6 September 1943

6 September 1943

Eastern Front

Soviet West Front halts its offensive after advancing only 25 miles.

War in the Air

Eighth Air Force Heavy Bomber Mission No. 91: 338 aircraft sent to attack targets of opportunity in Germany in France and 69 on a diversionary sweep. 45 aircraft lost.

Of Special Interest to Women

From Labor Action, Vol. 7 No. 36, 6 September 1943, p.ك.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

Every housewife will be just too, too delighted to learn that the V campaign of the bosses on the domestic front is doing very well. Here are a few indications:

The professors on the OPA have been replaced by business men. This augurs very well for the profits of the big four farm organizations and of the food industry – though not for the housewife. Even the restrictions of the very mild and absent-minded professors will now be removed.

The latest reports have it that the 1944 “plans” for food administration will be about what they were for 1943. The status quo of rising prices is being maintained because the big four farm organizations and the food industry prefer it that way, according to Samuel B. Bledsoe in the New York Times of August 22.

Starting August 5, you have been paying more for eighty food items and a trifle less for thirty-five – the balance being all in favor of the food bosses. This increase to the consumer reflects more allowances by the OPA to the food dealers. In New York City the landlords have been upheld by the OPA, which, for some occult reason will not place ceilings on rents because New York City is not a “defense area” – whatever that may mean, since the city is full of defense workers.

The only light on the horizon is that here and there the housewives are waking up and taking action. In Coney Island the gypping was so bad that the housewives formed a committee, for reporting ceiling violations. In Brooklyn the women of an apartment house where rents are being raised, picketed the property, carrying slogans such as “Pay Frozen – Why Not Rent?”

Such action is the real McCoy. It must become much more extensive and much better organized – and kept free of the deadly Stalinist influence.

Mrs. Helen Robar, working in Baltimore for the Koppers Co. and producing piston rings for the “war effort,” is almost as good at having babies as the proverbial oriental peasant women, who have their babies in the fields and continue working as if nothing happened. This, by the way, is not necessarily an indication of womanly prowess, but rather of a condition of servitude leading to physical exhaustion at an early age – as evidenced by the way most peasant women get wizened and old before their-time.

But to return to Mrs. Robar. She gave birth to a child at four in the afternoon, and eight hours later was at work on the midnight shift. Of course, this could not be kept secret from the other women on the job. They talked, and finally company officials heard the story. Whereupon the latter insisted on Mrs. Robar going home to get a doctor’s examination and perhaps to stay there for two months – to rest up.

But it isn’t rest. Mrs. Robar is worried about. “I can’t just sit around and do nothing, with all these kids to support . I can’t get another job without a release from the company, so what am I to do?”

Some women have illegal abortions – take the chance of ruining their health that way – in order to continue supporting their dependents. Mrs. Robar emulated the female slaves of the Orient.

What a shame and disgrace! The government, which spends $265,000,000 EVERY DAY, and the bosses, who reap fantastic war profits, make no provision for the millions of women workers so they can have their babies as civilized women should.

Every company should be compelled to grant maternity leave with pay so dependents won’t suffer and so their jobs will be there for them when the women get back. Who’s going to make the bosses do this?


Not only are practically no new protective measures being taken for women workers, but the reactionaries are aiming to weaken or remove such laws for women as now exist.

These reactionary forces working for the bosses are so wily about this that they seek to accomplish their aim under the benevolent guise of what is called the Equal Rights Amendment, now pending in the Senate.

Those equal rights that working women now want they will not get by this amendment nor by any law on the statute books. Women should get equal pay for equal work, equal conditions of labor, equal priority rights. They will get such equal treatment on the job only by becoming active, militant union members arid influencing the unions – in the interest of all labor – to raise the level of the women workers.

What this Equal Rights Amendment, if passed, would do is to give the boss-controlled judges the opportunity to declare unconstitutional every existing law that requires sanitary protection for women, limits their night work, compels certain industrial safety devices. For if women have equal rights with men, there should, of course, be no laws giving women these “special privileges.”

See the point – an Equal Rights Amendment to allow the bosses unhampered exploitation of womanpower.

Laws regulating night work for women and the like have, as it is, been “suspended for the duration.” The bosses would delight in extending the “duration” into peacetime.

The whole labor movement must be up in arms against the passage of this fake Equal Rights Amendment.

A union militant who is a devoted reader of Labor Action writes in about “wife trouble” in the labor movement. He is alarmed by the inactivity of rank and file unionists and points to the small percentage of union members who attend their meetings. He thinks that the wives of union men discourage their husbands’ activity – and to keep peace in the family the men stay home.

Wives of union men, hear ye, hear ye! You are being called by that old term of endearment: “Ball and chain!” But this is not in jest and is indeed no laughing matter.

Being a ball and chain on the labor movement is a serious matter indeed. Whatever progress the working people have made has been through union strength. Don’t forget that. And because the matter is so serious, Labor Action is going to give some attention to the question of the relation of workers’ wives to the labor movement.

Born This Day In History 6th September

Celebrating Birthdays Today
Jane Addams
Born: 6th September 1860 Chicago, Illinois
Died: May 31st 1934 Chicago, Illinois
Known For : Jane Addams best known as the co-founder (together with Ellen Gates Starr) of Hull House in Chicago, Illinois. Jane Addams came from a wealthy background and following her visit to the first of it's kind Toynbee Hall in London set out to create Hull House in Chicago a settlement house staffed by volunteers from middle-class and upper-middle class women and men who lived in the house providing social and educational opportunities for working class people (In Chicago at that time mostly immigrants were from Italy, Ireland, Germany, Greece, Russia and Poland) in the neighborhood. Following the success of Hull House over 100 were set up in cities (Settlement House movement) throughout the United States. For this and her other social work including Helping to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Founding the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), Jane Addams became one of the first women in history to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The small photo at the top is a 10 cent stamp from 1940 honoring her work. She has been honored in many other ways including the Northwest Tollway as the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway.

Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by mty » 04 Nov 2003, 18:07

I just finished a great war novel by Svel Hassel titled 'Gestapo'. It was a fictional story about a liuetenant who was sentenced to death. He was beheaded in the prison yard. But it was in the 1940's. Officially beheadings in Germany ended in 1938 by Hitler's order. The execution in the novel was carried out like a ceremony - so it wasn't any sort of "secret method".

The executioner was a skilled professional, named Röttger (Roettger). <- this document mentions an individual named Roettger who carried out the execution - is this only a coincidence or did Hassel use a real character in his novel? Any information available of this person (his military rank etc)?

Was that kind of execution in the early 40's only a product of top author Hassel's imagination or is there some historical proof showing that despite of Hitler's specific order the decapitation method was still used?

Any notable book covering the history of WWII or Germany doesn't mention these beheadings.

Post by Marcus » 04 Nov 2003, 21:21

I'm not sure if this what you are looking for, but members of the White Rose were executed by guillotine in 1943.

Post by PolAntek » 04 Nov 2003, 22:57

I recently finished reading “ I am First a Human Being” – a compilation of the prison letters of Krystyna Wituska – a young Polish resistance member who was captured by the Germans and executed by guillotine. A recommended book.

Post by Peter H » 04 Nov 2003, 23:16

From 1871 German law stated that all condemned criminals must be decapitated but allowed both the axe and the guillotine. The guillotine was also used in Greece, Switzerland and Sweden. Sweden used the guillotine once, in 1910, when Alfred Ander was executed for armed robbery. It was to be Sweden's last execution. During the Nazi period, 1933-1945, 20 guillotines were used in Germany and Austria (from 1938). Hitler considered it a demeaning form of punishment and used it for political executions. 20,000 had a date with Madame la Guillotine in 1942 and 1943.

It has been estimated that 16.000 persons, maybe as many as 20.000, were guillotined by the Nazis, more than were killed by the guillotine in France during the revolution. After the war, the guillotine was last used in the Bundesrepublik Deutschland (West Germany) on May 11, 1949, when the murderer Berthold Wehmeyer was beheaded.

East Germany continued to use the guillotine for a few more years afterwards.

Post by Peter H » 04 Nov 2003, 23:27

And its use at Plötzensee:

On only one night, on 14 September 1943, 186 humans in Ploetzensee, Berlin, by the drop hatchet were executed. For the individual execution hardly more than 10 seconds time was stressed.

Post by R.M. Schultz » 05 Nov 2003, 04:49

Rottger, executioner

Post by fredric » 04 Dec 2004, 05:20

Wilhelm (Willi) Freidrich Rottger served as the official executioner (scharfrichter) in Berlin. He was appointed to this post in 1943 when the Reich Ministry of Justice was increasing the number of state executioners (they had to pass examinations) throughout the Reich in order to meet the rapidly increased number of death sentences. I have been researching Rottger for years but have discovered only a few facts about him. He lived in the Moabit section of Berlin on the Waldstrasse, where he had a wagon repairshop and was considered a successful man. He was well-known in his roll as executioner and for his black sense of humor. He wore a three-quarter length coat or a jerkin, smoked constantly (a supply of cigarettes and brandy were provided to him) and was warned by the Reich Ministry to adopt more formal top hat and tails prescribed for executioners. He was paid 3000 marks per year and 80 marks per victim. Pastor Polchau ( in De Letzen Stunden) reports that Rottger performed 1399 executions in 1944 (Rottger's closest "competitor" was Johann Reichart of Munich who came in at 774) so would have made a considerable amount of money.I have not found a photograph of him and do not know what happened to him following the fall of Berlin. He executed the July 20th conspirators and many others. References to him can be seen in the Deutches Widerstand website/Plotzensee documents (see Brigit Oleschinski's Plotzensee Memorial Center booklet. I also believe an article titled "Rottger the Henker of 20th July" appeared in a magazine and continue to search for it. The fictional description of Rottger by author Paul West in West's book The Very Rich Life of Count Von Stauffenberg probably can be traced to one of his sources, Peter Hoffman, author of the book on resistance where Hoffman reports the observations of Sass, a cameraman who filmed Rottger in action during the July 20th executions. Rottger also is referenced in Richard Evan's landmark work, Rituals of Retribution and in Gostomski/Loch Der Tod Von Plotzensee.

As a hisorian focusing on the history of Nazi Germany's executioners and their craft, I have looked for Rottger's home or shop on the Waldstrasse to no avail and wonder if he left any legacy of his cruel work. Anyone having information about Rottger or other state executioners working during the NZ era is asked to please contact me.[/u]

Allied Landings in Italy

On 3 September 1943, 13th Corps of Montgomery's 8th Army crossed the Straits of Messina from Sicily to mainland Italy. The crossing, preceded by a massive artillery bombardment of the Italian shore, was uneventful the 8th Army established itself in the town of Reggio, facing Messina, without serious opposition.

Further progress northward was more difficult. After the Allied conquest of Sicily, German forces had largely abandoned the south of Italy, but not before sabotage groups were deployed to slow the Allied advance: roads were mined and bridges blown up.

Advancing up both coasts of the south western 'toe' of boot-shaped Italy, 13th Corps' progress was slow. On 10 September the Corps paused to regroup at Nicastro and Catanzaro, about 160km (100 miles) north of Reggio there was no further progress until 14 September. By then, the 8th Army's 5th Corps had established itself at Taranto in south east Italy following landings of airborne troops on 9 September.

Both the 8th Army landings were organised in support of the primary Allied landing in mainland Italy, Operation Avalanche. This took place at Salerno on 9 September, carried out by Clark's US 5th Army. Several factors conspired against this landing:

  • The delays to the 8th Army's progress meant that Montgomery's forces were initially unable to support the American landing as planned.
  • Salerno, a bay offering 32km (20 miles) of beach within aerial striking range of Sicily, was the best possible landing site in the area as such, the Germans anticipated that it would be used.
  • Secret negotiations with Mussolini's successor, Marshal Pietro Badoglio, had resulted in the formal surrender of Italy to the Allies agreed on 3 September, this was announced on 8 September. German forces immediately moved to occupy Rome and replace Italian garrisons throughout the country.
  • German military strategy in Italy had changed just before the landings. The previous policy, laid down by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, who was in charge of German troops in the north of Italy, had advocated a retreat to positions north of Rome. But Rommel's southern counterpart, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, succeeded in committing the German army to holding its positions in the south.

As a result of all these factors, the landing at Salerno was fiercely contested at one point Clark even began preparing to evacuate. The original objective of securing Naples, 80km (50 miles) away, was rapidly abandoned in favour of holding the Salerno beachhead.

Supported by naval and aerial bombardment, the 5th Army held off concerted German assaults on 13 and 14 September. With the arrival of the 8th Army, the tide turned on 17 September Vietinghoff called off the attempt to repel the Allies. German forces in Italy were now reorganised under the sole command of Kesselring, who prepared a series of defensive lines, from the Viktor Line north of Naples to the Gothic Line above Florence.

The Salerno landing was hard fought so was the campaign that followed. Naples fell on 30 September, three weeks after the landing. The tenacity and efficiency of German resistance destroyed any notion of Italy as the 'soft underbelly' of Europe, as Churchill had called it. It also ruled out any prospect of using Italy as the base for a 'second front' attack on Nazi-held Austria during the invasion of north west Europe.

What the landing did make possible was a campaign that diverted substantial German forces away from Normandy ahead of the D-Day landings in June 1944. It also liberated Italy from Nazism.

6 September 1943 - History

Texas State Library and Archives Commission

Text converted and initial EAD tagging provided by Apex Data Services, May 2000. Finding aid written in English.

June 2005. Corrections made by Rebecca Romanchuk, March 2001. Corrections and further encoding to TARO project standards by Carolyn Foster, Tue Jul 22 15:32:45 CDT 2003 urn:taro:tslac.10134 converted from EAD 1.0 to 2002 by v1to02.xsl (20030505). Overview

7.75 cubic ft., 2 audio tapes, 90 maps in the Map Collection, and 80 photographs and 26 negatives in the Prints and Photographs Collection

Original 1/4 inch audio cassette of 1966 interviews is restricted for preservation purposes. A 1998 copy is available for listening.

(Identify the item and cite the series), Robert Wagner Collection of 36th Division Materials. Archives and Information Services Division, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Biographical Sketch Robert L. Wagner

Robert L. Wagner, a native Texan, was born in 1925. He attended graduate school at the University of Texas at Austin, and studied with the historian Walter Prescott Webb. In 1954, he received his M.A. He lived in Austin, Texas and Nacogdoches, Texas, where he taught in the history department of Stephen F. Austin State University.

Wagner served as an aerial gunner with the American 8th Air Force in England during World War II. After the war, he served in the 36th Division National Guard from 1947 to 1949.

In 1963, Wagner began working on the book, The Texas Army: A History of the 36th Division in the Italian Campaign , which was published in 1972. As part of his research efforts, Wagner solicited wartime correspondence, photographs, maps, newspaper clippings, diaries and journals from former 36th Division soldiers throughout Texas and the United States. He solicited these materials through letters, announcements in the 36th Division Association Bulletin and other magazines and newspapers, and a speech at a 36th Division reunion. Dr. Dorman Winfrey, Director and State Librarian of the Texas State Library (now known as the Texas State Library and Archives Commission), assisted Wagner and arranged for the material to be donated to the Texas State Library.

The 36th Division, also known as the Texas Division and the T-Patchers, was organized at Camp Bowie (then in Fort Worth, Texas) on July 18, 1917 from National Guard units. The division served in France during World War I, remained for occupation duty, and then returned to Camp Bowie and was released from active duty on June 20, 1919.

On November 25, 1940, the 36th Division was once again called to active duty at Camp Bowie in Brownwood, Texas. In 1941, the Division went to Louisiana for maneuvers, where they had mock battles with General Walter Kreuger's Third Army. In February 1942, they moved to Camp Blanding, Florida and prepared to go overseas. Orders changed, however, and instead of shipping out in the summer, the Division continued training in the Carolinas. The Division then spent the winter in Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, and, in April 1943, left for North Africa, where they were held in combat reserve.

The 36th Division finally saw action on September 9, 1943, when they landed at Paestum, Italy in the Gulf of Salerno. They were the first American combat unit to land in Europe. They spent the next 11 months fighting in the Italian campaign. After securing Salerno, the 36th Division moved forward to attack Altavilla and Hill 424. Heavy fighting ensued through September 14, and then, with reinforcements, Allied forces won, securing the Salerno plain.

From the Salerno plain, the 36th Division began a slow move toward Rome. Italian mountains and winter weather combined with German forces to make the advance to Rome slow and dangerous. In the months between November 1943 and the fall of Rome on June 5, 1944, the 36th Division saw some of the heaviest fighting in the Italian campaign. Significant engagements included San Pietro, Anzio and Velletri.

Not all 36th Division engagements were successful. One of the bloodiest and most heavily debated engagements was the attempt to cross the Rapido River January 20 and 21, 1944. Although most officers thought an attempt to cross the Rapido was doomed to fail, General Mark W. Clark ordered the crossing. The operation did fail, and the result was 2,128 casualties and the loss of the better part of the 141st and 143rd regiments. In 1946, the 36th Division Association requested an investigation into the Rapido River crossing and the role of General Clark. The United States House of Representatives' Committee on Military Affairs held a hearing and exonerated Clark, although they did acknowledge the heavy price in lives that the 36th Division paid.

On August 15, 1944, the 36th Division left Italy and landed on the beaches of Southern France. They fought their way northward in France, entered Germany and Austria, and served until the war ended in May of 1945. After six months as occupation troops, the 36th Division returned home.

After World War II, the 36th Division became part of the Texas National Guard. In 1968, the Division was deactivated. Today, its lineage and honors rest with the 36th Brigade of the 49th Armored Division of the United States Army.

Scope and Contents of the Records

The materials in this collection include correspondence (letters, V-mail, telegrams, postcards, memoranda and greeting cards), diaries, journals and reminiscences, military records, journal and newspaper clippings, printed material, photographs, negatives, maps, ribbons, patches, money, audio tapes of interviews, an armband, a book, drawings, minutes, notes, sheet music, poems, congressional testimony, transcripts of interviews, press statements, speeches, reports, outlines, index cards, bibliographies, copies of published chapters and articles, and a design for a book jacket. The collection is the research material of Robert Wagner, historian and author of The Texas Army: A History of the 36th Division in the Italian Campaign , and date [1922?], 1936-1938, 1940-1971, [1975?] (bulk 1942-1945). The bulk of the material is correspondence, clippings, printed material and military records, 1942 to 1945, created by and collected by 36th Division soldiers which Wagner gathered for his research. Much of the correspondence is in V-mail format. V-mail is a process where the U.S. Army microfilmed soldiers' letters, and mailed the microfilm rolls to distribution centers where they were enlarged to 4 x 5 inch prints and sent to the addressees through regular mail. Subjects discussed in the papers include camp and army life, military strategy and operations, family life in the United States, Prisoner of War experiences, the religious life of soldiers, and combat experiences. A great deal of information concerns the Rapido River Crossing, an operation that resulted in heavy losses and accusations of incompetent leadership against the commanding officer, Mark W. Clark. In addition to gathering original materials and remembrances from 36th Division soldiers, Wagner collected World War II photographs, maps and military records relating to the 36th Division's wartime activities. He also collected information from the 36th Division Association, the association for all who had served in the 36th Division at any time, and interviewed some of its World War II-era servicemen at the 1966 Association reunion. Wagner's notes, bibliographies and drafts of chapters document his research and writing process.

When the materials arrived, some were roughly organized by creator, but much of it was not organized in any discernible way. It appeared that an archivist had begun to organize the materials at some time in the past, but did not progress very far.

Letters were removed from envelopes and filed behind the envelopes in which they were contained, in keeping with the method Wagner used. Clippings were photocopied onto acid-free paper. Original maps were separated to the Historic Map Archive. Photographs and negatives were separated to the Prints and Photographs Collection.

The papers are organized in 2 series, the first one containing 49 sub-series:

The terms listed here were used to catalog the records. The terms can be used to find similar or related records.

Subjects: Soldiers--Family relationships. Soldiers--Religious life. Soldiers' writings, American. Prisoners of War--United States. Prisoners of War--Germany. Rapido River, Battle of the, 1944. Anzio Beachhead, 1944. Cassino (Italy), Battle of, 1944. Salerno (Italy), Battle of, 1943. World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns, Italy. World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns, Africa, North. World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns, France. World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns, Germany. World War, 1939-1945--Casualties. World War, 1939-1945--Chaplains. World War, 1939-1945--Missing in Action. World War, 1939-1945--Maps. World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives, American. World War, 1939-1945--Photography. World War, 1939-1945--Prisoners and prisons, German. World War, 1939-1945--Sources. World War, 1939-1945--Veterans. History--Research. Military historians--Texas. Places: United States - History - World War, 1939-1945. Personal Names:

Corporate Names: United States. Army. Infantry Division, 36th. United States. Army - Military life. Document Types: Correspondence--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Clippings--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Diaries--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Journals (accounts) --Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Reminiscences--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Military records--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Photographs--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Negatives--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Maps--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Audiotapes--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Reports--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Minutes--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Interviews--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--[1922?], 1936-[1975?]. Notes--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--1947-1970. Outlines--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--1947-1970. Bibliographies--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--1947-1970. Articles--Texas--World War, 1939-1945--1947-1970. Functions: Researching military history. Related Material

The following materials are offered as possible sources of further information on the agencies and subjects covered by the records. The listing is not exhaustive.

The Citadel Archives, Charleston, South Carolina

The Texas Army: A History of the 36th Division in the Italian Campaign , by Wagner, Robert L. Administrative Information

Michele Ostrow, January 2000

Accession numbers: 1973/121, 1987/137

These materials were donated to the Archives and Information Services Division of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission by Robert Wagner on April 3, 1973 and June 25, 1987.

Detailed Description of the Records Primary sources, [1922?], 1936-1938, 1940-1952, 1954-1955, 1957-1971 and [1975?],

The materials include correspondence (letters, V-mail, telegrams, postcards, memoranda and greeting cards), diaries, journals and reminiscences, military records, journal and newspaper clippings, printed material, photographs, negatives, maps, ribbons, patches, money, audio tapes of interviews, an armband, a book, drawings, minutes, notes, sheet music, poems, congressional testimony, transcripts of interviews, press statements, speeches, and reports. These materials are the primary sources collected and used by Robert Wagner, historian, in the writing of his book, The Texas Army: A History of the 36th Division in the Italian Campaign , and date [1922?], 1936-1938, 1940-1952, 1954-1955, 1957-1971 and [1975?]. The bulk of the material is correspondence, clippings, printed material and military records, 1942 to 1945, created by and collected by 36th Division soldiers which Wagner gathered for his research. Much of the correspondence is in V-mail format. V-mail is a process where the U.S. Army microfilmed soldiers' letters, and mailed the microfilm rolls to distribution centers where they were enlarged to 4 x 5 inch prints and sent to the addressees through regular mail. Subjects discussed in the papers include camp and army life, military strategy and operations, family life in the United States, Prisoner of War experiences, the religious life of soldiers, and combat experiences. A great deal of information concerns the Rapido River Crossing, an operation that resulted in heavy losses and accusations of incompetent leadership against the commanding officer, Mark W. Clark.

The materials were donated to Wagner by soldiers and their family members. Wagner then donated these materials to the Texas State Archives. The penciled comments and underlines found throughout the papers were made by Wagner during his research.

The materials are organized in 49 sub-series alphabetically by creator, with materials arranged by format within those sub-series, and then chronologically. After the 43 creator sub-series, there are 6 sub-series arranged by format of material.

Paul D. Adams, 1938, 1943-1948, 1969,

Correspondence, drafts of citations, clippings, printed histories, a map and map overlays, a program, and a cartoon book, 1938, 1943-1948, 1969, are the papers of Paul D. Adams, who served as Colonel in command of the 143rd Regiment of the 36th Division from January 29, 1944 to January 1, 1945, at which time he was promoted to Brigadier General and transferred to the 45th Division. The bulk of the papers deals with Adams' post-war attempts to get Distinguished Unit Citation Awards for units of the 143rd Regimental Combat Team. The original map was transferred to the Historic Map Archive. See the folder entitled Map, 1944 for a description.

1973/121-1 Correspondence regarding citations, 1944-1948

1973/121-1 Publications, 1938, 1943-[1945?] 1973/121-1 Map, 1944 1973/121-1 Clippings, 1944

1973/121-1 Correspondence, March 7, 1969 E. Douglas Adkins, 1943-1945, 1964,

The diary of E. Douglas Adkins, a non-commissioned officer of 'H' Company, 143rd Infantry Regiment, is an account of daily life in a German P.O.W. camp from the time he was taken prisoner by Germans on September 13, 1943, until his release in April 1945. Included in the bound diary are copies of letters he received from and sent home between 1943 and 1945, and his 1964 letter giving Wagner permission to use the diary.

1987/137-1 A P.O.W. Diary, 1943-1945, 1964

Erna A. Alexander, 1942-1945,

Letters, greeting cards, a postcard and a photograph, 1942-1945, are the papers of Corporal Erna A. Alexander, Company 'H', 143rd Infantry Regiment. Most of the letters are addressed to Myrtle Dodson, a school teacher in Texas, and trace the development of their romance. Other letters are to Alexander's mother, Mrs. W. E. Alexander of Hawkins, Texas. Alexander was a German P.O.W. from 1943 to 1945. The photograph was transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. See the folder entitled Correspondence, October 19-24, 1942 for a description and photocopy of the image.

1973/121-1 Correspondence: 1973/121-1 October-December 1941 1973/121-1 January-February 1942 1973/121-1 March-May 1942 1973/121-1 June 1942 1973/121-1 July 3-9, 1942 1973/121-1 July 14-22, 1942 1973/121-1 July 25-29, 1942 1973/121-1 August 4-9, 1942 1973/121-1 August 11-14, 1942 1973/121-1 August 17-20, 1942 1973/121-1 August 21-29, 1942 1973/121-1 August 31-September 14, 1942 1973/121-1 September 15-28, 1942 1973/121-1 October 2-13, 1942 1973/121-1 October 19-24, 1942 1973/121-1 October 25-November 19, 1942 1973/121-1 November 23-25, 1942 1973/121-2 November 30-December 4, 1942 1973/121-2 December 6-14, 1942 1973/121-2 December 16-25, 1942 1973/121-2 December 27-29, 1942 1973/121-2 January 3-19, 1943 1973/121-2 January 21-February 7, 1943 1973/121-2 February 9-21, 1943 1973/121-2 February 28-March 15, 1943 1973/121-2 April 14-June 1, 1943 1973/121-2 June 6-July 18, 1943 1973/121-2 July 23-August 22, 1943 1973/121-2 August 23-October 17, 1943 1973/121-2 November 6, 1943-November 26, 1944 1973/121-2 January 27-May 14, 1945 Lee F. Allison, 1936, 1940-1945,

Letters, V-mail, cartoons, postcards, clippings, poems, articles, a ribbon, and a deposit slip, 1936, 1940-1945, are the papers of Lee F. Allison, of Rocksprings, Texas, who entered the army as a non-commissioned officer and was quickly promoted to Captain in the 36th Quartermasters Corps of the 36th Division. Most of the letters are to his wife, Amy, and concern camp life, family finances, their marriage, and their son, who was born during Allison's tenure with the 36th Division. There are also some letters to Allison's mother, and letters from military officials to Allison or Amy regarding military business. The clippings, the bulk of which date from 1943 and 1944, seem to have been collected by either Allison's wife or mother and mostly relate to the war in Italy.

1973/121-2 Correspondence: 1973/121-2 1936, November 29, 1940-February 15, 1941 1973/121-2 April 15-June 26, 1941 1973/121-2 August 12-September 7, 1941 1973/121-2 February 22-March 3, 1942 1973/121-2 March 4-22, 1942 1973/121-2 March 23-April 8, 1942 1973/121-2 April 8-May 1, 1942 1973/121-2 May 2-5, 1942 1973/121-2 May 5-13, 1942 1973/121-2 May 17-26, 1942 1973/121-2 May 27-June 8, 1942 1973/121-2 June 10-July 30, 1942 1973/121-2 August 2-September 27, 1942 1973/121-2 [1942?] 1973/121-2 January 31-May 12, 1943 1973/121-2 May 15-29, 1943 1973/121-2 June 2-7, 1943 1973/121-2 June 9-24, 1943 1973/121-2 June 28-July 9, 1943 1973/121-2 July 10-August 7, 1943 1973/121-2 August 11-20, 1943 1973/121-2 August 22-28, 1943 1973/121-3 October 1-December 21, 1943 1973/121-3 December 23-29, 1943 1973/121-3 January 7-31, 1944 1973/121-3 February 2-6, 1944 1973/121-3 February 7-25, 1944 1973/121-3 February 1944 1973/121-3 March 4-25, 1944 1973/121-3 March 25-30, 1944 1973/121-3 April 1-14, 1944 1973/121-3 April [15?]-19, 1944 1973/121-3 April 24-30, 1944 1973/121-3 May 4-18, 1944 1973/121-3 June 2-19, 1944 1973/121-3 June 20-July 10, 1944 1973/121-3 July 11-24, 1944 1973/121-3 August 5-October 10, 1944 1973/121-3 October 11-November 2, 1944 1973/121-3 November 3-20, 1944 1973/121-3 November 21-December 1944 1973/121-3 February 14-March 7, 1945 1973/121-3 March 21-April 19, 1945 1973/121-3 April 21-May 9, 1945, and [between 1941 and 1945] 1973/121-3 Poems, articles and accounts, 1943-1944 and [between 1941 and 1945] 1973/121-3 Ribbon [between 1941 and 1945] 1973/121-3 Clippings

1973/121-3 1940, 1942 1973/121-3 1943 1973/121-3 January 1944 1973/121-3 February-March 1944 1973/121-3 May-June 1944 1973/121-3 July-October 1944 1973/121-4 November 1944 1973/121-4 December 1944 and [1944?] 1973/121-4 1945 1973/121-4 [Between 1941 and 1945] Clifton N. ( Jack ) Bellamy, [ca. 1968],

Reminiscences, circa 1968, typed and handwritten by Jack Bellamy, S-3 of the 111th Engineers, at Wagner's request, concern mine warfare and engineer support of combat.

1973/121-4 Reminiscences, [ca. February 1968] William E. ( Jiggs ) Butler, 1940-1944, 1967,

Letters, V-mail, clippings, and a printed program, 1940-1944, 1967, are the papers of William E. Jiggs Butler, Staff Sergeant of 'A' Company. Most of the papers are letters from Butler to his immediate family in Rusk, Texas, and to his relatives in Arkadelphia, Arkansas.

1973/121-4 Correspondence: 1973/121-4 1940-[1941?] 1973/121-4 1942 1973/121-4 January-May 1943 1973/121-4 June-July 1943 1973/121-4 August-September 1943 1973/121-4 October 1943-March 1944 1973/121-4 April-December 1944 and [1943 or 1944] 1973/121-4 1967 Aug. 31 Raymond Casbeer, [1922?], 1943-1945,

A letter, one V-mail, clippings, editions of T-Patch, a publication by the Special Service Section of the 36th Division, and German money, [1922?], 1943-1945, are the papers of Sergeant Raymond Casbeer, Service Company, 142nd Infantry. The 1945 letter, which is to his sister, Pearl Casbeer of Austin, Texas, describes Casbeer's reaction to Franklin D. Roosevelt's death.

1973/121-4 Correspondence and memorabilia, [1922?], 1943-1945 Mark W. Clark, 1943, 1946, [1951?],

Correspondence, clippings, a press statement and a report, 1943, 1946, [1951?], primarily deal with Mark W. Clark's part in the Rapido River crossing. Clark, Commanding General of the Fifth Army from spring 1943 through June 1944, oversaw the failed attempt to cross the Rapido River which was the subject of a 1946 Congressional investigation. These papers are copies from the Mark W. Clark Collection at The Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina.

1973/121-4 Correspondence: 1973/121-4 1943 1973/121-4 1946 1973/121-4 Promotion, U.S. Senate Committee on Military Affairs, 1946 June 11 1973/121-4 Press statement and draft report regarding Rapido River crossing, [1951?] General F. von Senger U. Etterlin and Lieutenant General Geoffrey Keyes, 1952, 1955,

Transcripts of interviews, 1955, with General F. von Senger U. Etterlin, Commander of the 14th Panzer Corps, and Lieutenant General Geoffrey Keyes, formerly a Major General and II Corps Commander, relate to the Rapido River crossing. The interviews were conducted by Philip A. Crowl, Department of the Army. There are also copies of notes on a 1952 interview of General Keyes by S. [T.?] Mathews.

1973/121-4 Interviews and notes, 1952, 1955 Marion B. Findlay, 1944-1945,

An entry log and one letter, 1944-1945, are the papers of Marion B. Findlay, Lieutenant, 132nd Field Artillery Battalion. The log, which includes both personal and military matters, contains brief entries about Findlay's daily life in the Army.

1973/121-4 Entry log, January 24, 1944-February 26, 1945 1973/121-4 Letter from George Lynch, 1945 Wes Garrison, [1944], 1967, [196-],

Letters and clippings, [1944], 1967, [196-], comprise the papers of Wes Garrison, probably an enlisted man, of the 36th Division. The letters to Wagner contain Garrison's reminiscences and stories of the war. Garrison also sent Wagner some letters and clippings dating from the war, including a letter written on an armband. This letter has faded and is almost completely illegible.

1973/121-16 Correspondence, [1944] 1973/121-4 Correspondence, 1967, [196-] Lawrence D. Gilmer, 1943-1945,

V-mail, letters, postcards and clippings, 1943-1945, from Major Lawrence D. Gilmer, 155th Field Artillery, 36th Division, to his Aunt Katie Daffan of Ennis, Texas discuss army life, his impressions of Europe and news from home.

1973/121-4 Correspondence: 1973/121-4 April 18, 1943-December 20, 1944 1973/121-4 January 12-July 3, 1945 1973/121-5 Clippings, 1944-1945 [photocopies] Samuel S. Graham, 1942-1946,

Copies of V-mail and letters, 1942-1946, from Lieutenant Colonel Samuel S. Graham, Commanding Officer, 2nd Battalion, 142nd Regiment, to his wife, Irma, and children in Huntsville, Texas, relate to Graham's day-to-day life in the army and family news.

1973/121-5 Correspondence [copies]: 1973/121-5 May 9, 1942-July 9, 1943 1973/121-5 August 2, 1943-July 24, 1944 1973/121-5 August 1944-September 9, 1945 1973/121-5 September 7, 1945-May 14, 1946 John N. ( Pete ) Green, 1943-1945,

Copies of V-mail and letters, 1943-1945, from Lieutenant Colonel John N. ( Pete ) Green, Commanding Officer, 132nd Field Artillery Battalion, to his wife, Helen, and daughters in Abilene, Texas describe Green's army life and discuss news from home. Wagner copied the correspondence and returned the originals.

1973/121-5 Correspondence [copies]: 1973/121-5 1943 1973/121-5 January-July 1944 1973/121-5 August-December 1944 1973/121-5 1945 Major General Heinz Greiner, 1968-1969,

A published book of war reminiscences, a translation of the section dealing with Velletri, and a letter to Major General Fred L. Walker (in German and in translation), 1968-1969, are the papers of Major General Heinz Greiner of the German Army, who was Walker's foe at Rome.

1973/121-5 Kampf um Rom Inferno Am Po , 1968 [book in German] 1973/121-5 Chapter entitled Velletri Falls on May 31 and June, 1944, to a Daring Raid of the Enemy and letter, [translated from German in 1969] Armand Jones, 1943-1946, [ca. 1965],

Letters, V-mail, postcards, money, photocopied clippings, patches from German uniforms, ribbons, drawings, printed material and copies of memoirs, 1943-1946, [ca. 1965], are the papers of Sergeant Armand Jones, Headquarters Battery, 155th Field Artillery Battalion. Most of the materials are letters Jones wrote to his mother, Mrs. Marie Gomez, of San Antonio, Texas. The 93 pages of memoirs are Jones' account of combat between September 9, 1943 and May 8, 1945.

1973/121-5 Correspondence: 1973/121-5 April 10-28, 1943 1973/121-5 April 30-May 28, 1943 1973/121-5 June 1-July 9, 1943 1973/121-5 July 14-August 21, 1943 1973/121-5 August 27-November 29, 1943 1973/121-5 December 16-26, 1943 1973/121-5 [1943?] 1973/121-5 January 6-30, 1944 1973/121-5 February 2-26, 1944 1973/121-5 February 28-March 24, 1944 1973/121-6 March 28-April 18, 1944 1973/121-6 April 23-June 17, 1944 1973/121-6 June 18-July 4, 1944 1973/121-6 July 9-25, 1944 1973/121-6 July 27-August 6, 1944 1973/121-6 August 7-November 20, 1944 1973/121-6 December 2-25, 1944 1973/121-6 [1944?] 1973/121-6 January 9-February 23, 1945 1973/121-6 February 27-March 8, 1945 1973/121-6 March 10-April 4, 1945 1973/121-6 April 18-26, 1945 1973/121-6 May 1-10, 1945 1973/121-6 May 11-30, 1945 1973/121-6 May 31-June 6, 1945 1973/121-6 June 9-July 4, 1945 1973/121-6 July 18, 1945 1973/121-6 July 20-30, 1945 1973/121-6 August 6-September 10, 1945 1973/121-6 Memoirs, [ca. 1965]

1973/121-6 Clippings, 1944-1946

Thomas Gilbert Jones, [not after 1966],

Reminiscences of Thomas Gilbert Jones, Master Sergeant, Operations Section, 111th Engineers, cover the period from Jones' enlistment to the occupation of Naples, Italy. The reminiscences, written before 1966, were given to Wagner by Colonel Oran C. Stovall in 1966, and include Stovall's comments about Jones.

1973/121-6 Reminiscences, [not after 1966] Daniel E. ( Muley ) Junell, 1943-1945, [196-],

V-mail, letters, telegrams and a note, 1943-1945, [196-], are the papers of Daniel E. Muley Junell, Staff Sergeant, 111th Engineers. The letters, written to his mother in Sulphur Springs, Texas, and to his brother, Allen, who served in the war but returned to the States before Junell, primarily discuss news of home, camp life and impressions of the European countryside.

1973/121-6 Correspondence: 1973/121-6 September 16, 1943-June 28, 1944 1973/121-6 July 19, 1944-February 1, 1945 1973/121-6 February 7-May 18, 1945, [196-], and [between 1943 and 1945] Clayton P. Kerr, 1942-1944,

A copy of the journal, 1942-1944, kept by Colonel Clayton P. Kerr, Chief of Staff, includes statements made by officers, memoranda routed to officers by Kerr, remarks of division commanders, and copies of military correspondence and receipts, and is a detailed record of Kerr's military activities.

1973/121-6 December 2, 1942-May 4, 1943 1973/121-6 May 5-September 3, 1943 and September 21, 1943 1973/121-7 September 3, 1943-February 2, 1944 Eugene, Clarence and Jesse Kettrick, 1943-1945,

Telegrams, correspondence, and clippings, 1943-1945, are the papers of enlisted men Eugene, Clarence and Jesse Kettrick, three brothers from Somerville, Texas. Many of the telegrams and letters are from the Army and Red Cross to Charles Kettrick, the father, and tell the fate of the three brothers: Jesse was wounded, and Eugene and Clarence were POWs. At the end of the war, all three returned home. Included is a letter from Senator Lyndon B. Johnson to the father expressing sympathy for Jesse Kettrick after he was wounded in battle. The letters were donated by Olga Thomas, sister of the three brothers (identification of the donor made by Thomas Gripp on June 26, 2005.)

1973/121-7 Correspondence: 1973/121-7 June 2-October 23, 1943 1973/121-7 December 6, 1943-May 27, 1945 1973/121-7 Clippings, 1943-1944

Clyde W. Kitchens, 1943-1945, 1965,

V-mail, letters and telegrams, 1943-1945, from enlisted man Clyde W. Kitchens to his parents in Austin, Texas, and letters from military officials to Kitchens' parents tell of army life and a slight wound Kitchens received. Included is a 1965 letter from Mrs. Kitchens to Wagner donating the letters.

1973/121-7 Correspondence: 1973/121-7 April 2, 1943-November 4, 1944 1973/121-7 November 23, 1944-May 7, 1945, 1965 Alfred J. Laughlin, 1943,

One 1943 letter from Captain Alfred J. Laughlin, S-3, 3rd Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment, to friends in Mexia, Texas discusses Laughlin's recuperation from seemingly severe battle wounds. Enclosed in the letter is a copy of Walter Stoneman's Chicago Daily News article which includes stories about Laughlin.

1973/121-7 Correspondence, 1943 Dec. 2 George E. Lynch, 1943-1945, 1968-1969,

Letters to Wagner, a copy of a history of the 142nd Infantry Regiment which is similar to a regular monthly regimental history, and a wartime photograph which was enclosed in a letter, 1943-1945, 1968-1969, are the papers of Lieutenant Colonel George E. Lynch, commanding officer of the 142nd Infantry Regiment. The photograph was transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. See the folder entitled Correspondence and photograph, [ca. 1944], 1968-1969 for a description and photocopy of the image.

1973/121-7 Correspondence and photograph, [ca. 1944], 1968-1969 1973/121-7 History - 142nd Infantry, 36th Division, September 3, 1943-May 8, 1945, volume 1 [copy]

Chaplain Herbert E. MacCombie, 1940-1946, [1975?],

Journals, memoirs, correspondence including letters to Wagner, memorandum slips, programs, personnel lists, blank military forms, records of burials, drawings, photographs, souvenirs, postcards, ration cards, invitations, tickets, brochures, maps, speeches, clippings, notes, outlines, orders and tags, 1940-1946, [1975?], are the papers of Herbert E. MacCombie, Chaplain of the 36th Division. MacCombie's papers provide information about the duties and activities of chaplains during the war, and the religious life of soldiers. The photographs were transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. See the folder entitled Pictures and Photographs, 1941-1944 for descriptions and photocopies of the images. The maps were transferred to the Historic Map Archive. See the folder entitled Maps, 1941, 1943-1944 for descriptions.

1973/121-7 Daily journal: 1973/121-7 April 19-June 26, 1943 1973/121-7 June 27-October 26, 1943 1973/121-7 October 27, 1943-January 25, 1944 1973/121-7 Daily journal, Robert forward: 1973/121-7 May 8-July 27, 1944 1973/121-7 August 10-December 31, 1944 1973/121-7 January-July 1945 1973/121-7 Daily journal, Robert rear: 1973/121-7 March-December, 1944 1973/121-7 January-May, 1945 1973/121-7 Memoirs, Chaplains of the 36th Division, [1975?] 1973/121-8 Recapitulation-Chaplain's activities, 1941, 1943-1945 1973/121-8 Correspondence and report on Operation Avalanche, 1942-1945 1973/121-8 Chief of Chaplains, circular letters: 1973/121-8 1940, 1943 1973/121-8 1944 1973/121-8 Letters from Office of Corps Chaplain, undated 1973/121-8 Chaplain's Office memo slips, 1944 1973/121-8 Chaplain personnel, 1945 1973/121-8 Roster of officers, 1943 1973/121-8 Records of burials, 1943 1973/121-8 Chapel list, 11A, Camp Edwards orders, 1942 1973/121-8 Religious preferences of the 36th Infantry Division, November 24, 1942 1973/121-8 Speeches, 1943, [194-] 1973/121-8 School for Chaplains, May 11-22, 1942 1973/121-8 Graves Registration School, notes, outline etc., 1943 1973/121-8 Pictures and photographs, 1941-1944 1973/121-8 Maps, 1941, 1943-1944 1973/121-8 Programs, 1941-1946 1973/121-8 Souvenirs, 1943-1945 and [between 1941 and 1945] 1973/121-8 Clippings, 1943-1945

A January 22, 1944 statement by Private Savino Manella, Medical Detail, Company A, 141st Infantry, concerns the crossing of the Rapido River the previous day.

1973/121-8 Statement, 1944 Jan. 22

William H. Martin, [1943 or 1944],

One black and white negative, taken in 1943 or 1944, of Colonel William H. Martin, Commanding Officer, 143rd Infantry Regiment was used as an illustration in The Texas Army. The negative was transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. See the folder entitled Photographic negative, [1943 or 1944] for a description of the image.

1973/121-8 Photographic negative, [1943 or 1944] Charles H. Owens, [between 1941 and 1945], 1944-1945, 1968,

Military documents, clippings, a program and correspondence, [between 1941 and 1945], 1944-1945, 1968, are the papers of Charles H. Owens, Colonel, 141st Infantry Regiment. Most of the materials are military documents such as patrol reports, reports of operations by month, and operations instructions with corresponding hand-drawn map overlays on tracing vellum, all of which are detailed accounts of the movements of the 141st Infantry from 1944 to 1945.

These papers, arranged chronologically as Owens had them, were removed from the cardboard covers in which he kept them. Each cover is filed in front of the material which it contained. Oversized map overlays were flattened and separated to oversize boxes 1973/121-16 and 1973/121-17.

1973/121-8 Military documents: 1973/121-8 Operations in France, December 1944 1973/121-8 November-December 1944

1973/121-9 January-February 1945

1973/121-9 March 1945 1973/121-9 April 1945 1973/121-9 May 1945 1973/121-9 June-July and September 1945 1973/121-9 October 1945 1973/121-9 [Between 1941 and 1945] 1973/121-9 Clippings [photocopies] and pamphlet, [1944?], 1945 1973/121-9 Correspondence, 1968 John Bob Parks, [not before 1945],

Reminiscences of John Bob Parks of Spencer, Louisiana, Corporal, 111th Engineer Combat Battalion, written some time after 1945, describe building the road over Mount Artemisio, Italy. He operated the lead bulldozer.

1973/121-10 Reminiscences, The Road that Could not be Built, [not before 1945] Earl Patrick Powers, 1949,

Diary, 1949, of Earl Patrick Powers, Lieutenant, 111th Engineer Combat Battalion, records his return to the battle sites in Italy, France and Germany. During this trip, he kept this diary which related his reminiscences and included sketched maps. Oran C. Stovall had the diary and gave it to Wagner in 1964.

1973/121-10 Diary, Journey into the Past : 1973/121-10 Loose copy

1973/121-10 Bound copy Andrew F. Price, [1943?]-1944 and [not before 1945],

Personal and military records, reminiscences and a negative, [1943?]-1944 and [not before 1945], are the papers of Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Price, Executive Officer, 141st Infantry Regiment, who was wounded at Cassino in 1944. The military records include maps and casualty lists. The negative was transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. See the folder entitled Photographic negative, [1943 or 1944] for a description of the image.

1973/121-10 Military records, G-3 journal and file, January-March 1944

1973/121-10 Personal records, 1944

1973/121-10 Reminiscences, Personal Account of Service with the 36th Division, [not before 1945]

1973/121-10 Photographic negative, [1943 or 1944] Van W. Pyland, [1943?],

A personal report, [1943?], by Lieutenant Colonel Van W. Pyland concerns the activities of the 636th Tank Destroyer Battalion at Salerno. It was given to Wagner by Major General Fred L. Walker.

1973/121-10 Statement regarding Salerno, [1943?]

Harold R. ( Hal ) Reese, 1944, 1967,

Reminiscences of Lieutenant Colonel Hal Reese, Inspector General of the 36th Division, 1944, 1967, were written a few months after the February 1944 truce which allowed Americans and Germans to recover their dead from Mount Castellone. Shortly after writing his reminiscences, Reese was killed at Velletri. Oran C. Stovall gave Wagner the reminiscences in 1967.

1973/121-10 Reminiscences, Intermission at Cassino, 1944, 1967

Thaddeus Judd Sessions, 1940-1943,

The diary of Captain Thaddeus Judd Sessions of the 111th Engineer Battalion, 1940-1943, documents his activities from the day he went into the Army in Texas through the first half of the war. He stopped keeping his diary due to time constraints and stringent censorship rules. Oran C. Stovall gave this diary to Wagner.

1973/121-10 Diary, October 12, 1940-winter 1943

Joseph J. Schiefen, 1943-1945,

Letters, V-mail, postcards, a telegram, a receipt, a certificate, a permit to operate a vehicle and a liberty pass, 1943-1945, are the papers of Private Joseph J. Schiefen, `L' Company, 142nd Infantry. Most of the materials are V-mail from Schiefen to his mother and siblings in Elmira, New York. Also included are letters to his mother from Senator Jason S. Mead, and letters to Schiefen from the Red Cross and from Mrs. Maude Harrison asking for details about the death of her son who served with him.

1973/121-10 Correspondence: 1973/121-10 March 18, 1943-January 20, 1944 1973/121-10 February 29-May 30, 1944 1973/121-10 June 6-October 24, 1944 1973/121-10 October 29, 1944-June 6, 1945 1973/121-10 June 11-November 1, 1945 and [between 1943 and 1945] Brigadier General Robert I. Stack, 1969,

Biographical information of Brigadier General Robert I. Stack, 1969, was sent to Wagner by Stack in 1969. Stack came to the 36th Division in February 1944, serving first as Assistant Division Commander, and then as Division Commander.

1973/121-11 Biographical information, 1969 Sept. 30 Oran C. Stovall, 1943-1946, 1961, 1970 and [not before 1943],

Correspondence, reports, reminiscences, maps, photographs and negatives, 1943-1946, 1961, 1970 and [not before 1943], are the papers of Oran C. Stovall, Major and Commanding Officer of the 111th Engineers and, later, Lieutenant Colonel. Stovall assisted Wagner with his research by donating his and other soldiers' materials and by contacting other soldiers on Wagner's behalf. Maps were transferred to the Historic Map Archive and photographs and negatives were transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. For descriptions of maps, and descriptions and photocopies of images, see the folders entitled Maps, 1943-1944, 1961 and Photographs, [not before 1943].

1973/121-11 Correspondence, 1944, 1961, 1970 1973/121-11 Military reports, 1944 1973/121-11 Engineer Functions in Crossing of Rapido River, 1944 June 24

1973/121-11 Reminiscences, The Road to Rome, [196-]

1973/121-11 36th Division Association, 1946 1973/121-11 Photographs, [not before 1943] 1973/121-11 Maps, 1943-1944, 1961 Albert C. Suessmuth, 1943-1944,

V-mail and letters, 1943-1944, from Captain Albert C. Suessmuth, Service Company, 143rd Infantry, are to his wife and son in Houston.

1973/121-11 Correspondence, July 13, 1943-Christmas 1944 Hulen T. ( Bo ) and [Cleve?] Tackett, 1942-1944, and [between 1941 and 1945],

Letters, postcards and V-mail, 1942-1944 and [between 1941 and 1945], written by Private Hulen T. Bo Tackett, Company B, 143rd Infantry, are to his mother in Mexia, Texas. Some of this correspondence describes Tackett's recuperation from wounds. Also included are Wagner's notes, a clipping and two wartime V-mail letters from Bo's brother, Private [Cleve?] Tackett, to his mother from his post with the 32nd Photo Reconnaissance Squadron. This Squadron was not part of the 36th Division.

1973/121-11 Bo Tackett's correspondence: 1973/121-11 1942 1973/121-11 1943 1973/121-11 1944 and [between 1941 and 1945] 1973/121-11 [Cleve?] Tackett's correspondence, February 24 and 26, [between 1941 and 1945] Major General Fred L. Walker, 1943-1945, 1947, 1957, 1960, 1962, 1966-1969,

Copies of part of his diary, articles, correspondence with Wagner, comments on the Lightening Report (a report of action in Italy from the viewpoint of the German army), and remarks made by Senator James E. Taylor on the occasion of the presentation of Walker's portrait to the Senate, 1943-1945, 1947, 1957, 1960, 1962, 1966-1969, are the papers of Major General Fred L. Walker, Commander of the 36th Division from September 1941 to July 1944. Walker assisted Wagner with his research and commented on his drafts.

1973/121-11 Diary, partial, 1943-1944

1973/121-11 Comments on the Rapido River Crossing, 1960

1973/121-11 Article 1973/121-11 Appendix A 1973/121-11 Appendix B 1973/121-11 My Story of the Rapido Crossing, 1962

1973/121-11 Comments on The Battle of Cassino, 1957

1973/121-11 Correspondence: 1973/121-11 1966 1973/121-11 1967 1973/121-11 1968 1973/121-11 1969 1973/121-11 Excerpts from Lightening Report, 1947 1973/121-11 Biographical information, 1969

1973/121-11 Foreword, by Earle G. Wheeler, 1969

1973/121-11 Acceptance remarks by Senator James E. Taylor, 1945

Richard J. Werner, [1941 or 1942],

Two photographic prints and one negative from 1941 or 1942 show Colonel Richard J. Werner, Commanding Officer, 141st Regiment, at Camp Edwards in Massachusetts, and when he was Lieutenant Colonel, G-3, 36th Division. The Photographs were transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. See the folder entitled Photographs, [1941 or 1942] for photocopies of images.

1973/121-11 Photographs, [1941 or 1942] Charles J. Wilcox, [1942?]-1945,

Letters, V-mail, and photocopied clippings, [1942?]-1945, are the papers of Staff Sergeant Charles J. Wilcox, Headquarters, 36th Infantry Division. The correspondence is to his parents in Oklahoma and to the Clemens in Boulder, Colorado. The Clemens were probably his in-laws.

1973/121-11 Correspondence: 1973/121-11 [1942?], April-June 1943 1973/121-11 July-August 1943 1973/121-11 September-November 12, 1943 1973/121-11 November 16-29, 1943 1973/121-11 December 1943, April-May 1944 and [1943 or 1944] 1973/121-11 Clippings, [between 1943 and 1945]

Alden W. ( Sticky ) Williams, 1943-1945, 1968,

Letters, telegrams, V-mail, clippings, reminiscences, postcards, and a photograph, 1943-1945, 1968, are the papers of Alden W. Sticky Williams, Sergeant in the 111th Engineers. Most of the correspondence is from Williams to his mother, Mrs. W. W. Williams (after remarrying, known as Mrs. Estelle Kennedy) of Bowie, Texas. One letter is from Williams' brother, who was attached to the American embassy in Ankara, Turkey, to his mother. Williams' reminiscences detail events at Velletri, Italy.

The photograph was transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. See the folder entitled Correspondence, October 1944 for a description and photocopy of the image. The correspondence is arranged chronologically, except for two letters which were marked unused by Wagner and thus put in a separate folder.

1973/121-11 Correspondence: 1973/121-11 April-May 1943 1973/121-11 June-July 1943 1973/121-11 August 1943 1973/121-11 September 1943 1973/121-11 October 3-19, 1943 1973/121-11 October 21-November 7, 1943 1973/121-11 November 11-28, 1943 1973/121-11 December 1943 1973/121-12 January 1-14, 1944 1973/121-12 January 19-26, 1944 1973/121-12 February 5-15, 1944 1973/121-12 February 16-29, 1944 1973/121-12 March 2-10, 1944 1973/121-12 March 11-19, 1944 1973/121-12 March 21-29, 1944 1973/121-12 April 1944 1973/121-12 May 1944 1973/121-12 June 1944 1973/121-12 July 4-14, 1944 1973/121-12 July 17-30, 1944 1973/121-12 August 1944 1973/121-12 September 1944 1973/121-12 October 1944 1973/121-12 November 1944 1973/121-12 December 4-8, 1944 1973/121-12 December 15-27, 1944 1973/121-12 January 3-23, 1945 1973/121-12 January 27-February 9, 1945 1973/121-12 February 13-March 10, 1945 1973/121-12 March 13-26, 1945 1973/121-12 March 28-April 15, 1945 1973/121-12 May 1945 1973/121-12 June 5-19, 1945 1973/121-12 June 25-July 23, 1945 1973/121-12 [Between 1942 and 1945] 1973/121-12 Unused, 1944 1973/121-12 Reminiscences, 1968 William G. Yates, 1967,

Reminiscences and correspondence, 1967, by Captain William G. Yates, 'I' Company, 143rd Regiment, describe landing at Salerno, and battles at Altavilla and Hill 424 in Italy. Yates sent Wagner the 8 handwritten pages of reminiscences in 1967.

1973/121-12 Correspondence and reminiscences, 1967 July 5 Military records, 1943-1944, 1946, 1968 and [194-],

Operations reports which include casualty rosters, military investigation reports, a company roster, a military history and a report from a hearing, 1943-1944, 1946, 1968 and [194-], were collected by Robert Wagner in the course of his research. These records provide information about the movements of the 36th Division and specific battles fought in Italy. Also included is the report and testimony from the 1946 Congressional hearing investigating the Rapido River crossing.

1973/121-12 Operations in Italy [copies]: 1973/121-12 November 1943 1973/121-12 December 1943 1973/121-12 January 1944 1973/121-12 February 1944 1973/121-12 Operations Avalanche

1973/121-12 1943 1973/121-12 Supplement, 1943 1973/121-12 Report by John W. O'Daniel, 1943 1973/121-13 Capture of Velletri and the Colle Lazialle, 1944 1973/121-13 Army investigation of 142nd and 143rd Infantry on September 13 near Altavilla, 1943

1973/121-13 Company H roster, 1943

1973/121-13 Second Chemical Mortar Battalion history, December 1943, 1968

1973/121-13 1973/121-13 Rapido River Crossing, hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, February 20 and March 18, 1946

Maps, 1936-1938, 1941, 1943-1944, 1948-1951, 1954-1955, 1958, 1962-1963, 1965-1967 [194-] and [19--],

fractional and 90 original maps transferred to Historic Map Archive

Maps of Italy, France, Germany, Asia, South America and the United States, 1936-1938, 1941, 1943-1944, 1948-1951, 1954-1955, 1958, 1962-1963, 1965-1967, [194-] and [19--], were used by soldiers during World War II, or used after the war for research purposes. Many of the World War II maps are operations maps annotated by soldiers and used with overlays. The 90 original maps were transferred to the Historic Map Archive of the Archives and Information Services Division, Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Copies of maps and overlays were not transferred. For more detailed descriptions of the original maps, see the inventory of the Historic Map Archive in the reading room and on the web site of the Archives and Information Services Division, Texas State Library and Archives Commission at Related maps from the 36th Division Association Collection are in the Historic Map Archive (maps 2234 through 2273).

1973/121-13 Italy: 1973/121-13 36th Division, [194-]

1973/121-13 1941, 1943-1944, 1948-1949, 1954-1955, 1958, 1962-1963, 1965-1967 and [19--] 1973/121-13 France, 1936-1938, 1943-1944 and [19--] 1973/121-13 Germany, 1944 and [19--] 1973/121-13 Other, [194-], 1950-1951 1973/121-13 Map overlays, 1944 Photographs, 1943-1945, 1947, 1951, 1960, 1970-1971 and [not before 1941],

32 prints and 20 negatives transferred to Prints and Photographs Collection

Black and white and color photographic negatives and prints, 1943-1945, 1947, 1960, 1970-1971 and [not before 1941], depict 36th Division officers, enlisted men, war scenes and military life. Most of the photographs are scenes from France and Italy during World War II. Many of these are prints Wagner ordered from the Department of the Army. Some of the photographs were used as illustrations in The Texas Army . These negatives and prints were transferred to the Prints and Photographs Collection. See folders for descriptions and photocopies of images.

1973/121-13 1943-1944, 1947, 1951, 1960, 1970-1971 and [not before 1941] 1973/121-13 After invasion of Southern France, [1944 or 1945] Interviews, 1966,

At the 36th Division reunion in 1966, Robert Wagner conducted taped interviews with the following former 36th Division soldiers: John N. Pete Green Remus L. Jones William H. Wilbur William H. Martin Riley M. Tidwell and Fred L. Walker.

The original ¼ inch tape is restricted for preservation purposes. A cassette listening copy was made in 1998. There are no transcripts of the interviews.

Audio-cassette Box 1 Interviews, 1966: Audio-cassette Box 1 1/4 inch audio tape [restricted] Audio-cassette Box 1 Cassette tape [listening copy] 36th Division Association, [ca. 1945], 1961-1969,

Correspondence, trip planning material, reunion program, notes, minutes, photocopied clippings, sheet music, and The T-Patcher and T-Patch Tales, both publications of the Association, [ca. 1945], 1961-1969, are the papers of the 36th Division Association, the voluntary organization open to former members of the 36th Division. Some of the material relates to Armand Jones' organization of a 1963 Association trip to Europe.

1973/121-13 Records, 1961-1966 1973/121-13 The T-Patcher, 1966-1969 1973/121-13 The Eyes of the World are on You, 36th, music, [ca. 1945] [copy] Printed material, [1945], 1959,

The Story of the 36th Infantry Division, a pamphlet published overseas probably in 1945, and The Last Will and Testament of Captain Henry T. Waskow, published by the Temple Daily Telegram in 1959, are printed materials gathered by Wagner during his research.

1973/121-13 Printed material, [1945], 1959 Miscellaneous, [19--],

An unidentified letter fragment, [19--], written in Dallas, Texas.

1973/121-13 Unidentified letter fragment, [19--] Wagner's research, 1947-1949, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1962-1970,

Correspondence, outlines, notes, index cards, bibliographies, copies of published chapters and articles, photocopied clippings, and a design for a book jacket, 1947-1949, 1953, 1956, 1958 and 1962-1970, document Robert Wagner's research and writing of The Texas Army: A History of the 36th Division in the Italian Campaign . Most of these materials are letters Wagner wrote to and received from soldiers and their family members in his attempt to track down primary source materials for his research. There is also correspondence with librarians and archivists around the country who assisted Wagner with research requests. Drafts of chapters and notes document Wagner's research and writing process.

The materials are arranged by format and then chronologically, with the most abundant material listed first.

Letters having to do with the research and writing of The Texas Army : 1973/121-13 September-October 1963 1973/121-13 November-December 1963 1973/121-13 February 1964 1973/121-13 March 1964 1973/121-13 April-June 1964 1973/121-13 August-September 1964, 1964 1973/121-13 1965-1966 1973/121-13 May-July 7, 1967 1973/121-13 July 25, 1967 1973/121-13 July 31-November 27, 1967 1973/121-13 January-May 1968 1973/121-13 June-October 1968 1973/121-13 1969-1970 and [196-] 1973/121-13 Outlines and notes for book research, [196-], 1964, 1968 1973/121-15 Index card notes for book research, [196-] 1973/121-14 Bibliographies for book research, 1962-1965 and [19--] 1973/121-14 Secondary sources [copies]: 1973/121-14 Cutting the Winter Line, The Hyeres Landings and The Long March East, chapters 5, 10 and 11 of The First Special Service Force: A War History of the North Americans, 1942-1944 by Lieutenant Col. Robert D. Burhans, 1947 1973/121-14 Mud, Muddling and Makeshift, chapter 16 of From the Ashes of Disgrace by Admiral Franco Maugeri, edited by Victor Rosen, 1948 1973/121-14 Cassino, chapter 26 of Infantry Brigadier by Major-General Sir Howard Kippenberger, 1949 1973/121-14 La Prise du Belvedere et la Premiere Bataille de Cassino, chapter 11 of Cassino by Jacques Mordal, 1953 [in French] 1973/121-14 Pages 33-41 from Grand Strategy , Volume 5, August 1943-September 1944 by John Ehrman, 1956 1973/121-14 Counter-thrust of the 16th Panzer Division, from History of the 16th Panzer Division, 1939-1945 by Wolfgang Werthen, 1958

[typed translation and copy in German]

1973/121-14 The First Cassino Battle, chapter 8 of Monte Cassino by Rudolf Boehmler, 1964 1973/121-14 Salerno, D-Plus 4 by Charles E. Kelley from Heroes of the Army by Bruce Jacobs, [1966] 1973/121-14 Clippings regarding book research, 1964 and [196-]

Love and Compatibility for September 6 Zodiac

Lovers born on September 6 are affectionate and committed. They leave passion aside in order to build a dependable and trustworthy relationship. They are attracted to persons that are as intelligent and trustworthy as them and even more to someone who is sensible and caring and to whom they can offer support and protection. This single native is focused on the other aspects of life and is never in a rush to commit if he/she doesn't feel it's right.

Their love affairs grow from strong friendships. They need time to know the person likely to stay beside them and although they are not usually a passionate lover their loyalty and honesty compensate. They are very kind souls and this won&rsquot remain unnoticed by the important persons around them in life. They will lead a great inner home happiness governed by domestic responsibility and good judgment. They are most compatible with those born on the 1st, 6th, 9th, 10th, 15th, 18th, 19th, 24th and 27th.

September 6 Zodiac people seem to be most attracted to the other earth signs: Taurus and Capricorn as they tend to share the same vision of life. In love, Virgo is in a permanent search for someone to nurture, help grow and to whom they can give everything they have and the best to offer this occasion to them is the native born under Pisces. The lover in Virgo is said to be least compatible with Leo. As for the rest of partnerships between the other star signs and Virgo, you know what they say, stars predispose but people dispose.


Coventry, an important engineering and armaments producing centre, was raided on 14-15 November 1940. German bombers dropped 503 tons of high explosive and 30,000 incendiary bombs on the city. 568 people were killed and 850 seriously injured. The medieval Cathedral was destroyed. Almost one third of the city's houses were made uninhabitable and 35% of its shops destroyed. In a relatively small city with a population of just over 200,000, everyone knew someone killed or injured in the raid. A new verb coventrieren – 'to Coventrate' was used by the Germans to describe the level of destruction.

6 September 1943 - History

On 26 September 1943, forward Juan Arza scored a hat-trick on his debut for Sevilla. He went on to become the club's all-time La Liga scoring leader.

Twenty years old at the time, the Estella-born Arza had played for Alavés and Màlaga before joining Sevilla. There, in his first official match, his three goals helped them to a 5-2 victory over Sabadell. They were the first of seventeen goals he scored that season as Sevilla finished in third.

He remained with them for sixteen seasons, winning the league in 1946 and the Copa del Rey in 1948. His best scoring season was 1954-55, when his twenty-nine goals won him the Pichichi as La Liga's top marksman.

Before leaving Sevilla in 1959, Arza had collected a total of 207 goals. Although that ranks him second in the club's all-time scoring list, behind Guillermo Campanal (218), Arza's league tally of 182 remains the highest in club history.

Italian Army Territoriale Battaglione September 1943

Post by territoriale » 29 Nov 2020, 23:24

Can I ask for help in my research to identify all the Italian Army Costiero, Territoriale and Territoriale Mobile (Not MVSN or CN) battalions that existed in Italy and/or overseas as at September 1943 please?

Unlike the First World War, I have not been able to locate a complete list of these and so are using various written and internet sources to create one. Does anyone know or have one they could share please (perhaps Maurizio, as you helped me with the 1915-1918 ones some time ago?).

I have two particular questions I really would like help with -

1. Which battalions were in Calabria, Puglie/Apulia & Basilicata (including the 209-212/214 & 227 Coastal Divisions XXXI Coastal Brigade
and Piazza MM of Taranto and Bari) in September 1943?
2. Which battalions had been formed with numbers between 549 and 581 and where were they in September 1943?

I have checked all the internet sources I have found so far without success.