USS Maddox (DD-168), c.1920

U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.

USS Maddox (DD-168), c.1920 - History

Displacement: 1,154 Tons (Full)

Dimensions: 314' 5" (oa) x 31' 8" x 9' 10" (Max)

Armament: 4 x 4"/50, 2 x 1pdr AA (1 x 3"/23AA), 12 x 21" tt.

Machinery: 24,200 SHP Geared Turbines, 2 screws

Displacement: 2395 Tons (Full)

Dimensions: 348' 4"(oa) x 36' 1" x 13' 2" (Max)

Armament: 4 x 5"/38AA, 6 x 0.5" MG, 10 x 21" tt.(2x5)

Machinery: 50,000 SHP Westinghouse Geared Turbines, 2 screws

Speed:, 35 Knots, Range 6500 [email protected] 12 Knots

Displacement: 3218 Tons (Full)

Dimensions: 376' 6"(oa) x 40' 10" x 14' 2" (Max)

Armament: 6 x 5"/38AA (3x2), 12 x 40mm AA, 11 x 20mm AA, 10 x 21" tt.(2x5)

Machinery: 60,000 SHP General Electric Geared Turbines, 2 screws

Speed:, 36.5 Knots, Range 3300 [email protected] 20 Knots

Letter From the Granddaughter of LCDR Eugene Sarsfield

I am Eugene Sarsfield’s granddaughter, Jane Vaccaro. My grandfather was the Commanding Officer of the Maddox when she was sunk off Sicily in 1943.

I understand that your Maddox reunion will be coming up in just a few days in Philadelphia, and wanted to send you all my best wishes. The men who served on the Maddox with my grandfather, as well as their families, are in my thoughts and prayers always. For those who survived that July day, I hope that life has brought you all the blessings and peace you so richly deserve, along with the knowledge of gratitude that is felt for your own great sacrifices.

The Battle of Sicily and the loss of the Maddox occurred generations ago, now. But time has not lessened the sadness of losing so may dedicated and wonderful men, and it has not lessened the emptiness we still feel by their absence in our lives. For you good men, and for the families who gave the greatest sacrifices of son, brother, husband, friend … know, as I do, that their legacies have made a difference to those generations that followed. My own daughter, Jenna, grew up hearing the same stories of my absent grandfather that I did, learning about what a great man he was, and understanding the value of his life, and of the sacrifice made by his family. She calls him “Grandaddy”, just as I did and just as her own children will one day. The loss of the Maddox on July 10, 1943 set his life and accomplishments, and the lives and accomplishments of all those who perished with him, in stone. He, and they, will forever be the greatest truth of whom they were.

I wish you all, all the best.

How's This for Amazing!!

I received the following email from Albercht Tobisch:

I have lived in Jamaica for over 40 years. In August 1968 I strolled along Palisados beach
and found the plaque pictured below, half buried in sand. I'm had it ever since.

With the event of Internet I found your website.
So the mystery remains: How did this well preserved plaque land on a Jamaican beach sometime before 1968. Any clues.

The Long And Short of It All Magazine
Dachshunds in History: Meet L.B., who is a Very Important Pup
--- Thanks to Roy Hyer

L.B., a Dachshund under a year old, disembarked in June at Long Beach, California. She had been aboard the USS Maddox, a destroyer that ploughed the waters off Vietnam with the 7th Fleet. LB was part of the effort to keep shipments of weapons and supplies going to the Viet Cong. Disembarking with LB was Marshall Lichterman of Alhambra, California, Yeoman 3rd class and ship's postal clerk.

When the Maddox called at Wellington, New Zealand in May, a newspaper there, The Dominion, reported that she was named LB for Long Beach, the Maddox's home port, that LB had 15 assorted sweaters for different kinds of weather, two naval uniforms tailor-made for her at Hong Kong, and two polo-neck jerseys for really cold weather.

Also, LB had her own miniature lifebelt. She slept in her own bunk. She had her own identification card with pawprints and details of height, length, and weight, her own liberty card, and a service record. Though frightened at first of the Maddox's 10 guns, she became accustomed to them, but she went to the bow if the aft guns were operating, and aft if the forward guns were firing. "Many of the ship's visitors aren't at all interested in the guns or the torpedo tubes," said the New Zealand newspaper. "All they want to see is LB."

Two Interesting Letters

John McKinley Downs was my grandfather and I might add my favorite grandparent. He was kind and fun and loved my sister and I very much. Our county published a veterans’ book and my uncle put the information about him in the book. It read in part: “He was a Fireman First Class on the USS Maddox. He enlisted in the Navy for four years beginning 20 Jun 1918 and was honorably discharged from the Maddox on 24 Feb 1920.”
I don't know where he finished the remaining time. He returned home and married and had two children. My mother was his daughter. He was a crane operator by trade and moved around the country as an employee of numerous construction companies. I know he bought a farm in Trigg County, Kentucky during the 1940's. He lived on part of the farm until his death 05 Jan 1970. I also have a painting of him and another sailor. It is hand painted and measures approximately 18-20 inches tall and 10-12 inches wide. Any information you could find for me would be greatly appreciated and I hope this information will help you fill in the blanks on his service. I have a 14-year old grandson and he is very interested in the Navy. Wonder if it is genetic? I look forward to hearing from you again and if I find any new information in his trunk I will certainly let you know. Again thank you for your time.
Judy Williams
[email protected]

My name is Paul Barefoot and I live in Colville, Washington. My oldest brother, Edward T. Barefoot was on the Maddox (DD-622). It was sunk in WW II. Is there any possibility that there is anyone in your association that might have been on her that would have known my brother. It was sunk on the coast of Sicily in 1943. I myself was in the Korean War from 1948 to 1952. I was on the USS Mt. McKinley (AGC-7).
If you have any info for me, I would appreciate it.
Thank you for you time defending our country.
Paul C. Barefoot

(Paul: If you review this, please send me your email address)

The following documents and photos were collected from two sources. The first set of two documents were sent to Dennis Stokhaug by Dale Kelly who served in USS Shubrick DD-639 in Operation Husky along with Maddox, off the coast of Sicily. The first document is the letter from Mr. Kelly and the second is from COMDESRON 17 commending the squadron for their performance during the attack on Sicily, and expressing sorrow over the loss of Maddox and Cdr. Gene Sarsfield, the Maddox CO.

Letter From Dale Kelly Message From COMDESRON 17

The second set of two documents and one photo were submitted by Rich Pascuzzo, the nephew of Leonard Pascuzzo, who served aboard Maddox in 1946. The first document briefly chronicles the Maddox ship's history from commissioning in 1944 through the early part of WWII, including the Kamikaz attack off Formosa. The second document presents the ship's history during the closing few months of WWII.

History - Part 1 History - Part 2

House of Representatives Recognition From State Of Alabama 2013

Georger Pink, Anthony Pascucci, Leondard Pascuzzo, and Rayond Pierone - Outside of Bimbo's Cafe.

Roy Hyer has created a Facebook page: USS Maddox Org

So all you Facebook fans, get out there and it a look.

Here's a list of books and films that mention Maddox


E xtreme Forgiveness , by Bruce W. Frazer & Carol E. Glasgow

Linebackers of the Sea , by Ray Lubeski. There is an extensive section on the Maddox that might interest all of you.

The Divine Wind : Japan's Kamikaze Force in WWII (Paper-back), mentions the day in January, 1945, that the USS MADDOX
was severely damaged, by a kamaikaze attack.

Tonkin Gulf by Eugene C. Windchy And here's a good one - It's the transcript of the telephone conversations between the top Navy brass and the Secretary of Defense during the Tonkin Gulf incident. Makes for an interesting read. Telelphone Transcripts

Truth is the First Casualty by Joseph C. Goulden

Assault On The Liberty by James M. Ennes, Jr. (see footnote on page 201)

Halsey's Typhoon by Bob Drury and Tom Clavin

Torpedo by Jeff Edwards

Return from the Sea (1954)

General Non-Fiction Books About the Korean War (see: D.L. Sears Books)
At War with the Wind
The Last Epic Naval Battle
Such Men as These
(Spring 2010)

If you know of others, let me know.

Gulf of Tonkin Websites

The following web links provide various information and opinions about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. The Webmaster provides these links for your general interest and does not in any way support, defend, propose, or advance any of these sites as true accounts. Rather they are the opinion of their various authors. They are provided here because of the general interest of our Association members in the topic.

Did you serve on more than just Maddox? Interested in other ships' reunions? Then visit the Retired Enlisted Association's website for the latest reunion information. Also check: U.S. Navy Ship Rosters.

And here's another website to keep old seadogs in touch with each other:

Another great link to other ships and shipmates is


Depending upon the speed of your connection, downloading these issues could take a couple of minutes.

We need you all to send us your gossip, travel adventures, family doings, general life-style tips, etc. Longer articles can be posted on the website, while shorter items will be published in the Howgoesit. Kathy and I cannot make up all the articles ourselves, so we absolutely need your input. Don't blame us when you don't get an newsletter for awhile - simple, no input. So send your website articles to me and your Howgoesit input to Kathy. Remember, this is a joint effort it's how we all stay in touch and everyone needs to contribute to make it successful and lasting ---------Dennis Stokhaug

This photo submitted by Don Mettler, the Web Tender for the USS Hannock Association. Don's best guess is that the photo comes from the very early 1960's. The two aircraft midships are either AJ-1 or AJ-2 Savages, which were retired in 1962.

Take a look at the USS Hanncock Association website.

Here's another new photo sent to me by Roy Hyer. Ron's best guess is that the photo were taken between 1969 and 1972 in Long Beach.


The location of the gravesites for veterans and their dependents in VA National Cemeteries, state veterans cemeteries and various other Department of Interior and military cemeteries can be found at the National Gravesite Locatorwebsite maintained by the VA. This site also contains a link to the American Battle Monuments Commission information on service members buried in overseas cemeteries. In addition, their are links to information on burial benefits.


We have a page for those of you looking for old shipmates, or for those relatives of shipmates who have passed on, but who would like to get some information from those of you who might have known them. A recent request came from Cedell McDonald, who served aboard 1954-1956. He's seeking information on Chaplain William Howard. If you know where Chaplain Howard can be reached, please contact Cedell at: [email protected]

To see other information being sought, click on this link: Looking for Shipmates.

I received word that a shipmate, Leonard Dominic Pascuzzo, FC3, who served aboard in 1946 passed away in 1989. If any of you oldtimers remember him, you might drop his nephew Richard a line at [email protected]

Here's a photo of Leonard on the fantail from those days.

For a history of the three ships to bear the name, USS Maddox, click on History .

DD-622 Missing-in-Action status changed. 210 Officers and Enlisted Men declared Killed-in-Action. Read the findings and other related letters.

Visit the Chaplain's Corner October 2012

This photo was sent to me by Scott Martin BT3, the webmaster for USS DeHaven (DD-727). It was taken by one of the DeHaven crew, Dave Anderson. Thanks a lot Dave, we really appreciate the fine photo.

These photos were sent to me by Dorman McGinty, who was a RM2 stationed at Cincpacflt in Hawaii.

This photo shows the Maddox preparing to go alongside.


Look up your shipmates. The lists carry information about our shipmates, both members of the Association, and those who are not, but that we have information about. If a shipmate is deceased, and their wife is a member of the Association, then I have included the name and addresses of the wife and have indicated that they are the member.

If this is your first visit to this page of all shipmates who have served on the DD-128, DD-622 and DD-731, please take the time to first carefully review your own listing. If your listing is incorrect, or your name does not appear in the list, please register. Please let me know what I can do to improve the lists or make them more useful for you.

There are likely errors in the attached lists of shipmates. Please review your listing carefully and submit any changes to me at: Shipmates Listing.

Maddox Family Crest, Coat of Arms and Name History

We can do a genealogical research. Find out the exact history of your family!

Maddox Origin:

Origins of Name:

The surname of Maddox has derivative roots in the Welsh given name of Mattoc, from “mad” which means “fortunate” or “good.” This still survives in the personal name Madog today. The Maddox name and all of the possible spelling variants have been granted over fifteen Coats of Arms.


More common variations are:

Maddoxx, Maddoxe, Moddoxa, Maeddox, Maaddox, Madox, Maddx, Mddox, Maddix, Muddox



The first recorded spelling of the surname Maddox was noted as one William Madoc, who was named in the “Hundred Rolls of Shropshire” in the year 1274, under the reign of King Edward I, who is known as “The Hammer of the Scots” and ruled from the year 1272 to the year 1307. In England, those who bear the surname Maddox are concentrated in the Counties of Lancashire, Staffordshire, Shropshire, and the city of London. In the Doomsday Book of 1086 for Gloucestershire (which encompassed the “Great Survey of England”) Madoch was noted, and Kenwrec filifus Maddoc and Madoc de Sotton both appear in the Pipe Rolls of Shropshire in 1161 and 1272, respectively. Robert Mattok was noted in Cheshire in 1290, followed by Robert Madduk, who was recorded in Wiltshire in 1297.

Wales and Scotland:

Throughout Wales, there are many people who bear the surname of Maddox, though many of them are concentrated in the southern parts of the country, especially in the area of Glamorgan. In Scotland, the only region with a notable amount of people who bear the surname of Maddox is in Midlothian county. It is believed that Madog who lived from the year 1150 and died in the year 1180 and who was the son of Owain Gwynedd, the King of North Wales, discovered America. This is a much disputed fact, but still believed by some today.


Joseph Maddocks arrived in Dublin in the 1690s who was originally from Chester. His son, Isaac Maddocks would migrate to county Wexford. A large number of Maddocks from this town would eventually leave for the United States and Canada during the 19th century.

United States:

Many families emigrated to the United States of America in search of a better life during the European Migration. These families were looking for a better, more sustainable way of life, and hoped to find this in the promised New World. Those who immigrated with the surname of Maddox, who were recorded often settled in the states of Georgia, Virginia, Alabama, Kentucky, and eventually spread out West, and into Texas, Missouri, Illinois, California, and Oklahoma. The first recorded person to emigrate to America and bore the surname Maddox was John Maddox, who at the age of 43 years, boarded the ship named the “Planter” which was set to sail from London to New England in March of the year 1634. Shortly behind him was Alexander Maddox, who at 22 years of age boarded the “Abraham” which was set to sail to Virginia in the year 1635.

Australia and New Zealand:

In the 19th Century, settlers began to migrate to both Australia and New Zealand. The first recorded Maddox to arrive in Australia was Dennis Maddox, who was a convict from London, and was transported on the “Albion” in 1828, and landing in New South Wales, Australia. The first Maddox to settle in New Zealand was a servant, aged 16 years, and named Sarah Maddox who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship named the “Bolton” in the year 1840. Shortly following was the Maddox family, consisting of Thomas and Ann Maddox who arrived in Nelson, New Zealand in 1842.

Maddox Today:

Notable People:

Brigadier-General Louis Wilson Maddox (1891-1956) who was a Chief Finance Officer of the US Army Forces in the Far East from 1943 to 1945

Major-General Halley Grey Maddox (1899-1977) who was a Deputy Commanding General in the US Forces Army in Europe from 1956 to 1957

William A. T. Maddox (1814-1889) who was a U.S. Marine, and had the USS Maddox (DD-168), the USS Maddox (DD-622) and the USS Maddox (DD-731) named after him

Thomas “Tommy” Alfred Maddox (born in 1971) who was an NFL football player from America

Tom Maddox, who was a science fiction author from America

Scott Maddox (born in 1968) who was the Mayor of Tallahassee, Florida, and was an American politician

Theodore D. “Tito” Maddox (born in 1981) who was a professional NBA basketball player from America

Rose Maddox (1925-1998) who was a country singer that was nominated for an American Grammy Award, and was born with the name Roselea A. Brogdon

Robert Maddox (1870-1965) was the 41st Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia, and was an American politician

As HMS Georgetown and HMCS Georgetown

As Georgetown, she participated in operation “Bowery”, escorting Wasp in May 1942 on her second reinforcement of the spitfire strength on the island of Malta. In September 1942, she transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy for convoy escort duties in the western Atlantic. Georgetown was modified for trade convoy escort service by removal of three of the original 4"/50 caliber guns and one of the triple torpedo tube mounts to reduce topside weight for additional depth charge stowage and installation of Hedgehog anti-submarine launcher. [ 1 ] Returned to the United Kingdom in December 1943, she joined the Reserve Fleet.

Did US Navy battle UFOs protecting Nazi Antarctic sanctuary in 1947?

An extraordinary 2006 Russian documentary was recently translated into English revealing new information about a US Navy Antarctica expedition in 1946/47. Originally scheduled for a six month period, the “scientific” expedition was officially called “The United States Navy Antarctic Development Program,” and given the operational name Highjump. The naval component of Operation Highjump was known as Task Force 68 and comprised 4700 military personnel, one aircraft carrier (the USS Philippine Sea among the largest of all carriers of the time), and number of naval support ships and aircraft. The Naval expedition was headed by famed polar explore Admiral Richard Byrd, who had been ordered to: “to consolidate and extend American sovereignty over the largest practical area of the Antarctic continent.” Byrd’s expedition ended after only 8 weeks with “many fatalities” according to initial news reports based on interviews with crew members who spoke to the press while passing through Chilean ports. Rather than deny the heavy casualty reports, Admiral Byrd revealed in a press interview that Task Force 68 had encountered a new enemy that “could fly from pole to pole at incredible speeds.”

Admiral Byrd’s statements were published in the Chilean Press but never publicly confirmed by US authorities. Indeed Byrd did not speak again to the Press about Operation Highjump, leaving it for researchers to speculate for decades over what really happened, and why Byrd was silenced. After the Soviet collapse in 1991, the KGB released previously classified files that cast light on the mysterious Byrd led Naval expedition to Antarctica. A 2006 Russian documentary, recently translated, made public for the first time a 1947 secret Soviet intelligence report commissioned by Joseph Stalin of Task 68’s mission to Antarctica. The intelligence report, gathered from Soviet spies embedded in the US, revealed that the US Navy had sent the military expedition to find and destroy a hidden Nazi base. On the way, they encountered a mysterious UFO force that attacked the military expedition destroying several ships and a significant number of planes. Indeed, Operation Highjump had suffered “many casualties” as stated in initial press reports from Chile. While there is a possibility the report resulted from US disinformation fed to a known Soviet mole, the more likely explanation is that the report exposes the first known historical incident involving a battle between US naval forces and an unknown UFO force stationed near Antarctica.

It is a historical fact that Nazi Germany devoted significant resources to the exploration of Antarctica, and established a prewar presence there with its first mission in the Antarctic summer of 1938/1939. According to a statement by Grand Admiral Donitz in 1943, “the German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Führer, in another part of the world, a Shangri-La land, an impregnable fortress.” If the fortress was in Antarctica, was it built by the Nazis, or discovered there? After the defeat of Nazi Germany, according various sources, elite Nazi scientists and leaders escaped to this impregnable fortress by Uboats, two of which experienced difficulties and surrendered in Argentina.

In the Soviet intelligence report, never before known testimony by two US Navy servicemen with Operation Highjump was revealed. A recent article in New Dawn by Frank Joseph gives a detailed analysis of the two eyewitness accounts, only the latter of which was mentioned in the 2006 Russian documentary. John P. Szehwach, a radioman stationed on the USS Brownson, gave testimony of how UFOs appeared dramatically out of the ocean depths. On January 17, 1947 at 0700 hours, Szehwach said:

I and my shipmates in the pilothouse port side observed for several minutes the bright lights that ascended about 45 degrees into the sky very quickly… We couldn’t i.d., the lights, because our radar was limited to 250 miles in a straight line [Our Real “War of the Worlds”]

Over the next several weeks, according to the Soviet report, the UFOs flew close over the US naval flotilla which fired on the UFOs which did retaliate with deadly effects. According to Lieutenant John Sayerson, a flying boat pilot:

The thing shot vertically out of the water at tremendous velocity, as though pursued by the devil, and flew between the masts [of the ship] at such a high speed that the radio antenna oscillated back and forth in its turbulence. An aircraft [Martin flying-boat] from the Currituck that took off just a few moments later was struck with an unknown type of ray from the object, and almost instantly crashed into the sea near our vessel…. About ten miles away, the torpedo-boat Maddox burst into flames and began to sink… Having personally witnessed this attack by the object that flew out of the sea, all I can say is, it was frightening.” [Our Real “War of the Worlds”]

There is a major problem with Sayerson’s quote. There has been no torpedo boat named Maddox in the US Navy.  In the Russian documentary, the incident described by Sayerson (misspelt Sireson) refers instead to the destroyer “Murdoch.” There was, however, no destroyer named “Murdoch” active in the US Fleet in 1947. Instead there was a destroyer named “Maddox” (DD-731), but it did not serve in Operation Highjump. In fact, the USS Maddox was the destroyer fired upon in the Gulf of Tonkin incident of 1964.

According to Frank Joseph the USS Maddox was “either a torpedo boat, or torpedo-carrying destroyer.” He goes on to explain what may have happened to the Maddox mentioned in the Soviet report:

A USS Maddox was indeed sunk by enemy action, but five years earlier by a German dive-bomber during the Allied invasion of Sicily. Actually there were at least three American destroyers known by that name (DD-168, DD-622 and DD-731) all of them contemporaneous. The US Navy has long been notorious for falsifying the identity of its ships and re-writing their histories if they embarrass official policy…. So too, the “Maddox” cited by Soviet espionage was similarly consigned to an official memory hole. [Our Real “War of the Worlds”]

If Joseph is correct, then it is very possible that a USS Maddox was destroyed during Operation Highjump, and the US Navy changed official records to hide this. An alternative explanation is that the 1947 Soviet report contained U.S. orchestrated disinformation that was being conveyed to Soviet authorities by a Soviet mole known by the US intelligence community. Though plausible, this is highly unlikely given that the US and USSR were still allies at the time of Operation Highjump, and had a common interest in finding and destroying any hidden Nazi base(s) in the South Atlantic.

The destructive technology used by the UFOs in the Soviet intelligence report was not something that had been developed by the defeated Nazis who had only shortly before been forced to retreat to the South Atlantic. It appears the UFOs were not intent on destroying Task Force 68, but forcing it to turn back. Were the UFOs protecting the retreating Nazis and/or their own presence in Antarctica? Was the Stalin era report disinformation deliberately fed to Soviet authorities by US intelligence? What is the most likely answer is that the Soviet era report released in the 2006 Russian Documentary was substantially correct. This suggests that Admiral Byrd’s initial press report was accurate – a new enemy that could fly from pole to pole at “incredible speeds” had emerged. Most importantly, the UFO force had inflicted heavy casualties on the US Navy that was powerless to oppose it. The world’s first known battle between the United States military and an unknown UFO fleet based near Antarctica very likely occurred in 1947, and the general public has never learned about it until now.

© Copyright 2012. Michael E. Salla.

Permission is granted to include extracts of this article on websites and email lists with a link to the original. This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists without author’s permission.

USS Maddox (DD-168), c.1920 - History

28.10 RA PC (first automatic Omega), 333, 342, 343, 351, 354, 355

17.8-SC, 23.4, SC, 25.5 SOB, 26.5 S, 28, 231, 265, 266, 267, 268, 284, 269, 283, 286, 302, 600, 601, 611, 620

Museum Collection (5700.50.07)

11.5, 244, 482, 484, 485, 625, 671, 684

T.17, P. 17.8, R 17.8, 19.4, 20.F, 27.3 S, 302, 671,

491, 552, 555, 601, 600, 601, 613, 1030, 1481

19''' LO, 38,5 Lépine T1, 140, 37.5 L-15 R, 37.5 T1

Split Second Pocket Watch

Chronometer Grade Movements

For a watch to earn the title of "chronometer", the movement has to pass a very strict battery of test under very strict control at the most renowned official testing organization, the C.O.S.C (Controle Officiel Suisse des Chronometres). The testing last for 15 consecutive days. For the first ten days, the movements are tested in five positions at 20 degrees Centigrade. Three of the positions are vertical: 3 o'clock left, 3 o'clock up, and 3 o'clock down. Two test are horizontal: dial up and dial down.

After that, the movement is left in the horizontal, dial up position, and the temperature is lowered to 4 degrees Celsius for one day. Then it is raised back to 20 degrees Celsius for one day. Then the temperature is increased to 36 degrees Celsius. For the last two days of the test, the movement is moved back to vertical 3 o'clock left position and the temperature is lowered back to 20 degrees Celsius.

The timekeeping of the movement is recorded daily, and at the end of the 15 day test, calculations are made in six different areas. The different areas are: 1. mean daily rate in the different positions. 2. mean variation. 3. maximum variation. 4. greatest difference between the mean daily rate and any individual rate. 5. variation of rate per 1 degree Celsius. 6. resumption of rate. The variances allowed are very small. The mean daily rate must be within -4 and +6 seconds per 24 hours. The only chronometer grade movements by Omega that I am aware of are: 28.10 RA, 331, 340, 354, 551, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 672, 682, 712, 864, 1001, 1011, 1021, 1041, f300Hz. How a Bumper Wind Movement Works

Bumper wind, a.k.a. hammer wind movements, are early automatics. In today's automatics, you have what is called a "full rotor" automatic. What this means, is that the rotor can go around the whole movement to wind the mainspring. But back in the early part of the 1900s, they didn't know how to make a full rotor automatic. The concept of the bumper wind came about in the 1920s by John Harwood. The rotor in a bumper wind swings around about 120-130 degrees. There were two draw backs to this movement, the first one is that it isn't the best system of winding. It takes a lot of wear to wind one completely. That's because the rotor, a.k.a. hammer mass, always wants to go in the direction of the mainspring. To compensate for this, watchmakers had to evenly place weights on the bottom part of the rotor. That way when the wearer moves their wrist, the rotor will be pulled away from the barrel bridge so that the watch could wind. The second is that the constant slamming of the rotor on to the winding bridge causes wear on the parts. The term "bumper wind" comes from the bump you feel when the rotor returns to the winding bridge.

Here is a picture of the movement in my Omega bumper wind:

Differences between the 28.10 RA PC and 28.10 RA SC PC was the center seconds of the 28.10RA SC PC.

The 342 was in the first Seamaster. The 342 is identical to the 28.10 RA PC, but used concealed buffer springs. The 354 was identical to the 342, but used a swan neck regulator. 355 was the 354 with a date feature.

The 28.10 was a unidirectional wind.

The 501 is identical to the 471, but with swan neck regulator.

The 750 is a modified 550.

The 470 and 490 were the first Omega with rotor wind (360 degrees) winding bi-directionally.

471 was Omega's first full rotor automatic.

The first Constellation was introduced in 1952 with a Pie Pan dial, and 28.10 RA movement.

The base caliber in the Dynamic Chronograph is the ETA 2890-A2, and the chronograph movement is Dubois-Depraz 2030.

Besides adding a Geneve wave decor to the 1120 movement, and polishing the parts, Omega also adds their own winding rotor to the movement.

Construction and career USS Maddox (DD-168)_section_0

United States Navy service USS Maddox (DD-168)_section_1

Named for William A. T. Maddox, she was laid down on 20 July 1918 by the Fore River Shipbuilding Company, Quincy, Massachusetts. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_4

The ship was launched on 27 October 1918 sponsored by Mrs. Clarence N. Hinkamp, granddaughter of Captain Maddox. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_5

Maddox was commissioned on 10 March 1919, Comdr. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_6

Edward C. S. Parker in command. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_7

On 17 July 1920 she was designated DD-168. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_8

Assigned to Division 21, Atlantic Fleet, Maddox departed Boston 3 May 1919 for Trepassey, Newfoundland, en route to the Azores where she became part of a "bridge of ships" assigned to guide US Navy flying boats NC-1 and NC-4 across the ocean on the first transatlantic flight. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_9

Returning to Boston on 22 May, the destroyer operated out of there until she sailed for Europe on 26 August 1919. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_10

Arriving at Brest, France on 19 September, she soon joined an honor escort for George Washington, then bound for Ostend, Belgium, to embark the Belgian King and Queen for the United States. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_11

Detached on 25 September, Maddox commenced cross-channel service. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_12

Until 24 October she escorted ships and carried naval and Army passengers from Dover and Harwich to Boulogne, France, and the Hook of Holland. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_13

Departing Harwich on 25 October, the four stacker proceeded through Kiel Canal to visit various Baltic ports. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_14

Returning to the United States on 12 February 1920, Maddox operated out of Boston for the next 2 years, off the east coast. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_15

Departing Boston on 25 February 1922 for Philadelphia, she decommissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 14 June 1922. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_16

Inactive for the next 18 years, Maddox recommissioned on 17 June 1940. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_17

After brief duty on mid-Atlantic Neutrality Patrol, she departed Newport, Rhode Island on 16 September 1940 for Halifax, Nova Scotia, where she decommissioned on 23 September 1940. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_18

The same day, under the destroyer-naval base agreement, she was transferred to Great Britain and commissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Georgetown. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_19

Royal Navy and Royal Canadian Navy service USS Maddox (DD-168)_section_2

As Georgetown, she participated in operation “Bowery”, escorting the aircraft carrier Wasp in May 1942 on her second reinforcement of the Supermarine Spitfire strength on the island of Malta. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_20

In September 1942, she transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy for convoy escort duties in the western Atlantic. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_21

Georgetown was modified for trade convoy escort service by removal of three of the original 4"/50 caliber guns and one of the triple torpedo tube mounts to reduce topside weight for additional depth charge stowage and installation of Hedgehog anti-submarine launcher. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_22

Returned to the United Kingdom in December 1943, she joined the Reserve Fleet. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_23

In Soviet service USS Maddox (DD-168)_section_3

In August 1944 Georgetown was turned over to the Soviet Navy. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_24

She was renamed (sources vary) either Doblestny (rus. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_25

"Glorious or Valiant") or Zhyostky (rus. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_26

"Rigid"). USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_27

She was returned to the Royal Navy on 9 September 1952 and scrapped on 16 September 1952. USS Maddox (DD-168)_sentence_28


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The Second World War started in September 1939. After the eight month interlude of the Phony War, France and the Low Countries were quickly overrun by the Nazi German Blitzkrieg in the Battle of France in May 1940. This left the United Kingdom and British Empire fighting alone (or almost alone after the Italian attack on Greece that autumn), against Germany and Italy.

The Chiefs of Staff Committee concluded in May that if France collapsed, "we do not think we could continue the war with any chance of success" without "full economic and financial support" from the United States of America. [2] Although its government was sympathetic to Britain's plight, American public opinion at the time overwhelmingly supported isolationism to avoid US involvement in "another European war". Reflecting this sentiment, Congress had passed the Neutrality Acts three years previously, which banned the shipment or sale of arms from the US to any combatant nation. Additionally, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was further constrained by the upcoming 1940 Presidential election, as his critics sought to portray him as being pro-war.

By late May, following the evacuation of British forces from Dunkirk, France, in Operation Dynamo, the Royal Navy was in immediate need of ships, especially as they were now fighting the Battle of the Atlantic in which German U-boats threatened Britain's supplies of food and other resources essential to the war effort.

With German troops advancing rapidly into France and many in the US Government convinced that the defeat of France and Britain was imminent, the United States sent a proposal to the United Kingdom through the British Ambassador, the Marquess of Lothian, for an American lease of airfields on Trinidad, Bermuda, and Newfoundland. [3] British Prime Minister Winston Churchill initially rejected the offer on May 27 unless Britain received something immediate in return. On June 1, as the defeat of France loomed, President Roosevelt bypassed the Neutrality Act by declaring as "surplus" many millions of rounds of American ammunition and obsolescent small arms, and authorizing their shipment to the United Kingdom. But Roosevelt rejected Churchill's pleas for destroyers for the Royal Navy.

By August, while Britain and her Empire stood alone against Germany, the American Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy reported from London that a British surrender was "inevitable". Seeking to persuade Roosevelt to send the destroyers, Churchill warned Roosevelt ominously that if Britain were vanquished, its colonial islands close to American shores could become a direct threat to America if they fell into German hands.

Black Enslavement in Canada

In early Canada, the enslavement of African peoples was a legal instrument that helped fuel colonial economic enterprise. The buying, selling and enslavement of Black people was practiced by European traders and colonists in New France in the early 1600s, and lasted until it was abolished throughout British North America in 1834. During that two-century period, settlers in what would eventually become Canada were involved in the transatlantic slave trade. Canada is further linked to the institution of enslavement through its history of international trade. Products such as salted cod and timber were exchanged for slave-produced goods such as rum, molasses, tobacco and sugar from slaveholding colonies in the Caribbean.

This is the full-length entry about Black enslavement in Canada. For a plain language summary, please see Black Enslavement in Canada (Plain Language Summary).

Illustration showing deck plans and cross sections of British slave ship Brookes under the regulated slave trade act of 1788.


There is debate about the terms enslavement and enslaved people, on one hand, and slavery and slaves on the other. Many authors and historians use both sets of terms, which have similar meanings but can represent different perspectives on historical events. For example, slave is used to describe a person’s property. It is a noun that critics of the term say reduces a person to a position they never chose to be in. The term enslaved describes the state of being held as a slave. Historians who prefer enslaved person explain that it makes it clearer that enslavement was imposed on people against their will. They also mention that adding the word person brings forward the humanity of the people the term describes.

Some historians continue to use the terms slave and slavery, without adding person, arguing that the terms are clearer and more familiar. They argue that adding the word person implies a level of autonomy that enslavement took away from people.

Enslavement in New France

In the early 17th century, colonizers in New France practiced chattel slavery, in which people were treated as personal property that could be bought, sold, traded and inherited. The first slaves in New France were Indigenous peoples a large percentage of whom came from the Pawnee Nation located in present-day Nebraska, Oklahoma and Kansas. Many were captured during war and sold to other Indigenous nations or to European traders. Some French colonists acquired enslaved Black people through private sales, and some received Indigenous and African slaves as gifts from Indigenous allies. Out of approximately 4,200 slaves in New France at the peak of slavery, about 2,700 were Indigenous people who were enslaved until 1783, and at least 1,443 were Black people who were enslaved between the late 1600s and 1831. The rest of the slaves were from other territories and other countries. Over time, enslaved people from any Indigenous group in North America were generally referred to as panis — a term that became synonymous with “enslaved Indigenous person.” Indigenous and African individuals held in bondage were also commonly referred to as domestiques or servants — words that almost always meant slave. (See also Slavery of Indigenous People in Canada.)

Pawnee traditional territory.
(courtesy Victor Temprano/

The earliest written evidence of enslaved Africans in New France is the recorded sale of a boy from either Madagascar or Guinea believed to be at least six years old. In 1629, the child was brought to New France by the Kirke brothers, who were British traders (see Sir David Kirke). The boy was first sold to a French clerk named Olivier Le Baillif (sometimes referred to as Olivier Le Tardiff). When Le Baillif left the country, the little boy was given to Guillaume Couillard, who sent the boy to school. In 1633, the enslaved boy was baptized and given the name Olivier Le Jeune.

The next enslaved African in New France was a man named La Liberté, who appears in the 1686 census records. At that time, there was a growing demand for enslaved Black people as a source of labour to avoid paying costly European workers.

On 1 May 1689, King Louis XIV officially authorized the importation of enslaved Black people to New France. However, this commercial endeavour was stalled two weeks later when France entered the War of the League of Augsburg (1689–97), and again in 1702 with the start of Queen Anne’s War (1702–13). Despite the setback, 13 enslaved Black people were brought into New France through private sales. A much larger shipment of enslaved Black people that had been authorized by the king did not arrive.

On 13 April 1709, Intendant Jacques Raudot passed a colonial law entitled Ordinance Rendered on the Subject of the Negroes and the Indians called Panis. It legalized the purchase and possession of slaves in New France and further solidified the practice of enslavement. It was the first official legislation on slavery in New France. Black enslavement was reinforced by the next French king, Louis XV, who made two proclamations about slavery in the 1720s and one more in 1745.

Enslavement in British North America

When the British conquered New France in 1760, the Articles of Capitulation, signed at the surrender of Montréal on 8 September 1760, included a specific clause on enslavement. Article XLVII stated:

The Negroes and panis of both sexes shall remain, in their quality of slaves, in the possession of the French and Canadians to whom they belong they shall be at liberty to keep them in their service in the colony, or to sell them and they may also continue to bring them up in the Roman Religion.

—“Granted, except those who shall have been made prisoners.”

This clause stated that French inhabitants would not lose their slave property under the British regime, and reinforced enslavement as legal under British rule. Article XLVII also illustrates that there were enough enslaved people in New France to warrant a separate clause in the capitulation of an entire colony.

Saint John’s Island (changed to Prince Edward Island in 1799) was the only jurisdiction in British North America that passed a law regulating the enslaved. An Act, declaring that Baptism of Slaves shall not exempt them from Bondage became law in 1781. It stated that Black people “who now are on this Island, or may hereafter be imported or brought therein (being Slaves) shall continue such, unless freed by his, her, or their respective Owners.” This legislation was introduced to protect the personal property of existing and future settlers. There were three main provisions: baptism did not change slave status, persons enslaved in Prince Edward Island remained so unless manumitted (set free) by their owners, and children born to enslaved women were born enslaved. To encourage White settlers to relocate to the Island, an Act of Parliament was instituted in 1791 offering “forty shillings for every Negro brought by such white person.”

After the British were defeated in the American Revolution(1775 - 1783), the number of enslaved Africans in British North America increased significantly. To encourage White American settlers to immigrate north, the government passed the Imperial Statute of 1790, which allowed United Empire Loyalists to bring in “negros [sic], household furniture, utensils of husbandry, or cloathing [sic]” duty-free. By law, such chattel could not be sold for one year after entering the colonies.

Advertisements for the sale of slaves were a common occurrence in Halifax newspapers during the period 1752u201382. Published in the Nova Scotia Gazette and Weekly Chronicle, 28 March 1775.

Around 3,000 enslaved men, women and children of African descent were brought into British North America. By the 1790s, the number of enslaved Black people in the Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island) ranged from 1,200 to 2,000. There were about 300 in Lower Canada (Québec), and between 500 and 700 in Upper Canada (Ontario).

Slave Ownership in Canada

Slave owning was widespread in colonial Canada. Individuals from all levels of society owned slaves, not just the political and social elite. People who enslaved Black persons included government and military officials, disbanded soldiers, Loyalists, merchants, fur traders, tavern and hotel keepers, millers, tradesmen, bishops, priests and nuns. While slave ownership filled a need for cheap labour, it was also considered part of an individual’s personal wealth. The law enforced and maintained enslavement through legal contracts that detailed transactions of the buying, selling or hiring out of enslaved persons, as well as the terms of wills in which enslaved people were passed on to others.

In early Canada, some slave owners held a small number of slaves, while others had more than 20. Father Louis Payet, the priest of Saint-Antoine-sur-Richelieu, Québec, owned five slaves — one Indigenous and four Black. James McGill, member of the Assembly of Lower Canada and founder of McGill University, counted six enslaved Black persons as part of his property holdings. Boatswain and Jane were both owned by Loyalist widow Catherine Clement in Niagara, where they were advertised for sale in the Niagara Herald in 1802. Noted deputy superintendent of the Indian Department, Matthew Elliott, is known to have held at least 60 enslaved Black people on his large estate in Fort Malden, Ontario (present-day Amherstburg). British army officer Sir John Johnson brought 14 Black slaves with him to early Canada. Prominent military officer and merchant John Askin bought and sold as many as 23 slaves on both sides of the Detroit River. James Girty traded with, and was an interpreter for, the Indigenous peoples in the Ohio region. He owned at least three enslaved Black people in Gosfield Township in Essex County, Ontario. One of his slaves — Jack York — was accused of an offense against a White woman and was sentenced to be hanged. However, Jack escaped before the sentence could be carried out.

In what are now the Maritime provinces, many people owned slaves. Two businessmen in Saint John, New Brunswick, advertised the sale of their Black slaves in a local newspaper. These men were Loyalist James Hayt and Thomas Mallard, who was owner of Mallard House inn, which was used as the site of the first parliament of New Brunswick in 1786. Halifax merchant Joshua Mauger traded Black slaves and in Liverpool, Nova Scotia, businessman and diarist Simeon Perkins purchased a 10-year-old Black boy and changed the boy’s name from Jacob to Frank. Baker Richard Jenkins, merchant William Creed, and Loyalists Colonel Joseph Robinson, Governor Walter Patterson, merchant Thomas Haszard and businessman William Schurman, were a few businessmen who brought enslaved Black people into Prince Edward Island. A number of the slaves were from Africa. In Newfoundland, merchant and fisherman Thomas Oxford’s Black male servant was stolen from him in 1679.

This advertisement in the Halifax Gazette shows that Halifax took part in the Atlantic coastal slave trade. The slaves for sale had just been imported from the West Indies by merchant Joshua Mauger, 30 May 1752.

The wills of some slave owners in the Maritimes freed their slaves when the owner died. Upon his death in 1791, magistrate John Benger freed a man, woman and three children. Similarly, in 1814, when John Ryan, founder of the Royal Gazette and Newfoundland Advertiser, passed away, he emancipated his Black slave Dinah. Her two children were freed when they reached the age of 21.

In Upper Canada’s Town of York (what is now Toronto), the six enslaved Black people owned by Provincial Secretary of Upper Canada, William Jarvis, were counted in the 1799 census. Sophia Pooley, kidnapped and sold into slavery at age nine, was one of several individuals of African descent whom Mohawk chief Joseph Brant enslaved in the Burlington area.

Slave ownership was prevalent among the members of the early Upper Canada Legislative Assemblies, as well. Six out of the 16 members of the first Parliament of the Upper Canada Legislative Assembly (1792–96) were slave owners or had family members who owned slaves: John McDonell, Ephraim Jones, Hazelton Spencer, David William Smith, and François Baby all owned slaves, and Philip Dorland’s brother Thomas owned 20 slaves. Dorland was replaced in Parliament by slave owner Peter Van Alstine. And the following six out of the nine original members of the upper house of the Legislative Council of Upper Canada were also slave owners and/or members of slaveholding families: Peter Russell, James Baby, Alexander Grant Sr., Richard Duncan, Richard Cartwright and Robert Hamilton. Peter Russell, the first receiver and auditor general of Upper Canada, had a free Black man named Pompadour working for him. But Pompadour’s wife Peggy and their three children Jupiter, Amy and Milly were enslaved by Russell.

The following 14 out of the 17 members of the second Parliament of the Upper Canada Legislative Assembly (1797–1800) either enslaved Black people or were from slaveholding families. David W. Smith, who was serving his second term in the Assembly, was a slaveholder. Thomas Fraser, who owned four slaves in the District of Johnstown, was the district’s first sheriff and came from a Loyalist slaveholding family. Richard Beasley owned several slaves in Hamilton, and Richard Norton Wilkinson was in possession of a Black woman and two Black children. Thomas McKee came from a slave-owning family and enslaved eight Black people himself. Dr. Solomon Jones purchased an eight-year-old Black girl from his brother Daniel in 1788, and Timothy Thompson owned a number of enslaved Black people in the Midland District (see Midland). Robert Isaac Dey Gray was Upper Canada’s first solicitor general, and became a slave owner when his father, Major James Gray, died, leaving him a Black woman named Dorinda Baker and her sons Simon and John. Benjamin Hardison owned Chloe Cooley before selling her to Adam Vrooman. Samuel Street and his business partner Thomas Butler (son of Colonel John Butler of Butler’s Rangers) dealt in the sale of many goods, including enslaved people. In 1786, they sold “a Negro wench named Sarah about nine Years old” to Adam Crysler for £40. William Fairfield and Edward Jessup Jr. were also from families that enslaved Black people. And lastly, Christopher Robinson was from a family that enslaved Black people and was also the sponsor of the 1798 Bill to authorize and allow persons coming into this Province to settle to bring with them their Negro Slaves. Though the bill passed the first three readings in the Assembly, the Legislative Council tied up the bill until the close of the parliamentary session, and in doing so prevented it from becoming law. The introduction of this bill reflected an opposition to the abolition of slavery in the province.

Members of Nova Scotia’s Legislative Assembly were also slave owners. James DeLancey and Major Thomas Barclay, both of whom served in the 6th General Assembly (1785–93), owned six and seven slaves respectively. James Moody, who sat in the 7th General Assembly (1793–99) possessed eight slaves. John Taylor, who was a sitting member in the 8th General Assembly (1799–1806), held six Black people in bondage.

Slave Labour: Forced to Work for Free

French and English colonies depended on slave labour for economic growth. The intention of enslaving Black people was to exploit their labour. Colonists wanted free labour to increase their personal wealth, and in turn, enhance local and colonial economies. In Canada, the majority of enslaved people worked as domestic servants in households, cooking and cleaning, and taking care of their owners’ children. Many were employed in the businesses of their owners, including for example inns, taverns, mills and butcher shops. Enslaved Black people cleared land, chopped wood, built log homes and made furniture in the colonies. As agricultural workers, they prepared fields, planted and harvested crops and tended to livestock. Many also worked as hunters, voyageurs, sailors, miners, laundresses, printing press operators, fishermen, dock workers, seamstresses, hair dressers and even as executioners. Slave labour was used to make a range of products, such as potash, soap, bricks, candles, sails and ropes. Enslaved males were trained and employed in skilled trades such as blacksmiths, carpenters, cobblers, wainwrights and coopers. They were often “hired out” as a way for slave owners to earn more money on their investment. Enslaved Black people laboured long hours, doing physically strenuous tasks, and were always at the beck and call of their masters.


A persistent myth suggests that people enslaved in Canada were treated better than those enslaved in the United States and the Caribbean. But since the belief that Black persons were less than human was used to justify enslavement in all three places, it stands to reason that the treatment of enslaved Black people in Canada was comparable.

As chattel, they had no basic rights or freedoms and they were either treated humanely or cruelly, depending on their slave master. For instance, some slave owners allowed enslaved Africans to learn to read and write, while enslaved children were often denied an education. A number of enslaved Black people were freed upon their owners’ death, and some were rewarded for their years of service with inheritances of land, money and household properties. Other slaves were passed on to family members or friends upon their owner’s death. Many enslaved Black people were subjected to cruel and harsh treatment by their owners. Some Black slaves were tortured and jailed as punishment, others were hanged or murdered. Enslaved Black women were often sexually abused by their masters. Families were separated when some family members were sold to new owners.

The treatment of enslaved Black people varied, but the mere fact that they were held as property sums up their overall social condition.


Black people resisted enslavement in different ways. Some enslaved Black people, mainly women, left their owner’s property for short periods of time without permission. This was called petit marronage. Other forms of personal rebellion included pretending to be physically or mentally ill, or lying and scheming to find ways to get out of slave labour. Others made the biggest form of protest by running away in pursuit of their liberty.

Mixed media, 2012 Portrait of Harriet Tubman (c. 1869) by W.J. Moses.

Many enslaved Black people in Upper Canada fled to free regions in the United States, including the former Northwest Territory (which included parts of what is now Michigan and Ohio), Vermont, and New York — states that banned slavery in 1777 and 1799, respectively. Dozens of runaway slave ads were published in newspapers in Canada and the newly formed United States. The ads included detailed descriptions of an escapee’s physical appearance, the clothes they were wearing and the languages he or she spoke. Rewards were frequently offered, along with warnings not to employ or give refuge to the runaway. In 1798, Henry Lewis — who was enslaved by William Jarvis — fled to Schenectady, New York, to secure his freedom. Some individuals launched legal challenges against their owners to fight against their slave status and treatment. (See also Marie-Joseph Angélique and Chloe Cooley.)

Legal Challenges to Enslavement

The abolitionist movement in Britain had argued against the transatlantic slave trade since the 1770s. Abolitionism soon made its way to British North America, where a number of legal challenges were made against the institution of slavery. By the early 1800s, Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia had attempted to abolish slavery but failed. Bills were introduced in Lower Canada in 1793 and in 1801, but neither bill was passed. In contrast, bills to legalize enslavement were presented in New Brunswick (1801) and Nova Scotia (1808), but they were met with opposition and were not passed. Meanwhile, enslaved individuals launched legal challenges during the late 18th century that destabilized the institution of enslavement in Québec and the Maritimes.

Between 1791 and 1808, enslavement was challenged by Nova Scotia’s Chief Justice Thomas Strange and his successor Sampson Blowers. When slave owners came before Strange and Blowers seeking to reclaim enslaved people who had fled their bond, the judges put the burden of proof on the slave owners, asking them to prove ownership of the enslaved person and to prove that they had the legal right to purchase that person. Owners who appeared before these judges were usually unable to satisfy the court in that regard. Among other factors, the strong opposition of the courts, along with the slave owners’ inability to protect existing slavery laws, made enslavement in Nova Scotia economically unviable. As a result, slavery gradually died out.

A precedent-setting case came before the courts in Lower Canada in February 1798. An enslaved woman named Charlotte was arrested in Montréal after leaving her mistress and refusing to return to her. She was brought before Chief Justice James Monk, who released her based on a technicality. British law stated that enslaved persons could only be detained in houses of correction, not in common jails. Since no houses of correction existed in Montréal, Monk decided that Charlotte could not be detained. The following month, another enslaved woman named Jude was freed by Monk on the same grounds. Monk asserted in his ruling that he would apply that interpretation of the law to all future cases.

In 1800, an enslaved Black woman named Nancy sought her freedom in the New Brunswick courts on a writ of habeas corpus — a law wherein an individual can report unlawful detention or imprisonment. During the hearing, the court decision was a tie, so Nancy remained in the service of her master Caleb Jones. The writ was not issued until 14 years after Nancy had attempted to emancipate herself and her young son by escaping enslavement. However, such cases placed limitations on enslavement, making the practice insupportable. The Supreme Court’s anti-slavery position helped to decrease the value of slave property, due to the uncertain future of enslavement. People would not purchase slaves without solid proof of ownership. Slave owners knew they could not count on the courts to recognize an owner’s right to hold slaves, or to help maintain the practice of enslavement if any related legal issue arose. Enslaved people increasingly refused to be held in bondage and knowing they had the backing of the courts, many chose to self-emancipate. Consequently, many slave owners suffered financial loss.

In Prince Edward Island in 1802, the lawyer for a captured runaway named Sam demanded that the owner, Thomas Wright, provide proof of ownership. However, Wright had all of his paperwork in order and was able to reclaim Sam. In 1825, the 1781 Act regulating enslavement in that colony was reversed without debate, seemingly affirming that enslavement was then illegal in PEI.

In Upper Canada, the tide was also changing. Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe held anti-slavery sentiments influenced by the growing movement in Britain. In 1793, Simcoe and Attorney General John White used the Chloe Cooley incident as means to introduce a bill to end slavery in that colony. However, it met strong opposition, since many of the members of both houses of the legislature enslaved Black people or were from slaveholding families. The amended compromise was the Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada , which received Royal Assent on 9 July 1793. This was the first piece of legislation passed in the British colonies to limit slavery. The Act did not abolish the practice nor emancipate a single enslaved person. It instead placed limitations on enslavement. Importing enslaved people became illegal, and a time frame was set in place to gradually phase out slaveholding.

An Act to Prevent the further Introduction of Slaves and to limit the Term of Contracts for Servitude, 9 July 1793.


Although the practice of enslavement had decreased considerably by the 1820s, it remained legal in British North America. The children born in 1793, when the Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada took effect, turned 25 by 1818. Therefore, they were no longer slave property and their children were born free. However, a very small number of Black people — less than 50 — remained in bondage. In March 1824, in one of the last recorded sales of a slave in Upper Canada, Eli Keeler of Colborne sold 15-year-old Tom to William Bell in Thurlow (now Belleville). In his 1871 obituary, John Baker was recognized as the last surviving enslaved Black person born in Canada.

As it did in Québec and Nova Scotia, the practice of enslavement eventually came to an end in New Brunswick when supporters of slavery could not get a law passed to confirm the legality of enslavement. In 1825, Prince Edward Island reversed its only regulation on enslavement.

During the period of abolition, there was a move to replace enslavement with indentureship in order to benefit both slave owners and the enslaved. Indentureship meant that persons once enslaved were paid for their labour, serving their former masters or other employers for a specific length of time before becoming free. Indentureship was a generally accepted practice across British North America adopted by many slave owners to avoid further losses through slaves running away. Indentureship was also supported through legislation, as outlined in laws such as the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery, which limited the time that formally enslaved persons were bound to service to nine years.

Anti-slavery legislation was introduced in Britain and received Royal Assent on 28 August 1833. The Slavery Abolition Act came into effect on 1 August 1834, abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire, including British North America. The Act made enslavement officially illegal in every province and freed the last remaining enslaved people in Canada.