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Handbook of Roman Legionary Fortresses, M.C. Bishop


Handbook of Roman Legionary Fortresses, M.C. Bishop

Handbook of Roman Legionary Fortresses, M.C. Bishop

Legionary Fortresses can be found all across the Roman Empire. Each one was built as the permanent winter quarters of at least one full legion, making them very sizable constructions. This work provides a detailed gazetteer of these fortresses, covering the entire Roman Empire. The main focus is on the large fortresses of the Principate (the early Empire), with a smaller selection for the Dominate (the later Empire, where the forts were all rather smaller). The focus is entirely on the full sized legionary fortress, so you won't find any of the forts on Hadrian's Wall, all of which were built for smaller units - parts of legions or auxiliary troops.

This is a rather specialised work. There is a forty page introduction that discusses the development, layout and history of the Legionary Fortress, but if you want a general history of Roman fortifications then look elsewhere. If on the other hand you need a gazetteer of Roman Legionary Fortresses, the sources relating to them and the legions that were based in them then this is the book for you. The gazetteer section includes details on location, layout, plans were possible and a list of documentary sources of varying types - contemporary literary sources, units whose presence at the fort is indicated by carvings and other markings, sub-literary references (such as surviving letters or accounts) and modern references.

This is a high quality reference work that will be a very valuable resource for students of the Roman army or of Roman military architecture.

Chapters
1 - Introduction
2 - The Legions
3 - History and Development of Legionary Bases
4 - Defences
5 - The Internal Buildings
6 - Infrastructure
7 - Extramural Buildings
8 - Construction and Demolition
9 - Gazetteers

Appendix 1: Timeline of Legionary Movements
Appendix 2: Glossary
Appendix 3: Late Fortresses in the Nottia Dignitatum
Appendix 4: Sites Excluded
Appendix 5: The Website

Author: M.C. Bishop
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 209
Publisher: Pen & Sword Military
Year: 2012



Castra

In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum [1] (plural castra) referred to a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. In English, the terms "Roman fort", "Roman camp" and "Roman fortress" are commonly used for castrum. However, scholastic convention tends toward the use of the words "fort", "camp", "marching camp" or "fortress" to translate castrum. [2]

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Romans used the term castrum for different sizes of camps - including large legionary fortresses, smaller forts for cohorts or for auxiliary forces, temporary encampments, and "marching" forts. The diminutive form castellum was used for fortlets, [3] typically occupied by a detachment of a cohort or a centuria.

For a list of known castra see List of castra.


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This is a reference guide to Roman legionary fortresses throughout the former Roman Empire, of which approximately eighty-five have been located and identified. With the expansion of the empire and the garrisoning of its army in frontier regions during the 1st century AD, Rome began to concentrate its legions in large permanent bases. Some have been explored in great detail, others are barely known, but this book brings together for the first time the legionary fortresses of the whole empire. An introductory section outlines the history of legionary bases and their key components. At the heart of the book is a referenced and illustrated catalogue of the known bases, each with a specially prepared plan and an aerial photograph. A detailed bibliography provides up-to-date publication information.

The book is accompanied by a website providing online links to sites relevant to particular fortresses and a Google Earth file containing all of the known fortress locations.

'The location and status of each, the size, orientation and units that served in them are very valuable information that complement the drawings.'

Please note: This review is in Spanish and can be translated.

José Manuél Rico Cortés (Mister JM) - Miniaturas JM

This is a high quality reference work that will be a very valuable resource for students of the Roman army or of Roman military architecture.

History of war website

This work brings together a wealth of information previously scattered over a wide range of sources and, in many cases, previously unavailable to the general public. It should provide hours of enjoyment to both the student of classical civilizations as well as to the military historian. It should also entertain anyone with an interest in Roman history.

Reference Reviews

This informative book meticulously details what we have come to know about legionary fortresses built by the Roman Empire. Dr Mike Bishop is an expert in Roman military archaeology and here his research is accompanied by illustrations, photographs and site maps.

Italia!

This is a reference guide to Roman legionary fortresses throughout the Roman Empire, of which approximately eighty-five have been located and identified. Some have been explored in great detail, others are barely known, but this book brings together for the first time the legionary fortresses of the whole empire.

www.academia.edu

An impressive guide to all the known Roman legionary fortresses which have been uncovered across the former Empire. A very useful book which sets a broad subject into context and will be invaluable to anyone researching the field.

Pegasus Archive - Mark Hickman

This book is. a very important historical review of a very important subject and it also provides an example of the way that printed books are learning to live with eBooks, the internet, and take advantage of the opportunities the digital age offers. The author has made great use of illustrations. The drawings are clear and well done, as are the maps. As a key reference book this is first class and will be highly regarded by scholars of the period.

Firetrench Reviews

Providing exactly what the title suggests, this is primarily a gazetteer of all currently known Roman Legion bases, each with well referenced details such as location, situation, size, orientation etc. as well as the units that were based there together with line drawings and photographs. all in all this handbook should be considered an essential reference for a Roman military scholar.

Clash of Steel

Mike Bishop. is a specialist in military archaeology and admits that he wrote this particular book because he needed a gazetteer of Roman legionary fortresses. He provides detailed drawings and descriptions, dates, units, garrisons, etc. of some 85 sites. Perhaps as a sign of the future of publishing the book is complemented by a website providing information and aerial views of the fortress sites identified.

Hexham Local History Society

The author of this impressive book, Dr Mike Bishop, is a respected freelance archaeologist, writer and publisher specialising in Roman militaria. The Handbook is a reference guide to 103 legionary fortresses scattered around the frontiers of the Roman Empire, 11 of them in Britain. The bulk of this minutely researched volume consists of detailed plans, measurements and geographical data of each fortress with literary references. A number of large colour photographs, mostly taken by the author and his collaborator Jonathon Coulston, complement the descriptions. There are informative appendices including a timeline of legionary movements, and an exhaustive bibliography, and the book is linked to a website containing further detailed information and maps. The Handbook would be an asset to any serious library of Roman studies.

The Friends of Fishbourne Roman Palace

Dr Mike Bishop is one of the leading names in Roman Military archaeology. An archaeologist and archaeological illustrator by training, he is the founder of the Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies and of ROMEC (the Roman Military Equipment Conference). He is also a Visiting Lecturer in the School of Classics at St Andrews University, Scotland. His best known work is the highly regarded Roman Military Equipment (Oxford, 1993, revised 2005), which he co-authored with J C N Coulston. His previous work for Pen & Sword, Handbook of Roman Legionary Fortresses was published in 2012. He lives in Wiltshire.


Handbook to Roman Legionary Fortresses

The author and the publishers are to be highly commended for producing such a fine review of a seriously neglected key element in the history of Rome.

NAME: Handbook to Roman Legionary Fortresses
CLASSIFICATION: Book Reviews
FILE: R1807
DATE: 200213
AUTHOR: M C Bishop
PUBLISHER: Pen & Sword
BINDING: hard back
PAGES: 209
PRICE: £19.95
GENRE: Non Fiction
SUBJECT: Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Legions, defences, forts, fortresses, Roman Legioary, website links
ISBN: 1-84884-138-8
IMAGE: B1807.jpg
BUYNOW: http://tinyurl.com/akwjgyp
LINKS:
DESCRIPTION: The author states that he wrote this book because he needed the information it contained but was unable to find another book that provided the data. That is as good a reason as any for putting pen to paper and better than most reasons. It is also surprising that, of all the thousands of books written about the Roman Empire by authors from many nationalities over hundreds of years, that no one has previously documented the vital legionary fortresses that made the expansion of the Roman Empire possible.

This book is therefore a very important historical review of a very important subject and it also provides an example of the way that printed books are learning to live with eBooks, the Internet, and take advantages of the opportunities the digital age offers. At http://www.legionaryfortresses.info/ there are copies of fortress plans, a list of sites and other information that appears within this new book, and there is information on the book for those Internet surfers who want to learn more. Although the FIRE Project began experimenting with multi-media and multi-mode layered information as early as 2000, it is only now that an increasing number of authors and publishers are beginning to make use of the digital environment to enhance the printing of paper books, and using printed paper books to provide portable versions of data available on-line.

It may also surprise some readers to learn about Roman legends that are not accurate, and to discover how little we really know about a period of history that has produced surviving written accounts.

One myth is that the Romans stopped in their occupation of the British Isles at Hadrian’s Wall. North into Scotland there are the remains of walls, forts, a legionary fortress, and roads. The Roman Legion was a potent military formation that was armoured and still able to march at speed. However, it was also vulnerable. Legion commanders were expected to halt before nightfall and construct a temporary defensive position of ditches, and fences, patrolled by legionaries. That might not have always been observed when the need to rapidly advance took priority, but a commander who was serious attacked and suffered losses, because of a failure to build a temporary defensive position, could expect little mercy from his peers and superiors.

As Roman soldiers occupied an area, more permanent structures were built to provide defended positions as bases from which to send out patrols. Across most of the known world, Roman forts came to symbolize the power of Roman and enable relatively small troop concentrations to maintain control of occupied lands. During the period of the Roman Empire, the design of fortresses evolved and also took into consideration local conditions and materials. However, the basic design of the vast majority of Roman fortifications comprised a large rectangular area, surrounded by high stone walls and containing in a grid layout substantial buildings as barracks, store houses, and other essential facilities.

The author has produced a very comprehensive review of all known legionary fortresses across the Roman Empire. The full list may never be known but in looking at the positions on the excellent maps included in the book, there are some obvious gaps where similar defences must have been constructed and occupied by large Roman forces. Given that the Romans made extensive use of durable materials, such as stone and concrete, more fortresses may yet be discovered. To a degree, the author is also subjective in selecting surviving defensive sites. In Britain, the Romans constructed a number of large Fore Shore Forts. These sites employed a very similar layout to the legionary fortresses described in the book and were also large structures that originally had at least one wall touching the sea and providing quays for the unloading of cargoes from Roman warships and merchant craft. Inside the walls there were also grid roads linking substantial buildings and the defences continued in use for hundreds of years after the Romans left, in some cases seeing substantial castle keeps being built within the rectangular walled area.

The coastal forts were an answer to waves of raiders from across the North Sea and were not intended to accommodate a full legion for an extended period, but were large enough to accommodate a legion in passage. All of these fortresses were very costly construction projects requiring a large number of builders and a great quantity of material. That cost demonstrates how vital the Romans considered the defences.

The author has made great use of illustrations. The drawings are clear and well done, as are the maps. There is also a full colour photo plate section. An extensive bibliography, glossary and gazetteers section containing an impression amount of information. The text is concise although in parts it takes a narrative form. As a key reference book, this is first class and will be highly regarded by scholars of the period. It may be forbidding for more casual readers and some may be deterred by the price, but the content fully justifies cost and may be regarded as very affordable as a reference volume. Even those who have a less detailed interest in the Roman period will find this a rewarding information resource.

The author and the publishers are to be highly commended for producing such a fine review of a seriously neglected key element in the history of Rome.


An extensive guide to the legionary fortresses of the Roman Empire, including locations, history, layout, and more.

This is a reference guide to Roman legionary fortresses throughout the former Roman Empire, of which approximately eighty-five have been located and identified. With the expansion of the empire and the garrisoning of its army in frontier regions during the 1st century AD, Rome began to concentrate its legions in large permanent bases. Some have been thoroughly explored while others are barely known, but this book brings together for the first time the legionary fortresses of the whole empire. An introductory section outlines the history of legionary bases and their key components. At the heart of the book is a referenced and illustrated catalogue of the known bases, each with a specially prepared plan and an aerial photograph. A detailed bibliography provides up-to-date publication information.

The book includes a website providing links to sites relevant to particular fortresses and a Google Earth file containing all of the known fortress locations.


Handbook of Roman Legionary Fortresses, M.C. Bishop - History

This is a reference guide to Roman legionary fortresses throughout the former Roman Empire, of which approximately eighty-five have been located and identified. With the expansion of the empire and the garrisoning of its army in frontier regions during the 1st century AD, Rome began to concentrate its legions in large permanent bases. Some have been explored in great detail, others are barely known, but this book brings together for the first time the legionary fortresses of the whole empire.

An introductory section outlines the history of legionary bases and their key components. At the heart of the book is a referenced and illustrated catalog of the known bases, each with a specially prepared plan and an aerial photograph. A detailed bibliography provides up-to-date publication information.

The book will be accompanied by a website providing online links to sites relevant to particular fortresses and a Google Earth file containing all of the known fortress locations.

About The Author

Mike Bishop is a specialist on the Roman army, with many publications to his name including the acclaimed and widely used Roman Military Equipment (with J C N Coulston, 2006). The founding editor of Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies, he has also led several excavations of Roman sites.

REVIEWS

&ldquo&hellipfor those with a passionate interest or a specialty in Roman military history, this work is an essential reference.&rdquo

- “Site O”: A Newsletter on Fortifications History

Handbook of Roman Legionary Fortresses, M.C. Bishop - History

About this Journal

Scottish Archaeological Journal publishes work which furthers the study of the archaeology of Scotland and neighbouring regions from the earliest prehistory to the present. The journal includes a range of papers reporting on fieldwork, discussion of museum collections and consideration of the social and intellectual context of Scottish archaeology. In addition to documenting new discoveries, the journal promotes scholarly discussion and debate by encouraging the submission of papers of synthesis and analysis.

Book reviews, a distinctive feature of the journal since its establishment (as the Glasgow Archaeological Journal) in 1969, provide a critical perspective on Scottish archaeology and a well-established forum for scholarly debate. In addition to books, recent volumes of the journal have reviewed new museums, exhibitions and research on Scotland published in periodical literature.

Published by Edinburgh University Press on behalf of the Glasgow Archaeological Society.

Editors and Editorial Board

Editor & Book Review Editor

Editorial Board

Dr Kenneth Brophy (University of Glasgow)
Prof Jane Downes (University of Highlands and Islands)
Professor Stephen Driscoll (University of Glasgow)
Dr Philip Freeman (University of Liverpool)
Dr Sally Foster (University of Stirling)
Prof Niall Sharples (University of Cardiff)

Society

The Glasgow Archaeological Society was founded in 1856 to promote the study of archaeology with a special emphasis on western Scotland.

The Society organises a programme of popular lectures held in the Boyd Orr Building, Glasgow University at 7.30 pm on the third Thursday of the month (October to April). The lectures are open to the public free of charge.

The Society also arranges day conferences and excursions and publishes a biannual Bulletin of current notes and news, which welcomes submissions and notices. The Society provides research grants to members of the society. In 1907 James D G Dalrymple endowed the Society with bequest to support a lectureship on aspects of European archaeology. The Dalrymple Curators utilise the bequest to support an annual series of lectures by eminent archaeologists. The Journal is published with the financial support of the Dalrymple Fund. To join contact the Membership Secretary (Mrs Susan Hunter, 69 Craighill Drive, Glasgow, G76 7TD.)

Visit www.glasarchsoc.org.uk for further information about the Glasgow Archaeological Society.

Indexing

Scottish Archaeological Journal is abstracted and indexed in the following:


THE ROMAN ARMY: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Le Bohec, Yann and Catherine Wolff (edd.), Les légions de Rome sous le Haut-Empire: actes du congrès de Lyon (17-19 septembre 1998) 2 vv. (Paris: E. de Boccard 2000) [Collection du Centre d' études romaines et gallo-romaines nouvelle série 20].

    Alföldy, G., Die Hilfstruppen in der römischen Provinz Germania Inferior (Düsseldorf 1968).

    Absil, Michel, Les Préfets du prétoire d' Auguste a Commode: 2 av. J.-C.� ap. J.-C. (1997) [De l' archéologie à l' histoire]

    Fink, R. O., Roman Military Records on Papyrus, pp. 241-276.

    Alföldy, G., Fasti Hispanienses. Senatorische Reichsbeamte und Offiziere in den spanischen Provinzen des römischen Reiches von Augustus bis Diokletian (Wiesbaden 1969).

    Alföldy, G., "Bellum Mauricum," Chiron 15 (1985) 91-109.

, Nicholas Guy, Presence et activités militaires romaines au nord et au nord-est de la Mer Noire (1er VIe siècle de nôtre ère) (2000).

and the Parthian War ( A. D. 58-66). (texts & translations)

, Jurgen, "Caesars Partherkrieg," Historia 33 (1984) 21-59.

    Speidel, Michael P., "Exercitus Arabicus," Latomus 33 (1974) 934-939.

    Maloney, J.& B. Hobley (edd.), Roman urban defences in the West. A review of current research on urban defences of the Roman empire with special reference to the northern provinces, based on papers presented to the conference on Roman urban defences, Museum of London (London : Council for Brit. Archaeol., 1983) [Council for Brit. Archaeol. Research Report, LI].

, Michael T., "The Homogenisation of Military Equipment Under the Roman Republic," Romanization [Digressus , Supplement I] (Nottingham 2003) 60-85.


Handbook of Roman Legionary Fortresses, M.C. Bishop - History

Modern Reference Works

The Roman Army

  • Bishop, M.C. & Coulston, J.C.N. Roman Military Equipment: Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2006.
  • Breeze, David J. The Frontiers of Imperial Rome: South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Books Ltd., 2011.
  • Gilliver, Kate, Goldsworthy, Adrian, Whitby, Michael. Rome at War (Caesar and his Legacy): Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2005.
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Complete Roman Army: London: Thames & Hudson Ltd., 2003.
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian. Roman Warfare: London: Cassell & Co., 2000.
  • Keppie, Lawrence. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire: Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
  • Le Bohec, Yann. The Imperial Roman Army: New York: Routledge, 2001.
  • Parker, H.M.D. The Roman Legions: Dorset Press, N.Y. (reprint of [1928] 1957 second edition) 1992.
  • Peterson, Daniel. The Roman Legions Recreated in Colour Photographs: Wiltshire: The Crowood Press Ltd., 2001.
  • Pollard, Nigel & Berry, Joanne. The Complete Roman Legions: London: Thames & Hudson, 2012.
  • Roth, Jonathan P. Roman Warfare: New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Shirley, Elizabeth. Building a Roman Legionary Fortress: Charleston S.C.: Arcadia Publishing Inc. (a Division of Tempus), 2001.
  • Simkins, Michael. Warriors of Rome: London: Blandford, 1988.
  • Southern, Pat. The Roman Army, A Social & Institutional History: New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Watson, G.R. The Roman Soldier: New York: Cornell University Press, 1985.
  • Webster, Graham. The Imperial Roman Army (of the First and Second Centuries A.D.): Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998 (3rd ed.).
  • Woolliscroft, D.I. Roman Military Signalling: Charleston: Tempus Publishing Inc., 2001.

Ancient Warfare

  • Kern, Paul Bentley. Ancient Siege Warfare: Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1999.
  • May, Elmer, Stadler, Gerald P., Votaw, John F. (Department of History, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York). Ancient & Medieval Warfare: Wayne, N.J.: Avery Publishing Group Inc., 1984.
  • Wary, John. Warfare in the Classical World: Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.

Roman Cavalry

Hyland, Ann. Training the Roman Cavalry (From Arrian’s Ars Tactica): Gloucestershire Sutton Publishing Limited, 1993.

  • Adkins, Lesley and Adkins, Roy A. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome: New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • Connolly, Peter and Dodge, Hazel. The Ancient City – Life in Classical Athens & Rome: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Harlow, Mary and Laurence, Ray. Growing Up and Growing Old in Ancient Rome: London Routlage, 2002.
  • Shelton, Jo-Ann. As the Romans Did: New York: Oxford University Press 1998 (2nd ed.).

Ancient Sources of Information on the Roman Army

With respect to military manuals, there are:

  • authors describing personal experiences (Polybius, Caesar, Josephus, Frontinus, Arrianus and Marcellinus),
  • narrative historians (Livy, Dionysius, Tacitus, Appian and DioCassius) and
  • specialist/theoretical works (Hyginus, Vegetius and Maurice).

All time periods are not covered, and frequently the works are coloured by the personal biases and knowledge/experience levels of the authors.

Authors with Personal Experience

Polybius 200-118 BC:

  • He was not a serving Roman soldier. He was a Greek soldier who was captured after the battle of Pydna and sent to Rome where he became the tutor of the children of AemiliusPaullus. Polybius was present with ScipioAemilianus, the natural son of Aemilius, when he laid siege to Carthage in 147-6 B.C. As a writer he strove to be impartial, and he authored the 40 book Historiae which chronicled the rise of Rome from 220-146 B.C. His writings capture valuable data regarding the legions, their composition, equipment and camps in the mid republic.

Julius Caesar 100-44 BC:

  • His works include DeBelloGallico (the war against the Gauls 58-52 BC), DeBelloCivilis (the first 2 years of the war against Pompey), and the Alexandrian, African and Spanish Wars (against Pompey’s sons). The latter work may have been penned by other men in his army. His Gallic Wars provide an excellent source of information about the military while on campaign. His works describe what his armies did but not how they were organized.

Flavius Josephus 37-95 AD:

  • He was a Jewish historian and Pharisee who was born in Jerusalem. He participated in the Jewish Revolt and later wrote a 7 book history of the Jewish war titled BellumIudaicum. His description of the Roman army is as detailed and informative as that of Polybius. He authored several other works including his own autobiography.

Sextus Julius Frontinus 30-104 AD:

  • He was a consul of Rome and later a governor of Britannia prior to Agricola. He composed works on the water supply in Rome and land surveying. His four book Stratagemata on military science was published in 84 AD, but his military manual (lauded by Trajan) has been lost.

Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (Arrian) 85-190 AD:

  • He was born in Nicomedia. As a soldier he served under Trajan and commanded troops during his Parthian Campaign in the Darial Pass in the Caucasus. He was proconsul of Baetica under Hadrian and later governor of Cappadocia before retiring. He authored books on the lectures of stoic philosophers, the art of hunting, a navigational guide, a history of Alexander the Great, various military campaigns and the ArsTactica (this later work being a cavalry guide).

Ammianus Marcellinus 325-395 AD:

  • A Praetorian Guard officer, he was born in Antioch and fought in a number of actions. He composed the 31 book RestrumGestarumLibri, which started where Tacitus’ works left off and covered the years 96-378. His writings describe sieges, invasions and raids.

Narrative Historians

Livy (Titus Livius) 59 BC – 12 AD:

  • He was a Roman historian from Padua who wrote the AbUrbeCondita, a 142 book history of Rome to 9 BC.

Appian d ca. 160 AD:

  • Born in Alexandria, he was an imperial bureaucrat who composed a 24 volume history of Roman conquests, the Romaica. His writings covered the period up to and including the reign of Vespasianus.

Dio Cassius 155-235 AD:

  • He was born in Nicae and became a Roman senator. His 80 volume HistoriaRomanae (written in Greek) covered the history of Rome from the time of Aeneas to 229 AD. He also authored a biography of Arrian as well as a work on SeptimiusSeverus.

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) 50-120 AD:

  • A Greek, philosopher and historian who composed many works including over 50 biographies (Vitae).

Gaius/Publius Cornelius Tacitus 56-117 AD:

  • He was a Gaul who wrote a biography (DeVitaJuliiAgricolae) about his father-in-law, Agricola. Tacitus authored the 16 book Annales (from the death of Augustus to the demise of Nero) and the 14 book Historiae (from the death of Nero to the end of Domitian’s reign). His other work is Germania.

Military Manuals

Hyginus (Pseudo-Hyginus) 100 AD(?):

  • DeMunitionibusCastrorum (or DeMetationeCastrorum) is a book about military camp layouts that was written sometime between the 1st and fourth centuries. It has been attributed to GaiusJuliusHyginus (64 B.C.-17 A.D.), but authorship is unknown.

Flavius Vegetius Renatus (3-400 AD?):

  • A 4th-5th century author, his “EpitomaReiMilitaris” (aka DeReMilitari), summarized the manuals of Imperial authors whose works have been lost (only their names survive). According to Southern, Vegetius had a hidden agenda, which was to write about the army as he thought it should operate, so he searched the military works of the past to produce an amalgam of procedures and practices which in his own day probably did not feature in army organization … “Vegetius’ military manual is as good as it gets … and there is nothing to rival it in all the other surviving literature.”

Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus: 539-27 Nov 602 AD (ruler of Byzantine from 582-602 AD)