Satago YTB-414 - History


(YTB-414: dp. 345 (f.), 1. 100'; b. 25'; dr. 11'; cpl.
8; s. 12 k.; cl. Sassaba)

Satago (YTB-414) was laid down at the U.S. Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Bay, Md., on 29 April 1944; reclassified YTB-414 on 15 May 1944, launched on 14 July 1944, sponsored by Mrs. Vernon E. Day, and delivered to the Navy and placed in service on 27 November 1944.

Satago remained in the Chesapeake Bay area into February 1945 when she sailed south to Panama en route to the Pacific war zone. By the end of May, she was at Ulithi; and, in mid-June, she arrived at Leyte, P.I., to assume harbor tug duties. In October, after World War II had ended, she moved via Okinawa to duty at Shanghai, Sasebo, and Tsingtao. In 1947, she returned to the Philippines and, until after the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, provided harbor tug services at Subic Bay. In January 1951, she departed Luzon and, early the following month, assumed duties at Yokosuka, Japan. Redesignated YTM-414 in February 1962, she has remained in service at Yokosuka into 1974.

USS Secota (YTM-415)

USS Secota (YTB-415) was a harbor tug that served in the United States Navy from 1945 to 1986.

USS Secota (YTM-415)
United States
Namesake: Derived from Secotan, an Algonquin tribe.
Builder: Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Bay, Maryland
Laid down: 29 April 1944
Launched: 4 August 1944
Commissioned: 23 December 1944
Reclassified: District Harbor Tug, Medium YTM-415, February 1962
Fate: Sunk in collision, 22 March 1986
General characteristics
Class and type: Sassaba-class harbor tug
Type: Harbor Tug
Displacement: 237 tons
Length: 100 ft (30 m)
Beam: 25 ft (7.6 m)
Draft: 9 ft 7 in (2.92 m)
Speed: 12 kn (22 km/h 14 mph)
Complement: 10
Armament: 2 x .50-caliber machine guns

Secota was assigned to the United States Pacific Fleet soon after delivery to the Navy. She was at Okinawa in August 1945 visited Tsingtao, China in July 1946 and replaced USS Anamosa at Yokosuka, Japan, on 20 August 1947.

During 1950, Secota visited Hungnam and Pusan, Korea her last recorded port of call was Sasebo, Japan, apparently returning to Japan from Korea during the waning days of 1950. After that time, Secota was continuously assigned to advanced American bases in the Pacific. In February 1962 she was redesignated a medium harbor tug, YTM-415.

On 22 March 1986, near Midway Island, Secota had just completed a personnel transfer with the USS Georgia when Secota lost power and collided with Georgia. Secota lost power before it was clear, causing an impact with the sub's stern dive planes, where the tug got hung up. [1] Secota sank ten crewman were rescued, but two crew trapped in the engine room drowned. While the media reported that the Georgia was undamaged, [2] a report sent by the commanding officer of the Georgia indicates that after returning the surviving crew members to Hawaii, Georgia underwent emergency repairs for minor damage sustained in the collision. [3]


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In Chile, there are several entities which have the name of "Santiago" that are often confused. The commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as "Downtown/Central Santiago" (Santiago Centro), is an administrative division that comprises roughly the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune, administered by the Municipality of Santiago and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago Province headed by a provincial delegate, which is in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region headed by an intendant. While the mayor is elected by popular vote, both the provincial delegate and the intendant are designed by the President of the Republic as its local representative.

Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it usually refers to what is also known as Greater Santiago (Gran Santiago), the metropolitan area defined by its urban continuity that includes the commune of Santiago and more than 40 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring provinces (see Political divisions). The definition of this metropolitan area has evolved due to the continuing expansion of the city and the absorption of smaller cities and rural areas.

The name of "Santiago" originates in the name chosen by the Spanish conqueror, Pedro de Valdivia, when founded the city in 1541. Valdivia honored James the Great, the patron saint of Spain. In Spanish language, the name of this saint is rendered in different ways, as Diego, Jaime, Jacobo or Santiago the latter is derived from the Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin Sanctu Iacobu. There is no indigenous name for the area occupied by Santiago Mapuche language uses the name "Santiaw" as an adaptation of the Spanish name of the city.

When founded, Valdivia used the name "Santiago del Nuevo Extremo" or "Nueva Extremadura", based on the territory he expected to colonize and that he named honoring his native Extremadura. The name didn't persist for long and was eventually replaced by the local name of Chile. To differentiate with other cities called Santiago, the South American city is sometimes called "Santiago de Chile" in Spanish and other languages.

The city and region's demonym is santiaguinos (male) and santiaguinas (female).

Prehistory Edit

According to certain archeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC. The groups were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho River, mainly maize, potatoes and beans, and the domestication of camelids in the area.

The villages established in the areas belonging to the Picunches (the name given by Chileans) or Promaucae people (name given by the Incas), were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimas, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strongholds such as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill. The area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.

Founding of the city Edit

Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the long journey from Cuzco, Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December 1540. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and slowly began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area. Valdivia later summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura. The natives accepted and even recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén.

On 12 February 1541 Valdivia officially founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo (Santiago of New Extremadura) near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as Santa Lucia. Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout. In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, and ten from east to west, were built. Each solar (quarter block) was given to the settlers, who built houses of mud and straw.

Valdivia left months later to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago was left unprotected. The indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, and attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55-strong Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort. The resistance was led by Inés de Suárez, a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, and proceeded to put their heads on pikes and also threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror. The city would be slowly rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile was then founded in 1565. However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due partly to its proximity to the War of Arauco and also to a succession of devastating earthquakes, would not allow the definitive establishment of the Royal Court in Santiago until 1607. This establishment reaffirmed the city's role as capital.

During the early years of the city the Spanish suffered from severe shortages of food and other supplies. The cause of this was a strategy by the local indigenous Picunche to stop cultivation and retreat to more distant places. [5] Isolated from reinforcements the Spanish had to resort to eat whatever they found, lack of clothes meant some Spanish came to dress with hides from dogs, cats, sea lions and foxes. [5]

Colonial Santiago Edit

Although early Santiago appeared to be in imminent danger of permanent destruction, threatened by Indigenous attacks, earthquakes, and a series of floods, the city began to grow rapidly. Of the 126 blocks designed by Gamboa in 1558, 40 were occupied, and in 1580, the first major buildings in the city began to rise, the start of construction highlighted with the placing of the foundation stone of the first Cathedral in 1561 and the building of the church of San Francisco in 1572. Both of these constructions consisted of mainly adobe and stone. In addition to construction of important buildings, the city began to develop as nearby lands welcomed tens of thousands of livestock.

A series of disasters impeded the development of the city during the 16th and 17th centuries: an earthquake, a 1575 smallpox epidemic, in 1590, 1608, and 1618, the Mapocho River floods, and, finally, the earthquake of 13 May 1647, which killed over 600 people and affected more than 5,000 others. However, these disasters would not stop the growth of the capital of the Captaincy General of Chile at a time when all the power of the country was centered on the Plaza de Armas santiaguina.

In 1767, the corregidor Luis Manuel de Zañartu, launched one of the most important architectural works of the entire colonial period, Calicanto Bridge, effectively connecting the city to La Chimba on the north side of the river, and began the construction of embankments to prevent overflows of the Mapocho River. Although its builders were able to complete the bridge, the piers were constantly being damaged by the river. In 1780, Governor Agustín de Jáuregui hired the Italian architect Joaquín Toesca, who would design, among other important works, the façade of the cathedral, the Palacio de La Moneda, the canal San Carlos, and the final construction of the embankments during the government of Ambrosio O'Higgins. These important works were opened permanently in 1798. The O'Higgins government also oversaw the opening of the road to Valparaíso in 1791, which connected the capital with the country's main port.

Capital of the Republic Edit

18 September 1810 was proclaimed the First Government Junta in Santiago, beginning the process of establishing the independence of Chile. The city, which became the capital of the new nation, was threatened by various events, especially the nearby military actions.

Although some institutions, such as the National Institute and the National Library, were installed in the Patria Vieja, they were closed after the patriot defeat at the Battle of Rancagua in 1814. The royal government lasted until 1817, when the Army of the Andes secured victory in battle of Chacabuco, reinstating the patriot government in Santiago. Independence, however, was not assured. The Spanish army gained new victories in 1818 and headed for Santiago, but their march was definitively halted on the plains of the Maipo River, during the Battle of Maipú on 5 April 1818.

With the end of the war, Bernardo O'Higgins was accepted as Supreme Director and, like his father, began a number of important works for the city. During the call Patria Nueva, closed institutions reopened. The General Cemetery opened, work on the canal San Carlos was completed, and, in the south arm of the Mapocho River, known as La Cañada, the drying riverbed, used for sometime as a landfill, was turned into an avenue, now known as the Alameda de las Delicias.

Two new earthquakes hit the city, one on 19 November 1822, and another on 20 February 1835. These two events, however, did not prevent the city's rapid, continued growth. In 1820 the city reported 46,000 inhabitants, while in 1854, the population reached 69,018. In 1865, the census reported 115,337 inhabitants. This significant increase was the result of suburban growth to the south and west of the capital, and in part to La Chimba, a vibrant district growing from the division of old properties that existed in the area. This new peripheral development led to the end of the traditional checkerboard structure that previously governed the city center.

19th century Edit

During the years of the Republican era, institutions such as the University of Chile (Universidad de Chile), the Normal School of Preceptors, the School of Arts and Crafts, and the Quinta Normal, which included the Museum of Fine Arts (now Museum of Science and Technology) and the National Museum of Natural History, were founded. Created primarily for educational use, they also became examples of public planning during that period. In 1851 the first telegraph system connecting the capital with the Port of Valparaíso was inaugurated. [6]

A new momentum in the urban development of the capital took place during the so-called "Liberal Republic" and the administration of Mayor Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna. Among the main works during this period are the remodeling of the Cerro Santa Lucía which, despite its central location, had been in a state of poor repair. [6] In an effort to transform Santiago, Vicuña Mackenna began construction of the Camino de Cintura, a road surrounding the entire city. A new redevelopment of the Alameda Avenue turned it into the main road of the city.

Also during this time and with the work of European landscapers in 1873, O'Higgins Park came into existence. The park, open to the public, became a landmark in Santiago due to its large gardens, lakes, and carriage trails. Other important buildings were opened during this era, such as the Teatro Municipal opera house, and the Club Hípico de Santiago. At the same time, the 1875 International Exposition was held in the grounds of the Quinta Normal. [7]

The city became the main hub of the national railway system. The first railroad reached the city on 14 September 1857, at the Santiago Estación Central railway station. Under construction at the time, the station would be opened permanently in 1884. During those years, railways connected the city to Valparaíso as well as regions in the north and south of Chile. The streets of Santiago were paved and by 1875 there were 1,107 railway cars in the city, while 45,000 people used tram services on a daily basis.

The centennial Santiago Edit

With the arrival of the new century, the city began to experience various changes related to the strong development of industry. Valparaíso, which had hitherto been the economic center of the country slowly lost prominence at the expense of the capital. By 1895, 75% of the national manufacturing industry was in the capital and only 28% in the harbor city, and by 1910, major banks and shops were set up in the streets of the city center, leaving Valparaíso.

The enactment of the Autonomous Municipalities' act allowed municipalities to create various administrative divisions around the then Santiago departamento, with the aim of improving local ruling. Maipú, Ñuñoa, Renca, Lampa and Colina were to be created in 1891, Providencia and Barrancas in 1897, and Las Condes in 1901. The La Victoria departamento was split with the creation of Lo Cañas in 1891, which would be split into La Granja and Puente Alto in 1892, La Florida in 1899, and La Cisterna in 1925.

The San Cristobal Hill in this period began a long process of development. In 1903 an astronomical observatory was installed and the following year the first stone was placed for its 14-meter Virgin Mary statue, nowadays visible from various points of city. However, the shrine would not be completed until some decades later.

With the 1910 Chile Centennial celebrations, many urban projects were undertaken. The railway network was extended allowing connection of the city with its nascent suburbs by a new rail ring and route to the Cajón del Maipo, while a new railway station was built in the north of the city: the Mapocho Station. At the Mapocho river's southern side, the Parque Forestal was created and new buildings such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Barros Arana public boarding school and the National Library were opened. In addition, the work would include a sewer system, covering about 85% of the urban population.

Population explosion Edit

The 1920 census estimated the population of Santiago to be 507,296 inhabitants, equivalent to 13.6% of the population of Chile. This represented an increase of 52.5% from the census of 1907, i.e. an annual growth of 3.3%, almost three times the national figure. This growth was mainly due to the arrival of farmers from the south who came to work in factories and railroads which were under construction. However, this growth was experienced on the outskirts and not in the town itself.

During this time the downtown district was consolidated into a commercial, financial and administrative center, with the establishment of various portals and locales around Ahumada Street and a Civic District in the immediate surroundings of the Palace of La Moneda. The latter project involved the construction of various modernist buildings for the establishment of the offices of ministries and other public services, as well as commencing the construction of medium-rise buildings. On the other hand, the traditional inhabitants of the center began to migrate out of the city to more rural areas like Providencia and Ñuñoa, which hosted the oligarchy and the European immigrant professionals, and San Miguel for middle-class families. Furthermore, in the periphery villas were built various partners from various organizations of the time. Modernity expanded in the city, with the appearance of the first theaters, the extension of the telephone network and the opening of the Airport Los Cerrillos in 1928, among other advances.

The feeling that the early 20th century was an era of economic growth due to technological advances contrasted dramatically with the standard of living of lower social classes. The growth of the previous decades led to an unprecedented population explosion starting in 1929. The Great Depression caused the collapse of the nitrate industry in the north, leaving 60,000 unemployed, which added to the decline in agricultural exports, resulting in a total number for the unemployed to be about 300,000 nationwide. These unemployed workers saw Santiago and its booming industry as the only chance to survive. Many migrants arrived in Santiago with nothing and thousands had to survive on the streets due to the great difficulty in finding a place they could rent. Widespread disease, including tuberculosis, claimed the lives of hundreds of the homeless. Unemployment and living costs increased dramatically whilst the salaries of the population of Santiago fell.

The situation would change only several years later with a new industrial boom fostered by CORFO and the expansion of the state apparatus from the late 1930s. At this time, the aristocracy lost much of its power and the middle class, composed of merchants, bureaucrats and professionals, acquired the role of setting national policy. In this context, Santiago began to develop a substantial middle- and lower-class population, while the upper classes sought refuge in the districts of the capital. Thus, the old moneyed class trips to Cousino and Alameda Park, lost hegemony over popular entertainment venues such as the National Stadium emerged in 1938.

Greater Santiago Edit

Relative growth of Santiago, by communes [8]
1940 1952 1960 1970
Barrancas 100 223 792 1978
Conchalí 100 225 440 684
La Granja 100 264 1379 3424
Las Condes 100 197 506 1083
Ñuñoa 100 196 325 535
Renca 100 175 317 406
San Miguel 100 221 373 488
Santiago 100 104 101 81

In the following decades, Santiago continued to grow unabated. In 1940, the city accumulated 952,075 inhabitants, in 1952 this figure rose to 1,350,409 residents and the census of 1960 totaled 1,907,378 santiaguinos. This growth was reflected in the urbanization of rural areas on the periphery, where families of middle and lower class with stable housing were established: in 1930 the urban area had an area of 6500 hectares, which in 1960 reached 20,900 and in 1980 to 38,296. Although most of the communities continued to grow, it is mainly concentrated in outlying communities such as Canyon to the west, Conchalí northern and La Cisterna and La Granja to the south. For the upper class, it began to approach the foothills of Las Condes and La Reina sector. The center, however, lost people leaving more space for the development of trade, banking and government.

Regulation of the growth only began to be implemented during the 1960s with the creation of various development plans for Greater Santiago, a concept that reflected the new reality of a much larger city. In 1958 the Intercommunal Plan of Santiago was released. The proposed scheme set a limit of 38 600 urban and semi hectares for a maximum population of 3,260,000 inhabitants, included plans for the construction of new avenues, like the Américo Vespucio Avenue and Panamericana route 5, and the expansion of 'industrial belts'. The celebration of the World Cup in 1962 gave new impetus to implement plans for city improvement. In 1966 the Santiago Metropolitan Park was established in the Cerro San Cristóbal, MINVU began eradicating shanty towns and building new homes. Finally, the Edificio Diego Portales was constructed in 1972.

In 1967 the new International Airport Pudahuel was opened, and, after years of discussion, in 1969 construction began on the Santiago Metro. The first phase ran beneath the western section of the Alameda and was opened in 1975. The Metro would become one of the most prestigious buildings in the city. In the following years it continued to expand, with two perpendicular lines in place by the end of 1978. Building telecommunications infrastructure was also an important development of this period, as reflected in the construction of the Torre Entel, which since its construction in 1975 has become one of the symbols of the capital and the tallest structure in the country for two decades.

After the coup of 1973 and the establishment of the military regime, major changes in urban planning did not take place until the 1980s, when the government adopted a neoliberal economic model. In 1979, the master plan was amended. The urban area was extended to more than 62 000 ha for real estate development. This created urban sprawl, especially in La Florida, with the city reaching 40 619 ha in size in the early 1990s. The 1992 census showed that Santiago had become the country's most populous municipality with 328,881 inhabitants. Meanwhile, a strong earthquake struck the city on 3 March 1985. Although it caused few casualties, it left many people homeless and destroyed many old buildings.

The metropolis in the early twenty-first century Edit

With the start of the transition to democracy in 1990, the city of Santiago had surpassed three million inhabitants, with the majority living in the south: La Florida was the most populous area, followed by Puente Alto and Maipú. The real estate development in these municipalities and others like Quilicura and Peñalolén largely came from the construction of housing projects for middle-class families. Meanwhile, high-income families moved into the foothills, now called Barrio Alto, increasing the population of Las Condes and giving rise to new communes like Vitacura and Lo Barnechea.

The Providencia Avenue area became an important commercial hub in the eastern sector. This development was extended to Barrio Alto, which became an attractive location for the construction of high-rise buildings. Major companies and financial corporations were established in the area, which gave rise to a thriving modern business center known as Sanhattan. The departure of these companies to Barrio Alto and the construction of shopping centers all around the city created a crisis in the city center. To reinvent the area, the main shopping streets were turned into pedestrian walkways, such as the Paseo Ahumada, and the government instituted tax benefits for the construction of residential buildings, which attracted young adults.

The city began to face a series of problems generated by disorganized growth. Air pollution reached critical levels during the winter months and a layer of smog settled over the city. The authorities adopted legislative measures to reduce industrial pollution and placed restrictions on vehicle use. The Metro was expanded considerably, lines were extended and three new lines were built between 1997 and 2006 in the southeastern sector. A new extension to Maipú was inaugurated in 2011, at which point the metropolitan railway had a total length of 105 km. In the case of buses, the system underwent a major reform in the early 1990s. In 2007 the master plan known as Transantiago was established. It has faced a number of problems since its launch.

Entering the twenty-first century, rapid development continued in Santiago. The Civic District was renewed with the creation of the Plaza de la Ciudadanía and construction of the Ciudad Parque Bicentenario to commemorate the bicentenary of the Republic. The development of tall buildings continues in the eastern sector, which culminated in the opening of the skyscrapers Titanium La Portada and Gran Torre Santiago in the Costanera Center complex. However, socioeconomic inequality and geosocial fragmentation remain two of the most important problems in both the city and the country.

On 27 February 2010, a strong earthquake struck the capital, causing some damage to older buildings. However, some modern buildings were also rendered uninhabitable, generating much debate about the actual implementation of mandatory earthquake standards in the modern architecture of Santiago.

The city lies in the center of the Santiago Basin, a large bowl-shaped valley consisting of broad and fertile lands surrounded by mountains. The city has a varying elevation, gradually increasing from 400 m (1,312 ft) in the western areas to more than 700 m (2,297 ft) in the eastern areas. Santiago's international airport, in the west, lies at an altitude of 460 m (1,509 ft). Plaza Baquedano, near the center, lies at 570 m (1,870 ft). Estadio San Carlos de Apoquindo, at the eastern edge of the city, has an elevation of 960 m (3,150 ft).

The Santiago Basin is part of the Intermediate Depression and is remarkably flat, interrupted only by a few "island hills" among them are Cerro Renca, Cerro Blanco, and Cerro Santa Lucía. The basin is approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) in a north–south direction and 35 km (22 mi) from east to west. The Mapocho River flows through the city.

The city is flanked by the main chain of the Andes to the east and the Chilean Coastal Range to the west. On the north, it is bordered by the Cordón de Chacabuco, a mountain range of the Andes. At the southern border lies the Angostura de Paine, an elongated spur of the Andes that almost reaches the coast.

The mountain range immediately bordering the city on the east is known as the Sierra de Ramón, which was formed due to tectonic activity of the San Ramón Fault. This range reaches 3296 meters at Cerro de Ramón. The Sierra de Ramón represents the "Precordillera" of the Andes. 20 km (12 mi) further east is the even larger Cordillera of the Andes, which has mountains and volcanoes that exceed 6,000 m (19,690 ft) and on which some glaciers are present. The tallest is the Tupungato mountain at 6,570 m (21,555 ft). Other mountains include Tupungatito, San José, and Maipo. Cerro El Plomo is the highest mountain visible from Santiago's urban area.

During recent decades, urban growth has outgrown the boundaries of the city, expanding to the east up the slopes of the Andean Precordillera. In areas such as La Dehesa, Lo Curro, and El Arrayan, urban development is present at over 1,000 meters of altitude. [9]

The natural vegetation of Santiago is made up of a thorny woodland of Vachellia caven (also known as Acacia caven and espinillo) and Prosopis chilensis in the west and an association of Vachellia caven and Baccharis paniculata in the east around the Andean foothills. [10]

Santiago Metropolitan Park

Climate Edit

Santiago has a cool semi-arid climate (BSk according to the Köppen climate classification), with Mediterranean (Csb) patterns: warm dry summers (October to March) with temperatures reaching up to 35 °C (95 °F) on the hottest days winters (April to September) are cool and humid, with cool to cold mornings typical daily maximum temperatures of 14 °C (57 °F), and low temperatures near 0 °C (32 °F). In climate station of Quinta Normal (near downtown) the precipitation average is 341.8 mm, and in climate station of Tobalaba (in higher grounds near the Andes mountains) the precipitation average is 367.8 mm.

In the airport area of Pudahuel, mean rainfall is 276.9 mm (10.90 in) per year, about 80% of which occurs during the winter months (May to September), varying between 50 and 80 mm (1.97 and 3.15 in) of rainfall during these months. That amount contrasts with a very sunny season during the summer months between December and March, when rainfall does not exceed 4 mm (0.16 in) on average, caused by an anticyclonic dominance continued for about seven or eight months. There is significant variation within the city, with rainfall at the lower-elevation Pudahuel site near the airport being about 20 percent lower than at the older Quinta Normal site near the city center.

Santiago's rainfall is highly variable and heavily influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation cycle, with rainy years coinciding with El Niño events and dry years with La Niña events. [11] The wettest year since records began in 1866 was 1900 with 819.7 millimeters (32.27 in) [12] – part of a "pluvial" from 1898 to 1905 that saw an average of 559.3 millimeters (22.02 in) over eight years [13] incorporating the second wettest year in 1899 with 773.3 millimeters (30.44 in) – and the driest 1924 with 66.1 millimeters (2.60 in). [12] Typically there are lengthy dry spells even in the rainiest of winters, [11] intercepted with similarly lengthy periods of heavy rainfall. For instance, in 1987, the fourth wettest year on record with 712.1 millimeters (28.04 in), there was only 1.7 millimeters (0.07 in) in the 36 days between 3 June and 8 July, [14] [15] followed by 537.2 millimeters (21.15 in) in the 38 days between 9 July and 15 August. [16]

Precipitation is usually only rain, as snowfall only occurs in the Andes and Precordillera, being rare in eastern districts, and extremely rare in most of the city. [17] In winter, the snow line is about 2,100 meters (6,890 ft), and it ranges from 1,500–2,900 meters (4,921–9,514 ft). [17] The city is affected only occasionally by snowfall. The period between 2000 and 2017 has been registered 9 snowfalls and only two have been measured in the central sector (2007 and 2017). The amount of snow registered in Santiago on July 15, 2017 ranged between 3.0 cm in Quinta Normal and 10.0 cm in La Reina (Tobalaba). [18]

Temperatures vary throughout the year from an average of 20 °C (68 °F) in January to 8 °C (46 °F) in June and July. In the summer days are very warm to hot, often reaching over 30 °C (86 °F) and a record high close to 38 °C (100 °F), [19] while nights are very pleasant and cool, at 11 °C (52 °F). During autumn and winter the temperature drops, and is slightly lower than 10 °C (50 °F). The temperature may even drop to 0 °C (32 °F), especially during the morning. The historic low of −6.8 °C (20 °F) was in July 1976. [20]

Santiago's location within a watershed is one of the most important factors determining the climate of the city. The coastal mountain range serves as a screen that stops the spread of maritime influence, contributing to the increase in annual and daily thermal oscillation (the difference between the maximum and minimum daily temperatures can reach 14 °C) and maintaining low relative humidity, close to an annual average of 70%. It also prevents the entry of air masses, with the exception of some coastal low clouds that penetrate to the basin through the river valleys. [21]

Prevailing winds are from the southwest, with an average of 15 km/h (9 mph), especially during the summer the winter is less windy.

Climate data for Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport, Pudahuel, Santiago (1981–2010, extremes 1966–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.3
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.4
Average low °C (°F) 12.0
Record low °C (°F) 2.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.4
Average precipitation days 0 0 1 3 5 7 7 6 5 2 1 0 37
Average relative humidity (%) 57 60 65 71 80 84 84 81 78 71 63 58 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 367 305 277 202 145 120 132 162 182 205 298 350 2,745
Source 1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (humidity and precipitation days 1970–2000) [22] [23] [20]
Source 2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010) [24]
Climate data for Quinta Normal, Santiago (1981–2010, extremes 1967–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.3
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.2
Average low °C (°F) 13.3
Record low °C (°F) 7.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.6
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.3 0.5 0.9 3.1 5.4 7.0 6.1 5.9 4.7 2.4 1.2 0.5 38.0
Average relative humidity (%) 57 61 68 74 80 84 84 81 76 70 62 57 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 325 270 250 191 132 101 118 151 165 219 269 320 2,511
Source 1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile [23] [20]
Source 2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010), [25] Deutscher Wetterdienst (precipitation days 1991–2010, humidity 1961–1990) [26]
Climate data for Santiago (Los Cerrillos Airport), 1961-1990 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.3
Average relative humidity (%) 58 62 66 71 79 83 83 80 77 71 64 60 71
Source: NOAA [27]

Natural disasters Edit

Due to Santiago's location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the boundary of the Nazca and South American plates, it experiences a significant amount of tectonic activity. [28] The first earthquake on record to strike Santiago occurred in 1575, 34 years after the official founding of Santiago. The 1647 Santiago earthquake devastated the city, and inspired Heinrich von Kleist's novel, The Earthquake In Chile. [28]

The 1960 Valdivia earthquake and the 1985 Algarrobo earthquake both caused damage in Santiago, and led to the development of strict building codes with a view to minimizing future earthquake damage. In 2010 Chile was struck by the sixth largest earthquake ever recorded, reaching 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale. 525 people died, of whom 13 were in Santiago, and the damage was estimated at 15–30 billion US dollars. 370,000 homes were damaged, but the building codes implemented after the earlier earthquakes meant that despite the size of the earthquake, damage was far less than that caused a few weeks earlier by the 2010 Haiti earthquake, in which at least 100,000 people died. [29]

The easternmost neighborhoods of the city lies in a zone prone to landslides. Landslides of the debris flow type in particular are a significant hazard. [30]

Santiago's air is the most polluted air in Chile. [31] In the 1990s air pollution fell by about one-third, but there has been little progress since 2000. A study by a Chilean university found in 2010 that pollution in Santiago had doubled since 2002. [32] Particulate matter air pollution is a serious public health concern in Santiago, with atmospheric concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 regularly exceeding standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. [33]

A final major source of Santiago air pollution, one that continues year-round, is the smelter of the El Teniente copper mine. [34] [35] The government does not usually report it as being a local pollution source, as it is just outside the reporting area of the Santiago Metropolitan Region, being 110 kilometers (68 mi) from downtown. [36] [37]

During winter months, thermal inversion (a meteorological phenomenon whereby a stable layer of warm air holds down colder air close to the ground) causes high levels of smog and air pollution to be trapped and concentrated within the Central Valley.

As of March 2007, only 61% of the wastewater in Santiago was treated, [38] which increased up to 71% by the end of the same year. However, in March 2012, the Mapocho Wastewater Treatment Plant began operations, increasing the wastewater treatment capacity of the city to 100%, making Santiago the first capital city in Latin America to treat all of its municipal sewage. [39]

Stray dogs are common in Santiago. [40] [41] However, rabies is practically non-existent in Chile. [42]

According to data collected in the 2002 census by the National Institute of Statistics, the Santiago metropolitan area population reached 5,428,590 inhabitants, equivalent to 35.9% of the national total and 89.6% of total regional inhabitants. This figure reflects broad growth in the population of the city during the 20th century: it had 383,587 inhabitants in 1907 1,010,102 in 1940 2,009,118 in 1960 3,899,619 in 1982 and 4,729,118 in 1992. [43] (percentage of total population, 2007) [44]

The growth of Santiago has undergone several changes over the course of its history. In its early years, the city had a rate of growth 2.9% annually until the 17th century, then down to less than 2% per year until the early 20th century figures. During the 20th century, Santiago experienced a demographic explosion as it absorbed migration from mining camps in northern Chile during the economic crisis of the 1930s. The population surged again via migration from rural sectors between 1940 and 1960. This migration was coupled with high fertility rates, and annual growth reached 4.9% between 1952 and 1960. Growth has declined, reaching 1.4% in the early 2000s. The size of the city expanded constantly The 20,000 hectares Santiago covered in 1960 doubled by 1980, reaching 64,140 hectares in 2002. The population density in Santiago is 8,464 inhabitants/km 2 .

The population of Santiago [43] has seen a steady increase in recent years. In 1990 the total population under 20 years was 38.0% and 8.9% were over 60. Estimates in 2007 show that 32.9% of men and 30.7% of women were less than 20 years old, while 10.2% of men and 13.4% of women were over 60 years. For the year 2020, it is estimated that the figures will be 26.7% and 16.8%.

4,313,719 people in Chile say they were born in one of the communes of the Santiago Metropolitan Region, [43] which, according to the 2002 census, amounts to 28.5% of the national total. 67.6% of the inhabitants of Santiago claim to have been born in one of the communes of the metropolitan area. In communes such as Santiago Centro and Independencia, according to 2017 census, 1/3 of residents is a Latin American immigrant (28% and 31% of the population of these communes, respectively). [45] Other communes of Greater Santiago with high numbers of immigrants are Estación Central (17%) and Recoleta (16%). [46]

Santiago is the industrial and financial center of Chile, and generates 45% of the country's GDP. [47] Some international institutions, such as ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean), have their offices in Santiago. The strong economy and low government debt is attracting migrants from Europe and the United States. [48]

Santiago's steady economic growth over the past few decades has transformed it into a modern metropolis. The city is now home to a growing theater and restaurant scene, extensive suburban development, dozens of shopping centers, and a rising skyline, including the tallest building in Latin America, the Gran Torre Santiago. It includes several major universities, and has developed a modern transportation infrastructure, including a free flow toll-based, partly underground urban freeway system and the Metro de Santiago, South America's most extensive subway system.

Santiago is an economically divided city (Gini coefficient of 0.47). [49] [50] The western half (zona poniente) of the city is, on average, much poorer than the eastern communes, where the high-standard public and private facilities are concentrated.

The Saratoga Hotel, Cafe and Bar (right) and other business along the south side of Superior Street between Fifth and Sixth avenues West, March 1963. (News-Tribune file photo) this establishment on Superior Street in the old “Bowery” district is a forerunner of today’s Club Saratoga in Canal Park. All the buildings in the photo above were razed during the Gateway redevelopment project in the mid-1960s. The other businesses on the block, heading east (left) from the Saratoga, are Dove Clothing and Shoes, Zien’s Grill, Green’s Crystal Terrace nightclub, the 5th Avenue Hotel and the Spalding Hotel.

The old Club Saratoga was located on the current site of the Endion Station to the North of the previous Canal Park Inn (now Canal Park Lodge). Due to highway construction the business was moved to its current location in or about 1986 with most of the decor, including the original bar, following it. Of particular note are the glass backlit panels above the office that are from Green’s Crystal Terrace, scavanged prior to its demolition in the late 60’s or early 70’s. The business was closed for approximately 1 year prior to re-opening in 1987 as construction of the new Club was completed.


Satago integrates seamlessly with Xero and provides automated invoice chasing, risk insight and single invoice finance for your business. So, you can manage debtors, protect yourself from risk and access finance at the touch of a button.

Automated credit control: Satago chases invoices so you don’t have to. The platform integrates seamless with your accounting software and sends automated payment reminders, monthly statements and thank you emails to customers from your own email address. So, you get paid on time without the hassle.

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YTB Success Report - Your Travel Biz Success

Have you heard about YTB (Your Travel Biz, Your Travel Business) that people are calling the fastest growing online travel agency in history?

A Shocking But True Story.

It's true.
YTB is becoming the largest online travel agency. Based WOOD RIVER, Ill. YTB Started in 2001, and has quickly attracted the attention of thousands of people wanting to change their families future.

YTB is a provider of Internet-based travel booking services for travel agencies and home-based independent representatives in the United States, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Canada. And has grown it's sales force (called RTA's) to over 135,000 in less than 7 years.

  • A Publically Traded Company (OTC Pink Sheets: YTBLA).
  • Posted Net income for the year ended December 31, 2007 was $3.2 million, or .03 per diluted share, compared to a net loss of ($6.0) million, or (.07) per diluted share, for the 2006 fiscal year. Stockholders' equity as of the 2007 year end increased by $19.3 million or 958%, to $17.3 million from a ($2.0) deficit as of the end of fiscal 2006.
  • Goal to become the largest online travel agency by 2011 Projected travel sales to be 1 billion for 2008.
  • Recently announced an exclusive partnership with Shanghai Spring International Travel Service and Mandarin Voyages to market and sell European tour packages, including trips to France, Germany, Belgium and Holland.
  • Founded by an retire pastor.
  • Reported three consecutive profitable quarters.
  • Hundreds of thousands of dollars that could have gone to operating expenses, advertising, etc. instead went to the sales force (RTA's)
  • Provides branded websites for RTA's to sell travel via the internet. Provides 2 businesses in one. Travel and marketing.

Value of travel services booked on YTB's RTAs websites increased 84% in 2007 to $414.5 million.

WOOD RIVER, Ill., April 1, 2008 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/- YTB International, Inc. (OTC Pink Sheets: YTBLA) ('YTB' or the 'Company'), a provider of Internet-based travel booking services for travel agencies and home-based independent representatives in the United States, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Canada, today announced its financial results for the twelve-month period ending December 31, 2007.Total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2007 increased 177% to $141.3 million, compared to $50.9 million for the previous year.

While only the commissions arising from RTAs' booking of travel services booked on the RTAs' websites are reflected as a component of the Company's revenues, YTB also keeps track of the aggregate retail value of all travel services that are sold by its RTAs' websites (which directly impacts commission revenues).

The value of such travel services increased 84% in 2007 to $414.5 million, from $225.7 million in 2006.Net income for the year ended December 31, 2007 was $3.2 million, or .03 per diluted share, compared to a net loss of ($6.0) million, or (.07) per diluted share, for the 2006 fiscal year. Stockholders' equity as of the 2007 year end increased by $19.3 million or 958%, to $17.3 million from a ($2.0) deficit as of the end of fiscal 2006.'2007 was a banner year for YTB.

During the year we more than doubled the size of our network of RTAs to approximately 131,000 strong in addition to reporting three consecutive profitable quarters,' stated Scott Tomer, Chief Executive Officer of YTB. 'As our company grows, so does the attention we have gained within the travel industry.

Over the past year we have received praise for our energy and industry-changing business strategy from leading travel companies and organizations. However, not surprisingly, we have also attracted criticism from those companies with whom we indirectly and directly compete.

We challenged these critics by concentrating on our business and making YTB one of the most successful travel service companies around. Moving into 2008, we see no signs of slowing down, as we expanded our services into Canada.'' We have established a strong network of contacts within the travel world, which have led to significant agreements that have expanded the scope of our travel business.

Most recently, we announced an exclusive partnership with Shanghai Spring International Travel Service and Mandarin Voyages to market and sell European tour packages, including trips to France, Germany, Belgium and Holland. These agreements expand our RTAs' ability to offer fun, unique travel options,' stated, J. Kim Sorensen, CEO of YTB Travel Network, a wholly- owned YTB subsidiary. 'We are very proud of these efforts and look forward to helping more RTAs find success through selling travel.


Most people don't really have a clue as to what they are about to discover once they view this video and audit YTB for themselves.

This is a shame. Their are people swinging mud at this YTB, however what I have learned in my life they will always be unhappy people. YTB has attracted criticism from those companies with whom we indirectly and directly compete
YTB doesn't do business this way. Coach Tomer (YTB's CEO) says "If it isn't true don't say it, if it isn't right don't do it"

Let me ask you a a couple of questions?

Have you ever heard of a company that has never had a bad word told about them?

Let's use one company that you all of use know about. Before I tell you about this company let me ask you a questions.

    Been sued so many times, can't be counted.
  • Has thousand if not millions of unhappy customers.
  • If you ask 8 out of 10 people about this company they have had a very bad experience with their product on a daily basis.
  • Has over 80% of the market share in their category.
  • Their stock price has been up and down over the years.
  • Has had more bad press then any company has ever had.
  • Has a history of releasing bad project before it has been tested properly.

I know most of you after reading the above list, would say I would not only never use their product, but also would never buy their stock. Right?

And, if you said this then you would have missed out on one of the best producing companies in history. And most of you should just stop using your computer because the company I have been talking about is: Microsoft.

Now, some people are saying that YTB will be the next "Microsoft of Internet Travel" I didn't saying this. All I can say is YTB has grown at a rate last year of 83%. That nothing to turn you head on. When any company grows at this rate in what they say is so-called pre-recession. It deserves your attention.

Their will always be the nay-sayers, and negative people. And they they have to talk about somebody or something.

Satago is the solution that your business has been waiting for, offering many benefits. These include:

  • One centralised location where you can track all credit control activity
  • Accurate and up-to-date insights on new and existing customers to minimise risk and bad debts
  • Fully automated invoice management process which integrates with your mailbox
  • Superior debtor analysis, delivering live results of ageing and debt size for more effective invoice pipeline management
  • Access to flexible, low-cost finance to free up working capital when you need it
  • A cost-saving equivalent to three days’ work per month, leaving you more time to work on growth and development

Managing your debtors

Business owners who offer sale on credit will know the frustration of chasing customers for payment weeks and sometimes months after invoices are due.

Chasing payments is time-consuming and many businesses don’t have the bandwidth to put best-practice credit control procedures in place.

Satago solves this problem by chasing invoices for you.

  • The app integrates with your email provider and sends automated payment reminders, monthly statements and thank you emails to your customers from your own email address.
  • Data such as the customer name, invoice amount and due date is pulled into the emails from your Sage accounting software.
  • If you wish to add late fees to overdue invoices, Satago will calculate them for you in line with statutory limits and add them to your payment reminders.
  • You can adjust the templates and sending schedule on a customer level.

Automating your payment reminders will save you time

With 62% of businesses suffering late or frozen payments as a result of the pandemic, effective credit control has become more important than ever.

Faster payments mean better cash flow for your business.


Using Satago to manage your cashflow means that:

You save on average three days per month chasing money owed.

Track all credit control activities in one centralised location.

Better credit insight on potential customers helps empower your trading decisions and minimise bad debt exposure.

Ongoing live analysis of your debtor book and aged debtor reports so you can see who your oldest and largest debtor is at a glance.

Flexible invoice finance allows you to release working capital for one transparent fixed cost as and when you need it.

Automated your cashflow management process so you can focus on sustainably growing your business.

Watch the video: Satago for Sage (January 2022).