Review: Volume 48

  • Biography
  • The Monarchy
  • First World War
  • Political Philosophy
  • Medieval World
  • Second World War

‘Pure America’ Review: The Eugenics History Nearby

Abandoned buildings of the old DeJarnette Center for Human Development in Staunton, Va.

When historian Elizabeth Catte moved to Staunton, a small city in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, in 2016, her daily commute took her past the original site of Western State Hospital, which was then being reborn as an upscale hotel and high-end property development. She found something so incongruous about this transformation that, she recalls, “I began asking people, ‘That’s the Western State, right?’ as if there might be another former asylum in town that hadn’t become $500,000 condominiums.”

The dissonance stemmed from Western State’s gruesome history: It was one of the primary sites of forced sterilization in Virginia, with roughly 1,700 people subjected to the procedure between 1927 and 1964. But as Ms. Catte notes in her riveting book “Pure America: Eugenics and the Making of Modern Virginia,” the development’s marketing materials hearkened back to an earlier period in the institution’s history, eliding the eugenics era altogether. Then and now, she writes, “eugenics is everywhere and nowhere at the same time” Ms. Catte’s determination to pin it down propels the narrative.

Western State opened in 1828 and for its first few decades practiced a humane type of care. Its scenic grounds and handsome buildings were intended to provide respite for patients (all of whom, until the hospital was integrated in 1965, were white). A fence was erected not to keep the residents in, but to keep the public out, so inviting was the expansive lawn to townspeople looking for a place to picnic.

But this brief era gave way to a longer, darker one, which is nowhere to be found in the development’s upbeat branding. Beginning in the late 19th century, psychiatric treatment became less about caring for patients than about containing the threat they were believed to pose. As Ms. Catte writes, “people perceived to have disabilities, along with those who couldn’t care for themselves due to poverty or age, were viewed by society as an expensive and disorderly class prone to criminal behaviors.”

The term “eugenics” was coined by Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, in 1883. The idea that a host of societal ills could be traced to bad genes gained widespread acceptance in the United States in the decades to come, with Theodore Roosevelt, Alexander Graham Bell and Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger among those who embraced its principles to varying degrees.


From the New York Times bestselling author of the smash hit One Second After series comes 48 Hours, a nail-biting and prescient thriller about a solar storm with the power to destroy the world's electrical infrastructure

In 48 hours, the Earth will be hit by a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) from the Sun, a ''Carrington Event'' that has the power to shut down and possibly destroy the world's electrical infrastructure. To try and prevent permanent damage, everything goes dark prior to the hit: global communications are shut down hospital emergency generators are disconnected the entire internet, media broadcasting, and cell phone systems are turned off.

Will the world's population successfully defend itself in the wake of the CME, or will mass panic lead to the breakdown of society as we know it?

William R. Forstchen is at his best in 48 Hours, a tale of the resilience of American citizens when faced with a crisis.

David Curzon

Introduction, by David Lenson

The Bone Spa, Fiction by Lisa Vogel

On the Death of a Next Door Neighbor,
Poetry by Billy Collins

Kar'oush: What Grows in Hard Places,
Non-Fiction by Margaret MacInnis

Ballistic, Poetry by Elyse Fenton

The Survivor, Fiction by Jessica Lang

On Being Asked If I'm Related to Alice Munro,
Non-Fiction by Jennifer D. Munro

Skitter, Fiction by Anca Szilagyi

The Gods Are Waiting For You,
Fiction by Richard Harvell

Winter Prarie,
Poetry by Kate Northrop

Pints & Quarts,
Fiction by Brian Baldi

[Statue of Liberty],
Poetry by Ann Killough

Paper Route,
Non-Fiction by Shaun O'Connell

Centralia, PA,
Poetry by Dawn Lonsinger

The White Bird of Siauliai,
Fiction by Daniel Menasche

Action, Poetry by William Delman

Love in the Time of the Serial Dater,
Poetry by Andrea Werblin

Martin Hellinger,
Fiction by Ashley Clifton

21st Century Lecture,
Poetry by Ralph Black

Suzan-Lori Parks' Hester Plays,
Non-Fiction by Rena Fraden

Bathing, Poetry by Christina Clark

Getting By, Fiction by Robert J. Nelson

Letters to the Husband, #23, Poetry by
Mary Koncel

Mussels, Muskrats, and Juncos: Instability in
Sylvia Plath and Robert Frost,
Non-Fiction by Mike Freeman

On a Sonnet by Leah Goldberg,
Poetry by Anna Kamienska, Translated from the
Polish by Grazyna Drabik and David Curzon

The History of England Volume III: Civil War by Peter Ackroyd - book review: A smoothly readable analysis of events

Peter Ackroyd, our most industrious and prolific man of letters, is at present engaged in an ambitious, six-volume history of England, the first two volumes of which appeared in 2012 and 2013.

The third volume, covering the English Civil War and its aftermath, offers more of the same smoothly readable analysis. In pages of limpid detail, Ackroyd makes history accessible to the layman and brings difficult ideas down a level.

Oliver Cromwell, with his Puritan grit and fear of recusant Catholicism, inevitably takes up much of the action. So great was the Protector’s anti-papist animus that he saw Spanish attempts to infiltrate England as the devil’s work, no less. Almost anyone could be smoked out of hiding and sent to the gallows as a suspect spy for Philip IV.

Historians have long speculated on the religious “causes” of the 1642-1651 Civil War, but Ackroyd is inclined to see fear as an equally important motive. Those who lobbied for Charles I’s execution knew that they too would suffer a traitor’s death if the king prevailed. The slightest hostility could result in the surgical removal of one’s ears.

Religion can hardly be ignored, though. Charles I’s marriage to Henrietta Maria, the French Catholic princess, did him no favours in Puritan eyes. Like Henrietta, Charles wished for a religion of mystery, splendor and hierarchy. Puritanism, with its blood-and-brimstone egalitarianism, was anathema to his high-church Anglicanism and secret Catholicism. In spite of their differences, however, Charles I and Cromwell shared a belief in their religious purpose, Ackroyd argues.

Along the way, Ackroyd chronicles Scotland’s role in the Civil War. Charles I’s imposition on the Scottish people in 1637 of the English Book of Common Prayer was seen by the Scots as an arrogant exercise of the royal prerogative. In January 1644 some 20,000 Scots crossed the border to lend their support to the defence of the Protestant faith and overthrow of a king whose deeds smacked increasingly of prelacy and popery.

After his defeat in 1645 at the Battle of Naseby, Charles I was arrested. “You are a tyrant and a traitor”, parliament berated him days before his execution on 30 January 1649. Treason, in the new, Cromwellite definition of the word, did not denote a crime against the sovereign it denoted a trespass against the sovereign power of the English people. By waging war on parliament, Charles I had challenged the rights and liberties of his subjects.

In the final chapter, Ackroyd chronicles the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660 and the tumultuous merriment that accompanied it. Many of the signatories to Charles I’s execution were now themselves beheaded others were pardoned. In the Loyalist backlash against Puritan rectitude, theatres were re-opened and lavishly voluptuous plays put on.

Volume four of Ackroyd’s great unfolding work is due out next year. We can look forward to it.

Review Articles

A review of the ancient human genomic record sheds light on the peopling processes of the Americas.

Unconventional viral gene expression mechanisms as therapeutic targets

This Review outlines the gene and protein expression strategies used by viruses to expand the efficiency of their coding and regulatory sequences, and the implications of these mechanisms for developing antiviral agents.

The central role of DNA damage in the ageing process

This Review examines the evidence showing that DNA damage is associated with ageing phenotypes, suggesting that it may have a central role as the cause of ageing.

The changing landscape of atherosclerosis

This Review discusses recent research that has transformed our understanding of the biology of atherosclerosis, and examines its implications for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Overshooting tipping point thresholds in a changing climate

Ongoing global warming is likely to cause tipping point thresholds to be passed, but an abrupt system change can still be avoided if the warming is reversed quickly relative to the timescale of the tipping element.

A 20-year retrospective review of global aquaculture

The volume of global aquaculture production has tripled since 2000 with positive trends in environmental performance, but the sector faces mounting challenges including pathogen management, pollution, climate change, and increasing dependence on land-based resource systems.

Towards a rigorous understanding of societal responses to climate change

This Review proposes an interdisciplinary framework for researching climate–society interactions that focuses on the mechanisms through which climate change has influenced societies, and the uncertainties of discerning this influence across different spatiotemporal scales.

Origins of modern human ancestry

A Review describes the three key phases that define the origins of modern human ancestry, and highlights the importance of analysing both palaeoanthropological and genomic records to further improve our understanding of our evolutionary history.

Function and regulation of the divisome for mitochondrial fission

The functional and regulatory aspects of the ‘mitochondrial divisome’ are separated into core and accessory machinery, thus providing a mechanistic understanding of the process of mitochondrial fission.

Core-collapse supernova explosion theory

The factors affecting how and why supernovae occur are discussed, and the current status of core-collapse supernova explosion theory is reviewed.

Fibrosis: from mechanisms to medicines

This review discusses how single-cell profiling and other technological advances are increasing our understanding of the mechanisms of fibrosis, thereby accelerating the discovery, development and testing of new treatments.

Discoveries in structure and physiology of mechanically activated ion channels

This Review summarizes developments in the field of mechanically activated ion channels, which have been driven by the increasing breadth of structural studies.

The physical mechanisms of fast radio bursts

The mechanisms and origins of fast radio bursts are reviewed in connection with data and insights from the neighbouring fields of gamma-ray bursts and radio pulsars.

Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century

The long-term success of area-based conservation—including both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures—after 2020 will depend on governments securing adequate funding and prioritizing biodiversity in land, water and sea management.

Programmable photonic circuits

The current state of programmable photonic integrated circuits is discussed, including recent developments in their building blocks, circuit architectures, electronic control and programming strategies, as well as different application spaces.

Animal models for COVID-19

The findings of a World Health Organization expert working group that is developing animal models to test vaccines and therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19, and their relevance for preclinical testing, are reviewed.

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development

The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is reviewed, including an overview of the development process, the different types of vaccine candidate, and data from animal studies as well as phase I and II clinical trials in humans.

Host–microbiota maladaptation in colorectal cancer

This Review describes the interplay between host genetics, host immunity and the gut microbiome in the modulation of colorectal cancer, and discusses the role of specific bacterial species and metabolites alongside technological advances that will facilitate more in-depth investigation of the microbiome in disease.

Array programming with NumPy

NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

Illuminating the dark spaces of healthcare with ambient intelligence

Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence and low-cost, contactless sensors have given rise to an ambient intelligence that can potentially improve the physical execution of healthcare delivery, if used in a thoughtful manner.

Eyehategod – A History of Nomadic Behavior Review

The New Orleans, Louisiana metal scene holds a special place in my heart. Since discovering trailblazing artists, and personal favorites, Acid Bath and Soilent Green, along with legendary supergroup Down, I’ve been an avid fan of many a NOLA band. Whether it be heavyweights like Crowbar and Goatwhore, or quality lesser known acts like Flesh Parade, Mule Skinner and Agents of Oblivion, the scene’s downtrodden, hard luck traits, often laden with decaying sludge and doom influences, holds great appeal and emotional resonance. Legendary sludge metallers Eyehategod is another high profile and revered NOLA band from the wrong side of the tracks, carving out a punishing career of ugly, hateful, feedback drenched sludge, including genre classics, Take as Needed for Pain and Dopesick. Built upon foundations of immense hardship, personal pain, resilience, and rocky turbulence, particularly those of troubled frontman Mike IX Williams, Eyehategod returned with a self-titled comeback album in 2014, their first LP since 2000’s Confederacy of Ruined Lives. It was a solid return, staying true to the band’s gnarled roots. The passage of time and age shall not weary Eyehategod.

Seven years later, Eyehategod return with the expected spiteful and bitter chip on their trademarked shoulders, sounding as pissed and deranged as ever, showing no signs of softening with age. A History of Nomadic Behavior continues the trend of dependency that has been a mainstay during their career, now stretching across multiple decades. While the modern incarnation of Eyehategod lacks some of the disturbing ugliness and raw grit of earlier recordings, the blood, guts, anguish, hate and glory that’s defined their tough as nails and seemingly unkillable career is present in these newer tunes. The punk-infected sludge tunes and burly southern swagger remain ever present. Essentially, Eyehategod make music to feel shit to, and I mean that in an endearing way. Possessing a knack for subtle dynamics, thickly oppressive and addictive, tar-coated riffs, and a hefty dose of NOLA sludge groove, Eyehategod remain relevant.

While the cleaner production values might irk old school Eyehategod purists, overall, the tortured howls of Williams and long established jarring, nasty and abrasive sludge ensures a filthy, rugged attack, not for the faint hearted. And the killer guitar tone is absolutely huge and imposing. Opener “Built Between the Lies” sounds purpose-made for weeding out the weak its restlessly jarring rhythms, bruising and unconventional structure, and inaccessible streak makes for an unsettling beginning. “The Outer Banks” lurches and lumbers through swollen, infected sludge dirges and lead footed punk speed-ups in traditional Eyehategod fashion. Elsewhere, the bulk of the album features consistently solid, and occasionally higher quality material. Highlights include, the swaggering riff monster, “”High Risk Trigger,” mug you in a dark alley attitude “Circle of Nerves,” and doom-laden heft of “Anemic Robotic.”

Performances are strong across the board. Jimmy Bower still wields his axe with uncompromising power and sonic might, his ironclad handiwork incorporates negative dirges, bluesy sludge grooves, and elements of feedback-laced noise and violent punk. It all falls into familiar realms of Eyehategod guitar battery, but Bower’s work is never dull, and the infectious grooves and melodic embellishments add welcome flavor. The imposing drumming of Aaron Hill is another standout. Hill unleashes a busy, aggressive performance, far beyond sludge pocket playing. Imaginative fills, aggressively stomping grooves, and off-kilter rhythms highlight his strong contribution. Not everything works to the album’s benefit. The loud mastering robs the more dynamic and subtle elements of the band’s sound. Williams’ unhinged vocals still sound killer, if a little too upfront in the mix, though some lyrics are a bit awkwardly constructed. Most songs deliver on some level, though there is little to match their finest songs from the past, while “Current Situation” dedicates entirely too much time engaging in feedback drenched noise in its mid-section.

Eyehategod is a sludge institution and I’ve long admired their dedication to no-holds barred extremity and authentic sludge in its purest, filthiest form. The fact they are still trucking on and sounding as pissed, deranged and vital as ever after three decades plus of sludge devotion, is testament to the band’s endearing strengths and consistent quality. A History of Nomadic Behavior doesn’t surpass their strongest efforts, but is a more than worthy addition to the Eyehategod catalog, and more complete album than their previous self-titled comeback effort. For Eyehategod fans it’s a no brainer, conversely, those unable to get into the band’s bleakly abrasive sludge formula previously, won’t find a whole lot to change their mind here.

Features and Benefits

Here are some of the main features of the RWS 48 and their benefits:

  • Ambidextrous stock
  • Automatic safety
  • Side lever cocking
  • Two-stage adjustable trigger
  • Beechwood stock
  • Standard RWS rear sight with spring loaded ball bearing
  • Single shot rifle
  • Ambidextrous Stock: The ambidextrous stock is nice because it allows both lefties and righties to use it conveniently with no awkwardness.
  • Automatic Safety:
    • Another exciting feature about the RWS 48 is the automatic safety.
    • The automatic safety assures that you only shoot when intended to, thereby protecting you accidental pellet discharge and potential injuries.
    • The automatic safety engages immediately once a pellet is inserted and the side lever is cocked back into place.
    • the side lever cocking allows shooting to be more accurate because it’s less sensitive to handling.
    • It also accepts longer scopes for better magnification because the barrel doesn’t tip up and get in the way.

    Two-Stage Adjustable Trigger: the adjustable trigger allows you to manipulate the amount of force it takes for the trigger to break and the shot to go off.

    • Beechwood Stock:
      • the beautifully finished beechwood stock on the RWS Diana 48 had high hardness, is heavily packed and has high resistance to abrasion.
      • So you don’t have to worry about the stock wearing out.

      Standard RWS Rear Sight with spring loaded bearing: the spring-loaded ball bearing on the RWS Diana 48 holds the setting of your site so it stays where you put it.

      There’s no need to worry about losing your previous sight.

      It also allows you to adjust for windage and elevation.

      Single shot: the RWS Diana 48 is a single shot rifle, meaning it only allows you to shoot one pellet at a time.

      The single shot helps with accuracy because you’ll always want your first shot to count.

      Have Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Sentencing Declined?

      Blacks and Hispanics convicted of felonies are more likely than whites to receive prison sentences for their crimes, and they receive slightly longer sentences if imprisoned. Yet the majority of prior research compares sentencing decisions at a single point in time and does not give explicit attention to whether and how racial and ethnic disparities have changed. Decades of sentencing data from Minnesota, the federal courts, and a sample of large urban counties are used to assess the degree of change in racial and ethnic sentencing disparities since the 1980s. There has been some decline in the magnitude of racial and ethnic disparities, with changes in drug laws aligning with some of the reduction in disparity at the federal level. This trend, along with the pattern of findings from related studies, poses a challenge to prominent theoretical explanations of sentencing disparities, including racial threat theory and the focal concerns perspective. Each of four influential theoretical explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in sentencing includes significant empirical or logical shortcomings. Advancing theoretical understanding of racial and ethnic disparity will require new data that follow cases from the point of arrest through to final disposition and include information about citizenship and victims.

      History comes in bad cycles

      Protest at the United States Capital, January 6, 2021. Credit: Flickr.

      I watched the insurrectionists assault
      the capital with Trump flags, anti-Semitic
      signs, gas masks, guns and enough
      angry hatred to kill those they see

      as enemies. War in the streets the man
      in charge summoned with furious lying
      tweets, urged to action, applauded, hoped
      they would overthrow the government

      he had pledged to uphold — all to keep
      his grasp on power. This is perhaps
      only the beginning. Hitler too led
      a failed coup before winning control.

      It’s a cult of the strong man who postures
      machismo, who stirs up hatred against
      Blacks, Jews, queer and trans people,
      immigrants, Muslims, uppity women.

      Black Lives Matter protestors are gassed,
      beaten, killed as were we anti-war
      groups in my most activist days
      when I could still lead and march.

      These white power folks were gently
      urged to disperse by police who had
      watched with pleasure all day. I’m not
      too old to witness democracy’s fall.

      International Labour Review

      The International Labour Review (ILR) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal of international scope in labour and employment studies. Established in 1921 by decision of the ILO Governing Body, it is published quarterly in English, French and Spanish and administered by the ILO Research Department.

      The ILR aims to advance academic research and inform policy debate and decision-making in all fields related to the world of work, such as economics, law, industrial relations, social policy, sociology and history, by publishing and bringing together the original thinking of academics and experts in those fields. It also features concise reports on current developments and reviews of recent major publications considered to be of particular interest to those working in these fields. Read more.

      ILR centenary

      The year 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the ILR. To celebrate this milestone, throughout the year, the ILR will highlight its history and multidisciplinary contributions to academic research and policy debate at the global level. It will do so with an interactive timeline, exploring the people and events that have shaped the journal over the past 100 years, and a Centenary Collection. This will be composed of a dedicated article revisiting the ILR&rsquos history and guest-edited Centenary Issues examining recurring and enduring themes of past ILR articles. The first of these virtual issues will be available soon.

      Centenary launch
      A virtual event is being organized on 12 July to mark the 100th anniversary of the International Labour Review (ILR). This will showcase the history of the ILR and its contributions to academic research and policy debate on the world of work at the global level, with a particular focus on the discourse on informality. It will also be an occasion to present the various initiatives planned to celebrate this important anniversary.

      Watch the video: A brief recapitulation of troll lore volume 48 review (January 2022).