim
      Present NY 24 th D Fitzpatrick, James
      Present NC 5 th D Folger, Alonzo
      Present CA 17 th D Geyer, Lee
      Present SC 3 rd D Hare, Butler
      Present NC 2 nd D Kerr, John
      Present CA 1 st D Lea, Clarence
      Present OK 7 th D Massingale, Samuel
      Present TX 1 st D Patman, John
      Present MN 2 nd D Ryan, Elmer
      Present IN 1 st D Schulte, William
      Present NY 42 nd D Schwert, Pius
      Present OH 15 th D Secrest, Robert
      Present VA 8 th D Smith, Howard
      Present WV 6 th D Smith, Joseph
      Present TX 5 th D Sumners, Hatton
      Present CO 4 th D Taylor, Edward
      Present CA 7 th D Tolan, John
      Present WA 2 nd D Wallgren, Monrad
      Present NC 1 st D Warren, Lindsay
      Present MN 9 th Farmer-Labor Buckler, Richard
      Present ND R Burdick, Usher
      Present CA 18 th R Eaton, Thomas

      Statistically Notable Votes

      Statistically notable votes are the votes that are most surprising, or least predictable, given how other members of each voter&rsquos party voted.


      How did the Hatch Act reinforce reforms initiated under the Pendleton Act? Arthur became president and passed the Pendleton Act that made hiring and promotion merit-based rather than patronage-based. In 1993, the Hatch Act was passed and prohibited civil service employees from acting in partisan politics while on duty.

      As defined in this report, a government corporation is a government agency that is established by Congress to provide a market-oriented public service and to produce revenues that meet or approximate its expenditures.


      Penalties

      According to the act's provisions, an employee who violates the Hatch Act is to be removed from their position with all pay revoked.

      However, if the Merit Systems Protection Board finds by unanimous vote that the violation does not warrant removal, they are to be suspended for at least 30 days without pay.

      Federal employees should also be aware that certain political activities may also be criminal offenses under title 18 of the U.S. Code.


      Top Government Officials Rarely Punished Under Hatch Act

      President Trump at the White House on Aug. 25. The White House has brushed off questions about its compliance with the Hatch Act.

      Byron Tau

      This week’s Republican National Convention has drawn renewed attention to the Hatch Act, a 1939 ethics law that broadly restricts federal employees’ political activity and their use of federal resources for politics.

      President Trump has held convention events at the White House and has incorporated official actions like a naturalization ceremony, a foreign trip by the Secretary of State and a presidential pardon into the convention programming, raising questions about whether the White House is complying with the letter or spirit of the federal ethics laws designed to keep official actions from becoming campaign fodder.

      The White House has repeatedly brushed off questions about its compliance with the law. “Nobody outside of the Beltway really cares," White House chief of staff Mark Meadows said in an interview with the website Politico on Wednesday.

      The United States Office of Special Counsel issued an advisory opinion earlier this month that Mr. Trump would be permitted to deliver a political address from the White House but said there would be restrictions on whether any White House officials could participate.

      What is the Hatch Act?

      Also known as “An Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities,” the Hatch Act was passed in 1939 over concerns that President Franklin Roosevelt was using New Deal program administrators and employees to boost the Democratic Party’s political fortunes.


      Watch the video: Former ethics director Kellyanne Conway violated Hatch Act with Roy Moore comments (January 2022).