Winder, William Henry (1775-1824) Army Officer: William Henry Winder was born in Somerset County, Maryland, on February 18, 1775. After attending the University of Pennsylvania, he studied law and settled in Baltimore in 1798. When the War of 1812 began, he joined the army, was appointed a lieutenant colonel in 1812, and was placed in charge of the 14th US Infantry Regiment later that year. The next year, he was made a brigadier general, after leading a successful expedition from Black Rock to the Canada shore below Fort Erie. Captured at the Battle of Stony Creek in 1813, he was free by 1814, when he was appointed adjutant and inspector-general. Also in 1814, Winder commanded at the Battle of Bladensburg. He was responsible for protecting Washington, D.C. from British attack, but was unable to stop the British. When the US Army was reduced in 1815, Winder was retired. He returned to practicing law, and served in the Maryland before his death on May 24, 1824.
The son of Henry Winder (d. 1733), farmer, by a daughter of Adam Bird of Penruddock, he was born at Hutton John, parish of Greystoke, Cumberland, on 15 May 1693. His grandfather, Henry Winder, a farmer, who lived to be over a hundred (he was living in 1714), was falsely charged with murdering his first-born son.  Henry Winder, the grandson, after passing through the Penruddock grammar school under John Atkinson, entered (1708) the Whitehaven Academy under Thomas Dixon, where Caleb Rotheram and John Taylor were among his fellow students. For two years (1712–14) he studied at Dublin under Joseph Boyse In Dublin he was licensed to preach. 
In 1714 Winder succeeded Edward Rothwell as minister of the independent congregation at Tunley, Lancashire, and was ordained at St. Helen's on 11 September 1716, Christopher Bassnett preaching on the occasion. In 1718 (his first sacrament was 16 November) he was appointed minister of Castle Hey congregation, Liverpool. The first entry in the extant minutes of the Warrington classis (22 April 1719) records his admission to that body, ‘upon his making an acknowledgment of his breaking in upon the rules of it, in the way & manner of his coming to Liverpoole.’ A strong advocate of non-subscription in the controversy then active both in England and in Ireland, he brought round his congregation to that view. His ministry was successful a new chapel was built for him in Benn's Garden, Red Cross Street, and opened in July 1727. From 1732 he corresponded with the London dissenters, with a view to the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts. 
Winder married the widow of William Shawe of Liverpool, and educated her son William Shawe, afterwards of Preston. On taking him in 1740 to study at Glasgow, he received the diploma of D.D. 
In September 1746 Winder suffered a stroke of paralysis, and never again entered the pulpit, though he preached twice from the reading-desk in January 1747, and occasionally assisted at the sacrament in that year. John Henderson (d. 4 July 1779), who took Anglican orders in 1763, and was the first incumbent of St. Paul's, Liverpool, became his assistant and successor. Winder's faculties failed, and he died on Sunday 9 August 1752. He was buried on the south side of the churchyard of St. Peter's, Liverpool (now the cathedral) the memorial stone was earthed over when the churchyard was laid out as a garden. Henderson preached his funeral sermon. He outlived his wife, and left no issue. 
His library (a remarkable one, with a valuable collection of tracts) and manuscripts were bequeathed to his congregation. The library was transferred to Renshaw Street Unitarian Chapel, to which the congregation moved in 1811. A letter (now lost) giving an account (6 August 1723) of the non-subscription debates in the Belfast sub-synod, which Winder had attended as a visitor, was printed in the Christian Moderator, October 1827 (p. 274), from a copy by John Scott Porter, then minister at Toxteth Park chapel, Liverpool. 
For young Shawe's use, Winder drew up (about 1733), but did not publish, ‘a short general system of chronology’ on ‘the Newtonian plan.’ This was the germ of his bulky work, the result of twelve years' labour, A Critical and Chronological History of the Rise, Progress, Declension, and Revival of Knowledge, chiefly Religious. In two Periods. I. … Tradition, from Adam to Moses. II. … Letters, from Moses to Christ, 1745, 2 vols. (dedication to William Shawe). He prefers Moses to all secular historians, as earlier and more authentic. In vol. ii. chap. xxi. § 3, is a eulogy of British liberties, with evident reference to the events of 1745, during which Winder had helped to raise a regiment for the defence of Liverpool. The work did not sell, and was reissued as a second edition in 1756, with new title-page, and Memoirs of the author by George Benson. 
Winder was commissioned as a colonel in the U.S. Army at the start of the War of 1812. Promoted to brigadier general, he was one of two acting commanders of the American army at the Battle of Stoney Creek in July 1813, where he was captured, along with fellow commander John Chandler.
Battle of Bladensberg [ edit | edit source ]
Exchanged the following year, Winder was appointed commander of the defenses of Washington and Baltimore by President James Madison on July 4, 1814. He received little logistical support from the government, especially Secretary of War Armstrong who received much blame for the upcoming disaster. In August, General Robert Ross with several thousand troops advanced upon Washington. Winder had only a few hundred regulars, and a mob of some thousands of militia to oppose them. He made no attempt to skirmish or slow down the advancing British and decided on an all-or-nothing set piece defensive battle at Bladensburg. The Americans met the British at the Battle of Bladensburg on August 24, 1814. He failed to show effective command in the battle, although he received virtually no support from the Secretary of War and Secretary of State James Monroe actually interfered with his command by repositioning some of the militia, which may have had a significant contribution to the ensuing rout. He clearly did not support Commodore Barney's second line that actually repulsed the 85th foot after the rout of the American first line. As a result of the battle, the capital fell into the hands of the invaders. Winder was afterward court-martialed, but was acquitted of all blame. Ώ]
After the debacle of Bladenburg, Winder was maneuvered out of having any significant command at Baltimore in favor of the highly competent Samuel Smith and was relegated under protest to the command of limited troops on the Western Approaches to Baltimore which were not considered a likely route for the British Attack. Winder would have participated in the battle at Hampstead Hill to the East of Baltimore had the British decided to carry forward to the attack.
William H. Winder papers
William Henry Winder (1775-1824), a Baltimore lawyer, volunteered to serve in the army during the War of 1812. He was given the rank of colonel and sent to the Niagara frontier early in the war. Within a year, he became a brigadier general. In July 1813, he and fellow commander John Chandler were captured at the Battle of Stoney Creek in Ontario.
A prisoner exchange in 1814 brought Winder back to Washington. In early July, when rumors that the British would soon invade the capital seemed credible, Winder was given command of the Tenth Military District that included the cities of Washington and Baltimore. This is likely to have been politically motivated (his uncle was Governor of Maryland, and it was hoped that he would send troops aid in the defense of Washington) rather than a sound military decision. Winder’s appointment was strongly opposed by Secretary of War, John Armstrong, who provided Winder with little logistical support.
At the Battle of Bladensburg on August 24, 1814, Winder’s forces were soundly defeated by the British. That evening the capital was invaded by the British who set fire to the unfinished capitol and other buildings. A court martial later acquitted Winder of blame Secretary of War, John Armstrong, was forced to resign.
After serving in the defense of Baltimore, September 12-14, 1814, Winder returned to the northern frontier for the remainder of the war. He was discharged in 1815 and resumed practicing law in Baltimore. Nine years later, at age 49, he died from tuberculosis.
Winder, William Henry - History
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Step back in time to a bygone era and experience a genteel 18th century lifestyle. Nowhere can you find a more unspoiled and tranquil environment. Our history begins in 1619 when settlers observed the first official Thanksgiving in America. Berkeley’s 1726 Georgian mansion is the birthplace of Benjamin Harrison V, signer of the Declaration of Independence and three times governor of Virginia. The estate is also the birthplace of William Henry Harrison, ninth president of the United States, and ancestral home of his grandson, Benjamin Harrison, the twenty-third president. During the Civil War, Berkeley was occupied by General George McClellan’s Union troops. While at Berkeley, General Daniel Butterfield composed the familiar tune “Taps,” first played by his bugler, O.W. Norton.
Enthusiastic guides in period costumes conduct tours of the mansion daily. The mansion is furnished with a magnificent collection of 18th century antiques and artifacts. Grounds tours are self-guided and include five terraces of boxwood and flowering gardens leading to the James River, monuments to the First Thanksgiving and to Taps, and the Harrison family graveyard. The gardens provide an elegant setting for weddings and private events. The first Sunday in November, Berkeley celebrates the historic 1619 landing with the Virginia Thanksgiving Festival. In December, the plantation is decorated with traditional holiday decorations of fresh greenery and natural arrangements from Berkeley’s gardens.
The Origins of 10 Nicknames
The name Richard is very old and was popular during the Middle Ages. In the 12th and 13th centuries everything was written by hand and Richard nicknames like Rich and Rick were common just to save time. Rhyming nicknames were also common and eventually Rick gave way to Dick and Hick, while Rich became Hitch. Dick, of course, is the only rhyming nickname that stuck over time. And boy did it stick. At one point in England, the name Dick was so popular that the phrase "every Tom, Dick, or Harry" was used to describe Everyman.
2. Why is Bill from William?
There are many theories on why Bill became a nickname for William the most obvious is that it was part of the Middle Ages trend of letter swapping. Much how Dick is a rhyming nickname for Rick, the same is true of Bill and Will. Because hard consonants are easier to pronounce than soft ones, some believe Will morphed into Bill for phonetic reasons. Interestingly, when William III ruled over in England in the late 17th century, his subjects mockingly referred to him as "King Billy."
3. Why is Hank from Henry?
The name Henry dates back to medieval England. (Curiously, at that time, Hank was a diminutive for John.) So how do we get Hank from Henry? Well, one theory says that Hendrick is the Dutch form of the English name Henry. Henk is the diminutive form of Hendrick, ergo, Hank from Henk. Hanks were hugely popular here in the States for many decades, though by the early 90s it no longer appeared in the top 1,000 names for baby boys. But Hank is making a comeback! In 2010, it cracked the top 1,000, settling at 806. By 2013 it was up to 626.
4. Why is Jack from John?
The name Jack dates back to about 1,200 and was originally used as a generic name for peasants. Over time, Jack worked his way into words such as lumberjack and steeplejack. Even jackass, the commonly used term for a donkey, retains its generic essence in the word Jack. Of course, John was once used as a generic name for English commoners and peasants, (John Doe) which could be why Jack came became his nickname. But the more likely explanation is that Normans added -kin when they wanted to make a diminutive. And Jen was their way of saying John. So little John became Jenkin and time turned that into Jakin, which ultimately became Jack.
5. Why is Chuck from Charles?
"Dear Chuck" was an English term of endearment and Shakespeare, in Macbeth, used the phrase to refer to Lady Macbeth. What's this have to do with Charles? Not much, but it's interesting. However, Charles in Middle English was Chukken and that's probably where the nickname was born.
6. Why is Peggy from Margaret?
The name Margaret has a variety of different nicknames. Some are obvious, as in Meg, Mog and Maggie, while others are downright strange, like Daisy. But it's the Mog/Meg we want to concentrate on here as those nicknames later morphed into the rhymed forms Pog(gy) and Peg(gy).
7. Why is Ted from Edward?
The name Ted is yet another result of the Old English tradition of letter swapping. Since there were a limited number of first names in the Middle Ages, letter swapping allowed people to differentiate between people with the same name. It was common to replace the first letter of a name that began with a vowel, as in Edward, with an easier to pronounce consonant, such as T. Of course, Ted was already a popular nickname for Theodore, which makes it one of the only nicknames derived from two different first names. Can you name the others?
8. Why is Harry from Henry?
Since Medieval times, Harry has been a consistently popular nickname for boys named Henry in England. Henry was also very popular among British monarchs, most of whom preferred to be called Harry by their subjects. This is a tradition that continues today as Prince Henry of Wales , as he was Christened, goes by Prince Harry. Of course, Harry is now used as a given name for boys. In 2006, it was the 593rd most popular name for boys in the United States. One reason for its upsurge in popularity is the huge success of those amazing Harry Potter books.
9. Why is Jim from James?
There are no definitive theories on how Jim became the commonly used nickname for James, but the name dates back to at least the 1820s. For decades, Jims were pretty unpopular due to the "Jim Crow Law," which was attributed to an early 19th century song and dance called "Jump Jim Crow," performed by white actors in blackface. The name "Jim Crow" soon became associated with African Americans and by 1904, Jim Crow aimed to promote segregation in the South. Jim has since shed its racial past, and is once again a popular first name for boys all by itself, sans James.
10. Why is Sally from Sarah?
Sally was primarily used as a nickname for Sarah in England and France. Like some English nicknames, Sally was derived by replacing the R in Sarah with an L. Same is true for Molly, a common nickname for Mary. Though Sally from the Peanuts never ages, the name itself does and has declined in popularity in recent years. Today, most girls prefer the original Hebrew name Sarah.
War Department Collection of Confederate Records
Finding Aids: Elizabeth Bethel, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the War Department Collection of Confederate Records, PI 101 (1957) Henry P. Beers, comp., Guide to the Archives of the Government of the Confederate States of America (1968).
Related Records: Treasury Department Collection of Confederate Records, RG 365.
The War Department Collection of Confederate Records consists of records of the Confederate States of America acquired by capture or surrender at the close of the Civil War and those later acquired by donation or purchase. On July 21, 1865, the Secretary of War established a unit in the Adjutant General's Office for the collection, safekeeping, and publication of the "Rebel Archives." The records were used in protecting the U.S. Government against claims arising from the war, in establishing pension claims, and for historical purposes. After many changes both in location and custody, the records were placed in the Organization Records Section of the Old Records Division of the Adjutant General's Office, from which they were transferred to the National Archives in 1938. Certain federal records relating to Confederate soldiers, maintained with the Confederate records and in part interfiled with them, are included in this record group. Also included are records created by the custodians of the records.
109.2 COLLECTED BOUND RECORDS OF CONFEDERATE EXECUTIVE, LEGISLATIVE, AND JUDICIAL OFFICES ("REBEL ARCHIVES")
Textual Records (2,750 vols.): Bound volumes classified by the U.S. War Department roughly according to provenance into subgroups designated "chapters," the volumes numbered serially in each chapter. The chapters to which the volumes were assigned are I, Adjutant and Inspector General's Department (SEE 109.7.1) II, Military Commands (SEE 109.9) III, Engineer Department (SEE 109.7.2) IV, Ordnance Department (SEE 109.7.5) V, Quartermaster Department (SEE 109.7.3) VI, Medical Department (SEE 109.8) VII, Legislative Records (SEE 109.4) VIII, Miscellaneous Records (SEE 109.13) IX, Office of the Secretary of War (SEE 109.6) X, Treasury Department (SEE 109.10) XI, Post Office Department (SEE 109.11) and XII, Judiciary (SEE 109.5).
Note: Records included in these volumes are described in the appropriate subgroups that follow. See the references above for specific locations.
109.3 GENERAL RECORDS OF THE CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT
Textual Records: Jefferson Davis papers, 1861-65. Returns of electors for President and Vice President, 1861. Journal of the constitutional convention of the Provisional Congress, 1861. Provisional and permanent constitutions of the provisional government and the Confederate States, 1861-62. Statutes at Large of the provisional government, 1861-62. Laws for the army and navy of the Confederate States, 1861. Tariff of the Confederate States, 1861. Indian treaties, 1861.
109.4 RECORDS OF THE CONFEDERATE CONGRESS
Textual Records: House journal notes, 1862. Journals and minutes of the Provisional Congress, Senate, and House of Representatives, 1861-65. Memorials and petitions, 1861-65, with registers. Bills and resolutions, 1861-65. Miscellaneous records of the Confederate Congresses, 1861-65. Messages of the President to Congress, 1861-65. Congressional messages, 1862-65. Credentials of members of Congress, 1861-65. Papers relating to elections, 1862-63, including a contested election. Nominations to Congress and related papers, 1861-64. Confirmation and assignment lists, 1861-65. Miscellaneous letters and reports, 1861-65. Copies of amendments, 1862-63. Estimates of funds, 1861- 65. Signatures of members of the House of Representatives, 1862- 65. Pamphlets, 1861-64.
109.5 RECORDS OF THE CONFEDERATE JUDICIARY
Textual Records (in Atlanta): South Carolina District Court sequestration case files and related records, 1861-64, with a docket. Miscellaneous records, 1861-64.
109.6 RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR
Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, 1861-65. Letters and telegrams received, 1861-65, with index. Records relating to personnel and accounts, including War Department payrolls and requests for funds, 1861-65. Arrest registers and other records of the Richmond office of the Provost Marshal, 1862-64. Records relating to passports, including records of the passport office at Richmond, 1861-65, and records of passports issued at various locations, 1862-64. Letters sent, 1862-65, and other records of the Agent for the Exchange of Prisoners, including muster rolls of paroled and exchanged Confederates, 1863-65, and letters and reports on the Confederate prison at Andersonville, GA, 1864-65. Miscellaneous records, 1861-65, including record book of persons taking the Confederate oath of allegiance, n.d., and copies of military and naval laws and regulations, 1861-64.
Microfilm Publications: M409, M437, M522, M523, M524, M618, M901.
109.7 RECORDS OF CONFEDERATE WAR DEPARTMENT STAFF DEPARTMENTS
1861-76 (bulk 1861-65)
109.7.1 Records of the Adjutant and Inspector General's
Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, 1861-65. Letters received, 1861-65, with registers and index. Telegrams received and drafts of telegrams sent, 1861-65. Record of telegrams received, 1862-65. Account book relating to telegrams sent, 1862- 64. Inspection reports, 1863-65, with indexes, n.d. Records relating to courts-martial, 1861-65. General and special orders, 1861-65. Muster and pay rolls of Confederate military units, 1861-65 (510 ft.). Casualty lists, 1861-65. Records relating to appointments of military officers, 1861-65, with registers, rosters of officers, and lists of quartermasters. Records relating to army organization, n.d., with register. Records relating to conscription, exemption, and details, 1862-65. Register of slaves impressed, 1864-65. Miscellaneous records, 1861-76, including powers of attorney, 1861-65 records of boards of surveys, 1861-65 and Troops Tendered to the Confederate War Department, 1876.
Microfilm Publications: M410, M474, M627, M836, M935.
109.7.2 Records of the Engineer Department
Textual Records: Sketch and cash books, 1862-64. Miscellaneous papers, 1862-65. Letters and telegrams sent, 1861-64, with registers. Record of provisions issued from the commissary store of the Engineer Department, Richmond, 1862-64.
Microfilm Publications: M628.
109.7.3 Records of the Quartermaster Department
Textual Records: Letters sent, 1861-65. Letters received, 1861- 65, with registers and endorsements. Telegrams received, 1864. Orders and circulars, 1861-64. Records of the Pay Bureau, including letters received, 1864, and accounts of paymasters and record of payments to military personnel, 1861-65. Clothing, commutation, and miscellaneous rolls, 1861-65. Special requisitions, 1861. Miscellaneous quartermaster and commissary papers, 1861-65. Accounts with railroads, 1861-65. Bounty rolls, 1862-65. Payrolls of War Department civilian employees, 1861-65, with index, 1861-63. Slave payrolls, 1861-65, with index. Payrolls of extra duty men, 1861-65. Records relating to the valuation of horses and their equipment, 1861-65. Telegrams received relating to transportation, 1862-64. Estimates, 1864, and other records relating to the tax in kind, including abstracts of estimates, assessments, and collections of tax in kind received from assessors at Aberdeen, MS, and Tuscaloosa, AL, 1864-65. Description of uniform and dress of the Confederate States Army, 1861. Tax laws, 1863-64.
Microfilm Publications: M410, M469, M900.
109.7.4 Records of the Subsistence Department
Textual Records: Letters, telegrams, and orders received and sent, 1861-63. Regulations, 1861-64.
109.7.5 Records of the Ordnance Department
Textual Records: Letters sent and received, orders, account books, and other records of the Central Laboratory, Arsenal, and Armory (Macon, GA), 1862-65 arsenals at Nashville, TN, 1861-62, and Atlanta, GA, 1862-64 Richmond Arsenal and Virginia State Armory (Richmond, VA), 1861-65 Augusta Powder Factory (Augusta, VA), 1862-65 ordnance officer and depot at Savannah, GA, 1861- 63 ordnance depot at Dalton, GA, 1861-63 New Orleans Arsenal (New Orleans, LA), 1861-62 ordnance depots at Corinth and Columbus, MS, 1862 ordnance office and ordnance works at Tyler, TX, 1862-65 and the Little Rock Arsenal (Little Rock, AR), 1862- 65. Correspondence and reports of the Nitre and Mining Bureau, 1862-65.
Microfilm Publication: M119.
109.8 RECORDS OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, CONFEDERATE WAR DEPARTMENT
109.8.1 Records of the Surgeon General's Office
Textual Records: Hospital muster and clothing rolls, 1861-65. Letters sent, 1861-65. Issuances, 1861-65. Regulations, 1861-63. Lists of medical officers, 1863-64.
109.8.2 Records of Medical Directors
Textual Records: Records of the Director at Richmond, VA, consisting of correspondence, 1862-65 lists of medical officers, 1861-64 registers and lists of patients in various hospitals, 1862-63 registers of furloughs and discharges, 1862-64 statistical reports, 1862-65 and record books, 1862-65. Records of the Director at Raleigh, NC, consisting of statistical reports concerning patients and attendants, 1863-65.
109.8.3 Records of Medical Purveyors
Textual Records: Records of the Purveyor's Office at Richmond, VA, consisting of accounts of medical and hospital supplies received and issued, 1862-65 and clothing accounts, 1863. Records of the Purveyor's Office at Macon and Savannah, GA, consisting of letters sent, 1862-64 letters, telegrams, and orders received, 1862-65 and records, invoices, inventories, abstracts, and accounts of medical and hospital supplies, 1862- 65. Letters sent by the Medical Purveyor's Office, Macon, GA, and Montgomery, AL, 1863-65.
109.8.4 Records of hospitals
Textual Records: Registers of patients receipt, account, and supply books correspondence issuances prescription books and general record books of hospitals in Alabama, including Fort Morgan Hospital, 1862-64, Ross General Hospital (Mobile), 1861- 65, Shelby Springs General Hospital, 1864-65, and Rock Hotel Hospital, Little Rock, AR, 1862-63 hospitals in Georgia, including Walker General Hospital (Columbus), 1864-65, General Hospital No. 1 (Savannah), 1862-64, and various hospitals at Dalton, 1862-63, and Macon, 1862-65 Bowling Green Hospital, KY, 1861-62 Shreveport General Hospital, LA, 1864-65 hospitals in Mississippi, including Lauderdale Springs General Hospital, 1862- 63, Way and Yandell Hospitals (Meridian), 1865, and St. Mary's Hospital (West Point), 1864-65 hospital at Fort Fillmore and Dona Anna, NM, 1861-62 hospitals in North Carolina, including General Hospital No. 7 and Pettigrew Hospital (Raleigh), 1861-65, Military Prison Hospital (Salisbury), 1864-65, General Hospitals No. 4 and 5 (Wilmington), 1862-65, and other North Carolina hospitals at Charlotte, Fort Fisher, Goldsboro, Greensboro, and Wilson, 1863-65 Overton General Hospital, Memphis, TN, 1861-62 General Hospitals at Franklin and El Paso, TX, 1862, and Galveston and Houston, TX, 1861-65 hospitals in Richmond, VA, including General Hospitals No. 1-27, 1861-65, Chimborazo Hospital and Chimborazo Hospitals No. 1-5, 1861-65, Howard's Grove Hospital, 1862-65, Jackson Hospital, 1861-65, and Camp Winder General Hospital, 1861-65 and other Virginia hospitals, including Danville, 1862-65, Orange and Farmville, 1861-65, Petersburg, 1861-65, and Williamsburg, 1861-64.
109.8.5 Miscellaneous records
Textual Records: Record of Virginia medical officers, 1861-65. Record of vaccinations, 1864-65. Prescription books, 1864-65. Receipts, invoices, and requisitions for medical and hospital supplies, 1861-65. Property returns, 1861-65. Reports of sick and wounded, 1861-65.
109.9 RECORDS OF CONFEDERATE MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS
109.9.1 General records relating to military commands
Textual Records: General orders, Headquarters of the Armies of the Confederate States, 1865. Post, department, and army returns, rosters, and lists, 1861-65. Battle reports, 1862-64.
Microfilm Publications: M861.
109.9.2 Records of armies and geographical commands
Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, registers of letters received, issuances, and other records of the Army of the Potomac (Confederate), 1861-62 Army and Department of Northern Virginia, 1862-65 Army and Department of the Peninsula, 1861-62 Department of Richmond, 1864-65 Department of Henrico, 1862-63 Department of North Carolina, 1861-62 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 1862-65 Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, 1861-65 Department and District of Georgia, 1861-65 Army of Pensacola, 1861-62 Central Division of Kentucky, 1861-62 Central Army of Kentucky, 1861-62 Army of Kentucky, 1861-62 Army of the Kanawha, 1861 Departments of East Tennessee and Western Virginia, 1861-64 Army and Department of Tennessee, 1862-65 Department of Alabama and West Florida, 1861- 62 District of the Gulf, 1862-65 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 1864-65 Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, 1864-65 Army of Louisiana, 1861 Army of the Mississippi, 1862-65 Department of the West, 1862-63 Army of the West, 1861-62 Western Department, 1861-63 Military Division of the West, 1864-65 Department of Texas, 1861-62 and Trans- Mississippi Department, 1862-65.
Microfilm Publications: M921.
109.9.3 Records of the commands of individual general officers
Textual Records: Letters, telegrams, and orders sent and received record books and other command records of P.G.T. Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, J.C. Breckinridge, James R. Chalmers, T.H. Holmes, James Longstreet, Gideon J. Pillow, Leonidas Polk, Sterling Price, Earl Van Dorn, and others, 1861-65.
109.9.4 Records of Confederate mobile units
Textual Records: Company books, registers of sick and wounded, clothing account books, rosters, quartermaster records, order books, letter books, descriptive lists, and other records of regiments, battalions, and companies of the Confederate Army raised in the states of AL, AR, GA, KY, LA, MS, MO, NC, SC, TN, TX, and VA, 1861-65.
Related Records: Muster and payrolls of Confederate units in records of the Adjutant and Inspector General's Department UNDER 109.7.1.
109.9.5 Records of local commands
Textual Records: Records, principally letters sent and received and orders, of officers serving at fixed installations, or of troops raised exclusively for service within a single state, 1861-65.
109.10 RECORDS OF THE CONFEDERATE TREASURY DEPARTMENT
Related Records: Additional records of the Confederate Treasury Department in RG 365, Treasury Department Collection of Confederate Records.
109.10.1 Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Treasury
Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, 1861-65. Letters received, 1861-65, with register. Orders, circulars, and regulations, 1863-65. Requisitions on the Treasury Department for funds from the War Department, the Navy Department, and Customs, 1861-64. Disbursing journal, 1861-62. Record and stubs of War and Navy Department warrants, 1861-64. Record of balances on hand in depositories of public money, 1861-64. Accounts of Capt. and Assistant Quartermaster John H. Parkhill with the Treasurer, 1862.
Microfilm Publications: T1025.
109.10.2 Records of the Chief Clerk
Textual Records: Receipts for payment of contingent expenses of the Treasury Department, 1862-63.
109.10.3 Records of the Disbursing Clerks
Textual Records: Ledger of accounts, 1861-63.
109.10.4 Records of the Office of the First Auditor
Textual Records: Ledger of accounts for the navy and Marines, 1861-62. Memorandum of moneys received from depositories and list of certificates issued by the Funding Committee, 1863-64.
109.10.5 Records of the Office of the Second Auditor
Textual Records: Register of rolls, 1861-62. Registers of requisitions for army expenses, 1861-65. Register of letters received at Pay Division, 1862-65. Register of payments to officers and soldiers, 1861. Records of payments to soldiers, discharged soldiers, and troop units, 1861-64. Payrolls of officers, 1861-63. Letters sent relating to claims of deceased soldiers, 1862-65. Registers of claims, 1861-65. Returns of deceased soldiers and soldiers from hospitals, regimental and company officers, and others, 1861-65. Record of accounts reported to and returned from the comptroller, 1861-62. Record of bonded quartermasters and commissaries, 1861-65.
109.10.6 Records of the Office of the Comptroller
Textual Records: Accounts of disbursing officers of the Confederate States Army, 1861-65. Register of money received and counted, 1863-65. Digest of the comptroller's decisions, 1863.
109.10.7 Records of the Office of the Register
Textual Records: Letters sent, 1861-65. Journals and ledgers of various loans, 1861-65. Record cards of subscribers to Confederate States loans, 1861-64. Registers of loan subscriptions and unclaimed dividends, 1861. Records of loan interest dividends, 1861-64 maturing stock, 1864 issued coupon bonds, 1861 transferable stock, 1861 and interest issued, 1865.
109.10.8 Records of the War Tax Office and the Office of the Commissioner of Taxes
Textual Records: Letters received, 1861-65, with register. Letters sent, 1861-65. Returns of collectors and assessors of the War Tax, 1861-65. Reports of the Commissioner of Taxes, 1863. Miscellaneous records, 1861-65. List of collectors, sureties, and assessors of the War Tax, 1861-65. Sales tax registers for District No. 10, Richmond, VA, 1863-65.
109.10.9 Records of the Treasury Note Bureau
Textual Records: Registers of treasury notes, 1861-63. Schedule of note plates, 1861-64. Record book of treasury notes signed by J. Walter Jones, 1862. Memorandum of treasury notes, 1862-63. Record book of treasury note redemption, 1862-65. Certifications relating to the counting of notes returned for redemption, 1865. List of schedules of interest paid on 7/30 notes, 1864-65.
109.10.10 Records of depositories of public funds
Textual Records: Records of treasury depositories in various states, 1864-65. Letters received by the depository at Savannah, GA, 1863-64. Record book of cash on hand at Macon, GA, depository, 1863-64. Order book of the Macon, GA, depository for the five hundred million loan, 1864. Schedule of certificates for 4-percent registered bonds received by the depository at Columbus, MS, 1864.
109.10.11 Records relating to Confederate Customs
Textual Records: General records ("Custom Papers"), 1861. Account of bonds taken in the district of Savannah for duties on merchandise warehoused, 1860-62. Account book of the surveyor of the port of New Orleans, LA, 1854-61. Account book of B.F. McDonough, collector at Sabine, TX, 1861-64. Registers of vessels, port of Savannah, GA, 1856-64.
109.10.12 Miscellaneous records
Textual Records: Account of William B. Johnston for bonds sold, 1863-64. Statement book of funded debt for Mississippi, 1864. List of claims, 1861-63. Index to circulars and decisions, n.d.
109.11 RECORDS OF THE CONFEDERATE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT
Textual Records: Military telegraph accounts, 1864. Papers relating to unpaid accounts of mail contractors for carrying U.S. mail, 1861-62. Mail contracts and related records, 1864-65. Letters received by the Post Office Department in the Trans- Mississippi Department, 1864-65. Instructions to postmasters and special agents, 1861. List of post offices, n.d. Route books, 1861-65. Dead letter register, 1864-65.
109.12 RECORDS OF THE CONFEDERATE NAVY DEPARTMENT
Textual Records: Letters sent by the Office of Ordnance and Hydrography, 1864-65. Records of a Board for Examining Midshipmen, 1861-62. Printed registers of naval officers, 1862- 64. Payroll for the crew of the steamer Alabama, 1863. Miscellaneous records relating to the navy, 1862-64.
Microfilm Publications: M909.
Related Records: For additional records of the Confederate Navy, SEE RG 45, Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library.
Engineering Drawings (3 items): Plans of the C.S.S. Alabama, 1861. SEE ALSO 109.15.
109.13 MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS
109.13.1 Records relating to states
Textual Records: Records relating to various states, 1861-65. Proceedings of a convention of the commissioners of appraisement, 1864. Copies of state constitutions legislative journals, statutes, and ordinances of secession correspondence, reports, and accounts of state officials and other records relating to AL, 1858-64 AR, 1859-61 FL, 1860-62 GA, 1858-65 KY, 1847-48 LA, 1856-65 MS, 1861-65 MO, 1861 NC, 1861-65 SC, 1825-63 TN, 1861 TX, 1859-64 and VA, 1859-65.
Microfilm Publications: M359, M998, T731.
109.13.2 Collections of papers of Confederate general officers
Textual Records: Letters and telegrams received by Robert E. Lee, 1861-65. Papers relating to J.B. Floyd, 1861. Papers of P.G.T. Beauregard, 1862-64 J.R. Chalmers, 1861-65 Jubal A. Early, 1861-65 S.G. French, 1861-65 T.C. Hindman, 1861-64 J.B. Hood, 1862-64 B.R. Johnson, 1862-65 Sam Jones, 1861-64 St. John R. Lindell, 1865 J.B. Magruder, 1862-64 Lafayette McLaws, 1861-65 J.C. Pemberton, 1862-64 G.J. Pillow, 1861-64 Leonidas Polk, 1861-64 C.L. Stevenson, 1863-65 E.C. Walthall, 1863-64 Joseph Wheeler, 1863-64 and W.H.C. Whiting, 1862-65.
109.13.3 Other records
Textual Records: "Citizens File," 1861-65 (1,300 ft.). Papers of and relating to military and civilian personnel, 1861-65 (480 ft.). Papers relating to Confederate sympathizers, deserters, guerrillas, and prisoners, 1861-65. "Vessel Papers," 1861-65. Manuscripts, 1861-65, with an index. Papers of George N. Sanders, 1860-63 Clement C. Clay, 1861-65 and Lt. Col. John Withers, 1840-60. Intercepted letters, 1861-65. Collection of Union, Confederate, British, and other foreign pamphlets, publications, and reprints, 1854-64. Original documents, 1860-65, selected for publication in The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington: Government Printing Office, 128 volumes, 1889-1901).
Microfilm Publications: M346, M347, M909.
109.14 RECORDS OF THE U.S. WAR DEPARTMENT RELATING TO CONFEDERATES
109.14.1 Records of the Adjutant General's Office relating to
military and naval service of Confederates
Textual Records: "Carded" records showing army service, 1861-65 (5,474 ft.), with indexes. Naval and Marine Corps service records, 1861-65. Hospital and prison records of persons serving in the navy and the Marine Corps, 1862-65.
Microfilm Publications: For a detailed list of microfilm publications of Confederate compiled service records and indexes, please consult the current edition of the National Archives microfilm catalog.
109.14.2 Records relating to prisoners, oaths, and paroles
Textual Records: Letters and orders sent and received relating to prisoners, 1861-65. Records of Confederates in Union prisons, 1861-65 (227 ft.). Registers, rolls, lists, and other records of Confederate, federal, political, and civil prisoners received, transferred, escaped, paroled, died, buried, discharged, and released, 1861-65. Descriptive lists of prisoners, 1862-65. Records relating to Confederates in Union hospitals, 1861-65. Hospital registers, 1864-65. Morning reports of prisoners, 1862- 65. Ledgers of prisoners' accounts, 1862-65. Cash books, 1863-65. Mess books, 1862-63. Records of articles received for and delivered to prisoners, 1864-65. Stubs, receipts, and records of prisoners' money received, 1862-65.
Microfilm Publications: M598.
Related Records: Confederate records relating to Union prisoners of war in RG 249, Records of the Commissary General of Prisoners.
109.14.3 Records of the Archive Office
Textual Records: Letters sent, 1865-80. Letters received, 1865- 81, with register. Report of Francis Lieber, Chief of the Archive Office, 1866. Record of answers to inquiries, 1882-94. Orders and regulations relating to the Archive Office, 1865-81. Memorandum relating to Confederate Archives, 1865-80. Time book of clerks, 1891-94. Newspaper clippings, 1874-94. Report and papers of Marcus J. Wright, 1876-86. Catalogs of Confederate military records, 1878-1900. Records relating to the exchange and treatment of prisoners in southern prisons, 1861-65, with schedules. List of accounts received by the Archive Office, 1865. Copies of miscellaneous correspondence for the period 1862-65, n.d. Index to local Confederate military organizations, n.d. "Index to Field Returns, Morning Reports, Organizations, Etc., C.S. Army, 1861-65," n.d.
109.14.4 Miscellaneous records
Textual Records: "Union Provost Marshal Citizens File," 1861-67 (479 ft.). Correspondence concerning property taken by Confederates in Missouri, 1864-65. Letters sent by Jacob Thompson, U.S. Secretary of the Interior, 1857-60. Ships' papers for vessels operating from various southern ports, 1850-60. Register of maps in possession of or prepared by the Engineer Office of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina (Union), 1865.
Microfilm Publications: M345, M416.
109.15 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)
Maps: Civil War campaigns and fortifications, 1861-65.
SEE Engineering Drawings UNDER 109.12.
Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.
This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.
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The Storm That Saved Washington From The British In 1814
In 1814, several European armies invaded France to put an end to Napoleon – the very year that the British attacked the American capital, Washington, DC. This was done in retaliation for US attacks on Canada, which was then British territory. As the city burned, however, the heavens seemed to side with the Americans – an event known as the “Storm that Saved Washington.” But did it really?
It all began with the War of 1812. Though America became independent in 1776, it was still at the mercy of Britain’s powerful navy. America insisted on remaining neutral during the Napoleonic wars and continued to trade with both sides, which infuriated the British.
The British also kidnapped American sailors for their navy (known as impressment) because they needed men for their war against France. Things came to a head on 22 June 1807 when the HMS Leopard stopped the USS Chesapeake off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia demanding to board in search of four deserters. The Americans refused, so the British opened fire – killing 4 and wounding 17.
The Chesapeake surrendered and the British took back the deserters, executing one of them. In their defense, they considered any citizen who became American to still be a British citizen. In their eyes, they weren’t kidnapping anyone, only taking back valuable subjects.
The British also armed the native Indians to harass colonists and slow down their westward expansion. Finally, their ownership of Canada meant that they would always remain a threat to US independence and sovereignty.
James Madison, Jr., 4th US President
On 1 June 1812, President James Madison addressed the US Congress and urged them to declare war. This was no easy matter, since Britain was a superpower, while the US was a new country that didn’t even have an army – merely a largely untrained militia.
Across the Atlantic, the British parliament banned impressment on June 16, but it took a while for the news to reach America. On June 18, the US Congress finally came to a decision – and thus began the War of 1812. Their first order of business was to invade Canada, which turned out to be an embarrassing failure.
The 1914 watercolor painting of The Battle of York by Owen Staples
To everyone’s surprise, however, they scored a victory at the Battle of York (now Toronto) on 27 April 1813. Over the next three days, the Americans burned and looted the city, destroyed the Legislative Assembly, and stole the Parliamentary Mace of Upper Canada (which was only returned in 1934). Emboldened, they went on to attack Port Dover from May 14 to 16, razing it to the ground, and sealing the fate of Washington.
Napoleon was finally defeated in April 1814, leaving the British free to avenge this insult. Their treasury was exhausted, and their troops were devastated, so they weren’t interested in retaking America, only punishing it. The man put in charge was Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy’s North America and West Indies Station.
Admiral Sir Alexander Inglis Cochrane
Cochrane raided the Atlantic seaboard to draw American troops away from Canada. That done, he ordered Rear Admiral George Cockburn to attack Baltimore, Washington, and Philadelphia, but Cockburn suggested Washington for greater impact. Cochrane agreed.
Washington’s only defense lay with its under-equipped and badly trained militia under William Henry Winder, a soldier and lawyer who did the best he could with what he had. Winder positioned his men at Bladensburg, some six miles from Washington on the eastern branch of the Potomac River on August 24. Facing him were veterans of the Napoleonic Wars under Major-general Robert Ross.
The Americans stood no chance. Winder ordered a retreat which turned into a route. Legend has it that the Americans ran so fast that the British suffered heat stroke trying to catch up. Now nothing lay between them and the capital.
John James Halls’ 1817 oil on canvas depiction of Rear-Admiral George Cockburn posing before a burning Washington
The US government fled, while Madison spent the night in the town of Brookeville, now called the “US Capital for a Day.” First Lady Dolly Madison received word of the invasion and stayed in the White House long enough to save what valuables she could, including the official portrait of George Washington.
Four thousand British troops arrived at the capital that evening. Ross entered first at 8 PM to offer the remaining inhabitants his terms of surrender, but someone shot at him from a house on the outskirts. They missed him, but everyone inside was slaughtered before the house was burned.
Ross convened a mock legislation, and everyone agreed that the city was to burn. First to go was the Senate House. Next, they went to the White House (then called the President’s Palace) at 10:30 PM and found a dinner set for 40 people. Ross and his men dined on that, then looted the building. A search of the office found Madison’s love letters to his wife, which Ross pocketed before razing the building.
William Henry Winder
Cockburn also ordered the office of the National Intelligencer paper burned because they had written badly of him, but some women begged him not to because they lived next to it. Acceding to their wishes, he had his troops tear it apart and destroy its equipment.
The following morning, the Library of Congress was in flames, as was the House of Representatives, the Treasury, the War Office, the Arsenal, and the Dockyard. Three rope factories met a similar fate, as well as a bridge on the Potomac, a frigate, and a sloop.
Major-general Robert Ross
At 2 PM, things changed. A strong wind broke out suddenly, followed by a downpour which put the fires out. As the rain eased up, a tornado formed and smashed through Constitution Avenue lifting two cannons and dropping them many yards away, leaving people dead in its wake.
Then it stopped. Cockburn turned to a dazed resident and asked if this was typical American weather, to which the woman replied that it was god’s punishment upon the British. The admiral snorted and pointed out that god had done far more damage to the city than his men had, before riding off. The British suffered only one fatality from the tornado and six injured.
An 1876 lithograph entitled, “Capture and burning of Washington by the British, in 1814.”
Many Americans urged the president to relocate the capital, but he insisted that it remain in Washington. Though badly damaged, the White House was made of stone and rebuilt, though not in time for Madison to move back into.
Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Winder, Henry
WINDER, HENRY (1693–1752), dissenting divine and chronologist, son of Henry Winder (d. 1733), farmer, by a daughter of Adam Bird of Penruddock, was born at Hutton John, parish of Greystoke, Cumberland, on 15 May 1693.
His grandfather, Henry Winder, farmer, who lived to be over a hundred (he was living in 1714), was falsely charged with murdering his first-born son. The accusation was supported by two of his wife's sisters, and the case attained some celebrity (see Winder , Spirit of Quakerism, 1698, 16mo, and Penitent Old Disciple, 1699, 16mo Audland , Spirit of Quakerism Cloven-footed, 1707, 4to, drawn up by Henry Winder secundus, and prefaced by Thomas Dixon, M.D. [q. v.] on the other side, Coole , Quakers Cleared, 1696, 16mo Camm , Old Apostate, 1698, 16mo, Truth prevailing with Reason, 1706, 16mo, and Lying-Tongue Reproved, 1708, 16mo). Henry Winder, the grandson, after passing through the Penruddock grammar school under John Atkinson, entered (1708) the Whitehaven Academy under Thomas Dixon, where Caleb Rotheram [q. v.] and John Taylor (1694–1761) [q. v.], the hebraist, were among his fellow students. For two years (1712–14) he studied at Dublin under Joseph Boyse [q. v.] In Dublin he was licensed to preach. In 1714 he succeeded Edward Rothwell [q. v.] as minister of the independent congregation at Tunley, Lancashire, and was ordained at St. Helen's on 11 Sept. 1716, Christopher Bassnett [q. v.] preaching on the occasion. In 1718 (his first sacrament was 16 Nov.) he was appointed minister of Castle Hey congregation, Liverpool. The first entry in the extant minutes of the Warrington classis (22 April 1719) records his admission to that body, ‘upon his making an acknowledgment of his breaking in upon the rules of it, in the way & manner of his coming to Liverpoole.’ A strong advocate of non-subscription in the controversy then pending both in England and in Ireland, he brought round his congregation to that view. His ministry was successful a new chapel was built for him in Benn's Garden, Red Cross Street, and opened in July 1727. From 1732 he corresponded with the London dissenters, with a view to the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts.
He married the widow of William Shawe of Liverpool, and educated her son William Shawe, afterwards of Preston. On taking him in 1740 to study at Glasgow, he received the diploma of D.D. For young Shawe's use he had drawn up (about 1733), but did not publish, ‘a short general system of chronology’ on ‘the Newtonian plan.’ This was the germ of his bulky work, the result of twelve years' labour, ‘A Critical and Chronological History of the Rise, Progress, Declension, and Revival of Knowledge, chiefly Religious. In two Periods. I. … Tradition, from Adam to Moses. II. … Letters, from Moses to Christ,’ 1745, 2 vols. 8vo (dedication to William Shawe). He prefers Moses to all secular historians, as earlier and more authentic. In vol. ii. chap. xxi. § 3, is an animated eulogy of British liberties, with evident reference to the events of 1745, during which Winder had exerted himself in helping to raise a regiment for the defence of Liverpool. The work did not sell, and was reissued as a second edition in 1756, with new title-page, and ‘Memoirs’ of the author by George Benson [q. v.]
In September 1746 he had a stroke of paralysis, and never again entered the pulpit, though he preached twice from the reading-desk in January 1747, and occasionally assisted at the sacrament in that year. John Henderson (d. 4 July 1779), who took Anglican orders in 1763, and was the first incumbent of St. Paul's, Liverpool (see Memoirs of Gilbert Wakefield, 1804, i. 204), became his assistant and successor. Winder's faculties failed, and he died on Sunday 9 Aug. 1752. He was buried on the south side of the churchyard of St. Peter's, Liverpool (now the cathedral) the memorial stone was earthed over when the churchyard was laid out as a garden. Henderson preached his funeral sermon. No portrait of Winder is known he outlived his wife, and left no issue. His library (a remarkable one, with a valuable collection of tracts) and manuscripts were bequeathed to his congregation. The library was transferred to Renshaw Street chapel, to which the congregation removed in 1811 of the manuscripts, a catalogue with excerpts was drawn up by the present writer in 1869 between 1872 and 1884 the papers were scattered and the bulk of them lost. A very important letter (now lost) giving an account (6 Aug. 1723) of the non-subscription debates in the Belfast sub-synod, which Winder had attended as a visitor, was printed in the ‘Christian Moderator,’ October 1827 (p. 274), from a copy by John Porter (1800–1874), then minister at Toxteth Park chapel, Liverpool.
[Memoirs by Benson, 1756 Thom's Liverpool Churches and Chapels, 1854, p. 67 Halley's Lancashire, 1869 ii. 323 Nightingale's Lancashire Nonconformity  iv. 28, 1893 vi. 112 Addison's Graduates of the University of Glasgow, 1898, p. 655 Winder's manuscripts in Renshaw Street chapel library, Liverpool.]