Information

13th Amendment


The 13th Amendment to the U.S. The 13th Amendment states: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

Founding Fathers and Slavery

Despite the long history of slavery in the British colonies in North America, and the continued existence of slavery in America until 1865, the amendment was the first explicit mention of the institution of slavery in the U.S. Constitution.

While America’s founding fathers enshrined the importance of liberty and equality in the nation’s founding documents—including the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution—they conspicuously failed to mention slavery, which was legal in all 13 colonies in 1776.

Many of the founders themselves owned enslaved workers, and though they acknowledged that slavery was morally wrong, they effectively pushed the question of how to eradicate it to future generations of Americans.

Thomas Jefferson, who left a particularly complex legacy regarding slavery, signed a law banning the importation of enslaved people from Africa in 1807. Still, the institution became ever more entrenched in American society and economy—particularly in the South.

By 1861, when the Civil War broke out, more than 4 million people (nearly all of them of African descent) were enslaved in 15 southern and border states.

READ MORE: How Many U.S. Presidents Owned Slaves?

Emancipation Proclamation

Though Abraham Lincoln abhorred slavery as a moral evil, he also wavered over the course of his career (and as president) on how to deal with the peculiar institution.

But by 1862, he had become convinced that emancipating enslaved people in the South would help the Union crush the Confederate rebellion and win the Civil War. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, which took effect in 1863, announced that all enslaved people held in the states “then in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”

But the Emancipation Proclamation it itself did not end slavery in the United States, as it only applied to the 11 Confederate states then at war against the Union, and only to the portion of those states not already under Union control. To make emancipation permanent would take a constitutional amendment abolishing the institution of slavery itself.

READ MORE: Emancipation Proclamation

Battle Over the 13th Amendment

In April 1864, the U.S. Senate passed a proposed amendment banning slavery with the necessary two-thirds majority. But the amendment faltered in the House of Representatives, as more and more Democrats refused to support it (especially during an election year).

As November approached, Lincoln’s reelection looked far from assured, but Union military victories greatly helped his cause, and he ended up defeating his Democratic opponent, General George McClellan, by a resounding margin.

When Congress reconvened in December 1864, the emboldened Republicans put a vote on the proposed amendment at the top of their agenda. More than any previous point in his presidency, Lincoln threw himself in the legislative process, inviting individual representatives to his office to discuss the amendment and putting pressure on border-state Unionists (who had previously opposed it) to change their position.

Lincoln also authorized his allies to entice House members with plum positions and other inducements, reportedly telling them: “I leave it to you to determine how it shall be done; but remember that I am President of the United States, clothed with immense power, and I expect you to procure those votes.”

Hampton Roads Conference

Last-minute drama ensued when rumors started flying that Confederate peace commissioners were en route to Washington (or already there), putting the future of the amendment in serious doubt.

But Lincoln assured Congressman James Ashley, who had introduced the bill into the House, that no peace commissioners were in the city, and the vote went ahead.

As it turned out, there were in fact Confederate representatives on their way to Union headquarters in Virginia. On February 3, at the Hampton Roads Conference, Lincoln met with them aboard a steamboat called the River Queen, but the meeting ended quickly, after he refused to grant any concessions.

13th Amendment Passes

On January 31, 1865, the House of Representatives passed the proposed amendment with a vote of 119-56, just over the required two-thirds majority. The following day, Lincoln approved a joint resolution of Congress submitting it to the state legislatures for ratification.

But he would not see final ratification: Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, and the necessary number of states did not ratify the 13th Amendment until December 6.

While Section 1 of the 13th Amendment outlawed chattel slavery and involuntary servitude (except as punishment for a crime), Section 2 gave the U.S. Congress the power “to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”

Black Codes

The year after the amendment’s passage, Congress used this power to pass the nation’s first civil rights bill, the Civil Rights Act of 1866. The law invalidated the so-called black codes, those laws put into place in the former Confederate states that governed the behavior of black people, effectively keeping them dependent on their former owners.

Congress also required the former Confederate states to ratify the 13th Amendment in order to regain representation in the federal government.

Together with the 14th and 15th Amendments, also ratified during the Reconstruction era, the 13th Amendment sought to establish equality for black Americans. Despite these efforts, the struggle to achieve full equality and guarantee the civil rights of all Americans has continued well into the 21st century.

READ MORE: When Did African Americans Get the Right to Vote?

Sources

13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865), OurDocuments.gov.
The Thirteenth Amendment, Constitution Center.
Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010).
Doris Kearns Goodwin, Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln


Thirteenth Amendment

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Thirteenth Amendment, amendment (1865) to the Constitution of the United States that formally abolished slavery. Although the words slavery and slave are never mentioned in the Constitution, the Thirteenth Amendment abrogated those sections of the Constitution which had tacitly codified the “peculiar institution”: Article I, Section 2, regarding apportionment of representation in the House of Representatives, which had been “determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons provided for the appointment,” with “all other persons” meaning slaves Article I, Section 9, which had established 1807 as the end date for the importation of slaves, referred to in this case as “such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit” and Article IV, Section 2, which mandated the return to their owners of fugitive slaves, here defined as persons “held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another.”

The Emancipation Proclamation, declared and promulgated by Pres. Abraham Lincoln in 1863 during the American Civil War, freed only those slaves held in the Confederate States of America. In depriving the South of its greatest economic resource—abundant free human labour—Lincoln’s proclamation was intended primarily as an instrument of military strategy. Only when emancipation was universally proposed through the Thirteenth Amendment did it become national policy. Moreover, the legality of abolition by presidential edict was questionable.

The full text of the amendment is:

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

The amendment was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, but did not pass in the House until January 31, 1865. The joint resolution of both bodies that submitted the amendment to the states for approval was signed by Lincoln on February 1, 1865. However, he did not live to see its ratification. Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, he died on April 15, 1865, and the amendment was not ratified by the required number of states until December 6, 1865.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan, Senior Editor.


Have There Been Any Supreme Court Cases Involving the 13th Amendment?

Supreme Court cases involving the 13th Amendment include Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Jones v. Alfred H. Meyer & Co. (1968) and Memphis v. Greene (1981). The 13th Amendment concerns the abolition of slavery.

In Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), the Supreme Court stated that Congress did not have the power to tell territories whether or not they could keep slaves. As a result of the ruling, those who supported the use of slaves began rebelling against the 13th amendment, which contributed to the onset of the Civil War.

In Jones v. Alfred H. Meyer & Co (1968), a man named Joseph Jones found himself unable to purchase a home because he was black. However, the 13th Amendment's second section protects citizens against discrimination when buying a house. Although the development company in question argued that Congress could not dictate to whom it sold houses, the Supreme Court upheld Congress' decision under the 13th Amendment.

In Memphis v. Green, a boundary had been placed between a white and black neighborhood, as those living in the white neighborhood believed its close proximity to the black neighborhood would affect house prices. The Supreme Court stated that this constituted a "badge of slavery," which is banned under the 13th Amendment.


The Thirteenth Amendment

Slavery is America&rsquos original sin. Despite the bold commitment to equality in the Declaration of Independence, slavery was legal in all of the thirteen colonies in 1776. By the start of the Civil War, four million people, nearly all of African descent, were held as slaves in 15 southern and border states. Slaves represented one-eighth of the U.S. population in 1860.

Many think that slavery ended with the Emancipation Proclamation, issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. However, the Emancipation Proclamation freed only slaves held in the eleven Confederate states that had seceded, and only in the portion of those states not already under Union control.

The true abolition of slavery was achieved when the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified on December 6, 1865. The first section of the Amendment declares: &ldquoNeither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.&rdquo The Amendment is unique in the Constitution because it bars every person from holding slaves or engaging in other forms of involuntary servitude, whereas most constitutional provisions only constrain or regulate the government. It is unique in another way as well: although the Constitution obliquely acknowledged and accommodated slavery in its original text, the Thirteenth Amendment was the first explicit mention of slavery in the Constitution.

The most immediate impact of the Thirteenth Amendment was to end chattel slavery as it was practiced in the southern United States. However, the Amendment also bars &ldquoinvoluntary servitude,&rdquo which covers a broader range of labor arrangements where a person is forced to work by the use or threatened use of physical or legal coercion. For example, the Thirteenth Amendment bans peonage, which occurs when a person is compelled to work to pay off a debt. Originally a Spanish practice, peonage was practiced in the New Mexico Territory and spread across the Southern United States after the Civil War. Former slaves and other poor citizens became indebted to merchants and plantation owners for living and working expenses. Unable to repay their debts, they became trapped in a cycle of work-without-pay. The Supreme Court held this practice unconstitutional in 1911. Bailey v. Alabama (1911).

Most scholars also assume it would violate the Thirteenth Amendment to order specific performance of a service contract. An example of this situation would be where an employee has a contract to work for a full year but wants to leave after six months. Forcing the employee to continue to work instead of paying a financial penalty to get out of her contract would almost certainly violate the Thirteenth Amendment.

Notably, the Amendment does allow a person convicted of a crime to be forced to work. Thus, prison labor practices, from chain gangs to prison laundries, do not run afoul of the Thirteenth Amendment. The Thirteenth Amendment has also been interpreted to permit the government to require certain forms of public service, presumably extending to military service and jury duty.

In addition to the first section&rsquos ban on slavery and involuntary servitude, the second section of the Thirteenth Amendment gives Congress the &ldquopower to enforce&rdquo that ban by passing &ldquoappropriate legislation.&rdquo This provision allows Congress to pass laws pertaining to practices that violate the Amendment. For example, the Anti-Peonage Act of 1867 prohibits peonage, and another federal law, 18 U.S.C. § 1592, makes it a crime to take somebody&rsquos passport or other official documents for the purpose of holding her as a slave.

Section Two of the Thirteenth Amendment has broader applicability as well. The Supreme Court has long held that this provision also allows Congress to pass laws to eradicate the &ldquobadges and incidents of slavery.&rdquo The Supreme Court has never defined the full scope of what the badges and incidents of slavery are, and instead has left it to Congress to flesh out a definition. In The Civil Rights Cases (1883), the Court held that racial discrimination in private inns, theaters, and public transportation did not qualify as a badge or incident of slavery. In a series of cases in the 1960s and 1970s, however, the Court held that racial discrimination by private housing developers and private schools is among the badges and incidents of slavery that Congress may outlaw under Section Two of the Thirteenth Amendment. Most recently, Congress has determined that Section Two provides a basis for a portion of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009 (which criminalizes race-based hate crimes) and the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (which penalizes human trafficking and protects its survivors). The Supreme Court has yet to evaluate these laws.

Despite its significance in American history, the Thirteenth Amendment is not one of the more frequently invoked parts of our Constitution today. Now that slavery is a part of our past, the Amendment&rsquos current relevance is subject to debate. Does it govern the fairness of modern labor practices? Does it empower Congress to pass broad-ranging civil rights laws? Whatever the outcome of those debates, though, the Thirteenth Amendment deserves recognition as an historic and solemn promise that slavery will never again exist in the United States.


The Drafting Table

Explore key historical documents that inspired the Framers of the Constitution and each amendment during the drafting process, the early drafts and major proposals behind each provision, and discover how the drafters deliberated, agreed and disagreed, on the path to compromise and the final text.

In the Classroom

Teach the Constitution in your classroom with nonpartisan resources including videos, lesson plans, podcasts, and more. Check out our classroom resources organized by each article or amendment, and by key constitutional questions.


The Corwin Amendment

Two previous amendments proposed by Congress would have become the 13th Amendment but were not ratified. The Titles of Nobility Amendment was presented to states in 1810 and was ratified by 12 states it would have revoked the U.S. citizenship of anyone accepting a foreign title of nobility or foreign payment without Congressional authorization.

Another attempt to write the 13th Amendment began in December 1860, when states of the Deep South were threatening to secede from the Union following Abraham Lincoln’s victory in the presidential elections. The so-called Corwin Amendment—named for Thomas Corwin, an Ohio Republican who chaired the Committee of Thirty-three that introduced the amendment into the House of Representatives—was a compromise measure passed to prevent that secession. The Committee of Thirty-three was formed at the request of President James Buchanan to explore an amendment to deal with the secession crisis the committee included one representative from each state. The committee’s first proposal, introduced on January 21, 1861, failed to pass the House.

On February 26, Corwin introduced an abridged version of the proposed amendment. This one was the same as one that had been proposed and rejected by Senate in December.

The Senate had formed a Committee of Thirteen for the same purposes as the House’s Committee of Thirty-three. It had produced a proposed amendment submitted by New York Republican senator William Seward, the future secretary of state under President Abraham Lincoln. It would have prohibited Congress from ever abolishing or interfering with slavery. It read:

That no amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or servitude by the laws of said State.

The House failed to pass the amendment on February 27, but the following day it was accepted on a vote of 133 to 65. The Senate voted to adopt it on March 2, by 24 votes to 8.

Although a proposed constitutional amendment does not require a president’s approval, President Buchanan on his last day in office, March 3, 1861, took the unusual step of signing the bill. The following day, President Lincoln, in his first inaugural address, said he had “no objection” to the proposed amendment “being made express and irrevocable.” He sent it to the states for ratification or rejection. Only Ohio and Maryland ratified it Illinois approved it in a constitutional convention, but that vote was nullified because ratification of amendments requires approval by state legislatures, not special conventions. Ohio rescinded its approval on March 31, 1864. An attempt that year to halt the national ratification process never passed the Senate technically, the Corwin Amendment is still awaiting action by state legislatures.


The Corwin Amendment

Two previous amendments proposed by Congress would have become the 13th Amendment, but were not ratified. The Titles of Nobility Amendment was presented to states in 1810 and was ratified by 12 states it would have revoked the U.S. citizenship of anyone accepting a foreign title of nobility or foreign payment without Congressional authorization.

Another attempt to write a 13th Amendment began in December 1860, when states of the Deep South were threatening to secede from the Union following Abraham Lincoln’s victory in the presidential elections. The so-called Corwin Amendment&mdashnamed for Thomas Corwin, an Ohio Republican who chaired the Committee of Thirty-three that introduced the amendment into the House of Representatives&mdashwas a compromise measure passed to prevent that secession. The Committee of Thirty-three was formed at the request of President James Buchanan to explore an amendment to deal with the secession crisis the committee included one representative from each state. The committee’s first proposal, introduced on January 21, 1861, failed to pass the House.

On February 26, Corwin introduced an abridged version of the proposed amendment. This one was the same as one that had been proposed and rejected by Senate in December.

The Senate had formed a Committee of Thirteen for the same purposes as the House’s Committee of Thirty-three. It had produced a proposed amendment submitted by New York Republican senator William Seward, the future secretary of state under President Abraham Lincoln. It would have prohibited Congress from ever abolishing or interfering with slavery. It read:

That no amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish, or interfere within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or servitude by the laws of said State.

The House failed to pass the amendment on February 27, but then following day it was accepted on a vote of 133 to 65. The Senate voted to adopt it on March 2, by 24 votes to 8.

Although a proposed constitutional amendment does not require a president’s approval, President Buchanan on his last day in office, March 3, 1861, took the unusual step of signing the bill. The following day, President Lincoln, in his first inaugural address, said he had "no objection" to the proposed amendment "being made express and irrevocable." He sent it to the states for ratification or rejection. Only Ohio and Maryland ratified it Illinois approved it in a constitutional convention, but that vote was nullified because ratification of amendments requires approval by state legislatures, not special conventions. Ohio rescinded its approval on March 31, 1864. An attempt that year to halt the national ratification process never passed the Senate technically, the Corwin Amendment is still awaiting action by state legislatures.


Prison Labor and the Thirteenth Amendment

Incarcerated men return from working in the fields, Louisiana State Penitentiary, 2011. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert).

The Thirteenth Amendment, ratified in 1865, made slavery and involuntary servitude unconstitutional in the United States “except as punishment for crime.” As the end of slavery left a void in the Southern labor market, the criminal justice system became one of the primary means of continuing the legalized involuntary servitude of African Americans.

Initially, states passed discriminatory laws to arrest and imprison large numbers of Black people, then leased prisoners to private individuals and corporations in a system of convict leasing that resulted in dangerous conditions, abuse, and death. While states profited, prisoners earned no pay and faced inhumane, hazardous, and often deadly work conditions. Thousands of Black people were forced into a brutal system that historians have called “worse than slavery.”

By the middle of the 20th century, states abandoned convict leasing due to industrialization and political pressure and extended slavery through chain gangs and prison farms. This legacy continues to influence the criminal justice system today, in places like Louisiana State Penitentiary. Named “Angola” after the provenance of the enslaved people who worked the same land when it was a plantation, the prison requires incarcerated men to work in the fields. Eighty percent of Angola’s imprisoned men are Black, and its warden compares the grounds to “a big plantation in days gone by.”


13th Amendment - HISTORY

The Missing 13th Amendment
"TITLES OF NOBILITY" AND "HONOR"

In the winter of 1983, archival research expert David Dodge, and former Baltimore police investigator Tom Dunn, were searching for evidence of government corruption in public records stored in the Belfast Library on the coast of Maine. By chance, they discovered the library's oldest authentic copy of the Constitution of the United States (printed in 1825). Both men were stunned to see this document included a 13th Amendment that no longer appears on current copies of the Constitution. Moreover, after studying the Amendment's language and historical context, they realized the principle intent of this "missing" 13th Amendment was to prohibit lawyers from serving in government.

So began a seven-year, nationwide search for the truth surrounding the most bizarre Constitutional puzzle in American history -- the unlawful removal of a ratified Amendment from the Constitution of the United States. Since 1983, Dodge and Dunn have uncovered additional copies of the Constitution with the "missing" 13th Amendment printed in at least eighteen separate publications by ten different states and territories over four decades from 1822 to 1860.

In June of this year, Dodge uncovered the evidence that this missing 13th Amendment had indeed been lawfully ratified by the state of Virginia and was therefore an authentic Amendment to the American Constitution. If the evidence is correct and no logical errors have been made, a 13th Amendment restricting lawyers from serving in government was ratified in 1819 and removed from our Constitution during the tumult of the Civil War.

The following was found at: http://www.barefootsworld.net/consti12.html
Click on the above link, find this part on that web page.
It has a lot of good footnotes, links, pictures, and references that are not shown here.

The Original Thirteenth Amendment
Ratified
March 12, 1819

The Founders held an intense disdain and distrust of "Nobility" as a result of a long history, during Colonial times, of abuses and excesses against the Rights of Man and the established Common Law and Constitutions by the "Nobility", and therefore placed in the new Constitution two injunctions against acceptance of Titles of Nobility or Honor or emoluments from external sources. The Revolutionary War for Independence was primarily waged to eliminate these abuses and excesses of the "Nobility" and the " Monied Classes" from the life of the Nation, recognizing the Equality of all men.

As noted in the discussion in Article 1 of the Constitution, the original Thirteenth Amendment, was ratified in 1819, adding a heavy penalty upon any person holding or accepting a Title of Nobility or Honor, or emoluments from external powers by making that person "cease to be a citizen of the United States" and "incapable of holding any Office of Trust or Profit under the United States". This Amendment was proposed, properly ratified, and was a matter of record in the several States archives until 1876, by which time it was quietly, and fraudulently deleted, never repealed, during the period of Reconstruction after the Civil War and the presently acknowledged Thirteenth Amendment was substituted. The original records of the original 13th amendment were thought to be destroyed at the time of the burning of the capitol during the War of 1812, but have since been found in the archives of the British Museum , the national archives and in the archives of several of the States and territories. The fact of its existence had been lost to memory until, by chance, researchers discovered in the public library at Belfast , Maine an 1825 copy of the U. S. Constitution. Subsequent research shows that it was in the records of the ratifying states and territories until 1876, the last to drop it from record was the Territory of Wyoming after 1876. The most intriguing discovery was the 1867 Colorado Territory edition which includes both the "missing" Thirteenth Amendment and the current 13th Amendment, on the same page. The current 13 th Amendment is listed as the 14th Amendment in the 1867 Colorado edition.

The 1876 Laws of Wyoming which similarly show the "missing" Thirteenth Amendment, the current 13th Amendment (freeing the slaves), and the current 15th Amendment on the same page. The current 13th Amendment is listed as the 14th, the current 14th amendment is omitted, and the current 15th Amendment is in proper place.

For further discussion and the history of the Original Thirteenth Amendment see "Demon of Discord, Ratification and Suppression of the Original Thirteenth Article of Amendment to the Constitution of the United States ."

On December 3, 1860 , the month after Lincoln was elected, President Buchanan asked Congress to propose an "explanatory amendment". It was to be another 13th Amendment, to eradicate and cover-up the deletion of the Original Thirteenth Title of Nobility and Honour Amendment. This proposed amendment, which would have forever legalized slavery, was signed by President Buchanan the day before Lincoln took office.

This amendment to the Constitution relating to slavery was sent to the states for ratification by the Second Session of the Thirty-sixth Congress on March 2, 1861 , when it passed the Senate, having previously passed the House on February 28, 1861 . It is interesting to note in this connection that this and the ratified Anti-Slavery amendment of 1865 are the only resolutions proposing amendments to the Constitution to have been signed by the President. The President's signature is considered unnecessary because of the constitutional provision that on the concurrence of two-thirds of both Houses of Congress the proposal shall be submitted to the States for ratification.

The resolve to amend signed by President Buchanan on March 2, 1861 , two days before Lincoln 's inauguration, read:

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following article be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which, when ratified by three-fourths of said Legislatures, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, viz :

"ARTICLE THIRTEEN, No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State."

In other words, President Buchanan had signed a resolve that would have forever permitted slavery, and upheld states' rights. Only one State, Illinois , Lincoln 's home state, had ratified this proposed amendment before the Civil War broke out in 1861. It appears at 12 Stat. 251, 36th Congress. Two more State legislatures ratified it, beginning with Ohio on May 13, 1861 , followed by Maryland on January 10, 1862 .

But the onslaught of the Civil War taught that the Nation may be in even greater peril from the States than they ever were from the Nation. And so, after more than seventy years of national life, the people, by the presently acknowledged 13th Amendment and the two following, laid upon the States restrictions which a few years before would have been impossible. The Constitution had gone forty-six years (1819 - 1865) without an Amendment.

In the tumult of 1865, the original Thirteenth Amendment was removed from our Constitution. In a Congressional Resolve to amend dated December 5, 1864 , approved and signed by President Lincoln, February 1, 1865 , another Amendment numbered XIII (which prohibited slavery in Sect. 1, and ended states' rights in Sect. 2) was proposed. When, on January 13, 1865 , a two-thirds vote was taken in the House of Representatives for proposing the currently presented 13th Amendment "in honor of the immortal and sublime event" the House adjourned. It was then presented to the States for ratification. Two months later, April 9, 1865 , the Civil War ended with General Lee's surrender. On April 14, President Lincoln was assassinated, dying on April 15th.

On December 18, 1865, the "new" 13th Amendment loudly prohibiting and abolishing slavery (and quietly surrendering states rights to the federal government) was proclaimed adopted by Secretary of State Seward, replacing and effectively erasing the original Thirteenth Amendment that had prohibited acceptance of "titles of nobility" and "honors" and "emoluments", and dishonest politicians have been bought and bribed and have treasonously accepted graft from external sources ever since, with no thought of penalty.


9 Comments

The first thing all must understand about the founding of America is it is all fraud and theater.
there is no Active Constitution, Declaration of Independence, what is a Republic was never defined in any document. therefore, no Republic was given and the 13th Amendment is a mute point.
The Treaty of Peace 1783 made the Constitution dormant document at best. The people were not recognized as Sovereigns, the people lost control of their money, commerce and banking as King George was made the Arch Treasurer of the united States of America per the Treaty. He was also awarded his share of all the Gold, Silver and Copper found in America and this was to be passed on to his heirs into the future. That Treaty gave nothing to the people who fought and defeated the English. The foundations for the Treaty of Peace were formed in the 1666 Virginia Charter.
Words mean everything folks. Words on paper by the controlling powers that be, have written who actually won the war and who gets the spoils of the war. Read the Charter and Treaty claims.
Always follow the money. The Revolutionary War was nothing but a business venture for the benefit of a few. And the people were just cannon fodder. We can thank the King and the King’s men as his English Esquires and Masons named Ben Franklin, John Jay and Thomas Jefferson for this fraud perpetrated on We the People when they negotiated and signed the Treaty for the King’s benefit..
Not until the people know the true founding of America, who were the founders, make null and void the Treaty of Peace, rewrite the Treaty with first recognizing the people as sovereigns to choose there own paths for their Rule of Law based on God’s law and Natural law – not the English Maritime and BAR would be a good start before cancelling the proclamation that President Roosevelt made in 1933 claiming all citizens are the enemy of the State.

Yes, there it a lot more to be done but first we Collectively must destroy the foundations that placed us a citizen subjects and debt slaves.

Ri-chard’s comment decries what I refer to as “voodoo law and government.” His correct and cogent observation about following the money in the treaties is crucial to apprehending the façade of our “Republic,” that staggers around, zombie-like, instead of being championed by a People comprised of sovereign individuals. Given that our government and law is, in fact, a sly fiction that depends upon legalese magic double-speak, any and all analysis of politics and current events seems rather ridiculous we are chasing our own tails, lost in the symptoms, instead of rooting out the fundamental cause of this phony, two-faced phony body politic.

spyoptaelip, Your understanding is a breath of fresh air compared to most who keep identifying more crimes and never the cause and foundations that continue to allow them.
I am a believer that you must have a good understanding of the first chapter of any event before moving forward. If not you will never know what the corrective actions are that must be taken and how to enforce them.
If you send me your email to [email protected] I will send you all the facts about the the true founding of America. All of these docs can be found on the government websites and archive links. I take no credit for these docs they are in our face if we choose to look at them.
I have introduce these facts to school board members and at my local government meetings to my representatives. Their responses have always been the same crickets or they shout me down threatening to have me removed from the public meeting.

The USA is the worlds richest in natural resource, they are just untapped. They are still in the ground mostly in protected lands and national parks owned by the Feds across the country. If King George would have known this in 1783 he would not have not limited his 25% share to just all the Gold, Silver and Copper found in America after he won the American Revolutionary War. Remember, on paper the English won that war and got the spoils of it to pay for the King’s business venture supported by his English Esquires, and Mason implants known as Ben Franklin, John Jay and Thomas Jefferson. Yes, traitors not hero’s. That brings up gold in 1933 when the Crown called in their chips from the USA to help pay for themselves and their friends still recovering from WWI now needed funding for WWII startup. United States has always been the ne$t egg for the rest including the Vatican. Roosevelt took/stole all the peoples gold and declared them enemies of the State.

How many more crimes do we have to identify past the 1783 Treaty of Peace which actually made all government crimes allowable till this day. That Treaty did not recognize the people as sovereigns, it took away the rights of people to govern themselves, couldn’t manage their money because King George was made Arch Treasurer of the united States of America. The people got the English Maritime Law we now we called it the BAR. And maybe of real importance is Allodial Land title as real property ownership system where the real property is owned free and clear of any superior landlord. this also not available because we are occupied by the enemy..

And our children are still taught we won the Revolutionary War/War of Independence and have a Republic. When America celebrates the 4ty of July the Queen chuckles – it’s still working.

Well, that explains why we are ruled by pedophiles and thieves. Voting is just a way to have your location known to the traitorous government. No more voting, no more money in the bank. No more taxes. I refuse to support these people in any shape or form. My currency is based on lead, not gold. Tar and Feathering was invented for a reason, along with pitchforks and torches.

Doug,
What may also explain why we are ruled by pedophiles and thieves is because half of our founders were English Esquires and Masons serving the King not We the People. Just read the words of the 1783 Treaty of Peace to find out what Franklin, Jay and Jefferson gave to the King. Please note that the people were not even spoken of who fought and died for their freedoms and God given rights. The people lost everything from that point forward.


Watch the video: 13TH. FULL FEATURE. Netflix (January 2022).