Edward Holme was a doctor in Manchester. Dr. Holme was interviewed by Lord Kenyon's House of Lords Committee on 22nd May, 1818.
Question: How long have you practised as a physician in Manchester?
Answer: Twenty-four years.
Question: Have you, in Manchester, occasion to visit any public establishments?
Answer: I am physician to the principal medical establishments. The medical establishments with which I am connected, and have been for twenty-four years are, the Manchester Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital and Asylum, and the House of Recovery.
Question: Has that given you opportunities of observing the state of the children who are ordinarily employed in the cotton-factories.
Answer: It has.
Question: In what state of health did you find the persons employed?
Answer: They were in good health generally. I can give you particulars, if desired, of Mr. Pooley's factory. He employs 401 persons; and, of the persons examined in 1796, 22 were found to be of delicate appearances, 2 were entered as sickly, 3 in bad health, one subject to convulsions, 8 cases of scrofula: in good health, 363.
Question: Am I to understand you, from your investigations in 1796, you formed rather a favourable opinion of the health of persons employed in cotton-factories.
Question: Have you had any occasion to change that opinion since?
Answer: None whatever. They are as healthy as any other part of the working classes of the community.
Question: If children were overworked for a long period, would it, in your opinion as a medical man, affect their health so as to be visible in some way?
Answer: Unquestionably; if a child was overworked a single day, it would incapacitate him in a great measure for performing his work the next day; and if the practice was continued for a longer period, it would in a certain time destroy his health altogether.
Question: Then you are to be understood, that, from the general health among the children in the cotton-factories, you should form an opinion that they were not worked beyond their physical powers?
Answer: Certainly not.
Question: The result of your observation did not indicate any check of growth arising from their employment.
Answer: It did not.
Question: Would you permit a child of eight years old, for instance, to be kept standing for twelve hours a day?
Answer: I did not come here to answer what I would do if I had children of my own.
Question: Would it be injurious to a child, in your judgement as a medical man, if at the time he got his meals he was still kept engaged in the employment he was about?
Answer: These are questions which I find a great difficulty in answering.
Question: Who applied to you to undertake the examining of these children in Mr. Pooley's factory?
Answer: Mr. Pooley.
Question: Suppose I put this question to you. If children were employed twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen hours out of twenty-four, should you think that conducive to the health of a delicate child?
Answer: My conclusion would be this: the children I saw were all in health; if they were employed during those ten, twelve, or fourteen hours, and had the appearance of health, I should still say it was not injurious to their health.
Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Holme, Edward
HOLME, EDWARD (1770–1847), physician, son of Thomas Holme, farmer and mercer, was born at Kendal, Westmoreland, on 17 Feb. 1770. After attending a school at Sedbergh, he spent two years at the Manchester academy, and afterwards studied at the universities of Göttingen and Edinburgh. He graduated M.D. at Leyden in December 1793, his thesis, ‘De Structura et Usu Vasorum Absorbentium,’ occupying sixty-one pages. Early in 1794 he began practice at Manchester, and was shortly afterwards elected one of the physicians to the infirmary there. He joined the Literary and Philosophical Society on settling in Manchester, and was one of its vice-presidents from 1797 to 1844, when he succeeded Dr. John Dalton as president. He was one of the founders of the Portico Library, and its president for twenty-eight years. He was also a founder and first president of both the Manchester Natural History Society and the Chetham Society. He was the first president of the medical section of the British Association at its inaugural meeting at York (1831), and presided over the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association in 1836. He became a member of the Linnean Society in 1799. He was for many years, especially after the death of John Ferriar [q. v.], a leader in his profession in Manchester, and the recognised head in all the local literary and scientific societies.
Of the fourteen essays contributed to the Literary and Philosophical Society, he only published a short ‘Note on a Roman inscription found at Manchester’ (Manchester Memoirs, vol. v.). Another essay, ‘On the History of Sculpture to the Time of Phidias,’ was printed after his death.
He died unmarried, on 28 Nov. 1847, at Manchester, leaving property worth over 50,000l., the greater part of which he bequeathed, together with his large library, to the medical department of University College, London. His portrait was engraved by J. R. Jackson, from a painting by W. Scott, belonging to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.
[Memoir by Dr. W. C. Henry in Trans. of Provincial Med. and Surg. Assoc. 1848, xvi. 77 Manchester Guardian, 1, 4, 8 Dec. 1847, 26 Jan., 13 May, 10 June 1848 Baker's Memorials of a Dissenting Chapel, p. 116 Univ. Coll. Library Cat. 1879.]
903/904 – Battle of Holme
Holme is thought to be the site of a battle, said to have taken place in 903 or 904, during a civil war between two claimants to the throne of Wessex after Alfred the Great died. His son Edward the elder took the throne of Wessex but Æthelwold, son of Alfred’s older brother disputed his claim.
In 902 Æthelwold came with a fleet to Essex and the following year he persuaded the East Anglian Danes to attack the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Mercia and north Wessex. Edward retaliated by ravaging East Anglia and the Danish army was forced to return to defend its own territory. Edward then retreated along the Great North Road, but the men of Kent straggled. Æthelwold and the Danes caught up with them and it is thought chased them down Glatton Lane to the Fen edge at Holme. They were unable to escape and in the ensuing battle both Æthelwold and the Kentish leader were killed. Although the Danes won the battle it did end the brutal civil war in the south.
Dr Hart, a former Yaxley GP and local historian, was the first to suggest that the Battle of Holme took place here. It is not one hundred per cent certain this was either the site nor the exact date but many historians seem to accept that from the description by Henry of Huntingdon, a medieval historian, that Holme is likely to be the site.
Uhtred fighting at The Holme
The West Saxon army under Edward and Uhtred began the battle by ambushing the Danish rear under Hastein, firing a volley of arrows before charging into battle. Thousands of Danes and rebel Saxons charged across the river, with Beorhtsige among them. The West Saxons initially gained the upper hand, and Uhtred slew Sigurd Thorsson's young son Sigurd Sigurdsson after a short duel before slaying Eohric's champion Osketill, stabbing him through the groin. Uhtred then had his men form a shield wall, and he then shouted insults at Eohric, accusing him of being a coward. Finan went on to slay the traitor Beorhtsige in single combat. The Danes gained the upper hand soon after, however, crossing a ditch and forming a new shield wall. Cnut - hearing the screams of battle from the rear - led the rest of the army into battle agains the West Saxon ambushers. Eohric was slain in the ditch, with Uhtred hacking at his neck before the Danes could retrieve his body. The West Saxon casualties began to mount, but Lady Aethelflaed arrived with Mercian reinforcements, turning the tide. Aethelwold was inspired when Sigebriht and his Kentish fyrd arrived, and he told Hastein that he had fulfilled his promise. However, Sigebriht told his men that they were fighting for their forefathers and for Wessex, and he charged into battle against the Vikings, ultimately showing loyalty to Wessex over the Danes. Cnut killed Sigebriht with a javelin, but the Kentish troops turned the tide of the battle. After Hastein concluded that the Danes had lost the battle, Aethelwold attempted to flee, but he fell from his horse before he could escape, and he was cornered and killed by Uhtred. The Viking army was dealt a resounding defeat, and Edward was confirmed as King of Wessex.
Æthelwold: Alfred the Great’s rebel nephew
At the turn of the 10th century, King Alfred's carefully crafted royal dynasty was almost wrecked by an ambitious prince, Æthelwold. Ryan Lavelle describes a bloody civil war that split Anglo-Saxon England's most powerful family
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Published: April 27, 2020 at 12:30 pm
The 26th of October 899 was a black Friday for the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex. Alfred the Great was dead. Long live the king. But which king? According to many histories, Alfred was succeeded by his son Edward, later known as Edward ‘the Elder’. But in the wake of Alfred’s death, it was his nephew Æthelwold ‘aetheling’ – meaning ‘prince’ – who was first off the mark, staking his claim to the Wessex throne by storming into what is now the sleepy Dorset town of Wimborne Minster. There, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he shut the gates, declaring that he “would live there or die there”, and seized a nun, perhaps with the intention of marrying her. This was rebellion, royal-style.
Æthelwold’s insurrection is little known today, a mere footnote in Anglo-Saxon history. Yet aside from being an incredible story, it’s important for two reasons. It suggests that, despite Alfred’s peerless reputation as the saviour of Anglo-Saxon England, there was significant opposition to his dynasty, not just in his own kingdom but across swathes of the British Isles. It also hints that, had Æthelwold enjoyed a little more fortune in the fallout from Alfred’s death, and had one obscure battle in 902 had an alternative outcome, the future of England could have been very different indeed.
Alfred the Great’s death in October 899 could hardly have come as a surprise. In the early 890s, Alfred’s biographer, Asser, wrote of the agonising illness, thought to be Crohn’s disease, that afflicted the king during his final years. Accordingly, Edward the Elder was groomed to assume the crown. But he wasn’t the only member of the royal family with designs on wielding power in Wessex. Æthelwold’s claim to the throne lay through his father, King Æthelred I. Æthelred was Alfred’s elder brother and, as such, had ruled the kingdom before Alfred, from 865 to 871. When Æthelred died, his sons were deemed too young to succeed, so Alfred took the throne.
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A divided kingdom
Æthelred’s sons weren’t particularly sanguine about this transfer of power from one branch of the family to the other. It seems that tensions between the sides of the ruling clan – Alfred’s and Æthelred’s – simmered away throughout Alfred’s reign. In the 890s, Alfred related that his “young kinsmen” – probably Æthelwold and his brother, Æthelhelm – had disputed a version of his will. The distribution of royal property was hotly contested.
Alfred’s reaction to this family squabbling was to announce his son as his successor: in a charter of the 890s, Edward is recorded as rex (“king”) alongside his father. It was a decisive – some might say ruthless – move on Alfred’s part, as he sought to establish a royal dynasty from the children of his marriage to Ealhswith, a noblewoman. But if the aim was to secure a swift and bloodless succession, it failed spectacularly.
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That much became all-too evident when, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells us, Æthelwold seized the estates of Wimborne and Christchurch, both now in Dorset. While we don’t know much about Christchurch beside the fact that it was a burh, or fortified settlement, at this time, Wimborne mattered. It was an important royal estate and the place where Æthelwold’s father, King Æthelred, was buried. If, as seems likely, Æthelwold acted quickly after Alfred’s death, he would have struck in late autumn, when the harvests had been gathered and supplies were ready for the king as he progressed around his kingdom. Vikings tended to do this for the practical purpose of feeding themselves, but for Æthelwold, seizing Wimborne meant that he could claim to be the rightful recipient of the food and drink set aside for the king, known as the ‘farm of one night’.
Æthelwold’s motivation for taking Wimborne was also strategic. Wessex was a divided kingdom, and one of those divisions was between the eastern half (which included the royal centre of Winchester) and the west. Wimborne lay right on this faultline and, as far as we can tell, Æthelwold’s supporters were west of it. His action might have been intended to draw out a new division of the kingdom.
The author of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle does his best to present Æthelwold’s actions as illegitimate, comparing them to an eighth-century usurper’s seizure of a royal residence. But no matter what spin Edward’s supporters put on proceedings, this was more than a little local difficulty. The future of Wessex was now well and truly up for grabs.
Æthelwold’s hand may have been strengthened by a small but significant minority of nobles who harboured grudges against the dead king. We know of an ealdorman, or chief official, of Wiltshire named Wulfhere, who lost land during Alfred’s reign because he had deserted the king. It is possible that these tensions arose again in the upheavals at the end of Alfred’s life. This was, after all, a period when new Viking attacks, by warriors fresh from campaigns in continental Europe, presented a significant threat to Wessex. If, as seems likely, Æthelwold outlived his brother as the descendent of King Æthelred I, the royal rebel could rely on some support for his cause. Not everyone had bought into the Alfredian view of the Wessex royal family.
Edward’s reaction to Æthelwold’s Wimborne gambit was swift, and reveals much about the way he and his sister Æthelflæd would work during the so-called “reconquest” of the Danelaw a few years later. He took the nearby Iron Age hillfort of Badbury Rings, encamping his army there. Badbury was a place of political assembly, so Edward’s actions were a way of showing that he himself had some legality in the kingdom. By holding Badbury Rings, Edward could stop Æthelwold moving further north into Mercia – blocking a possible path to Winchester. A masterstroke had checked the royal pretender. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle’s remark that Æthelwold “stole away by night” may not have been far from the truth.
A royal showdown
Æthelwold wasn’t out for the count, though. He headed for the kingdom of Northumbria where, one version of the Chronicle admits, the Vikings there “accepted him as king and gave allegiance to him”. Another version even calls Æthelwold “king of the pagans”. The Vikings referred to many of their leaders as ‘kings’, and Æthelwold might have been one of them. A rare type of coin from York at this time, recording the name of ALVVALDUS REX (pictured below), could indicate that he was taken seriously.
West Saxon chroniclers were scathing about Æthelwold’s alliance with Vikings, but as a tactic of war it wasn’t unusual. There is good reason to suspect that Alfred too allied himself with Viking mercenaries when circumstances required. So if Æthelwold joined forces with Northumbrians and Danes, he was in good company.
Whatever the morality of Æthelwold’s Viking alliance, it certainly seems to have breathed new life into his campaign to seize Wessex – for two years later he was back, and this time there would be no running away.
The second, and decisive, part of Æthelwold’s rebellion began in 901, when he sailed with a fleet to Essex, then a place of Viking settlement. Here, the Chronicle tells us, Æthelwold received submission. In the late autumn or early winter of 902, he ventured to Mercia, uniting with dispossessed members of the Mercian royal family. But a return to Wessex was always on the cards, and it wasn’t long before he crossed the Thames back into his old kingdom at the fortress of Cricklade. Here, he set about ravaging royal lands in the area.
Edward had little choice but to respond to this provocation, and did exactly that, sending an army to attack Danish East Anglia, another of Æthelwold’s strongholds. What happened next isn’t entirely clear, but it seems that Æthelwold’s grand alliance caught up with the rearguard of Edward’s marauding army at a now-unidentified place called ‘the Holme’ – a development that so spooked Edward that he dispatched seven messengers to recall his troops.
At the Holme, the Chronicle tells us, the Viking force “held the place of slaughter”. In other words, they won. But they also lost the most men – and among the slain was Æthelwold aetheling.
For three years, the kingdom of Wessex had been convulsed by Æthelwold’s violent opposition to Edward the Elder, his powerful claim to the throne and his ability to rally support from across England. Æthelwold’s rebellion had presented a mighty threat to the line of succession mapped out by Alfred. But now Æthelwold was dead, and his rebellion was over.
Instead of going on to dominate Wessex and perhaps create his own dynasty, this failed prince of 10th-century England was destined for obscurity. The stage was now clear for Alfred the Great’s successors to reign supreme.
Ryan Lavelle is reader in early medieval history at the University of Winchester. His books include Cnut: The North Sea King (Allen Lane, 2017).
Ray City History Blog
Edward “Ned” HOLMES, was a soldier of the 25th Georgia Regiment, which shared garrison duties with the Berrien Minute Men and the 29th Georgia Regiment several camps around Savannah, GA in the spring and summer of 1862. In June, the colonel of the 25th Regiment, Claudius C. Wilson, would assume command of Causton’s Bluff, where the Berrien Minute Men were stationed.
Ned Holmes was born about 1834 in DeKalb County, Georgia, the younger of two sons of James and Martha Thurman Holmes.
Ned’s father, James Holmes, according to family tradition left the family in Atlanta to go west to look for land to homestead. He was never heard from again… Ned’s brother Mike Holmes, as oldest son, was sole support of his family and supposedly worked as an overseer to support them. Once again family legend says Mike rode a winning horse in a race in Atlanta the purse for which was enough for him to move his mother, five sisters and Ned to Alabama. About 1845, the family moved to Henry County, AL, settling near Wesley, about 7 miles northeast of Abbeville. – Gordon W. Holmes, Jr
In Henry County, Mike Holmes first worked as a farmer then in 1858 was elected Sheriff of Henry County as a Democrat. By 1860, Ned Holmes was employed as an overseer and moved out of his brother’s household to a place of his own in Franklin, AL.
When the Civil War broke out Mike Holmes enlisted at Abbeville, AL on May 11, 1861, in Company A (became Company B), 6th Regiment, Alabama Infantry, CSA.
Edward “Ned” Holmes was enlisted on April 12, 1862, in Henry County, Alabama, by Capt. George W. Holmes (no relation) for 3 years, in Company E, 25th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, CSA. Ned remained at home on furlough through the end of April, 1862. In May, he joined his unit at Camp Smith near Savannah, Georgia. After joining the 25th Regiment, Ned Holmes would suffer a battery of contagious diseases.
Colonel Claudius C. Wilson gathered a petition from the 29th Georgia Regiment requesting that Elbert J. Chapman’s life be spared.
The Twenty-fifth regiment Georgia volunteers had been organized during the summer of 1861. Claudius C. Wilson, a member of the Georgia Bar and former solicitor-general for the eastern circuit of Georgia, was elected colonel and commissioned the unit’s first commanding officer. The unit was mustered into Confederate service at Savannah, Georgia, early September 1861. The Twenty-fifth, after being equipped and drilled, was assigned to the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, and throughout the latter part of 1861 and during 1862 served on the coasts of Georgia and South Carolina. By September, 1862 the 25th Georgia Regiment would serve alongside the 29th Regiment at Causton’s Bluff, east of Savannah, GA. The initial officers of the regiment were: William Percy Morford Ashley, lieutenant-colonel William John Winn, major Rufus Ezekiel Lester, adjutant, and William DeLegal Bacon, quartermaster. The captains were Alexander W. Smith, Company A Martin L. Bryan, Company B Jefferson Roberts, Company C Andrew J. Williams, Company D William Sanford Norman, Company E George T. Dunham, Company F William D. Hamilton, Company G W. Henry Wylly, Company H Alexander Hamilton “Hamp” Smith , Company I, [post-war resident of Valdosta, GA] Mark Jackson McMullen, Company K, Robert James McClary, Company L.
By the time Ned Holmes joined the Regiment in May 1862, the 25th Georgia had already served eight months at posts around Savannah: at Camp Wilson with the 27th, 31st and 29th Georgia Regiments at Camp Young Thunderbolt Battery Camp Mercer on Tybee Island and Camp Smith.
Most of the 25th Regiment had already suffered through a host of communicable diseases. “The fact that a majority of the soldiers were from rural communities made them very susceptible to such “city sicknesses” as measles, chicken pox, and small pox. The death rate from these diseases were very high. In the Federal armies, sickness and disease accounted for 7 of every 10 deaths. One authority has estimated that among the Confederates three men perished from disease for every man killed in battle. Small wonder that a Civil War soldier once wrote his family from camp: “It scares a man to death to get sick down here.” – The Civil War
Isaac Gordon Bradwell, a soldier of the 31st Georgia Regiment at Camp Wilson wrote,”“We had not been in these camps many days before we were invaded by measles the dread enemy of all new soldiers, and many of our men died or were rendered unfit for further service. Other diseases thinned our ranks, and for a while few recruits came to take their places.” When new recruits like Ned Holmes did come, measles might be contracted within days of the men’s arrival. Measles had hit The 29th Georgia Regiment and the Berrien Minute Men hard at Camp Security, GA in December 1861. Augustus H. Harrell,, of the Thomasville Guards, took the measles home from Camp Security. William Washington Knight wrote from Camp Security, “Nearly all of our company have the measles. Capt [John C.] Lamb has it,” along with 60 others of the Regiment. William A. Jones went home to Berrien County, GA with the measles and died there in January, 1862 a son born after his death suffered from apparent Congenital Rubella Syndrome.
Ned Holmes wrote home from Camp Smith on June 7, 1862, telling his family that he had a very bad cold and cough, and that there was a lot of sickness in the the 25th regiment. By June 11, 1862 he wrote he was sick with measles.
“Measles [Rubeola] infection occurs in sequential stages over a period of two to three weeks. For the first 10 to 14 days after infection, the measles virus incubates. There are no signs or symptoms of measles during this time. Measles symptoms typically begin with a mild to moderate fever, often accompanied by a persistent cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes (conjunctivitis) and sore throat. This relatively mild illness may last two or three days. Tiny white spots with bluish-white centers on a red background form inside the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek — also called Koplik’s spots. A skin rash develops made up of large, flat blotches that often flow into one another. Over the next few days, the rash spreads down the arms and trunk, then over the thighs, lower legs and feet. At the same time, the fever rises sharply, often as high as 104 to 105.8 F (40 to 41 C). The measles rash gradually recedes, fading first from the face and last from the thighs and feet. A person with measles can spread the virus to others for about eight days, starting four days before the rash appears and ending when the rash has been present for four days.”- Mayo Clinic
In June, 1862 the 25th Regiment’s Colonel, Claudius C. Wilson, was assigned special duty as commander of the post at Causton’s Bluff. The bluff, about three miles east of Savannah, overlooked St. Augustine Creek and Whitemarsh Island (pronounced Whitmarsh Island). “This twenty to thirty foot bluff strategically commanded the rear approach to Fort Jackson, on the Savannah River, and the approach to the part of the eastern lines of the city.” Causton’s Bluff had been garrisoned since December 1861 by the 13th Georgia Infantry, also known as the Bartow Light Infantry, under the command of Colonel Marcellus Douglass . After the U.S. Army captured Fort Pulaski on April 11, 1862, the Berrien Minute Men and the 29th Georgia Regiment were brought up to strengthen the garrison. Soon the 25th regiment moved up from Camp Smith to join the garrison at Causton’s Bluff. At Causton’s Bluff, the men would suffer with fever, malaria, measles, tonsillitis, mumps, wounds, typhus, dysentery, pneumonia, tuberculosis, syphilis, hepatitis, and rheumatism as well as mosquitoes, fleas, and sandflies.
In a letter to his brother, Ned Holmes wrote that he had his gear “hauled from the old camp,” and that he was sick with the mumps.
Early in the morning, 20th of June 1862
As I did not get off my letter yesterday I write you a few lines this morning. I feel very well this morning. I am swole up powerful with mumps this morning but they give me but little pain. I am taking good care of myself. Perhaps you think I cant do that in camp but my tent is as dry as any — house. Last night we had 2 pretty hard storms & heavy raining and I never felt a drop of water or a breeze of wind. I managed to get my bed stead hauled from the old camp yesterday. It is as good a bed as I would want at home. I think I will improve all the time now. I want you to write me. I have not heard from you since you were on your way to Richmond. I don’t know how I will like the move we made. I have not been out any since I came to this place. All I know is it’s very level where we are camped.
Tell Sim’s folks he is well. Dick [Knight] is in good health. Be sure to write soon. Dick got letters from home saying that Reuben Fleming has been carried home. I want to hear about it.
According to the CDC, “Mumps is a contagious disease that is caused by a virus. Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after infection, but this period can range from 12–25 days after infection.It typically starts with a few days of fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite. Then most people will have swelling of their salivary glands. This is what causes the puffy cheeks and a tender, swollen jaw. Some people who get mumps have very mild symptoms (like a cold), or no symptoms at all and may not know they have the disease. Mumps can occasionally cause complications, especially in adults. In men, complications can include: inflammation of the testicles (orchitis) in males who have reached puberty this may lead to a decrease in testicular size (testicular atrophy) inflammation in the pancreas (pancreatitis) inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) inflammation of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) deafness. Inflammation of the testicles caused by mumps has not been shown to lead to infertility.” – CDC
Mumps generally last about ten days.
About the time Ned Holmes recovered from the mumps, he wrote that he was sick with diarrhea.
June 30, 1862
I recvd your letter dated 26. I was glad to hear you was all well. I am not as well as I was when I saw you. 2 days ago my bowels was a little out of order tho not bad but just enough to keep week and not able to do anything. I am up all the time but dont have the strength to do anything. You need not be uneasy about me, if I git bad sick I will let you know. I think I will be able for duty in one or 2 days. Tell Mary she need not be uneasy about me that I can come home if I git sick much and I am going to do it. A sick man — tese very depressing and can get a furlough here. I dont want one now, no use of going home. I would not go now if I had a furlough. I will write you all the particleurs that I can gather in a few days. I am writing every other day. I will until I get plum well. Morris and Simm Schick and Zuch is all well. I have no more to write at present.
Write me often.
E. [Ned] Holmes
In July, Ned Holmes wrote that he had suffered a relapse of the measles. In Civil War times little distinction was made between measles (Rubeola) and Rubella, sometimes called “German measles.” Both diseases were contagious and both were rampant in the regimental camps. It appears that Ned’s “relapse” may have been Rubella. Ned’s letters from July 1862 indicate that he had returned to Camp Smith to recuperate. Soldiers who got sick preferred care in a camp hospital or sick ward over being sent to a hospital in Savannah.
The hospitals in Savannah were feared by the soldiers as death houses. In order to address this fear Lt. Col. Anderson, [commander of the Savannah River Batteries,] set up a separate hospital at Deptford. The less critically ill could be sent there, watched by their comrades and not have all their personal belongings stolen – which would happen when they were sent into Savannah. – Fort Jackson Interpretive Materials
But even while in recovery at Camp Smith, Ned Holmes found his personal items being pilfered.
Camp Smith, Savannah, Ga., July 1862
(To Mat and the Family)
I thought I was surely well of the measles till yesterdasy, it was a cloudy wet day and the measles made their appearance on me as plain as ever. It’s cleared off this morning & looks like Sept. It’s cool & pleasant, the air stirring brief and is a very pleasant time. I will finish this in the morning and tell you how I am getting along. Dick has got the mumps. He took them yesterday. I hope he will get well soon. Tell Mama somebody has stolen one of my socks and I have an old one and if she sees any chance to send me one, to do it. I shall get out of socks before long anyway.
“Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash. Rubella is not the same as measles (rubeola), though the two illnesses do share some characteristics, including the red rash. However, rubella is caused by a different virus than measles, and is neither as infectious nor usually as severe as measles. The signs and symptoms of rubella are often so mild they’re difficult to notice, especially in children. If signs and symptoms do occur, they generally appear between two and three weeks after exposure to the virus. They typically last about one to five days and may include: Mild fever of 102 F (38.9 C) or lower Headache Stuffy or runny nose Inflamed, red eyes Enlarged, tender lymph nodes at the base of the skull, the back of the neck and behind the ears A fine, pink rash that begins on the face and quickly spreads to the trunk and then the arms and legs, before disappearing in the same sequence.” – Mayo Clinic.
July the 6th [Camp Smith]
My health is improving now again finally. If I can keep mending 2 or 3 days more as I have for 2 days I will be well. I have quit discharging blood, have not discharged any in 30 hours & my bowels feel like they are getting well & they are not moving more than 4 times a day. I think today I will be much better than usual. We have most pleasant weather here now I ever saw at this season. It’s clear and cool and the wind stirring like fall of the year. I had almost concluded there was no Yankees about here till I heard them shooting on the 4th. There is plenty of cannon whether there are any Yankees with it or not. I suppose they fired some 2 hundred big guns at 1 o’clock at 2 or 3 different points. I have nothing else to write. Thomas Doswell has just this minute come into camp. I want to see him right soon. get my watch home.
By August Ned’s health was improved. He returned to his unit at Causton’s Bluff and on August 26, 1862 was elected Junior 2nd Lieutenant. On August 10, 1862, Ned Holmes wrote a letter home to his family.
Camp Costons Bluff,[Near Savannah] Aug. 10, 1862
Dear Mat and Viney,
I write you a few lines that leaves me about well except my mouth. I never was in such a fix with fever blisters before. I received a letter from you, Santanna just a few minutes ago. Alex Gamble is going to start home tonight. I will send this by him. I think my fever is broken entirely up. I have not had any since Friday morning so I feel as well as I did before I was taken. There is a deal good of sickness around —– but they are also not dying as fast as they were ten or fifteen days ago. There is a heap of heavy shooting going on today in the direction of Fort Pulaski. I don’t know what it means.
They are fixing up a volunteer company right now to go to Wilmington Island, a place we have never scouted.
It’s beyond Whitemarsh and from where we are camped and on the way to Fort Pulaski. I don’t know what information they expect to obtain by going to Wilmington. It’s all under the General of the Fort [Pulaski, captured by U.S. Army forces from Tybee Island on April 11, 1862,] and they never expect to hold it unless the fort is retaken which will never be done for there is nothing here to take it with. Morris is well. Miles is getting well. John Nobles is right sick. Washer Nobles came into our company this morning to stay. I may get off home when Sim gets back. I don’t know. Everbody has been here longer than I have. I will be there by the first of September anyway if I keep well. And I am not afraid of being sick anymore this summer.
P.S. Tell Mike if there are any of Cook’s pills there to send me some. And I can manage my own cases.
In September 1862 Ned Holmes was on detached duty. He was later reported as “wholly incompetent & probably physically unfit to hold office.”
In 1863, Ned Holmes and the 25th Georgia Regiment would be sent to north Mississippi, forming part of the army assembled for the relief of Vicksburg. The The Berrien Minute Men and the 29th Georgia Regiment were also sent to join that effort.
Edward the Elder (c. AD 874-924)
Edward was the son of Alfred the Great, born to Alfred and his queen Ealhswith of Mercia around AD 874. His moniker 'the Elder' does not come from the fact that he was Alfred's eldest son and heir, but was used by historians to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.
According to the contemporary historian Asser, who wrote a biography of Alfred the Great's life, Edward and his youngest sister Aelfthryth were educated at Alfred's court, by both male and female tutors, who taught them to read both ecclesiastical and secular prose in English, including Old English poetry and the Psalms. They were also taught behaviour considered worthy of the court, such as humility and gentleness. The upbringing of Edward and Aelfthryth is unique the only known example of a Saxon prince and princess receiving the same education.
Though he was the eldest son of the king, Edward's accession to the throne was not assured, for by Saxon custom a strong and able relative could have an equally valid claim to the throne. His uncles Aethelhelm and Aethelwold had claims to the throne, for they were older and the sons of Alfred's elder brother Aethelred, who had reigned before him. Aethelhelm appears to have died sometime around 850, but Aethelwold survived, and seems to have been regarded as higher in status.
Alfred the Great did everything he could to assure his own son's inheritance he may have made Edward King of Kent during his lifetime. He promoted men who would support Edward, and had Edward accompany him on royal journeys, where he witnessed many of Alfred's charters. Alfred also seems to have given Edward military commands. We know that in AD 893 Edward commanded an army against the Vikings at the Battle of Farnham.
Around 893 Edward married Ecgwynn, of whom almost nothing is known, though she may have been a relative of St Dunstan. Together they had 2 children, a son named Aethelstan, who would become king after Edward's death, and a daughter who married Sihtric, the Viking king of Northumbria. Ecgwynn probably died around 899, for shortly after this Edward married for a second time, to Aefflaed, daughter of an ealdorman of Wiltshire.
King Alfred the Great died on 26 October 899, and Edward succeeded to the throne, taking the title King of the Anglo-Saxons like his father before him. Edward's first hurdle was the rebellion of his cousin, Aethelwold, whose claim to the throne was through his father, Aethelred. Aethelwold seized royal estates and encamped at Wimborne in Dorset. Edward raised an army and marched to nearby Badbury Rings.
Aethelwold declared that he would live or die at Wimborne, but it was an empty threat, for he stole away in the dead of night and made his way to Northumbria, where he was acclaimed as king. He sailed back to Wessex in 901 with an army. Each side gained and lost territory for a year, until Aethelwold was killed while defeating a wayward portion of Edward's army at the Battle of the Holme in 902. Thus ended the only real threat to Edward's throne.
Edward treated with the Danes in 906, but the truce was broken after a regime change in York. A separate group of Vikings from Britanny also raided along the Severn. From 909, Edward began a successful counterattack, with the help of his sister Aethelflaeda, who, as the widow of the Mercian king, controlled her own army.
While she reconquered and fortified the Severn area and Western Mercia, Edward did the same in East Anglia. By 918, the sibling rulers had pushed the Vikings back across the Humber. Aethelflaeda struck the crowning blow by taking York peacefully, the inhabitants themselves fearing Viking raiders and hoping for protection. The city was lost again in 919, after Aethelflaeda's death.
Edward continued to press north, in 920 fortifying Nottingham and Bakewell. After this show of power, he was accepted as overlord by the rulers of Northumbria, including York, Wales, Strathclyde, and the Scots. The 'submission' to Edward has been reinterpreted by many modern historians as a simple peace treaty rather than an acknowledgement of Edwards overlordship.
Edward also controlled Mercia through his niece, Elfwina. He continued the policy launched by his sister Aethelflaeda of building fortified towns, or burhs, throughout Mercia, with new burhs begun at Rhuddlan, Thelwall, and Manchester. He appears to have organised Mercia and the eastern Danelaw into shires. His assertion of control over Mercian affairs was not universally welcomed, and he was forced to put down a revolt at Chester in 919.
Edward had at least 13 children, 3 of whom ruled England after his death (Aethelstan, Edmund, and Eadred). His daughter Eadburh entered Nunnaminster abbey at Winchester, founded by Alfred the Great's wife Ealhswith. She died in 960 and was canonized as a saint in 972, and her cult flourished into the 14th century.
Edward himself founded a monastery beside Winchester Cathedral, dubbed the New Minster to distinguish it from the existing monastery. Edward may have been motivated to found his new minster because he was at odds with the monks of the Old Minster, and its Bishop, Denewulf.
This New Minster was probably meant as a royal mausoleum. Edward moved his father's body from the Cathedral (the Old Minster) to the new, and buried his mother there as well as the relics of St Judoc and St Grimbald. Edward was buried in the New Minster as was his son Aelfweard and his brother Aethelweard.
One of Edward's legacies was the practice of trial by ordeal. Though the concept existed long before his reign, the law code issued by Edward made trial by ordeal the only remedy for a proven charge of perjury.
Edward died at Farndon, near Chester, in 924, of wounds gained quelling the Chester revolt. He was buried in the New Minster at Winchester. Edward's successor was his son Aethelstan (often modernised as Athelstan).
Edward the Elder's Legacy
Historians were generally favourable towards Edward's reign. He was considered inferior in learning to his father Alfred but his equal or even superior in military might. He ruled an expanding territory in the south of England for a quarter-century, asserting a strong central authority over the realm. The Danish threat was met and the Danish leaders brought to heel.
He helped organise the political structure of England with shires administered by shire-reeves, regional courts, and a centralised royal system of taxation. Though often overlooked by history, Edward the Elder can be said to have done as much as any ruler in laying the foundations of medieval England.
Edward Holme - History
Community Info .
Travel Info .
In 1688, three local noblemen, the Earl of Devonshire, the Earl of Danby and Mr John D'Arcy met at Whittington disguised as a hunting party, to begin planning their part in the overthrow of James II. A rainstorm sent them seeking shelter to the Cock and Pynot alehouse.
IT is a strange tradition that sees Guy Fawkes celebrated as the main character in what is the most famous act of treason in our national history.
Fawkes (whose first name was actually Guido) – is the man who is immortalised in the story of the gunpowder plot, and whose effigy is cast on to bonfire’s the country over – was actually just one of many conspirators following the lead of a man named Robert Catesby.
The legend could as easily have belonged to Derbyshire’s own Robert Keyes, who like Guy Fawkes was responsible for guarding the gunpowder, and who was also executed for his part in the plot.
Staveley-born Keyes was the sixth man to join the conspiracy, which sought to assassinate King James I by blowing up the House of Lords on November 5, 1605.
The thwarted event, which brought Fawkes four centuries of notoriety, left Robert Keyes with little renown, even in his native county.Guy Fawkes was just the one who has gone down in history. Fawkes was used as a scapegoat.
Robert Keyes is incredibly important to Staveley and alot of people don’t realise he was involved.
Robert Keyes was born in Staveley in 1565, the son of Edward Keyes, the town’s protestant rector. By the time he joined the conspiracy in Oct 1604, aged 40, he had converted to Catholicism, and sought to murder King James I, who was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland.
His job, was to take charge of Robert Catesby’s home in Lambeth, south London, where the gunpowder was stored.
When Fawkes was arrested after being found guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder under the Houses of Parliament, Keyes fled for the Midlands, but was caught on November 9, in Warwickshire. His punishment was to be hanged, drawn and quartered.
Plans have been unveiled to rebuild part of the walls of what is thought to have been one of England's largest medieval keeps.
Duffield Castle was destroyed by King Henry III in 1266 and all that remains today are its foundations. The National Trust, which manages the site in Derbyshire, wants archaeologists to reveal how it looked.
Annice Fuller from DerwentWISE project, working alongside the trust, said the castle was of national importance. She said the castle, which is barely visible from the roadside, has been "nearly forgotten about".
"It's a scheduled monument and it forms an integral part of the history of Duffield," she said.
“Thomas Barker lawfull son of Valentine Barker and his Wife Ann of Holme was born on the 12th day of August in ye year 1747, was baptizd and died the same day.” Mr. Gillow (The Catholic Registers of Holme-on-Spalding Moor – Publications of the Catholic Record Society Volume 4)
“Thomas Garstang lawfull son of Thomas Garstang and his Wife Ann of Holme was born on the 30th Day of August in ye year 1747 and was baptizd the same day. He had for Godfather Mr Thomas Vavasour of Willowtoft, and for Gomother Mrs Ann Gibson of Lendale in York, represented by Jonathan Hopwood and Mrs Ann Gorsuch.” Mr. Gillow (The Catholic Registers of Holme-on-Spalding Moor – Publications of the Catholic Record Society Volume 4)
The History and Topography of the Parish of Kirkburton and of the Graveship of Holme (1861) - Township of Burton Otherwise Kirkburton
In Domesday Book “Bertone” is surveyed as a member of the Soke of Wakefield, consisting of three carucates. It was then part of the Terra Regis, and returned as waste. When this great fee was granted to Earl Warren, Burton was soon after given to one of his retainers, who took the surname of Burton, or “de Birton.” The family were of considerable importance here Dr. Whitaker states, “they may be traced as Lords of this Manor, to the highest period of local names.” The name frequently occurs in charter evidences, either as principals or as witnesses.
A Nicholas de Birton was a witness to a charter in the 6 Edward I., [1277,] wherein Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, confirms certain privileges to the burgesses of Pontefract. Ώ]
We find that the early lords of Burton were also lords of Gunthwaite, which they had acquired, probably in the reign of Henry III., or not later than Edward I. but not long after this it appears to have vested again in the de Gunthwaites for in 1359 John de Gunthwaite gave to Thomas Bossvile de Erdesley and his heirs, his estate and Manor of Gunthwaite. In these transactions of the Burtons with the Gunthwaites, we have Nicholas de Byrton, Henry de Byrton, his son, who had Roger de Byrton. ΐ]
This Nicholas de Byrton was a person of some consequence, as he appears to have held the office of seneschal, or steward, of Blackburnshire, under Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. Henry de Birton appears as a witness to a deed, without date, from Matthew de Oxspring to Roger del Hyde, about the reign of Henry III., or Edward I. Α]
Elias de Byrton appears as a witness to a charter, bearing date 1284, from John de Carlton to Elias de Midhope. Β] This Elias de Byrton was probably nephew to Sir Elias de Midhope.
“Elias de Midhope had two sisters not named in the genealogy. They married, one the Lord of Thurgoland, the other the Lord of Burton, (Kirkburton,) in the Wapentake of Agbrig. On the death of Elias John de Thurgoland, son of the one, and William de Burton, grandson to the other, claimed to be heirs of Elias de Midhope, on the ground that his issue were illegitimate. The question came to a hearing, and of the pleadings we have an abstract by Dodsworth. It appears from them, that in 1252, Sir Elias had entered into a covenant to marry Maud, a daughter of Richard Gramary, (Grammaticus, a family who had considerable possessions along the line of the Aire,) but that marriage was never completed, and she became the wife of Robert de Stapleton, of Thorp Stapleton, while Sir Elias married Mabilia, a daughter of Josceline de Swainsby. The marriage with Mabilia was contracted in the face of the church, and without any contradiction of the said Maud, or of any other person, and she lived fifteen years at Midhope as his wife, and there died in peace, and was buried in the parish church of the said Elias, at Ecclesfield. But eight years after the death of Mabilia, Robert de Stapleton being also dead, Maud perceiving, as the pleadings say, Elias de Midhope to be rich, came and challenged him for the conditional contract he had entered into with her. Elias replied that the contract was only conditional, and the conditions not having been fulfilled, the contract was null, when John D’Eyvile, of Adlingflete, the discontented baron, who was concerned in the burning of Sheffield, uncle to Maud, and other persons of her lineage, seized upon Elias, carried him to York, and there compelled him to marry her in the Chapel of St. James, without the walls, without sentence or judgment.”
“The determination upon this cause I have not seen,” says Mr. Hunter, “but it may be presumed to have been in favour of the son, as he succeeded to the inheritance, as did his posterity after him. There is a quit-claim in 1329, from John de Thurgoland, of all the lands which were Elias de Midhope’s, which may be connected with this transaction.”
Mr. Hunter’s South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 364.
There was a William de Burton in 1304, presented to the Rectory of High Hoyland, of the first mediety, by Sir Thomas de Burgh. Γ] The name also of William de Burton appears in several charters connected with this parish, from Edward I’s. reign to 1335.
In the 32 Edward III., [1359,] Elias de Burton, Lord of Burton, and John de Dronfield, Lord of West Bretton, obtain a royal license, that they might give the Advowson of the church of Penistone to the Dean and College of the Free Chapel of St. Stephens, Westminster. Δ]
In the 8 Henry IV., [1406,] “Elias de Byrton Armiger” occurs as a witness to a charter. A John de Birton occurs also as a witness to a charter, dated 24 Henry VT., [1445,] and again in a charter dated 27 Henry VI., .
In 1455, Thomas Burton gave his daughter, Isabel, with certain lands, in marriage to Edmund Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., by whom he had issue Nicholas Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., who dying S.P., the estate ascended to his uncle George, an ancester of the late Sir John Kaye, bart. But Thomas Burton had a son John, who had Robert, who had an only daughter, Joan. Robert dying in the 19 Henry VII., [1504,] the jurors found, inter alia, that he was seized of the Manor of Kirkburton and the Advowson of Chantry of St. Mary, in preste to that church, all which descended to Joan, his only child.
This daughter, in the 18 Henry VII., married Thomas Triggott, of South Kirkby, and had issue, Robert Triggott, son and heir, whose grandson had issue three daughters, co-heiresses. Ε]
The following pedigree more fully explains the descent.
PEDIGREE OF TRIGGOTT, OF SOUTH KIRKBY AND OF BURTON. Ζ]
Arms : Argent, a chevron between three cross crosslets fitehee, sable. Crest: a lion’s head or, devouring a child proper.
John Moseley, an alderman of York, married Elizabeth, daughter, and one of the co-heiresses of the last Thomas Triggott, to whom, in a partition of the estate, the Manor of Burton was allotted they had issue, Margaret and Ann, also co-heiresses. The former married Sir John Kaye, of Woodsome, the first Baronet, by whom he acquired the manor and estates of Burton. He died in 1662, and was succeeded by his eldest son Sir John Kaye, the second Baronet, aged 24 in 1665. He married Anne, daughter of William Lister, of Thornton, in Craven, in the county of York, Esq., and sister and sole heir of Christopher Lister, of the same place, Esq., by whom he had issue — 1st, Sir Arthur Kaye, his successor 2nd, George Kaye, of Grange, sometimes called Denby-Grange, in the parish of Kirkheaton, Esq., and other children. Sir John Kaye was many years M.P. for the county of York. He died in 1706.
To his son, George Kaye, of Grange, Esq., among other estates, he gave the Manor of Burton. The said George Kaye married Dorothy, daughter of Robert Savile, of Bryam-Royd, near Elland, Esq., and had issue, John Kaye. He died
1707. His widow afterwards married — Walmersley, of Dalton, Gentleman. She died in 1726. John Kaye, of Grange, Esq., succeeded his father in his estates, and on the death of Sir Arthur Kaye, his uncle, the 3rd Baronet, without male issue the Baronetcy devolved upon him. On the death, also, of his uncle, Thomas Lister, Esq., without issue, who constituted him his heir, he took the name of Lister in addition to that of Kaye, and became Sir John Lister Kaye, of Grange, 4th Baronet. He married Ellen, only daughter of John Wilkinson, of Greenhead, in the parish of Huddersfield, Esq., who died January 29th, 1729, by whom he had issue John Lister Kaye, his successor. To his second wife he married Dorothy, eldest daughter of Richard Richardson, of Bierley, near Bradford, Esq., by whom he had issue 1st, Lister, died an infant 2nd, Richard, of whom we mention hereafter 3rd, Christopher, died an infant 4th, Dorothy, wife of Robert Chaloner, of Bishop Auckland, county of Durham, Esq. 5th, Catherine, died young 6th, Miles, died an infant and 7th, Margaret.
Sir John Lister Kaye, was sometime M.P. for the city of York. He died April 5th, 1752, aged 55 years, and was succeeded by his eldest son Sir John Lister Kaye, the 5th Baronet, who was bom July 7th, 1725. He served the office of High Sheriff of the county of York in 1761, and died November 27th, 1789, without issue. He was succeeded in the Baronetcy by his half-brother, the Rev. Richard Kaye, LL.D., Dean of Lincoln, prebend of Southwell, &c., the 6th Baronet, who died without issue 25th December, 1809, when the Baronetcy created in 1641, became extinct.
Sir John Kaye, the 5th Baronet, dying without issue, devised the Manor of Burton and the rest of his estates to John Lister Kaye, Esq., of Grange, who married October 18th, 1800, Lady Amelia Grey, 6th daughter of George Henry Grey, Earl of Stamford and Warrington, by whom he had issue. In 1812 he was advanced to the dignity of a Baronetcy.
Sir John Lister Lister Kaye, about the year 1827, sold the Burton estate in small lots. The manor and a small portion of the estate were purchased by the late Mr. Tedbar Tinker, of Shelley, and Mr. Nathaniel Sykes, in whose heirs it now vests.
The ancient seat of the lords of Burton — until the family of that name finally merged into that of Triggott, who had their residence at South Kirkby — was situated in the hamlet of Highburton, on the verge of the hill to the west, and on the north-east side of the Burton valley. The ascent is steep, and the situation high and exposed, but commanding a fine view of the valley beneath, in which Storthes Hall, with its richly wooded grounds, forms a striking and prominent object. The designation of Hall, has almost ceased to be applied to the humble edifice which now occupies this site.
There appears to have been attached to the Hall, a small domestic chapel of pointed gothic architecture, the greatest part of which was taken down about twenty-five years ago. It is difficult to conjecture the cause of its erection so near to the parish church. It must have existed before the Reformation, as it is apparent that the owners of the estate did not reside here after that period.
In the small hamlet of Highburton stands an ancient cross, the precise object of which has not perhaps been clearly understood by the inhabitants, but the preservation of this ancient relic from the wasting hand of time, appears to have been always an object of their special care.
It is certain that Burton was, in the time of the Plantagenets, a Market Town it seems probable that it had been so from a still more remote period, but whether it originated by charter, or by prescription, is unknown. From the fact of the cross being placed in Highburton, there can be little doubt that the markets were held there.
In the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, in the 26 and 27, Edward III., [1352,] 24th January, under “Holne,” it is stated that the tolls of Burton market were let for 26s. 8d.
Not the least curious circumstance connected with this market, is, that the tolls would seem to have belonged to the Chief Lord of the Fee, and not to the mesne lords — the de Burtons.
Here resided about two centuries ago, a family named Roebuck, who were usually described as of Highburton Cross. They continued to reside here through several generations. The last of the name was Thomas Roebuck, who left an only child — a daughter, who married to ___ Wood, of Monk Bretton, near Barnsley, whose grandson was Sir George Wood, knight, one of the barons of the exchequer, who died in 1823, at an advanced age.
This ancient homestead was, for upwards of three hundred years, the property and residence of a family named Mokeson, of the class usually styled “Yeomen.” John Mokeson, the last possessor, sold the estate to B. Haigh Allen, of Greenhead, Esq., in whose heirs it still remains. There is a singular record of this family, viz. — that the said John Mokeson, and Olive, his wife, daughter of Joshua Senior, of Shelley, had thirty children, of whom, however, only four arrived at the adult age.
Riley is now a small hamlet, on the road from Burton to Thunder-Bridge. There is nothing to recommend it to notice except that at a remote period, its owner, who resided here, received his surname from it. The name appears among the witnesses to ancient charters, viz. — a “John de Rylay,” appears in a charter without date and a “John de Rylay ” appears also as a witness to a charter dated 16, Edward I., [1298,] probably the same person. A “William de Rylay,” occurs in another dated 1319.
Independent Chapel, Dogley-Lane.
This chapel was built in 1816, but has since been considerably enlarged, and galleries erected. It is warmed by an efficient apparatus. An organ was added in 1853.
In connexion with the chapel are school-rooms, built in 1832. The chapel, schools, and parsonage, have recently been fitted-up with gas, &c., at the cost of £100, which sum was liquidated by congregational collections.
The church was formed December 25th, 1816, and as no minister had then settled, the Rev. John Cockin, of Holmfirth, at the request of the friends, presided at the meeting.
The first minister, — the Rev. William Lees, commenced his labours January 2nd, 1820, and remained until his death. His remains are interred within the chapel, and a tablet erected to his memory.
The second minister,—the Rev. George Ryan, commenced his labours March 11th, 1832, and resigned the pastorate March 10th, 1837.
The third minister, — the Rev. William Baines, entered on his office May 3rd, 1840, and died November 28th, 1840, only a pastorate of a few months.
The fourth pastor, — the Rev. John Hughes, commenced his labours here January 1st, 1842, and died February 14th, 1849, and was interred inside the chapel.
The fifth pastor, — the Rev. William Inman, commenced first Sabbath in November, 1850, and resigned the charge September 2nd, 1858. He was succeeded by the Key. Joseph Oddy, the present minister, to whom I am indebted for the information here given.
There is no endowment or grant to the chapel, and the minister is wholly supported by the congregation.
The chapel has been duly licensed for marriages.
Registers of baptisms from 1816.
In the chapel are marble tablets which record as follows:
To the Memory of the Rev. William Lees, who discharged the pastoral duties of this church nearly twelve years, with seriousness, fidelity, and zeal and who, in the vigour of his age, and of his usefulness, was suddenly called to enter into the joy of his Lord. He died August 13th, 1831, in the 46th year of his age, greatly lamented, as he had been beloved by his own people, and by all who knew him, for his Christian spirit, and consistent deportment. Sacred to the memory of Paul, the son of Joah and Rachel Sugden, of Woodsome Lees, who departed this life February 18th, 1821, aged 18 years. Also, of the above Joah Sugden, who died August 9th, 1845, aged 63 years. He was a faithful office bearer in the church of Christ for 38 years one of the chief promoters of the building of this chapel, and continued its firm friend unto death. Also, of the above Rachel Sugden, who died December 24th, 1850, aged 72 years. Sacred to the Memory of Ann, the wife of Joseph Turner, Woolstapler, of Huddersfield, and daughter of Joah and Rachel Sugden, of Woodsome Lees. She died June 10th, 1832, aged 24 years. In Memory of the Rev. John Hughes, who died February 14th, 1849, in the 39th year of his age, and the 8th year of his ministry. His remains lie interred beneath this chapel. As a minister and pastor, he was earnest, affectionate, and faithful. This monument is erected by the church and congregation as a testimony of their high regard and mournful remembrance.
In the grave-yard is a very handsome monument, with broken column and wreath — on one slab:
In affectionate remembrance of Wright Rhodes, of Spring-Field, who died March 8th, 1859, aged 65 years.
In Memory of John, eldest son of Wright and Sarah Rhodes, who died November 5th, 1846, aged 21 years. Also, of Franklin, their fifth son, who died October 4th, 1852, aged 15 years.
Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Kirkburton.
In 1816, the Wesleyan Methodists of this district erected a chapel at Burton, which at length becoming too small a new site was chosen, and a neat and commodious chapel was erected in 1845, which was opened for religious worship in 1846, when their former chapel was sold. Spacious schoolrooms were erected in 1848, to accommodate 300 scholars. The entire cost of the chapel and school premises amounted to £1650, exclusive of an excellent-toned organ, given by Mrs. Cocker, of Highburton, in 1859.
Primitive Methodist Chapel.
This chapel is situate in Highburton, and was built in 1832, at a cost of about £100, and is calculated to hold about 100 persons.
This school was established in the year 1714, as appears from the following inscription, on an old stone tablet, removed from the front of the original schoolroom and retained in the present schoolroom.
This school, built A. D. 1714, at the charge of the inhabitants it was first endowed with £100, being the free gift of Mr. Henry Robinson, of Leeds, clerk with £20 given by Mr. John Horsfall, of Storz Hall, gentleman and was afterwards endowed by the said Mr. Horsfall’s noble legacy in his last will, with £400 all which sums are to purchase lands and tenements, for the better maintenance of the schoolmaster, and for poor children learning in Thurstonland and Kirkburton. Da dum tempus habes, Tibi propria sit manus
Hoeres auferet hoc nemo, quod dabis ipse Deo.
The above benefactions and legacy were laid out in the purchase of real estates, with the exception of the sum of £42 2s. 6d., which was placed on mortgage of the tolls of the Huddersfield and Penistone turnpike road, but was recalled about 15 years ago, to help to liquidate the expenses incurred in building a large and commodious schoolroom, the original schoolroom being very small and inconvenient, and very much dilapidated, and thus unfit for the purposes of education.
The trustees for the time being are the Vicar of Kirkburton, and the heirs of Richard Horsfall, Esq., and the heirs of Robert Rockley, Esq. The Vicar of Kirkburton, the Rector of Kirkheaton, and the Rector of Elmley, are the electors of the schoolmaster.
The real estates which were purchased consist of — a farm house, outbuildings, and about 20 acres of land, at Holme, in the parish of Almonbury, and let to John Hadfield, for £26 a year — a house and about six acres of land, in the township of Cartworth, let to Benjamin Green for £10 10s. a year—a house in Wakefield, usually called the Old Corn Exchange, let in offices, and which produces about £30 a year net — and a small portion of land, situate in Kirkburton, and let as a garden to George Jenkinson for £1 a year.
These, together with the schoolmaster’s house and premises, comprise the property of the school.
The master of the school occupies the school premises, and receives the emoluments derived from the property after deducting the necessary expenses for keeping the several buildings and estates in proper repair. He teaches twenty poor children of Kirkburton, and ten of Thurstonland, gratis, by agreement with the trustees. Twenty of these free scholars are provided with 2¾ yards of linen for clothing, on St. Thomas’ Day, in every year.
Mrs. Farmer’s legacy has been laid out by the vicar in the purchase of government consolidated three per cent, annuities.
Mr. James Booth, of Lockwood, formerly of Lane-head, in Burton, by his will dated the 8th day of October, 1852, bequeathed “the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, the remainder of the said trust money, to apply and appropriate the same to and for the poor of the township of Kirkburton, in the said county of York. And I direct that the said sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, shall be and remain invested in the names of the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, for the time being, of the parish of Kirkburton aforesaid, in government, or other good security and that the dividends, interest, or annual proceeds thereof, shall be for ever hereafter paid and applied by the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, for the time being, of the said parish, at their discretion, for the maintenance, relief, or comfort, of the poor people of the said township of Kirkburton.”
The above sum is invested in the Huddersfield Water Works, and pays interest at three-and-a-half per cent.
The enclosure of the Common Lands of this township took place in 1816, comprising 187 acres.