Did any of these artists ever meet?

Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (Raphael) and Donato Bardi (Donatello) are some of the most prominent and influential artists of the Renaissance period. Three of the four (Leonardo, Raphael and Michaelangelo) were all alive at roughly the same time (although da Vinci was a teenager when Donatello died in 1466). My question is, is there any evidence that these artists ever met, or were familiar with the works of the others to any extent?

The fact that the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles were named after these artists, and I asked the question because of this fact is purely coincidental :-)

The book "The Agony and the Ecstasy" by Irving Stone, a biographical novel of Michelangelo, mentions many interactions and conversations by Michelangelo with both da Vinci and Raphael. From the details in the book, it appears that at least with respect to Michelangelo, he was familiar with their works, and they were, with his. The book also recounts the early rivalry between Michelangelo and da Vinci, Michelangelo's frustration and anger at da Vinci's regard of sculpture as an art form inferior to painting, the mellowing of his anger later in life, especially after da Vinci's praise of his work at Sistine Chapel as being close to perfection.

12 Famous Female Painters Every Art Lover Should Know

The history of art is littered with the names of great men&mdashLeonardo da Vinci, Vincent Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, etc. But what about the women who have helped shape the world's visual history? As with many other fields, women were historically discouraged from pursuing a career in the arts, yet there are many incredible females who persevered. These famous female artists have more in common than their gender and career path&mdashthey are all trailblazers in their own right, with many breaking barriers in their personal and public life.

Of course, these women would most likely be displeased to be included in a list of female painters, preferring to be valued as artists outside of their gender. Unfortunately, as women continue to fight for equality in all fields, these exceptional artists are often still mentioned in terms of their gender. Luckily, more than ever, these women of distinction are being held up against their male peers and recognized positively for their contributions to art history. Organizations like Advancing Women Artists work to ensure that the female talent of the past doesn't get left out of the history books.

A look at some of the great female artists of the past is also a timeline of art history. Women have been leading figures in every artistic movement from the Italian Renaissance to American Modernism and beyond. By weaving our way through art history&mdashfrom a 16th-century court painter for King Philip II to the 20th-century icon that is Frida Kahlo&mdashlet's take a look at the strength, character, and talent of these exceptional women.


Stein, the youngest of a family of five children, was born on February 3, 1874, in Allegheny, Pennsylvania (which merged with Pittsburgh in 1907), to upper-middle-class Jewish parents, Daniel Stein and Amelia (née Keyser) Stein. [6] [7] Her father was a wealthy businessman with real estate holdings. German and English were spoken in their home. [8]

When Stein was three years old, she and her family moved to Vienna, and then Paris. Accompanied by governesses and tutors, the Steins endeavored to imbue their children with the cultured sensibilities of European history and life. [9] After a year-long sojourn abroad, they returned to America in 1878, settling in Oakland, California, where her father became director of San Francisco's streetcar lines, the Market Street Railway. [10] Stein attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oakland's Sabbath school. [11] During their residence in Oakland, they lived for four years on a ten-acre lot, and Stein built many memories of California there. She would often go on excursions with her brother, Leo, with whom she developed a close relationship. Stein found formal schooling in Oakland unstimulating, but she often read: Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Scott, Burns, Smollett, Fielding, and more. [7]

When Stein was 14 years old, her mother died. Three years later, her father died as well. Stein's eldest brother, Michael Stein, then took over the family business holdings and in 1892 arranged for Gertrude and another sister, Bertha, to live with their mother's family in Baltimore. [12] Here she lived with her uncle David Bachrach, [13] who in 1877 had married Gertrude's maternal aunt, Fanny Keyser.

In Baltimore, Stein met Claribel and Etta Cone, who held Saturday evening salons that she would later emulate in Paris. The Cones shared an appreciation for art and conversation about it and modeled a domestic division of labor that Stein would replicate in her relationship with Alice B. Toklas. [14]

Radcliffe Edit

Stein attended Radcliffe College, [9] then an annex of Harvard University, from 1893 to 1897 and was a student of psychologist William James. With James's supervision, Stein and another student, Leon Mendez Solomons, performed experiments on normal motor automatism, a phenomenon hypothesized to occur in people when their attention is divided between two simultaneous intelligent activities such as writing and speaking.

These experiments yielded examples of writing that appeared to represent "stream of consciousness", a psychological theory often attributed to James and the style of modernist authors Virginia Woolf and James Joyce. In 1934, behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner interpreted Stein's difficult poem Tender Buttons as an example of normal motor automatism. [15] In a letter Stein wrote during the 1930s, she explained that she never accepted the theory of automatic writing: "[T]here can be automatic movements, but not automatic writing. Writing for the normal person is too complicated an activity to be indulged in automatically." [16] She did publish an article in a psychological journal on "spontaneous automatic writing" while at Radcliffe, but "the unconscious and the intuition (even when James himself wrote about them) never concerned her". [7]

At Radcliffe, she began a lifelong friendship with Mabel Foote Weeks, whose correspondence traces much of the progression of Stein's life. In 1897, Stein spent the summer in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, studying embryology at the Marine Biological Laboratory. [17] She received her A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) magna cum laude from Radcliffe in 1898. [7]

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Edit

William James, who had become a committed mentor to Stein at Radcliffe, recognizing her intellectual potential, and declaring her his "most brilliant woman student", encouraged Stein to enroll in medical school. Although Stein professed no interest in either the theory or practice of medicine, she enrolled at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1897. In her fourth year, Stein failed an important course, lost interest, and left. [7] Ultimately, medical school had bored her, and she had spent many of her evenings not applying herself to her studies, but taking long walks and attending the opera. [9] [18]

Stein's tenure at Johns Hopkins was marked by challenges and stress. Men dominated the medical field, and the inclusion of women in the profession was not unreservedly or unanimously welcomed. Writing of this period in her life (in Things As They Are, 1903) Stein often revealed herself as a depressed young woman dealing with a paternalistic culture, struggling to find her own identity, which she realized could not conform to the conventional female role. Her uncorseted physical appearance and eccentric mode of dress aroused comment and she was described as "Big and floppy and sandaled and not caring a damn." [19] [20] According to Linda Wagner-Martin, Stein's "controversial stance on women's medicine caused problems with the male faculty" and contributed to her decision to leave without finishing her degree. [6]

Asked to give a lecture to a group of Baltimore women in 1899, Stein gave a controversial speech titled "The Value of College Education for Women", undoubtedly designed to provoke the largely middle-class audience. In the lecture Stein maintained:

"average middle class woman [supported by] some male relative, a husband or father or brother. [is] not worth her keep economically considered. [This economic dependence caused her to become] oversexed. adapting herself to the abnormal sex desire of the male. and becoming a creature that should have been first a human being and then a woman into one that is a woman first and always."

While a student at Johns Hopkins and purportedly still naïve about sexual matters, Stein experienced an awakening of her latent sexuality. Sometime in 1899 or 1900, she became infatuated with Mary Bookstaver who was involved in a relationship with a medical student, Mabel Haynes. Witnessing the relationship between the two women served for Stein as her "erotic awakening". The unhappy love triangle demoralized Stein, arguably contributing to her decision to abandon her medical studies. [20] In 1902, Stein's brother Leo Stein left for London, and Stein followed. The following year the two relocated to Paris, where Leo hoped to pursue an art career. [18]

From 1903 until 1914, when they dissolved their common household, Gertrude and her brother Leo shared living quarters near the Luxembourg Gardens on the Left Bank of Paris in a two-story apartment (with the adjacent studio) located on the interior courtyard at 27 rue de Fleurus, 6th arrondissement. Here they accumulated the works of art that formed a collection that became renowned for its prescience and historical importance.

The gallery space was furnished with imposing Renaissance-era furniture from Florence, Italy. The paintings lined the walls in tiers trailing many feet to the ceiling. Initially illuminated by gaslight, the artwork was later lit by electric light shortly prior to World War I. [10]

Leo Stein cultivated important art world connections, enabling the Stein holdings to grow over time. The art historian and collector Bernard Berenson hosted Gertrude and Leo in his English country house in 1902, facilitating their introduction to Paul Cézanne and the dealer Ambroise Vollard. [21] Vollard was heavily involved in the Cézanne art market, and he was the first important contact in the Paris art world for both Leo and Gertrude. [7]

The joint collection of Gertrude and Leo Stein began in late 1904 when Michael Stein announced that their trust account had accumulated a balance of 8,000 francs. They spent this at Vollard's Gallery, buying Gauguin's Sunflowers [22] and Three Tahitians, [23] Cézanne's Bathers, [24] and two Renoirs. [25]

The art collection increased and the walls at Rue de Fleurus were rearranged continually to make way for new acquisitions. [26] In "the first half of 1905" the Steins acquired Cézanne's Portrait of Mme Cézanne and Delacroix's Perseus and Andromeda. [27] Shortly after the opening of the Salon d'Automne of 1905 (on October 18, 1905), the Steins acquired Matisse's Woman with a Hat [28] and Picasso's Young Girl with a Flower Basket. [29] In 1906, Picasso completed Portrait of Gertrude Stein, which remained in her collection until her death. [30]

Henry McBride (art critic for the New York Sun) did much for Stein's reputation in the United States, publicizing her art acquisitions and her importance as a cultural figure. Of the art collection at 27 Rue de Fleurus, McBride commented: "[I]n proportion to its size and quality. [it is] just about the most potent of any that I have ever heard of in history." [31] McBride also observed that Gertrude "collected geniuses rather than masterpieces. She recognized them a long way off." [31]

By early 1906, Leo and Gertrude Stein's studio had many paintings by Henri Manguin, Pierre Bonnard, Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Honoré Daumier, Henri Matisse, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. [32] Their collection was representative of two famous art exhibitions that took place during their residence together in Paris, and to which they contributed, either by lending their art or by patronizing the featured artists. [33] The Steins' elder brother, Michael, and sister-in-law Sarah (Sally) acquired a large number of Henri Matisse paintings Gertrude's friends from Baltimore, Claribel and Etta Cone, collected similarly, eventually donating their art collection, virtually intact, to the Baltimore Museum of Art. [34]

While numerous artists visited the Stein salon, many of these artists were not represented among the paintings on the walls at 27 Rue de Fleurus. Where Renoir, Cézanne, Matisse, and Picasso's works dominated Leo and Gertrude's collection, the collection of Michael and Sarah Stein emphasized Matisse. [35] In April 1914 Leo relocated to Settignano, Italy, near Florence, and the art collection was divided. The division of the Steins' art collection was described in a letter by Leo:

The Cézanne apples have a unique importance to me that nothing can replace. The Picasso landscape is not important in any such sense. We are, as it seems to me on the whole, both so well off now that we needn't repine. The Cézannes had to be divided. I am willing to leave you the Picasso oeuvre, as you left me the Renoir, and you can have everything except that. I want to keep the few drawings that I have. This leaves no string for me, it is financially equable either way for estimates are only rough & ready methods, & I'm afraid you'll have to look upon the loss of the apples as an act of God. I have been anxious above all things that each should have in reason all that he wanted, and just as I was glad that Renoir was sufficiently indifferent to you so that you were ready to give them up, so I am glad that Pablo is sufficiently indifferent to me that I am willing to let you have all you want of it. [36] [37]

Leo departed with sixteen Renoirs and, relinquishing the Picassos and most of Matisse to his sister, took only a portrait sketch Picasso had done of him. He remained dedicated to Cézanne, nonetheless, leaving all the artist's works with his sister, taking with him only a Cézanne painting of "5 apples". [10] The split between brother and sister was acrimonious. Stein did not see Leo Stein again until after World War I, and then through only a brief greeting on the street in Paris. After this accidental encounter, they never saw or spoke to each other again. [10] The Steins' holdings were dispersed eventually by various methods and for various reasons. [38]

After Stein's and Leo's households separated in 1914, she continued to collect examples of Picasso's art, which had turned to Cubism, a style Leo did not appreciate. At her death, Gertrude's remaining collection emphasized the artwork of Picasso and Juan Gris, most of her other pictures having been sold. [39]

Gertrude Stein's personality has dominated the provenance of the Stein art legacy. It was, however, her brother Leo who was the astute art appraiser. Alfred Barr Jr., the founding director of New York's Museum of Modern Art, said that between the years of 1905 and 1907, "[Leo] was possibly the most discerning connoisseur and collector of 20th-century painting in the world." [40] After the artworks were divided between the two Stein siblings, it was Gertrude who moved on to champion the works of what proved to be lesser talents in the 1930s. She concentrated on the work of Juan Gris, André Masson, and Sir Francis Rose. In 1932, Stein asserted: "Painting now after its great period has come back to be a minor art." [10]

In 1945, in a preface for the first exhibition of Spanish painter Francisco Riba Rovira (who painted a portrait of her), Stein wrote:

I explained that for me, all modern painting is based on what Cézanne nearly made, instead of basing itself on what he almost managed to make. When he could not make a thing, he hijacked it and left it. He insisted on showing his incapacity: he spread his lack of success: showing what he could not do, became an obsession for him. People influenced by him were also obsessed with the things which they could not reach and they began the system of camouflage. It was natural to do so, even inevitable: that soon became an art, in peace and war, and Matisse concealed and insisted at the same time that Cézanne could not realize, and Picasso concealed, played, and tormented all these things. The only one who wanted to insist on this problem was Juan Gris. He persisted by deepening the things which Cézanne wanted to do, but it was too hard a task for him: it killed him. And now here we are, I find a young painter who does not follow the tendency to play with what Cézanne could not do, but who attacks any right the things which he tried to make, to create the objects which have to exist, for, and in themselves, and not in relation. [41] [42]

The gatherings in the Stein home "brought together confluences of talent and thinking that would help define modernism in literature and art". Dedicated attendees included Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis, Ezra Pound, Gavin Williamson, Thornton Wilder, Sherwood Anderson, Francis Cyril Rose, Bob Brown, René Crevel, Élisabeth de Gramont, Francis Picabia, Claribel Cone, Mildred Aldrich, Jane Peterson, Carl Van Vechten and Henri Matisse. [1] Saturday evenings had been set as the fixed day and time for formal congregation so Stein could work at her writing uninterrupted by impromptu visitors. It was Stein's partner Alice who became the de facto hostess for the wives and girlfriends of the artists in attendance, who met in a separate room.

Gertrude attributed the beginnings of the Saturday evening salons to Matisse, as people began visiting to see his paintings and those of Cézanne: "Matisse brought people, everybody brought somebody, and they came at any time and it began to be a nuisance, and it was in this way that Saturday evenings began." [43]

Among Picasso's acquaintances who frequented the Saturday evenings were: Fernande Olivier (Picasso's mistress), Georges Braque (artist), André Derain (artist), Max Jacob (poet), Guillaume Apollinaire (poet), Marie Laurencin (artist, and Apollinaire's mistress), Henri Rousseau (painter), and Joseph Stella. [44]

Hemingway frequented Stein's salon, but the two had an uneven relationship. They began as close friends, with Hemingway admiring Stein as a mentor, but they later grew apart, especially after Stein called Hemingway "yellow" in The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. [7] Upon the birth of his son, Hemingway asked Stein to be the godmother of his child. [45] While Stein has been credited with inventing the term "Lost Generation" for those whose defining moment in time and coming of age had been World War I and its aftermath, there are at least three versions of the story that led to the phrase, two by Hemingway and one by Stein. [46]

During the summer of 1931, Stein advised the young composer and writer Paul Bowles to go to Tangier, where she and Alice had vacationed.

Stein's writing can be placed in three categories: "hermetic" works best illustrated by The Making of Americans: The Hersland Family popularized writing such as The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas and speech writing and more accessible autobiographical writing of later years, of which Brewsie and Willie is a good example. Her works include novels, plays, stories, libretti, and poems written in a highly idiosyncratic, playful, repetitive, and humorous style. Typical quotes are: "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose" "Out of kindness comes redness and out of rudeness comes rapid same question, out of an eye comes research, out of selection comes painful cattle" about her childhood home in Oakland, "There is no there there" and "The change of color is likely and a difference a very little difference is prepared. Sugar is not a vegetable." [ citation needed ]

These stream-of-consciousness experiments, rhythmical essays or "portraits", were designed to evoke "the excitingness of pure being" and can be seen as literature's answer to visual art styles and forms such as Cubism, plasticity, and collage. Many of the experimental works such as Tender Buttons have since been interpreted by critics as a feminist reworking of patriarchal language. These works were well received by avant-garde critics but did not initially achieve mainstream success. Despite Stein's work on "automatic writing" with William James, she did not see her work as automatic, but as an 'excess of consciousness'. [ citation needed ]

Though Stein collected cubist paintings, especially those of Picasso, the largest visual arts influence on her literary work is that of Cézanne. Particularly, he influenced her idea of equality, distinguished from universality: "the whole field of the canvas is important" (p. 8 [ full citation needed ] ). Rather than a figure/ground relationship, "Stein in her work with words used the entire text as a field in which every element mattered as much as any other." It is a subjective relationship that includes multiple viewpoints. Stein explained: "The important thing is that you must have deep down as the deepest thing in you a sense of equality." [ citation needed ]

Her use of repetition is ascribed to her search for descriptions of the "bottom nature" of her characters, such as in The Making of Americans where the narrator is described through the repetition of narrative phrases such as "As I was saying" and "There will be now a history of her." Stein used many Anglo-Saxon words and avoided words with "too much association". Social judgment is absent in her writing, so the reader is given the power to decide how to think and feel about the writing. Anxiety, fear, and anger are also absent, and her work is harmonic and integrative. [ citation needed ]

Stein predominantly used the present progressive tense, creating a continuous presence in her work, which Grahn argues is a consequence of the previous principles, especially commonality and centeredness. Grahn describes "play" as the granting of autonomy and agency to the readers or audience: "rather than the emotional manipulation that is a characteristic of linear writing, Stein uses play." [47] In addition, Stein's work is funny, and multilayered, allowing a variety of interpretations and engagements. Lastly, Grahn argues that one must "insterstand. engage with the work, to mix with it in an active engagement, rather than 'figuring it out.' Figure it in." [48] In 1932, using an accessible style to appeal to a wider audience, she wrote The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas the book would become her first best-seller. Despite the title, it was actually Stein's autobiography. The style was quite similar to that of The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook, which was written by Toklas. [ citation needed ]

Several of Stein's writings have been set to music by composers, including Virgil Thomson's operas Four Saints in Three Acts and The Mother of Us All, and James Tenney's setting of Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose as a canon dedicated to Philip Corner, beginning with "a" on an upbeat and continuing so that each repetition shuffles the words, e.g. "a/rose is a rose/is a rose is/a rose is a/rose." [ citation needed ]

While living in Paris, Stein began submitting her writing for publication. Her earliest writings were mainly retellings of her college experiences. Her first critically acclaimed publication was Three Lives. In 1911, Mildred Aldrich introduced Stein to Mabel Dodge Luhan and they began a short-lived but fruitful friendship during which the wealthy Mabel Dodge promoted Gertrude's legend in the United States.

Mabel was enthusiastic about Stein's sprawling publication The Makings of Americans and, at a time when Stein had much difficulty selling her writing to publishers, privately published 300 copies of Portrait of Mabel Dodge at Villa Curonia. [39] Dodge was also involved in the publicity and planning of the 69th Regiment Armory Show in 1913, "the first avant-garde art exhibition in America". [39]

In addition, she wrote the first critical analysis of Stein's writing to appear in America, in "Speculations, or Post-Impressionists in Prose", published in a special March 1913 publication of Arts and Decoration. [50] Foreshadowing Stein's later critical reception, Dodge wrote in "Speculations":

In Gertrude Stein's writing every word lives and, apart from concept, it is so exquisitely rhythmical and cadenced that if we read it aloud and receive it as pure sound, it is like a kind of sensuous music. Just as one may stop, for once, in a way, before a canvas of Picasso, and, letting one's reason sleep for an instant, may exclaim: "It is a fine pattern!" so, listening to Gertrude Stein's words and forgetting to try to understand what they mean, one submits to their gradual charm. [50]

Stein and Carl Van Vechten, the noted critic and photographer, became acquainted in Paris in 1913. The two became lifelong friends, devising pet names for each other: Van Vechten was "Papa Woojums", and Stein, "Baby Woojums". Van Vechten served as an enthusiastic champion of Stein's literary work in the United States, in effect becoming her American agent. [1]

America (1934–1935) Edit

In October 1934, Stein arrived in America after a 30-year absence. Disembarking from the ocean liner in New York, she encountered a throng of reporters. Front-page articles on Stein appeared in almost every New York City newspaper. As she rode through Manhattan to her hotel, she was able to get a sense of the publicity that would hallmark her US tour. An electric sign in Times Square announced to all that "Gertrude Stein Has Arrived." [51] Her six-month tour of the country encompassed 191 days of travel, criss-crossing 23 states and visiting 37 cities. Stein prepared her lectures for each stop-over in a formally structured way, and the audience was limited to five hundred attendees for each venue. She spoke, reading from notes, and provided for an audience question and answer period at the end of her presentation. [51]

Stein's effectiveness as a lecture speaker received varying evaluations. At the time, some maintained that "Stein's audiences by and large did not understand her lectures." Some of those in the psychiatric community weighed in, judging that Stein suffered from a speech disorder, palilalia, which caused her "to stutter over words and phrases". The predominant feeling, however, was that Stein was a compelling presence, a fascinating personality who could hold listeners with the "musicality of her language". [51]

In Washington, D.C. Stein was invited to have tea with the President's wife, Eleanor Roosevelt. In Beverly Hills, California, she visited actor and filmmaker Charlie Chaplin, who reportedly discussed the future of cinema with her. [51] Stein left America in May 1935, a newly minted American celebrity with a commitment from Random House, who had agreed to become the American publisher for all of her future works. [51] [52] The Chicago Daily Tribune wrote after Stein's return to Paris: "No writer in years has been so widely discussed, so much caricatured, so passionately championed." [51]

Books Edit

Q.E.D. Edit

Stein completed Q.E.D., her first novel, on October 24, 1903. [53] One of the earliest coming out stories, [54] it is about a romantic affair involving Stein and her friends Mabel Haynes, Grace Lounsbury and Mary Bookstaver, and occurred between 1897 and 1901 while she was studying at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore. [55]

Fernhurst (1904) Edit

In 1904, Stein began Fernhurst, a fictional account of a scandalous three-person romantic affair involving a dean (M. Carey Thomas), a faculty member from Bryn Mawr College (Mary Gwinn) and a Harvard graduate (Alfred Hodder). [56] Mellow asserts that Fernhurst "is a decidedly minor and awkward piece of writing". [57] It includes some commentary that Gertrude mentioned in her autobiography when she discussed the "fateful twenty-ninth year" [57] during which:

All the forces that have been engaged through the years of childhood, adolescence and youth in confused and ferocious combat range themselves in ordered ranks (and during which) the straight and narrow gateway of maturity, and life which was all uproar and confusion narrows down to form and purpose, and we exchange a great dim possibility for a small hard reality. Also in our American life where there is no coercion in custom and it is our right to change our vocation so often as we have desire and opportunity, it is a common experience that our youth extends through the whole first twenty-nine years of our life and it is not till we reach thirty that we find at last that vocation for which we feel ourselves fit and to which we willingly devote continued labor. [58]

Mellow observes that, in 1904, 30-year-old Gertrude "had evidently determined that the 'small hard reality' of her life would be writing". [59]

Three Lives (1905–1906) Edit

Stein attributed the inception of Three Lives to the inspiration she received from a portrait Cézanne had painted of his wife and which was in the Stein collection. She credited this as a revelatory moment in the evolution of her writing style. Stein described:

that the stylistic method of (Three Lives) had been influenced by the Cézanne portrait under which she sat writing. The portrait of Madame Cézanne is one of the monumental examples of the artist's method, each exacting, carefully negotiated plane—from the suave reds of the armchair and the gray blues of the sitter's jacket to the vaguely figured wallpaper of the background—having been structured into existence, seeming to fix the subject for all eternity. So it was with Gertrude's repetitive sentences, each one building up, phrase by phrase, the substance of her characters. [60]

She began Three Lives during the spring of 1905 and finished it the following year. [61]

The Making of Americans (1902–1911) Edit

Gertrude Stein stated the date for her writing of The Making of Americans was 1906–1908. Her biographer has uncovered evidence that it actually began in 1902 and did not end until 1911. [62] Stein compared her work to James Joyce's Ulysses and to Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. Her critics were less enthusiastic about it. [63] Stein wrote the bulk of the novel between 1903 and 1911, and evidence from her manuscripts suggests three major periods of revision during that time. [64] The manuscript remained mostly hidden from public view until 1924 when, at the urging of Ernest Hemingway, Ford Madox Ford agreed to publish excerpts in the transatlantic review. [65] In 1925, the Paris-based Contact Press published a limited run of the novel consisting of 500 copies. A much-abridged edition was published by Harcourt Brace in 1934, but the full version remained out of print until Something Else Press republished it in 1966. In 1995, a new, definitive edition was published by Dalkey Archive Press with a foreword by William Gass. [66]

Gertrude's Matisse and Picasso descriptive essays appeared in Alfred Stieglitz's August 1912 edition of Camera Work, a special edition devoted to Picasso and Matisse, and represented her first publication. [67] Of this publication, Gertrude said, "[h]e was the first one that ever printed anything that I had done. And you can imagine what that meant to me or to any one." [67]

Word Portraits (1908–1913) Edit

Stein's descriptive essays apparently began with her essay of Alice B. Toklas, "a little prose vignette, a kind of happy inspiration that had detached itself from the torrential prose of The Making of Americans". [68] Stein's early efforts at word portraits are catalogued in Mellow (1974, pp. 129–37) harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFMellow1974 (help) and under individual's names in Kellner, 1988. Matisse and Picasso were subjects of early essays, [69] later collected and published in Geography and Plays [70] and Portraits and Prayers. [71] [72] [73]

Her subjects included several ultimately famous personages, and her subjects provided a description of what she observed in her Saturday salons at 27 Rue de Fleurus: "Ada" (Alice B. Toklas), "Two Women" (The Cone sisters, Claribel Cone and Etta Cone), Miss Furr and Miss Skeene (Ethel Mars and Maud Hunt Squire), "Men" (Hutchins Hapgood, Peter David Edstrom, Maurice Sterne), "Matisse" (1909, Henri Matisse), "Picasso" (1909, Pablo Picasso), "Portrait of Mabel Dodge at the Villa Curonia" (1911, Mabel Dodge Luhan), and "Guillaume Apollinaire" (1913).

Tender Buttons (1912) Edit

Tender Buttons is the best known of Stein's "hermetic" works. It is a small book separated into three sections—"Food, Objects and Rooms", each containing prose under subtitles. [74] Its publication in 1914 caused a great dispute between Mabel Dodge Luhan and Stein, because Mabel had been working to have it published by another publisher. [75] Mabel wrote at length about what she viewed as the bad choice of publishing it with the press Gertrude selected. [75] Evans wrote Gertrude:

Claire Marie Press. is absolutely third rate, & in bad odor here, being called for the most part 'decadent" and Broadwayish and that sort of thing. I think it would be a pity to publish with [Claire Marie Press] if it will emphasize the idea in the opinion of the public, that there is something degenerate & effete & decadent about the whole of the cubist movement which they all connect you with, because, hang it all, as long as they don't understand a thing they think all sorts of things. My feeling in this is quite strong. [75]

Stein ignored Mabel's exhortations, and eventually Mabel, and published 1,000 copies of the book, in 1914. An antiquarian copy was valued at over $1,200 in 2007. It is currently in print, and was re-released as Tender Buttons: The Corrected Centennial Edition by City Lights Publishers in March 2014.

In an interview with Robert Bartlett Haas in "A Transatlantic Interview - 1946", Stein insisted that this work was completely "realistic" in the tradition of Gustave Flaubert, stating the following: "I used to take objects on a table, like a tumbler or any kind of object and try to get the picture of it clear and separate in my mind and create a word relationship between the word and the things seen." Commentators have indicated that what she meant was that the reference of objects remained central to her work, although the representation of them had not. [76] Scholar Marjorie Perloff had said of Stein that "[u]nlike her contemporaries (Eliot, Pound, Moore), she does not give us an image, however fractured, of a carafe on a table rather, she forces us to reconsider how language actually constructs the world we know." [76]

The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933) Edit

The publication of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas lifted Gertrude Stein from literary obscurity to almost immediate celebrity in the United States. [77] Although popular with the American public, Stein received considerable backlash from individuals portrayed in her book. Eugene Jolas, editor of the avant-garde journal Transition, published a pamphlet titled Testimony against Gertrude Stein in which artists such as Henri Matisse and Georges Braque expressed their objections to Stein's portrayal of the Parisian community of artists and intellectuals. [78] Braque, in his response, criticized, "she had entirely misunderstood cubism which she sees simply in terms of personalities". [79]

Four in America (1947) Edit

Published posthumously by Yale University Press in 1947, with an introduction by Thornton Wilder, Four in America creates alternative biographies of Ulysses S. Grant as a religious leader, Wilbur Wright as a painter, George Washington as a novelist, and Henry James as a military general. [80]

Stein met her life partner Alice B. Toklas [81] on September 8, 1907, on Toklas's first day in Paris, at Sarah and Michael Stein's apartment. [82] On meeting Stein, Toklas wrote:

She was a golden brown presence, burned by the Tuscan sun and with a golden glint in her warm brown hair. She was dressed in a warm brown corduroy suit. She wore a large round coral brooch and when she talked, very little, or laughed, a good deal, I thought her voice came from this brooch. It was unlike anyone else's voice—deep, full, velvety, like a great contralto's, like two voices. [83] [84]

Soon thereafter, Stein introduced Toklas to Pablo Picasso at his Bateau-Lavoir studio, where he was at work on Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.

In 1908, they summered in Fiesole, Italy, Toklas staying with Harriet Lane Levy, the companion of her trip from the United States, and her housemate until Alice moved in with Stein and Leo in 1910. That summer, Stein stayed with Michael and Sarah Stein, their son Allan, and Leo in a nearby villa. Gertrude and Alice's summer of 1908 is memorialized in images of the two of them in Venice, at the piazza in front of Saint Mark's. [63]

Toklas arrived in 1907 with Harriet Levy, with Toklas maintaining living arrangements with Levy until she moved to 27 Rue de Fleurus in 1910. In an essay written at the time, Stein humorously discussed the complex efforts, involving much letter-writing and Victorian niceties, to extricate Levy from Toklas's living arrangements. [85] In "Harriet", Stein considers Levy's nonexistent plans for the summer, following her nonexistent plans for the winter:

She said she did not have any plans for the summer. No one was interested in this thing in whether she had any plans for the summer. That is not the complete history of this thing, some were interested in this thing in her not having any plans for the summer. Some who were not interested in her not having made plans for the summer were interested in her not having made plans for the following winter. She had not made plans for the summer and she had not made plans for the following winter. There was then coming to be the end of the summer and she was then not answering anything when any one asked her what were her plans for the winter. [86]

During the early summer of 1914, Gertrude bought three paintings by Juan Gris: Roses, Glass and Bottle, and Book and Glasses. Soon after she purchased them from Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler's gallery, [87] the Great War began, Kahnweiler's stock was confiscated and he was not allowed to return to Paris. Gris, who before the war had entered a binding contract with Kahnweiler for his output, was left without income. Gertrude attempted to enter an ancillary arrangement in which she would forward Gris living expenses in exchange for future pictures. Stein and Toklas had plans to visit England to sign a contract for the publication of Three Lives, to spend a few weeks there, and then journey to Spain. They left Paris on July 6, 1914 and returned on October 17. [88] When Britain declared war on Germany, Stein and Toklas were visiting Alfred North Whitehead in England. After a supposed three-week trip to England that stretched to three months due to the War, they returned to France, where they spent the first winter of the war.

With money acquired from the sale of Stein's last Matisse Woman with a Hat [89] to her brother Michael, she and Toklas vacationed in Spain from May 1915 through the spring of 1916. [90] During their interlude in Majorca, Spain, Gertrude continued her correspondence with Mildred Aldrich who kept her apprised of the War's progression, and eventually inspired Gertrude and Alice to return to France to join the war effort. [91]

Toklas and Stein returned to Paris in June 1916, and acquired a Ford automobile with the help of associates in the United States Gertrude learned to drive it with the help of her friend William Edwards Cook. [92] Gertrude and Alice then volunteered to drive supplies to French hospitals, in the Ford they named Auntie, "after Gertrude's aunt Pauline, 'who always behaved admirably in emergencies and behaved fairly well most times if she was flattered.'"

During the 1930s, Stein and Toklas became famous with the 1933 mass-market publication of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. She and Alice had an extended lecture tour in the United States during this decade. They also spent several summers in the town of Bilignin, in the Ain district of eastern France situated in the picturesque region of the Rhône-Alpes. The two women doted on their beloved poodle named "Basket" whose successor, "Basket II", comforted Alice in the years after Gertrude's death.

With the outbreak of World War II, Stein and Toklas relocated to a country home that they had rented for many years previously in Bilignin, Ain, in the Rhône-Alpes region. Gertrude and Alice, who were both Jewish, escaped persecution probably because of their friendship to Bernard Faÿ who was a collaborator with the Vichy regime and had connections to the Gestapo, or possibly because Gertrude was an American and a famous author. Gertrude's book "Wars I Have Seen" written before the German surrender and before the liberation of German concentration camps, likened the German army to Keystone cops. When Faÿ was sentenced to hard labor for life after the war, Gertrude and Alice campaigned for his release. Several years later, Toklas would contribute money to Faÿ's escape from prison. After the war, Stein was visited by many young American soldiers. The August 6, 1945 issue of Life magazine featured a photo of Stein and American soldiers posing in front of Hitler's bunker in Berchtesgaden. They are all giving the Nazi salute and Stein is wearing the traditional Alpine cap, accompanied by the text: "Off We All Went To See Germany." [93]

In the 1980s, a cabinet in the Yale University Beinecke Library, which had been locked for an indeterminate number of years, was opened and found to contain some 300 love letters written by Stein and Toklas. They were made public for the first time, revealing intimate details of their relationship. Stein's endearment for Toklas was "Baby Precious", in turn Stein was for Toklas, "Mr. Cuddle-Wuddle". [18]

Lesbian relationships Edit

Stein is the author of one of the earliest coming out stories, "Q.E.D." (published in 1950 as Things as They Are), written in 1903 and suppressed by the author. The story, written during travels after leaving college, is based on a three-person romantic affair in which she became involved while studying at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore. The affair was complicated, as Stein was less experienced with the social dynamics of romantic friendship as well as her own sexuality and any moral dilemmas regarding it. Stein maintained at the time that she detested "passion in its many disguised forms". The relationships of Stein's acquaintances Mabel Haynes and Grace Lounsbury ended as Haynes started one with Mary Bookstaver (also known as May Bookstaver). Stein became enamored of Bookstaver but was unsuccessful in advancing their relationship. Bookstaver, Haynes, and Lounsbury all later married men. [55]

Stein began to accept and define her pseudo-masculinity through the ideas of Otto Weininger's Sex and Character (1906). Weininger, though Jewish by birth, considered Jewish men effeminate and women as incapable of selfhood and genius, except for female homosexuals who may approximate masculinity. As Stein equated genius with masculinity, her position as a female and an intellectual becomes difficult to synthesize and modern feminist interpretations of her work have been called into question. [94]

More positive affirmations of Stein's sexuality began with her relationship with Alice B. Toklas. Ernest Hemingway describes how Alice was Gertrude's "wife" in that Stein rarely addressed his (Hemingway's) wife, and he treated Alice the same, leaving the two "wives" to chat. [95]

The more affirming essay "Miss Furr and Miss Skeene" is one of the first homosexual revelation stories to be published. The work, like Q.E.D., is informed by Stein's growing involvement with a homosexual community, [95] though it is based on lesbian partners Maud Hunt Squire and Ethel Mars. [4] The work contains the word "gay" over 100 times, perhaps the first published use of the word "gay" in reference to same-sex relationships and those who have them, [4] and, thus, uninformed readers missed the lesbian content. A similar essay of gay men begins more obviously with the line "Sometimes men are kissing" but is less well known. [4]

In Tender Buttons Stein comments on lesbian sexuality and the work abounds with "highly condensed layers of public and private meanings" created by wordplay including puns on the words "box", "cow", and in titles such as "tender buttons". [4]

Along with Stein's widely known "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose" [96] quotation, "there is no there there" is also one of her most famous. It appears in Gertrude Stein, Everybody's Autobiography (Random House 1937, p 289) and is often applied to the city of her childhood, Oakland, California. Defenders and critics of Oakland have debated what she really meant when she said this in 1933, after coming to San Francisco on a book tour. She took a ferry to Oakland to visit the farm she grew up on, and the house she lived in near what is now 13th Avenue and E. 25th Street in Oakland. The house had been razed, and the farmland had been developed with new housing in the three decades since her father had sold the property and moved closer to the commercial hub of the neighborhood on Washington Street (now 12th Avenue).

She took us to see her granddaughter who was teaching in the Dominican convent in San Raphael, we went across the bay on a ferry, that had not changed but Goat Island might just as well not have been there, anyway what was the use of my having come from Oakland it was not natural to have come from there yes write about it if I like or anything if I like but not there, there is no there there. [97]

. but not there, there is no there there. . Ah Thirteenth Avenue was the same it was shabby and overgrown. . Not of course the house, the house the big house and the big garden and the eucalyptus trees and the rose hedge naturally were not there any longer existing, what was the use .

It is a funny thing about addresses where you live. When you live there you know it so well that it is like an identity a thing that is so much a thing that it could not ever be any other thing and then you live somewhere else and years later, the address that was so much an address that it was like your name and you said it as if it was not an address but something that was living and then years after you do not know what the address was and when you say it is not a name anymore but something you cannot remember. That is what makes your identity not a thing that exists but something you do or do not remember.

Tommy Orange's 2018 novel There There, about Native Americans living in Oakland, takes its name from this quotation.

According to Janet Malcolm's contested account in Two Lives: Gertrude and Alice, Stein was a vocal critic of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. [98] [99] [100]

Some stress Stein's queer, feminist, pro-immigration, and democratic politics, [101] [102] although her statements on immigration need to be seen in context of the time and world events. In a 1934 interview published in The New York Times she stated:

"That is the reason why I do not approve of the stringent immigration laws in America today. We need the stimulation of new blood. It is best to favor healthy competition. There is no reason why we should not select our immigrants with greater care, nor why we should not bar certain peoples and preserve the color line for instance. But if we shut down on immigration completely we shall become stagnant. The French may not like the competition of foreigners, but they let them in. They accept the challenge and derive the stimulus. I am surprised that there is not more discussion of immigration in the United States than there is. We have got rid of prohibition restrictions, and it seems to me the next thing we should do is to relax the severity of immigration restrictions." [103]

She publicly endorsed General Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War and admired Vichy leader Marshal Philippe Pétain. [98] Some have argued for a more nuanced view of Stein's collaborationist activity, arguing that it was rooted in her wartime predicament and status as a Jew in Nazi-occupied France. [104] [105] [106] [107] Similarly, Stein commented in 1938 on Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky: "There is too much fathering going on just now and there is no doubt about it fathers are depressing." [4]

While identified with the modernist movements in art and literature, Stein's political affiliations were a mix of reactionary and progressive ideas. She was outspoken in her hostility to some liberal reforms of progressive politics. To Stein, the industrial revolution had acted as a negative societal force, disrupting stability, degrading values, and subsequently affecting cultural decline. Stein idealized the 18th century as the golden age of civilization, epitomized in America as the era of its founding fathers and what was in France, the glory of its pre-revolutionary Ancien Régime. [5] [108] At the same time, she was pro-immigrant, pro-democratic, and anti-patriarchal. [109] Her last major work was the libretto of the feminist opera The Mother of Us All (1947) about the socially progressive suffragette movement and another work from this time, Brewsie and Willie (1946), expressed strong support for American G.I.s.

A compendium of source material confirms that Stein may have been able to save her life and sustain her lifestyle through the protection of powerful Vichy government official Bernard Faÿ. Stein had met Faÿ in 1926, and he became her "dearest friend during her life", according to Alice B. Toklas. Faÿ had been the primary translator of Stein's work into French and subsequently masterminded her 1933–34 American book tour, which gave Stein celebrity status and proved to be a highly successful promotion of her memoir, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. [5] Faÿ's influence was instrumental in avoiding Nazi confiscation of Stein's historically significant and monetarily valuable collection of artwork, which throughout the war years was housed in Stein's Paris rue Christine apartment, under locked safeguard. [110]

In 1941, at Faÿ's suggestion, Stein consented to translate into English some 180 pages of speeches made by Marshal Philippe Pétain. In her introduction, Stein crafts an analogy between George Washington and Pétain. She writes of the high esteem in which Pétain is held by his countrymen France respected and admired the man who had struck an armistice with Hitler. Conceived and targeted for an American readership, Stein's translations were ultimately never published in the United States. Random House publisher Bennett Cerf had read the introduction Stein had written for the translations and been horrified by what she had produced. [111]

Although Jewish, Stein collaborated with Vichy France, a regime that deported more than 75,000 Jews to Nazi concentration camps, of whom only 3 percent survived the Holocaust. [5] [112] In 1944, Stein wrote that Petain's policies were "really wonderful so simple so natural so extraordinary". This was Stein's contention in the year when the town of Culoz, where she and Toklas resided, saw the removal of its Jewish children to Auschwitz. [93] It is difficult to say, however, how aware Stein was of these events. As she wrote in Wars I Have Seen, "However near a war is it is always not very near. Even when it is here." [113] Stein had stopped translating Petain's speeches three years previously, in 1941.

Stein was able to condemn the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor while simultaneously maintaining the dissonant acceptance of Hitler as conqueror of Europe. [5] Journalist Lanning Warren interviewed Stein in her Paris apartment in a piece published in The New York Times Magazine on May 6, 1934. Stein, seemingly ironically, proclaimed that Hitler merited the Nobel Peace Prize.

"The Saxon element is always destined to be dominated. The Germans have no gift at organizing. They can only obey. And obedience is not organization. Organization comes from community of will as well as community of action. And in America, our democracy has been based on community of will and effort. I say Hitler ought to have the peace prize. because he is removing all elements of contest and struggle from Germany. By driving out the Jews and the democratic Left elements, he is driving out everything that conduces to activity. That means peace." [5] [110] [111] [114]

Given that after the war Stein commented that the only way to ensure world peace was to teach the Germans disobedience, [115] this 1934 Stein interview has come to be interpreted as an ironic jest made by a practiced iconoclast hoping to gain attention and provoke controversy. In an effort to correct popular mainstream misrepresentations of Stein's wartime activity, a dossier of articles by critics and historians has been gathered for the online journal Jacket2. [116]

How much of Stein's wartime activities were motivated by the real exigencies of self-preservation in a dangerous environment can only be speculated upon. However, her loyalty to Pétain may have gone beyond expedience. [111] [116] She had been urged to leave France by American embassy officials, friends and family when that possibility still existed, but declined to do so. Accustomed to a life of entitlement since birth, Stein may have been convinced her wealth and notoriety would exempt her from what had befallen other European Jews. In an essay written for the Atlantic Monthly in November 1940, Stein wrote about her decision not to leave France: "it would be awfully uncomfortable and I am fussy about my food." Stein continued to praise Pétain after the war ended, this at a time when Pétain had been sentenced to death by a French court for treason. [5]

Author Djuna Barnes provided a caustic assessment of Stein's book, Wars I Have Seen:

"You do not feel that she [Stein] is ever really worried about the sorrows of the people. Her concerns at its highest pitch is a well-fed apprehension." [93]

Others have argued that some of the accounts of Stein's war time activities have amounted to a "witch hunt." [117]

Stein died on July 27, 1946 at the age of 72 after surgery for stomach cancer at the American Hospital in Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris. [118] She was interred in Paris in Père Lachaise Cemetery. [119] Later Alice B. Toklas was buried alongside her. [120] According to the famous version of her last moments, before having been taken into surgery, Stein asked her partner Toklas: "What is the answer?" After Toklas replied to Stein that there was no answer, Stein countered by sinking back into her bed, murmuring: "Then, there is no question!" [121]

Her companion Toklas, however, has given two other versions of the encounter—neither of which agrees with the "canonical" version above. Writing in the June 2005 edition of The New Yorker, Janet Malcolm describes:

On July 27, 1946, Stein was operated on for what proved to be inoperable stomach cancer and died before coming out of anesthesia. In "What Is Remembered," Toklas wrote of the "troubled, confused and very uncertain" afternoon of the surgery. "I sat next to her and she said to me early in the afternoon, What is the answer? I was silent. In that case, she said, what is the question?" However, in a letter to Van Vechten ten years earlier, Toklas had written:

About Baby's last words. She said upon waking from a sleep--What is the question. And I didn't answer thinking she was not completely awakened. Then she said again--What is the question and before I could speak she went on--If there is no question then there is no answer.

Stein's biographers have naturally selected the superior "in that case what is the question?" version. Strong narratives win out over weak ones when no obstacle of factuality stands in their way. What Stein actually said remains unknown. That Toklas cited the lesser version in a letter of 1953 is suggestive but not conclusive. [122]

Stein named writer and photographer Carl Van Vechten as her literary executor, and he helped to publish works of hers that remained unpublished at the time of her death. There is a monument to Stein on the Upper Terrace of Bryant Park, New York.

Sherwood Anderson in his public introduction to Stein's 1922 publication of Geography and Plays wrote:

For me the work of Gertrude Stein consists in a rebuilding, an entirely new recasting of life, in the city of words. Here is one artist who has been able to accept ridicule, who has even forgone the privilege of writing the great American novel, uplifting our English speaking stage, and wearing the bays of the great poets to go live among the little housekeeping words, the swaggering bullying street-corner words, the honest working, money-saving words and all the other forgotten and neglected citizens of the sacred and half-forgotten city.

In a private letter to his brother Karl, Anderson said, "As for Stein, I do not think her too important. I do think she had an important thing to do, not for the public, but for the artist who happens to work with words as his material. [123] "

Other critics took a more negative view of Stein's work. F. W. Dupee (1990, p. IX) defines "Steinese" as "gnomic, repetitive, illogical, sparsely punctuated. a scandal and a delight, lending itself equally to derisory parody and fierce denunciation."

Composer Constant Lambert (1936) compares Stravinsky's choice of "the drabbest and least significant phrases" in L'Histoire du Soldat to Gertrude Stein's in "Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene" (1922), specifically: "[E]veryday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday." He writes that the "effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever", apparently missing the pun frequently employed by Stein.

Anyone who reads at all diversely during these bizarre 1920s cannot escape the conclusion that a number of crazy men and women are writing stuff which remarkably passes for important composition among certain persons who should know better. Stuart P. Sherman, however, refused to be numbered among those who stand in awe and admiration of one of the most eminent of the idiots, Gertrude Stein. He reviews her Geography and Plays in the August 11 issue of the Literary Review of the New York Evening Post and arrives at the conviction that it is a marvellous and painstaking achievement in setting down approximately 80,000 words which mean nothing at all. [124]

Author Katherine Ann Porter provided her own estimation of Stein's literary legacy: "Wise or silly or nothing at all, down everything goes on the page with an air of everything being equal, unimportant in itself important because it happened to her and she was writing about it." [126]

History Professor Blanche Wiesen Cook, has written of Stein: "She was not a radical feminist. She was Jewish and anti-Semitic, lesbian and contemptuous of women, ignorant about economics and hostile to socialism." [126]

Writing for Vanity Fair magazine in 1923, eminent literary critic Edmund Wilson presciently came to an evaluation similar to the one made by Katharine Ann Porter some twenty years later, after Stein's death. Wilson deemed that Stein's technique was one of flawed methodology, using words analogous to the way Cubists manipulated abstract forms in their artworks. As Wilson wrote, unlike the plastic arts, literature deals with

"human speech [which] is a tissue of ideas. . Miss Stein no longer understands the conditions under which literary effects have to be produced . There is sometimes genuine music in the most baffling of her works, but there are rarely any communicated emotions." [127]

An elevated observer, perched high above everything below, he likened Stein to a self-conceived "Buddha. registering impressions like some august seismograph." [127]

Stein's literary output was a subject of amusement for her brother Leo Stein, who characterized her writing as an "abomination". Later detractors of Stein's work deemed her experimentation as the serendipitous result of her alleged inability to communicate through linguistic convention, deficient in the skills required "to deal effectively with language, so that she made her greatest weakness into her most remarkable strength". [126]

In his 1938 biographical novel The Green Fool, Irish poet Patrick Kavanagh describes the works of Gertrude Stein fondly as being "like whisky to me her strange rhythms broke up the cliché formation of my thought". [128]

Stein has been the subject of many artistic works.

In 2005, playwright/actor Jade Esteban Estrada portrayed Stein in the solo musical ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World, Vol. 1 at Princeton University. In 2006, theatre director/actor Luiz Päetow created his solo, Plays, portraying Stein's 1934 homonymous lecture, and toured Brazil for several years. [129] Loving Repeating is a musical by Stephen Flaherty based on the writings of Gertrude Stein. Stein and Alice B. Toklas are both characters in the eight-person show. Stein is a central character in Nick Bertozzi's 2007 graphic novel The Salon.

The posthumously published Journals of Ayn Rand contain several highly hostile references to Gertrude Stein. From Rand's working notes for her novel The Fountainhead, it is clear that the character Lois Cook in that book was intended as a caricature of Stein. [130]

Stein (played by Bernard Cribbins) and Toklas (played by Wilfrid Brambell) were depicted in the Swedish 1978 absurdist fiction film Picassos äventyr (The Adventures of Picasso) by director Tage Danielsson, with Gösta Ekman as Picasso. [131]

Stein was portrayed in the 2011 Woody Allen film Midnight in Paris by Kathy Bates, and by Tracee Chimo in the 2018 season of the television series Genius which focuses on the life and career of Pablo Picasso.

Waiting for the Moon, a movie starring Linda Bassett that was released in 1987. [132] The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, a TV series starring Alice Dvoráková that was released in 1993. [133]

Stein is added to a list of great artists and notables in the popular Broadway musical Rent in the song "La Vie Boheme". She is also mentioned in the Fred Astaire - Ginger Rogers 1935 film Top Hat and in the song "Roseability" by the Scottish rock group Idlewild.

Composer Ricky Ian Gordon and librettist Royce Vavrek's opera 27 about Stein and Toklas premiered at Opera Theatre of St. Louis in June, 2014 with Stephanie Blythe as Stein. [134]

In 2014 Stein was one of the inaugural honorees in the Rainbow Honor Walk, a walk of fame in San Francisco's Castro neighborhood noting LGBTQ people who have "made significant contributions in their fields". [135] [136] [137]

Edward Einhorn wrote the play The Marriage of Alice B. Toklas by Gertrude Stein, a farce about their fantasy marriage that also told the story of their life. It premiered in May 2017 at HERE Arts Center in New York. [138]

The 2018 artwork Words Doing As They Want to Do by Eve Fowler involved recording trans and lesbian Californians reading Stein's 1922 work called "Miss Furr and Miss Skeene". [139]

Most famous artists of all time

1. Leonardo da Vinci

The original Renaissance Man, Leonardo is identified with genius, not only for masterpieces such as the Mona Lisa (the title for which has entered the language as a superlative), The Last Supper and The Lady with an Ermine, but also for his drawings of technologies (aircraft, tanks, automobile) that were five hundred years in the future.

Leonardo da Vinci
Photograph: Shutterstock

2. Michelangelo

Michelangelo was a triple threat: A painter (the Sistine Ceiling), a sculptor (the David and Pietà) and architect (St. Peter's Basilica in Rome). Make that a quadruple threat since he also wrote poetry. Though he bounced between Florence, Bologna and Venice, his greatest commissions were for the Medici Popes (including Julian II and Leo X, among others) in Rome. Aside from the aforementioned Sistine Ceiling, St. Peter's Basilica and Pietà, there was his tomb for Pope Julian II (which includes his iconic carving of Moses) and the design for the Laurentian Library at at San Lorenzo's Church. Twenty years after painting the Sistine Ceiling, he returned to the Chapel to create one of the greatest frescoes of the Renaissance: The Last Judgment.

Michelangelo's David, 1501-1504, Galleria dell'Accademia (Florence)
Photorgaph: Courtesy CC/Wikimedia/Jorg Bittney Unna

3. Rembrandt

One the greatest artists in history, this Dutch Master is responsible for masterworks such as The Night Watch and Doctor Nicolaes Tulp's Demonstration of the Anatomy of the Arm. But he is particularly know for portraits in which he demonstrated an uncanny ability to evoke the innermost thoughts of his subjects (including himself through the play of facial expression and the fall of light across the sitter&rsquos features.

Rembrandt van Rijn, Self Portrait as the Apostle Paul, 1661
Photograph: Shutterstock

4. Vermeer

Remarkably, Vermeer was largely forgotten for two centuries before his rediscovery in the 19th century. Since then, he&rsquos been recognized as one of art history&rsquos most important figures, an artist capable of rendering works of uncanny beauty. Many have argued the Vermeer used a camera obscura&mdashan early form of projector&mdashand certainly the soft blur he employs appears to foreshadow photorealism. But the most important aspect of his work is how it represents light as a tangible substance.

Johannes Vermeer, Het meisje met de parel (Girl with a Pearl Earring), 1665

5. Jean-Antoine Watteau

Watteau (1684&ndash1721) was arguably the greatest French painter of the 18th-century, a transitional figure between Baroque art and the Roccoco style that followed. He emphasized color and movement, structuring his compositions so that they almost resembled theater scenes, but it was the atmospheric quality of his work that would become highly influential for artists like J.M.W Turner and the Impressionists.

Jean-Antoine Watteau, The Shop Sign of Gersaint, (1720&ndash21)
Photograph: Courtesy CC/Wikimedia Commons/Antoine Watteau

6. Eugene Delacroix

Eugène Delacroix (1798&ndash1863) was one of towering figures of 19th-century art. A leading figure of Romanticism&mdashwhich privileged emotions over rationalism&mdashDelacroix&rsquos expressive paint handling and use of color laid the foundation for successive avant-garde movements of the 1800s and beyond.

Eugene Delacroix, Self-Portrait with Green Vest, ca. 1837
Photograph: Courtesy CC/Wikimedia Commons/ via

7. Claude Monet

Perhaps the best know artist among the Impressionists, Monet captured the changeable effects of light on the landscape through prismatic shards of color delivered as rapidly painted strokes. Moreover, his multiple studies of haystacks and other subjects anticipated the use of serial imagery in Pop Art and Minimalism. But the same token, his magisterial, late-career lily pond paintings foreshadowed Abstract Expressionism and Color-Field Abstaction.

Claude Monet, 1901
Photograph: Shutterstock

8. Georges Seurat

Most people know Georges Seurat (1859&ndash1891) as the inventor of pointillism (which he actually developed with the artist Paul Signac), a radical painting technique in which small daubs of color where applied to the canvas, leaving it to the viewer&rsquos eye to resolve those dots and dashes into images. Just as importantly, Seurat broke with the capture-the-moment approach of other Impressionists, going instead for ordered compositional style that recalled the stillness of classical art.

Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884&ndash1886
Photograph: Courtesy The Art Institute of Chicago/Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection

9. Vincent van Gogh

Van Gogh is legendary for being mentally unstable (he did, after all, cut of part of his ear after an argument with fellow painter Paul Gauguin), but his paintings are among the most famous and beloved of all time. (His painting, The Starry Night, inspired a treacly Top 40 hit by Don McClean.) Van Gogh&rsquos technique of painting with flurries of thick brushstrokes made up of bright colors squeezed straight from the tube would inspire subsequent generations of artists.

Vincent van Gogh, Self Portrait, 1889
Photograph: Shutterstock

10. Edvard Munch

I scream, you scream we all scream for Munch&rsquos The Scream, the Mona Lisa of anxiety. In 2012, a pastel version of Edvard Munch&rsquos iconic evocation of modern angst fetched a then-astronomical price of $120 million at auction (a benchmark which has since been bested several times). Munch&rsquos career was more than just a single painting. He&rsquos generally acknowledged as the precursor to Expressionism, influencing artists such 20th-century artists as Egon Schiele, Erich Heckel and Max Beckmann.

Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893
Photograph: U.S. Public Domain

11. Egon Schiele

Vienna at the turn of the 20th century was a hothouse of psychologically and sexually charged tension and repression, and no figure channeled the milieu better than Egon Schiele (1890&ndash1918), whose fevered sensibility found expression in drawings and paintings of subjects that were as explicit as they were jittery.

Egon Schiele, Self Portrait with Physalis, 1912
Photograph: Courtesy CC/Wikimedia Commons/Google Arts & Culture

12. Gustav Klimt

The fin de siècle Viennese Symbolist painter Gustav Klimt is know for using gold leaf, something he picked up on while visiting the famous Byzantine frescoes in Ravenna Italy. He most famously put the idea to use in his masterpiece, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I&mdashalso know as Austria&rsquos Mona Lisa&mdasha painting looted by the Nazis during World War II. The story of its eventual return to its rightful owner served as the basis of the film, Woman In Gold, starring Helen Mirren. Another Klimt painting, The Kiss, is equally iconic.

13. Pablo Picasso

Born in Málaga, Spain, Pablo Picasso is undoubtedly one of the most famous artists ever. His name is virtually synonymous with modern art, and it doesn&rsquot hurt that he fits the commonly held image of the outlaw genius whose ambitions are matched by an appetite for living large. He changed the course of art history with revolutionary innovations that include collage and, of course, Cubism, which broke the stranglehold of representational subject matter on art, and set the tempo for other 20th-century artists. He utterly transformed multiple mediums, making so many works that it&rsquos hard to grasp his achievement.

Pablo Picasso, Woman with Fan, 1909
Photograph: Electa/UIG/REX/Shutterstock

14. Henri Matisse

No artist is as closely tied to the sensual pleasures of color as Henri Matisse. His work was all about sinuous curves rooted in the traditions of figurative art, and was always focused on the beguiling pleasures of pigment and hue. &ldquoI am not a revolutionary by principle,&rdquo he once said. &ldquoWhat I dream of is an art of balance, of purity and serenity, devoid of troubling or depressing subject matter&hellipa soothing, calming influence on the mind, something like a good armchair.&rdquo

Henri Matisse, Paris, May 13th, 1913
Photograph: Alvin Langdon Coburn

15. Rene Magritte

The name René Magritte is widely recognized by art lovers and agnostics alike, and for good reason: He utterly transformed our expectations of what is real and what is not. When someone describes something as &ldquosurreal,&rdquo the chances are good that an image by Magritte pops into his or her head.

Magritte Rene, The Roof of the World, 1926-1927
Photograph: Electa/UIG/REX/Shutterstock

16. Salvador Dalí

Dalí was effectively Warhol before there was a Warhol. Like Andy, Dalí courted celebrity almost as an adjunct to his work. With their melting watches and eerie blasted landscapes, Dalí&rsquos paintings were the epitome of Surrealism, and he cultivated an equally outlandish appearance, wearing a long waxed mustache that resembled cat whiskers. Ever the consummate showman, Dalí once declared, &ldquoI am not strange. I am just not normal.&rdquo

Salvador Dalí with Babou, the ocelot and cane, 1965

17. Georgia O’Keeffe

Georgia O&rsquoKeeffe&rsquos reputation rests in part on the idea that many of her paintings evoke a certain part of the female anatomy. O'Keeffe herself angrily rejected the notion that her compositions&mdashespecially her floral studies&mdashwere symbolic representations of vaginas, but the idea has stuck. Nevertheless, there so much more to the artist&rsquos work, which could be described as a blend of symbolism, precisionism and abstraction.

Georgia O'Keeffe, 1918
Photograph: Alfred Stieglitz

18. Edward Hopper

Hopper&rsquos enigmatic paintings look into the hollow core of the American experience&mdashthe alienation and loneliness that represents the flip side of to our religious devotion to individualism and the pursuit of an often-elusive happiness. In compositions such as Nighthawks, Automat and Office in a Small City, he captures stillness weighed down by despair, his subjects trapped in the limbo between aspiration and reality. His landscapes are similarly suffused with a sense that America&rsquos open spaces are as purgatorial as they are limitless.

Edward Hopper, Self Portrait, 1906

19. Frida Kahlo

The Mexican artist and feminist icon was a performance artist of paint, using the medium to lay bare her vulnerabilities while also constructing a persona of herself as an embodiment of Mexico&rsquos cultural heritage. Her most famous works are the many surrealistic self-portraits in which she maintains a regal bearing even as she casts herself as a martyr to personal and physical suffering&mdashanguishes rooted in a life of misfortunes that included contracting polio as a child, suffering a catastrophic injury as a teenager, and enduring a tumultuous marriage to fellow artist Diego Rivera.

Frida Kahlo, 1932
Photograph: Guillermo Kahlo

20. Jackson Pollock

Hampered by alcoholism, self-doubt and clumsiness as a conventional painter, Pollock transcended his limitations in a brief but incandescent period between 1947 and 1950 when he produced the drip abstractions that cemented his renown. Eschewing the easel to lay his canvases fait on the floor, he used house paint straight from the can, flinging and dribbling thin skeins of pigment that left behind a concrete record of his movements&mdasha technique that would become known as action painting.

Jackson Pollock, Reflection of the Big Dipper, 1947
Photograph: History Archive/REX/Shutterstock

21. Andy Warhol

Technically, Warhol didn&rsquot invent Pop Art, but he became the Pope of Pop by taking the style out of the art world and bringing it into the world of fashion and celebrity. Starting out as a commercial artist, he brought the ethos of advertising into fine art, even going so far as to say, &ldquoMaking money is art.&rdquo Such sentiments blew away the existential pretensions of Abstract Expressionism. Although he&rsquos famous for subjects such as Campbell&rsquos Soup, Marilyn Monroe and Elvis Presley, his greatest creation was himself.

Andy Warhol
Photograph: Courtesy CC/Wikimedia/Jack Mitchell

22. Yayoi Kusama

Kusama (born 1929) is one of the most famous artists working today. Her huge popularity stems from her mirrored &ldquoInfinity Rooms&rdquo that have proved irresistible for Instagram users, but her career stretches back over six decades. Starting as a child, the Japanese artist began to suffer from hallucinations that manifested as flashes of light or auras, as well as fields of dots and flowers that talked to her. These experiences have provided the inspiration for her work, including the aforementioned rooms along with paintings, sculptures and installations that employ vivid, phantasmagorical patterns of polka dots and other motifs. Between 1957 and 1972, she lived in NYC, where she gained notoriety for chairs upholstered with stuffed-fabric phalluses, as well as outdoor happenings that involved public nudity. Her psychological afflictions, though, have continued to plague her, and in 1977, she committed herself to mental hospital in Japan where she&rsquos lived ever since.

The 20 Greatest Real Life Love Stories from History

In anticipation of Valentine's Day, we take a spin through history's greatest lovers&mdashstar crossed, cursed, life-long, and everything in between.

Love is a powerful emotion. Throughout history couples in love have caused wars and controversy, created masterpieces in writing, music, and art, and have captured the hearts of the public with the power of their bonds. From the allure of Cleopatra to the magnetism of the Kennedy's, these love affairs have stood as markers in history. Prepare to swoon over these love stories of the centuries.

She was another man's wife, but when Paris, the "handsome, woman-mad" prince of Troy, saw Helen, the woman whom Aphrodite proclaimed the most beautiful in the world, he had to have her. Helen and Paris ran off together, setting in motion the decade-long Trojan War. According to myth, Helen was half-divine, the daughter of Queen Leda and the God Zeus, who transformed into a swan to seduce the queen. Whether Helen actually existed, we'll never know, but her romantic part in the greatest epic of all time can never be forgotten. She will forever be "the face that launched a thousand ships."

"Brilliant to look upon and to listen to, with the power to subjugate everyone." That was the description of Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. She could have had anything or anyone she wanted, but she fell passionately in love with the Roman General Mark Antony. As Shakespeare depicts it, their relationship was volatile ("Fool! Don't you see now that I could have poisoned you a hundred times had I been able to live without you," Cleopatra said) but after they risked all in a war on Rome and lost, they chose to die together in 30 BC. "I will be a bridegroom in my death, and run into it as to a lover's bed," said Antony. And Cleopatra followed, by clasping a poisonous asp to her breast.

We've heard of the Wall&mdashno, not that one, the 2nd Century AD one stretching across England&mdashbut what about Emperor Hadrian's heart? He lost it to Antinous (far left), an intelligent and sports-loving Greek student. The emperor displayed "an obsessive craving for his presence." The two traveled together, pursuing their love of hunting Hadrian once saved his lover's life during a lion hunt. The emperor even wrote erotic poetry. While visiting the Nile, Antinous drowned mysteriously, but some say he was murdered by those jealous of the emperor's devotion. The devastated Hadrian proclaimed Antinous a deity, ordered a city be built in his honor, and named a star after him, between the Eagle and the Zodiac.

The first Plantagenet king of England had a rich, royal wife in Eleanor of Aquitaine and mistresses galore, but the love of his life was "Fair Rosamund," also called the "Rose of the World." To conceal their affair, Henry built a love nest in the innermost recesses of a maze in his park at Woodstock. Nonetheless, the story has it that Queen Eleanor did not rest until she found the labyrinth and traced it to the center, where she uncovered her ravishing rival. The queen offered her death by blade or poison. Rosamund chose the poison. Perhaps not coincidentally, Henry kept Eleanor confined in prison for 16 years of their marriage.

Rarely has a woman served as such profound inspiration for a writer&mdashand yet he barely knew her. The Italian poet Dante Alighieri wrote passionately of Beatrice in the Divine Comedy and other poems, but only met the object of his affection twice. The first time, he was nine years old and she was eight. The second time, they were adults, and while walking on the street in Florence, Beatrice, an emerald-eyed beauty, turned and greeted Dante before continuing on her way. Beatrice died at age 24 in 1290 without Dante ever seeing her again. Nonetheless, she was "the glorious lady of my mind," he wrote, and "she is my beatitude, the destroyer of all vices and the queen of virtue, salvation."

When the Tudor king fell for a young lady-in-waiting, Anne Boleyn, who possessed eyes "black and beautiful," he was long married to a Spanish princess. But Anne refused to be a royal mistress, and the king rocked the Western world to win his divorce and make Anne queen. Ambassadors could not believe how enslaved the king was by his love for Anne. "This accursed Anne has her foot in the stirrup," complained the Spanish emissary. To comprehend the king's passion, one need only read his 16th century love letters, revealing his torment over how elusive she remained: "I beg to know expressly your intention touching the love between us&helliphaving been more than a year wounded by the dart of love, and not yet sure whether I shall fail or find a place in your affection." (Their love affair ended when he had her beheaded.)

In 1730, a Parisian prophetess told a nine-year-old girl she would rule the heart of a king. Years later, at a masked ball, Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, dressed as a domino, danced with King Louis XV, dressed as a tree. Within weeks, the delicate beauty was maîtresse-en-titre, given the title Marquise de Pompadour. "Any man would have wanted her as his mistress," said another male admirer. The couple indulged in their love of art, furniture, and porcelain, with Madame de Pompadour arranging for her jaded royal lover small dinner parties and amateur theatricals in which she would star (of course). While watching one play, Louis XV declared, "You are the most delicious woman in France," before sweeping her out of the room.

Abigail Smith married the Founding Father at age 20, gave birth to five children (including America's fifth president, John Quincy Adams), and was John Adams's confidante, political advisor, and First Lady. The more than 1,000 letters they wrote to each other offer a window into John and Abigail's mutual devotion and abiding friendship. It was more than revolutionary political ideals that kept them so united they shared a trust and abiding tenderness. Abigail wrote: "There is a tye more binding than Humanity, and stronger than Friendship . and by this chord I am not ashamed to say that I am bound, nor do I [believe] that you are wholly free from it." As for John, he wrote: "I want to hear you think, or see your Thoughts. The Conclusion of your Letter makes my Heart throb, more than a Cannonade would. You bid me burn your Letters. But I must forget you first."

When the young Romantic poet Percy Shelley met Mary Godwin, she was the teenage daughter of a famous trailblazing feminist, the long-dead Mary Wollstonecraft. The two of them shared a love of the mind&mdash"Soul meets soul on lovers' lips," he wrote&mdashbut physical desire swept them away too, consummated near the grave of Mary's mother. When they ran away to Europe, it caused a major scandal, but the couple proclaimed themselves indifferent to judgment. "It was acting in a novel, being an incarnate romance," she later said. They traveled together to visit the debauched Lord Byron, and Mary wrote Frankenstein during two weeks in Switzerland. After Percy died in a boating accident in 1822, Mary never remarried. She said having been married to a genius, she could not marry a man who wasn't one.

Elizabeth Barrett was an accomplished and respected poet in poor health (and nearly 40 years old) when Robert Browning wrote to her: "I love your verses with all my heart, dear Miss Barrett," and praising their "fresh strange music, the affluent language, the exquisite pathos and true new brave thought." They courted in secret because of her family's disapproval. She wrote, "I am not of a cold nature, & cannot bear to be treated coldly. When cold water is thrown upon a hot iron, the iron hisses." They married in 1846, living among fellow writers and artists for the rest of her life. When she died, it was in Robert Browning's arms.

The celebrated young poet's romance with his neighbor, Fanny Brawne, sparked what is probably his most famous poem "Bright Star", though the relationship was fraught with jealousy. Brawne was a precocious and flirtatious young woman, Keats a fiercely overzealous bard. The two clashed as often as they coalesced, but the full requisition of their love was hindered by Keats' lack of money and his illness. Bedridden by tuberculosis, which he contracted from his late brother and mother, Keats yearned in envy over his coquettish Brawne, whose frivolous nature marred her love for the young poet and subsequently aggravated his wellbeing. Though engaged to Brawne, Keats had to end the engagement in an effort to get well in Rome. He died there not long after his arrival, his romance to remain unrequited.

For nearly 40 years, Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas were inseparable, famous for their literary salon in Paris, which was frequented by Picasso, T.S. Eliot, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and many more. When Toklas (far left) first met Stein, she wrote, "It was Gertrude Stein who held my complete attention, as she did for all the many years I knew her until her death, and all these empty ones since them. She was a golden brown presence, burned by the Tuscan sun and with a golden glint in her warm brown hair." Their love gained international fame after Stein published The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. Wrote Stein, "One must dare to be happy."

The talented young Mexican painter Kahlo paid a visit to the studio of famous muralist Rivera in search of career advice. "She had unusual dignity and self-assurance and there was a strange fire in her eyes," he said. Theirs was a volatile relationship, yet Rivera knew from early on that Kahlo "was the most important fact in my life and she would continue to be until she died 27 years later." As for Kahlo, she said, "You deserve a lover who listens when you sing, who supports you when you feel shame and respects your freedom who flies with you and isn't afraid to fall. You deserve a lover who takes away the lies and brings you hope, coffee, and poetry."

When Edward VIII fell in love with American divorcée Wallis Simpson it was an affair shocked a nation and threw Britain's monarch into a constitutional crisis. Due to strong opposition from the church and government over their marriage, Edward chose to abdicate the throne. He famously proclaimed his love for Simpson as he addressed the nation in 1936. "I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as king as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love," he said in his abdication speech. Choosing love over kingship, the Duke of Windsor spent most of his life outside the royal family as the couple married and settled in France. Note: Years later it was revealed in previously hidden German Documents that not only did Simpson and the Duke of Windsor have Nazi associations, but there were also plans for the Germans to re-install him as King after they invaded the U.K.

Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward met during the production of Picnic and shortly married after filming the movie The Long, Hot Summer. Unlike most on-set Hollywood romances, Newman and Woodward were happily devoted to one another for fifty years. When asked about his marriage to Woodward and infidelity, Newman was famously responded, "I have a steak at home. Why should I go out for hamburger?" The couple traded the California spotlight for Westport, Connecticut, where they raised their family and remained until Paul Newman's death in 2008.

In the wedding of the century, American film star Grace Kelly left Hollywood behind at the height of her career to wed Prince Rainier and become Princess of Monaco. Prince Rainier was immediately taken with Grace, whom he met when she filmed To Catch a Thief in the French Riviera. He courted her through letters for some time before the couple announced their engagement in the Kelly family's Philadelphia home and married in 1956. Prince Rainier never remarried after Grace's tragic death in 1982.

There isn&rsquot a more iconic country music love story than that between Johnny Cash and June Carter. Both stars in their own right, the two met backstage at the famed Grand Ole Opry. When first meeting Cash, Carter supposedly told him, &ldquoI feel like I know you already.&rdquo The couple went on to tour together and fell in love, eventually marrying in 1968. Cash credited Carter with helping him recover from drug addiction, further solidifying their bond. The couple shared two Grammys, along with two solo Grammys for Carter and 11 for Cash. The both had storied careers and welcomed one son. The happy couple stayed together their whole lives and died within just four months of each other. It&rsquos clear that this love was true - when once asked for his definition of paradise, Cash stated plainly, &ldquothis morning, with her, having coffee.&rdquo

Carolyn Bessette and John F. Kennedy Jr. married in a secret ceremony on a small island in Georgia, indicative of their desire to keep their relationship private from the feigning press and public attention. The couple tried as much as they could to live a normal life out of their Tribeca apartment and with any normal marriage they had ups and downs. "They would love hard, and they would fight hard," said a friend of the couples, Ariel Paredes. It was evident the love was there and as public attention mounted Carolyn and JFK Jr. became an iconic duo. Sadly, their love was cut short when the couple tragically died on July 16, 1999 in a plane crash over the Atlantic ocean.

George Clooney was Hollywood's self-proclaimed bachelor of many decades, making his whirlwind love story with British human rights lawyer even more sweet. The two were introduced by a friend and soon after began exchanging emails that George comically penned as his dog Einstein. After six months of dating George proposed to the song, 'Why Shouldn't I?' while making dinner. "It's a really good song about why can't I be in love?," said George. The couple balances Amal's career as a human rights lawyer, George's acting, and their two twins, Ella and Alexander.

It was a love story that captured hearts around the world when Meghan Markle and Prince Harry wed in May 2018. Their life as a couple began in November 2017, when Harry popped the question while the two were roasting a chicken at their apartment in Kensington Palace. Since then, their fairytale has been untraditional, to say the least, but the love shared between the happy couple is clear. As they begin to carve out their new royal roles, amid much controversy, it remains certain that the couple cares deeply about each other and their adorable son, Archie. It&rsquos hard to know what the future holds, but it seems like Meghan and Harry will take it all on together.

Jackson Pollock, Blue Poles or Number 11, 1952

Jackson Pollock was one of the most influential Abstract Expressionists and is best known for his large ‘action’ paintings, artworks which he made by dripping and splattering paint over large canvases on the floor. Disillusioned with humanity after the horrors of the Second World War, Pollock began to portray the irrationality of the modern human condition in his wild drip paintings. Perhaps his most famous work is Blue Poles, also known as Number 11, 1952. Pollock’s radical painting style initially shocked people, but was soon appropriated by mass culture, something that became symptomatic for that period in art. Pollock, however, remained critical about the direction and reception of his work.

Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup Cans, 1962. Courtesy MoMA

13 Most Intelligent People In The History Of The World

We know these people are exceptionally intelligent and talented. But just how intelligent are they compared to each other? Here are 13 of the most intelligent geniuses in the world, or at least as far as two Western scientific studies had afforded us.

How we get the IQ

Estimating the IQ levels of people who had died centuries before a refined scientific intelligence benchmarking had been developed is tricky but here we have two of the most often quoted studies: the 1926 Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses by American psychologist Catherine Cox, who computed the IQs of geniuses from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century and the 1994 Book of Genius by English learning expert, Tony Buzan, who ranked a more encompassing 100 greatest geniuses of our world.

The disparity in their lists is evident. Buzan had Da Vinci at the top with an IQ of 220, while Cox gave the artist-inventor only 180 points. Still, it&rsquos fun averaging the two lists to see who among these geniuses trump their fellow brainiacs in sheer IQ performance. Those who didn&rsquot appear in the top twenty of both lists are automatically out of the game, but it&rsquos not to say they are any less than intelligent than the people in this list (we can never tell).

Moreover, the list didn&rsquot include twentieth-century geniuses such as Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi and Stephen Hawking. Likewise, you&rsquoll note that these are European geniuses hence, mind masters from Asia did not appear, too. Those things aside and without further ado, here they are: the most genius of geniuses and their mind-boggling IQ levels and achievements.

13. Charles Dickens &ndash IQ level: 165

The English writer, poet, social critic. He is known for his literary masterpieces including Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, A Christmas Carol and David Copperfield. He is also regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period, the time when England reigned supreme in the literary, science, trade and military world.

12. Raphael &ndash IQ level: 170

Yet another Renaissance artist made it to our list, the Italian contemporary of Da Vinci and Michelangelo. Raphael was a painter and architect, the third member of the trio great masters of the High Renaissance. His most famous works include the Mond Crucifixion, the Deposition of Christ, and the Transfiguration.

11. Michael Faraday &ndash IQ level:175

The English scientist who received little formal education. His works advanced the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry, the precursor of the high technologies that we enjoy today. Testament to his genius, numerous scientific principles are named after him: Faraday&rsquos law of induction Faraday effect: Faraday cage Faraday paradox Faraday wheel and Faraday wave among others. His research would make it possible for later inventions in electricity and current.

10. Baruch Spinoza &ndash IQ level: 175

A Dutch philosopher. He was among the first to lay down the foundation of the age of Enlightenment that saw science challenged the status quo of the Church. The age led to great leaps in the fields of science, politics, and economics, spearheaded by among others, Spinoza&rsquos magnum opus, the Ethics, which challenges the authenticity of the Hebrew bible.

9. Michelangelo &ndash IQ level: 177

Tied with the French philosopher is another Italian Renaissance man, the sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer, Michelangelo. Famed for his masterpieces, namely David, Pieta, Sistine Chapel, The Last Judgment, and The Creation of Adam. Many experts even argued he is the greatest artist of all time, a subjective account yet not without substance considering his contributions to the High Renaissance art.

8. Desiderius Erasmus &ndash IQ level: 177

A Dutch humanist, theologian, social critic. He was a strong advocate of religious tolerance during the Reformation age, when Catholics and Protestants were at each other&rsquos throat. Using humanist techniques, he prepared a new batch of Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which would become influential materials during this tumultuous time. Although critical of the Church, Erasmus maintained his Catholic faith, believing the Catholic hierarchy could be reformed internally without the need to create an offshoot faith.

7. Rene Descartes &ndash IQ level: 177

The French philosopher, mathematician, and writer. He is called the Father of Modern Philosophy because of his writings. Notably, the Meditations on First Philosophy is still a standard reference in universities around the world. He is also renowned for his mathematical contributions, specifically the Cartesian coordinate system and for bridging algebra and geometry that made the development of calculus possible.

6. Galileo Galilei &ndash IQ level: 182

The Italian physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher. He is best known for giving us the telescope. But that&rsquos just a mere speck in his wide-reaching scientific achievements, namely the discovery of planetary objects such as Callisto, Galilean moons, Europa, Ganymede, and Io. He was also responsible for confirming through actual observation the heliocentrism nature of the solar system&mdashthe sun is at the center and the planets revolve around it&mdashputting him at the crosshair of the Inquisition during his time.

5. John Stuart Mill &ndash IQ level: 182.5

An English philosopher and political economist. He is best known for his influential contributions to liberalism, the idea of individual freedom in contrast to unfettered state control in handling the economy. The Mill&rsquos method is also widely used today to arrive at a conclusion via induction, a tool that lawyers and scientists have used in advancing their arguments.

4. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz &ndash IQ level: 191

The German philosopher and mathematician. He is regarded to have contributed to the development of calculus independent from Newton, notably his works, Law of Continuity and Transcendental Law of Homogeneity. He was also a prolific inventor in the field of mechanical calculators, making it possible for non-genius like us to calculate complex mathematical problems with the aid of this device.

3. Isaac Newton &ndash IQ level: 192

The English physicist and mathematician. He is regarded to have developed much of calculus, the building blocks of today&rsquos engineering feats. His Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is one of the most influential scientific works, heralding the age of enlightenment when Europe burst into an era of advancements that gave birth to modern technologies.

2. Leonardo Da Vinci &ndash IQ level: 200

The Italian Renaissance man. His genius spanned across science and art. Best known for his Mona Lisa, Da Vinci was actually more than an exceptionally talented painter. He was a mathematician, engineer, inventor, sculptor, architect, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. He was the epitome of the Renaissance man, bringing to the world his wealth of knowledge to advance mankind&rsquos fate.

1. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe &ndash IQ level: 220

The German poet, novelist, playwright, politician, and diplomat. He&rsquos best known for his literary works, such as, The Sorrows of Young Werther, Sturm und Drang, and Faust. Although he&rsquos best regarded as a literary genius, Goethe was also involved in scientific studies, particularly in the field of natural science. He had a wide collection of minerals as part of his extensive studies in geology.

These people might appear remarkable and rare, but genius is more prevalent than we imagine it to be. &ldquoEverybody is a genius,&rdquo so said Einstein, &ldquobut if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing it is stupid.&rdquo

By Nestor Gilbert

Nestor Gilbert is a senior B2B and SaaS analyst and a core contributor at FinancesOnline for over 5 years. With his experience in software development and extensive knowledge of SaaS management, he writes mostly about emerging B2B technologies and their impact on the current business landscape. However, he also provides in-depth reviews on a wide range of software solutions to help businesses find suitable options for them. Through his work, he aims to help companies develop a more tech-forward approach to their operations and overcome their SaaS-related challenges.

High IQ is good, applying that to become wealthy is better. Hence the old saying, if you are so smart, why aren't you rich?

Can we please account for the hidden and undocumented geniuses who did not make the history books, I can only imagine how many reclusive intuitive geniuses are unaccounted for an made huge discoveries in potentially undiscovered areas.

When you see things you can't understand, or words that don't seem to add up they need to be investigated.

If we start looking for them, or minimally have an assignment where manifestations can transcend, we will start to see a rise.

Until then, having a general society of overconfident adult sized children working for 5th grader adults who are overconfident is what the recipe is calling for.

If we transcended every consumer into a designer, we would get an insane amount of human power. The amount of man hours consumed by wasteful social media browsing, and mindless information regarding people who have no meaning in their lives, yet are held with the most value-- even above themselves and their families.

Until then, we choose to trap those with less resources into redundant lives, which have very little growth with quality life expertise and well roundness.

We are not running a rat race anymore, we are sitting on the wheel watching insignificant scripted personalities, and with enough exposure, we can't escape the influences of a hierarchy system that is eliminating the most powerful tool of mankind, which is expanding information that is useful for not just the empowered, but also the lack of power.

Not having friends in this point of my life, or a wife even, is the most beneficial decision I will probably ever make.

i think you did not consider the smartest person in history at all. . . william jmes sidis

How they measure the IQ of people like Leibniz

One most important person is missing. Is the man called Phillip Emeagwali, a genius still living on Earth, the great mind of the internet. If they can rate the IQ level of dead people, why not rates the living ones and include their names.

Please, people, when will we stop believing an IQ test is A) any one thing (there are two general ones available today, and must be administered by approved sources), and B) is a final judgment of anything quantifiable? The particularly remarkable thing here is: the IQ test was first discussed and invented in the 20th century. Almost none of these people ever TOOK an IQ test of any sort. So you can say Leonardo had an IQ of literally a billion if you wanted to (for that matter, read Walter Isaacson's fine biography: he was no genius but in fact the greatest example of someone who deeply studied things and learned from observation, in a way we all could if we put in a Leonardo-esque effort!). Wherever these numbers came from, they don't come from any IQ test.

To invent experimental science through a book which introduced modern optics written while being assigned at residence without access to reference books is pretty though to match. Ibn al Haytham could be considered in a short list. Same for Roger Bacon later. Without them, not sure if we would have heard about Galilei, Newton or Einstein.

What about William James said? He had an IQ of above 285 close to 300! He had an understanding of matter and thermodynamics long before thr science world made recent discoveries! I think he best signify the meaning of genius

And Tesla, Neitsche, Einstein and more.

When I see any 'genius' list, I can't help but seeing work done in this life. All the people listed on any list have their work measured by 'earthly' standards. The only person I see who not only worked on 'earthly' standards, but also on afterlife standards, was Emmanual Swedenborg.

The afterlife would confuse the greatest minds, no matter who is mentioned. What Swedenborg wrote about the life hereafter is eternal and ever expanding without end.

Where is Einstein ? He is only the most intelligent person in the world ever

People (Google) said that he only has a IQ of 160. No way that’s right! I agree with you!

Einstein's IQ is 160 and everyone mentioned in this article has a higher IQ.

Why Beethoven is not on the list?

Why Nikola Tesla not in the list?

Nancy, you claim that "men are more intelligent than women" is a lie but you have no proof whatsoever.

Can't find Nikola Tesla on the list though.

Tesla is apart of a latter day trendy phenomena. Yes, he was highly accomplished, but not likely to be considered among the genius elite.

The wise go for knowledge and fools ignore knowledge

You stated:
The wise go for knowledge and fools ignore knowledge

The most intelligent person is the one admitting they know nothing but can
“Think” through anything. Review the list given. (Although incomplete)
They all Thought or Devised “new”.
”He sho seeks only knowledge will remain ‘searching’ and not ’doing’!”
TH Gibbons 1957

It’s a partial list- you should have included Einstein and Marx

The IQ test wasn't invented until 1904, and to this day still debated how accurate or useful it really is.
So why is all this false information about IQs being published on this site? How did you arrive at these numbers?
If Einstein, who pioneered several fields of scientific study, and still hasn't been proved wrong, presumably had a IQ of about 130, how do you tie ficticious IQs with a raking of intelligence through out history?

It would be helpul and honest if you publish your answer for all to see, thank you.

Yes I agree. I don't think IQ is an accurate means of measuring someone's intelligence.

The people who say that IQ is meaningless are usually the ones who come out at the wrong end of it. Over and over again when the IQ of children is taken in the lower grades, it is a valuable predictor of later success in life. Estimating the IQ's of smart people who lived long ago is difficult but can be extrapolated by a number of factors such as how many areas did they excel in and examining their body of work. There's no doubt that the polymath Leonardo da Vinci was extraordinarly intelligent because he had a broad variety of things that he excelled at and was able to come up with ideas that nobody else had thought of.

IQ tests are environmentally dependent. An American would flunk an English IQ test and vice versa.
Nobody on the planet knows how to judge intelligence.
Here's how:
1. What was your greatest discovery?
2. How long did it take you to make it?

The greatest and most basic principle in the universe is the attributes of cycles in time and space. When these are known, it is then and only then understood how and why the addition of one proton to a nucleus can affect the chemical attributes of the outer electron shell.

I read this - and a number of Gould's other books - many years ago and still feel that it demonstrates so much wisdom.

“I am, somehow, less interested in the weight and convolutions of Einstein’s brain than in the near certainty that people of equal talent have lived and died in cotton fields and sweatshops.”

― Stephen Jay Gould, The Panda's Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History

The notion of IQ is based on the assumption that intelligence stops increasing at 15. This is pure baloney. There is no upper limit to human intelligence. My intelligence has increased all my life and will continue to do so throughout all eternity. I have translated 72 modern and ancient languages professionally and will continue to pursue my interest in ancient languages, which are far superior than modern languages. The very fact that every language on the planet is inferior in every way to its parent language proves that Darwin's theory of organic evolution is pure trash. The ancients lived longer and were far more intelligent than anyone on the planet today. Nobody on the planet knows how to read Egyptian Hieratic. The entire book entitled The Pearl of Great Price was translated from seven lines of Hieratic, about one half of one side of an index card. Nobody on the planet understands this.
There is no such critter as Anubis. It is a butchered translation of Moroni. His hieroglyph is the jackal, and his titles are "He who stands upon his hill" and "the guardian of sacred records by which the world shall be judged. In the hieroglyphs he is represented as a recumbent jackal atop a chest full of sacred records.

I take these as just to invite discussion. I would put Da Vinci #1 but I have seen lists with Goethe #2, so I am endeavoring to learn about that, and note there is no discussion here so far on that ranking (of Goethe #1).

What about Plato, Marcus Aurelius, Einstein?

Agreed that an IQ test isn't a great measure of intelligence, just the best we have.

Geniuses cannor be compared. The further back in history the less was known about many more subjects, therefore they were able to create more firsts steps on the ladder. So much has been discovered now they are reztricted to specialised fields.

You cannot compare geniuses. They all have a specialised field. The further back you go the less was known so geniuses began the first step to climb.

Plural for Genius is 'Genii' by the way guys. NOT 'geniuses'.

Rubbish - we are reading and writing English, in which the plural of genius is definitely geniuses. If you want to pretend the plural is genii, then you should write the rest of your sentence in Latin as well. Go ahead - let’s all see how you go with that.

Leonardo de Vinci was not a mathematician. He had to visualize a problem or theory. Could not do math well.

The opening paragraph communicates the authors intention. It clearly states that the list is based on other peoples studies. I understand that many great minds may have been omitted and this is a sample list that shows people who have passed on.
I think labelling a person as a true genius is something that is agreed upon based on their field of expertise, contribution to humakind and changed the course of future generations.
We probably need to categorise geniuses based on the period of time they lived in and how their work has influenced subsequent cutural, scientific, etc advancement.
I think geniuses can only be nominated many years after their death when society has the chance to reflect on their work.
At present I am sure there are many clever people living amongst us but we are not able to assess their impact on humanity at the moment.

It is strange that Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell, George Bernard Shaw, and Nicola Tesla are not mentioned.

No one yet fully understands how the mind works. I personally believe we have an upper mind and a lower mind, the latter bearing the brunt of the labor. Every person understands 'My mind is not clear today OR my mind is not functioning well today.' Upon what basis is this made and yet ALL understand. The upper mind is making a judgment call on the lower mind and it is usually accurate. Also, since mental storage starts then propagates in each differently, then the ease of retrieval will be different in each, but since each thought is stored in a different place and differing in frequency, then by the time a person reaches 50 or so, the playing field has leveled much. The biggest differences are noticed by the beginning and paths of chosen thoughts. Hence IQ? Not really.

I've got a question that might arise as sort of a point. How would one know the IQ of half if not most of these individuals. if IQ tests started in the early 1900s? I'm just really curious if anyone knows how these specific numbers were decided upon and why.

1. Tesla.
3.Leonardo. Konfucius.
4.Darwin. Marie Curie.
5.Goethe. Lao Tsu. Wirginia Woolf. Bach. Michelangello. Tolstoj. Dostojevski
6.Plato-Sokrates. Tagora. Shekspeare. KarlMarx. Niche
7.Aristoteles. Chuang Tsu. Rumi. Decartes. Heideger. Ibn Al Arabi.
9.Gauss. Wittgenstein. Kandinsky. Tatlin. Malevich
10.Einstein. Picasso

Pretty cool list, I think you should also add Paul Dirac and Niels Bohr.

I can't see James William Sidis and Nikola Tesla in the list,

There is no such thing as a genius, especially in terms of IQ. Not everyone was recognized and someone can have 300 IQ and might be useless, anyone can accomplish anything, a test can't prove anything. Someone can fail school and be the one to find out how to (ex:) bend gravity.

Have you all forgotten that maybe a lot of them were not put on there becuase of the fact that there is a fine line between genius and insanity, so if a name is not on there mayne you should double check to make sure they didn't reach insanity. And the line is so thin that ounce they go over there is no coming back so again keep that inind before you try to say why not this person or that person, and for another comment i read the reason men are more prone to be geniuses than women is and has a lot to do with how they think and react to a lot of things compared to women, im not saying all women are like that but we women tend to over think alot and we dont think at times, when men they block everything out and can think, women are always thinking what about this or what about that, well that's why men are geniuses, now there are some women who are geniuses not disagreeing with that, I just dont get why all of you are so intelligent but yet those little things right there are meaningless to you all, like they dont matter what so ever, ok so insanity doesnt matter and being a genius doesnt matter either, I mean come on and think logically for a minute before you all call the kettle black here

How can you assign a iq number to a person who died before there was such a system? Conjecture. And really they are all men, what a suprise. Artists may make us happy and provide joy. They may move people emotionally, to where they cannot understand, but that don't make them a genius. That just means the government is trying to control your emotions. And 95% of genius are men= another of history's big fat lies.

I think George Orwell and Helen Keller need to be added to this list. Orwell's scientific and political imagination was so great it surely was fueled by an incredible genius mind. What Helen Keller did was so intellectually super human as to boggle the mind. If she had been born with sight and hearing her intellectual output would have been greater than any on this list. As it was, her mind's abilities were so vast it transcended 3 dimensional space time reality while blind and draf to learn about the world, process that information, and communicate original thought back at the highest level humanly achievable. Beethoven's monumental 9th symphony and his Missa Solemnis, music's absolute pinnacle, were composed while he was deaf. That's akin to Michelangelo painting the Sistine chapel completely blind.

It was good that you mentioned Helen Keller. Good job!

Ben Franklin in my opinion was also a genius. He was the most innovative "Founding Father".

All of you forgot William Sidis. He did not use his remarkable potential and joined radical movements.

He might have the highest IQ of all time. However, since he never achieved anything he is simply

According to me they were all geniuses of the same calibre. For someone to come up with an original revolutionary idea of which none similar has ever existed.. That is pure genius!

Laughable. Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) was by far the greatest genius to walk our planet but, being from Sweden, he has been overlooked. His i.q. was too high to be measured. Truly laughable!

Emmanuel Swedenborg was the inspiration of many on any list. Helen Keller was greatly influenced by Swedenborg. One thing Swedenborg concentrated on in his later years was the life of mankind after death. I don't think any saw beyond the realm of the here and now quite like Swedenborg did. Afterlife knowledge is far beyond any earthly knowledge.

Here's my list: remember everyone is interchangeable, cause we can't compare geniuses, they all have earned the title genius.

1. Newton
The father of physics, who changed our world of viewing things.

2. Mozart
Although Beethoven and Bach are truly legends, and comparable to Mozart, but I choose him because of his heavenly music and the age that he started composing.

3. Tesla
The greatest inventor of all time, who can recite whole book in one read, his contributions are enormous to the society.
4. Da Vinci
The greatest polymath of all time.

5. Goethe
The greatest philosopher of all time.

My definition for creativity is short and simple. Creativity is a mental process involving intellectual inventiveness and ingenuity coupled with a capacity for intellectual originality and uniqueness. And this too is a mark of Genius.

Then if its about genius then people like Messi or Ronaldinho should be here there passes accuracy on the ball and there vision is in a way similar to Da Vinci artistic brilliance

I'm sorry, I didn't quite catch that. Did you just say that Messi and Ronaldo need to be added to this list? Did they invent something? Did they discover something new? Did they help the whole world progress? Exactly, I didn't think so. Just because they can kick a soccer ball with accuracy does NOT mean they are "geniuses". Please do your research on the word "genius". Thank you for your time.

It is the idea that there are different kinds of intelligence. In a lot of athletics, your brain is doing hundreds of calculations in an instant, incorporating relative speeds of the players and the ball, angles, wind velocity, rate of closure, force required, etc. Similarly, Beethoven might have been our greatest genius, but could he write an effective essay instead of a symphony? We have brilliant mathematicians that can barely put a sentence together.

It seems the more a genius is an outlier in one field, the more likely he is to have a serious deficiency in another. The price of genius.

All white males. What does that say about what the IQ test is looking for?

it says that males have been statistically way more likely to be geniuses, it isn't their fault that they are white or males get over yourself, not everything is oppression or an sjw topic

Men are as a class more intelligent than women. Look at the track record. How many world class discoveries were made by females? Precious few. In the language of Adam, men are compared to the sun, women to the moon, and children to the stars. The moon not only has less light than the sun, but it is of altogether a different quality. It is reflected light, not radiated light. Isaiah prophesies of a time in the last days when "women are your rulers" which would indeed be lamentable. Men often marvel at female logic, which is often seriously defective.

This test was about Europeons if you actually read it the majority or Europeons back then were white please read the whole article before making retarded comments

maybe because through recorded history "white males" had the most credited ideals. why? because of racism. why write a comment like this? obviously certain groups of people had more opportunity than others. it was the past, id like to think the present has learned and moved on. stop trolling.

He's not trolling. He's pointing out that all of the great scientists from Asia and the Middle East (not to mention the Americas) have been left out in favour of white, European males, perpetuating the myth that white Europeans are in some way, intellectually superior.

i mad that Einstein isn't there i had he's the most brilliant man in the world because he used only 10% of his brain yet had so many achievement like making of atomic bomb and he's also one of my successive role model and also why isn't Thomas Edison also added, i love him for one reason "his high patient, persistence, consistence, and believe which made him become the world greatest scientist, also made to possibility electricity bulb"

Why don't you try reading the description on top of the page? By the way, William James Sidis was the most brilliant guy in th world. He mastered over 40 languages and has done many achievements. Albert Einstein's IQ level is 160-190.

Tesla was miles in front of thomas

Love how everyone is mad Einstein is not here, but so little mention of Tesla, who's vision was brilliant.

Also, this list is focused on IQ, which is not really a true or accurate measure of intellect. Look up the people with the highest IQ, and their achievements will be nothing compared to others whose intelligence has a basis in imagination and vision.

I think Albert einstein should be at least in top three. His IQ was above 180. He was real genius in physics and mathematics

For all the people complaining about Einstein:
"Moreover, the list didn’t include twentieth-century geniuses such as Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi and Stephen Hawking."

Hmmm. Apparently some people can't read. The article starts off by stating that Einstein would not be on the list. I agree with others that Darwin, Tesla and Beethoven should have made the list. Especially Tesla.

what about Leonard Euler or C. F. Gauss? What about L.V. Beethoven, W. A. Mozart or J.S. Bach? If you know them and understand their music, you'll see Bach is the greatest composer by far.

Wow you just nailed the ones I was thinking of exactly. I’m not sure how you justify having some religious guy who literally just made stuff up about the afterlife and fed it to gullible people, but not have Euler, who was so smart it’s frightening.

I agree! Gauss and Euler were awesome. Beethoven, Mozart, and Bach as well. The whole idea of "genius" is so difficult to evaluate and understand. The vast contributions of so many minds make the yardstick quite difficult to calibrate, especially throughout the years.

what about Charles Darwin and Albert Einstein?

I hoped that Archimedes would be there. I think there is an unproven but probable fact that he knew calculus, long before the world credited Isaac Newton with the crown of laurel! He is the probable architect of the Antikythera device for calculating celestial precessions! That all involves, at the very least, an understanding and a facility for differentials.

Wtf..u guys forgot EINSTEIN if it wasn't bad enough ..where is tesla,Pythagoras,achimedes,William Shakespeare. omg

William James Sidis is way smarter than everyone on this list, and the people you just named.(but your right some of them belong even though einstein onlY had an iq of 160 or 161)

Try actually reading the article instead of skipping to the names/pictures. The entire intro explains exactly why they are not on the list.

why do u guys always forget Tesla?

why the hell isn't Darwin on here? His IQ has been widely estimated to be between 185 to 220. He will certainly make it to the top 3 of the list and perhaps one of the most influential human beings that ever lived!
1. Newton
2. Darwin
3. Galileo
These are my rankings in intellectual influence to everyday life (in order). Although this is subjective, I believe what they have done is pretty extraordinary.

What I read about Darwin is that he was in fact not very special. I read that in mastery from Robert Greene. But I also read some other sources that he was a very ordinary pupil. He was not very special in any big regard. So a no for him.

I find Einsteins insights much deeper and fascinating than Newtons, although, Newton has a place close to Einstein as a consequence of his great impact on physics and science in general. I have never heard of Galileo in one of the top spots but Nietzsche describes Goethe as a big European, one of the greatest. And Nietzsche was way deeper than any philosopher before him. So, next to my knowledge about Goethe, I give that a lot of credit and consider Goethe to be somewhere in the top 5.

What about albert einstein. Though his IQ is not upto 200 but he is regarded as a genius and one of the most intelligent people. When you talk of intelligency you talk of him.

What about Nikola Tesla .. Christian Birkeland .. Blaise Pascal .. Kurt Gödel ?

Einstein is actually greatly overrated try to think of what contributions he made to making human life a better thing or more secure or to produce more goods or services. He is far surpassed by many other Geniuses not on the list such as Henry Ford Adam Smith Thomas Alva Edison Nikola Tesla Willis carrier and the list goes on and on Einstein actually didn't contribute anything to help you manatee in any concrete weigh he is greatly overrated. His genius was actually very narrow and was limited to the fields of physics and Mathematics even the ancient Greek Archimedes contribute more to this day to human life on Earth with his invention of the Archimedes screw which is still used throughout much of the world to help irrigate fields to grow food Einstein in my opinion was the idiot of geniuses

he made it possible to create the plasma screen. he made a ammonia refrigerator. without screens we would not know half of what goes on in this world.

Hmm. Well then I think u don't know this guy Einstein. Einstein might have created something that caused destruction on a large scale but I assure u dat dis guy is even underrated. I discovered dat he had been said to have a lower IQ than most but he gave de best of himself. It well sounds like you are not science inclined else u shud knw him better. Einstein broke too many rules, scrabbed theories and rewrote laws. His ideas were de craziest but they were feasible. Like I mean he created an era. Just read about him

Aristotle and Ayn Rand are the top geniuses because they created observation-based, systematic knowledge of existence as a whole, ie, philosophy. This requires more IQ than mere science, which is merely about parts of existence, eg, physics, psychology. Art, while about existence as a whole, merely shows but does not explain. Aristotle _discovered_ observation-based, rational system, ie, systematic logic and scientific method, ie, the method that the listed scientists used and that the listed artists implicitly used.

IQ is less important than chosen achievement.

Genius is NOT intelligence. Genius is creative ability of the highest possible kind. True most Geniuses are highly intelligent --but this depends on the field their Genius was recognized in. And here there is a plethora of problems. Recognized by whom which people, what Society, when and where. There is an old joke that goes something like I will believe in Psychologists devising tests from Geniuses when Monkeys devise tests for Psychologists. Yes it is off the mark and makes you wonder. Between species there is another problem and it is not the same thing as WITHIN a species !.
It is said [I think correctly] that Apes have been taught to answer in sign language but none so far has ever ASKED A QUESTION using such sign language. Puts one in mind of the problem of A.I. in the Computer Field. No answer exists for this and it seems to me there is a comparison here: Human intelligence does not reach the point where it can solve such a problem. I hope I'm wrong, but I doubt this ?.
I do have ideas of my own on this, but so far no one seems interested in this. I was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records 7 editions 1982-88 under Highest I.Q. and was given a Certificate for this. I was also listed in 500 Great Minds of the Early 21 st Century in 2002. All such lists-comparisons are temporary. There appears less and less match between persons and outcomes these days. Humanity hangs by it's intellectual neck on the tree of tragedy --there are no Leonardo's in the 19 th, 20th, and so far in the 21 st Century. Yet he/she must still exist we should think ?. With mass education has come the noisy ones but no Geniuses to show for it all. Bad money has driven out good money, bad people good people. The masses have come to judge the best and are part of this process to drive out the very people they need most, all in the name of incorrectly accessed political correctness. Today the system has driven down performance today big institutional science has been a spoiler of great insights delaying progress everywhere. Today it is business as usual. The criminal come to the top. My greatest fear is that an end is coming to the centuries of progress that mankind has grown use to. The age of Genius may be at an end. I'm sorry to ramble on this in such a `scatter gun' way.
Chris. Harding
Found I.S.P.E.

Chris, the cat's out of the bag for Anonymous User, when you sign your name to your post. :-)

Congrats on being on the list, though I am not sure how someone can come up with this sort of list without being tongue in cheek. Talk about presumptuous. I assume it has to do with published articles, etc.

I agree with the idea of associating genius more relevantly to creativity, than to the mixed bag you get in IQ tests, where math, vocabulary, spatial recognition all come in.

On the idea that white men dominate the list, to the exclusion of Asians in particular, yes, I think this piece is geared to those of us in Western Civilization. And when you talk about that, it is pretty definitively white men. I mean, I kind of cringe when folks feel they have to put Marie Curie on the list. She identified two radioactive isotopes, working along side her husband and under the direction of another professor. She died of radiation poisoning, the thing she was an expert in: kind of puts a dent in the idea of being one of the all-time smartest.

Chris. Good comments. I really do believe that the strictures of science (and the politics of course) mean that ideas not founded on the "material matter as reality" supposition, creates a limitation. Those seeing beyond that have little support or acknowledgement from the usual suspects.

DO (something)about the problem. Maybe you can or can't but trying is where it starts.Even the entire universe the biggest thing is the smallest thing at the same time it is not.You could say at the beginning it was the smallest thing (and things )that expanded with such intensity and scope and and acceleration that with one small thing this (maybe all ) universe can change.the human mind is just that human.some % of evolution=[ape-man >machine-etc] which =change. entropy is the true nature of everything without it you (can)have order logically but most times you don't.mans greatest achievement was curiosity without it we are just apes and that is the difference between us to apply that to a machine. well machines can't ever truly achieve emotion it its just machinery.but the other thing is that we are programming the computer not just giving it a way to express its self through sign language in this instance we are evolution to the machine and the machine given it nature which we can never truly go inside will correct its self. change and entropy govern everything. the concept of "genius"is relative just a term from a high evolved ape but genius is just a difference in the brain like Einsteins his was examined by "normal"people who found out some of what made him him but to measure that defeats the purpose of the iq test which was just made for people who were not normal or Einstein if you catch my drift and also current machines have the processing power more than any human ever and we made the dang thing so nothing is off the table kinda

Einstein's IQ was only a few points above the borderline for genius, 152. His IQ was only 160, so he is not one of the most intellegent.

Reply to one of the many anonymous, but this in particular.

Einstein's IQ was only a few points above the borderline for genius, 152. His IQ was only 160, so he is not one of the most intelligent.

Yet he had a profound effect on the modern world.
Think not about Henry Ford who single handily changed modern production.
I wonder how all of us compare to these?

What IQ truly is, a very poor indicator of how successful someone will be throughout their life

IQ has a threshold. Once a person has met a certain requirement of IQ, other factors become more important in determining their success and overall impact on the world. That is why Einstein had an IQ of 160 and was the most brilliant mind ever, while Christopher Langan has an IQ of 195, and has experienced no such success, rather failure after failure.

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"The Mona Lisa" - Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" painting, in the Louvre in Paris, is arguably the most famous painting in the world. It is probably also the best-known example of sfumato, a painting technique partly responsible for her enigmatic smile.

There's been a lot of speculation about who the woman in the painting was. It's thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of a Florentine cloth merchant called Francesco del Giocondo. (The 16th-century art writer Vasari was among the first to suggest this, in his "Lives of the Artists"). It's also been suggested the reason for her smile was that she was pregnant.

Art historians know Leonardo had begun the "Mona Lisa" by 1503, as a record of it was made in that year by a senior Florentine official, Agostino Vespucci. When he finished, it is less certain. The Louvre originally dated the painting to 1503-06, but discoveries made in 2012 suggest it may have been as much as a decade later before it was finished based on the background being based on a drawing of rocks he is known to have done in 1510-15. 1 The Louvre changed the dates to 1503-19 in March 2012.

1. Mona Lisa could have been completed a decade later than thought in The Art Newspaper, by Martin Bailey, 7 March 2012 (accessed 10 March 2012)

While hemp and linen were classically used to make canvas&mdashand can still be found today&mdashmost industrial canvases are created using cotton. Keeping the price of canvas economical, cotton also stretches, meaning the artwork is less prone to cracking and damage. The cotton is woven using a plain weave, which increases its strength and artists can select canvas based on how tightly the cotton is woven.

The canvas is then wrapped around wooden stretchers, and prepared for paint using gesso. The gesso layer ensures that oil paint won't come directly in contact with the canvas, which would cause decay. Throughout the Renaissance, artists went to great lengths to ensure their preparatory layers hide the texture of the canvas. While pre-prepared canvases can be purchased, some artists prefer to do the treatment themselves, as it gives greater flexibility about how much of the canvas weave shows. Many artists enjoy incorporating this texture into their artwork.

Presidential Vetoes

/tiles/non-collection/f/fdr_vetomessage_2008_231_002.xml Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives
About this object In 1935, FDR came to the House Chamber to deliver his veto message in person.

Article I, section 7 of the Constitution grants the President the authority to veto legislation passed by Congress. This authority is one of the most significant tools the President can employ to prevent the passage of legislation. Even the threat of a veto can bring about changes in the content of legislation long before the bill is ever presented to the President. The Constitution provides the President 10 days (excluding Sundays) to act on legislation or the legislation automatically becomes law. There are two types of vetoes: the “regular veto” and the “pocket veto.”

The regular veto is a qualified negative veto. The President returns the unsigned legislation to the originating house of Congress within a 10 day period usually with a memorandum of disapproval or a “veto message.” Congress can override the President’s decision if it musters the necessary two–thirds vote of each house. President George Washington issued the first regular veto on April 5, 1792. The first successful congressional override occurred on March 3, 1845, when Congress overrode President John Tyler’s veto of S. 66.

The pocket veto is an absolute veto that cannot be overridden. The veto becomes effective when the President fails to sign a bill after Congress has adjourned and is unable to override the veto. The authority of the pocket veto is derived from the Constitution’s Article I, section 7, “the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case, it shall not be law.” Over time, Congress and the President have clashed over the use of the pocket veto, debating the term “adjournment.” The President has attempted to use the pocket veto during intra- and inter- session adjournments and Congress has denied this use of the veto. The Legislative Branch, backed by modern court rulings, asserts that the Executive Branch may only pocket veto legislation when Congress has adjourned sine die from a session. President James Madison was the first President to use the pocket veto in 1812.

Watch the video: Watch These Amazing one of a kind ideas from artists that you will find inspiring - #05 (January 2022).