Ridgeway PC-1193 - History


(PC-1193: dp. 348; 1. 174'9", b. 23'; dr. 7'6"; s. 20.2 k
epl. 65; a. 1 3", 1 40mm., 2 20mm., 2 dcp., 2 dct., 2 rkt.)

PC-1193, a steel-hulled submarine chaser, was laid down 30 June 1942 by Consolidated Shipbuilding Corp., Morris Heights, N.Y.; launched 29 August 1942; and commissioned at the New York Navy Yard 21 January 1943, Lt. Marion L. Bohgren in command.

Assigned to Service Squadron 1, Service Force, Atlantic,PC-l193 departed New York 13 February 1943 for the Submarine Chaser Training Center, Miami Fla., arriving on the 26th. Following 2 weeks of training she commenced extensive patrol operations out of her homeport, Miami, on 17 April 1943.

Through the end of hostilities PC-119S provided extensive patrol and escort services out of Miami, with periodic calls at Charleston, S.C., for availability. Returning to New York 10 December 1945, she was tentatively scheduled for disposal. However, she departed New York 16 November 1946 and cruised via Cape Cod Canal, Halifax, Nova Seotia, and Quebec, and then commenced patrol duty on the waters of Lake Ontario.

PC-119S decommissioned at Boston 2 March 1950, and was placed in reserve there. Named Ridway on 1 February 1956, she was sold to Hughes Brothers, Inc., 16 September 1959.

Computer history - 1993

The NCSA released the Mosaic browser on April 22, 1993.

On April 30, 1993, CERN released the Web source code and made it public domain. The effect had an immediate effect as the Web experiences massive growth on the Internet.

President Bill Clinton puts the White House and the United Nations online in 1993 and helps start the .gov and .org top-level domains. With the White House coming online it also made it possible to e-mail the President, Vice President, and the First Lady.

What Ridgeway family records will you find?

There are 50,000 census records available for the last name Ridgeway. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Ridgeway census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 3,000 immigration records available for the last name Ridgeway. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 9,000 military records available for the last name Ridgeway. For the veterans among your Ridgeway ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 50,000 census records available for the last name Ridgeway. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Ridgeway census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 3,000 immigration records available for the last name Ridgeway. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 9,000 military records available for the last name Ridgeway. For the veterans among your Ridgeway ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

Ridgeway PC-1193 - History

Sisters Habitat for Humanity Thrift Store and ReStore are now open to the public. Shoppers are required to sanitize their hands and wear a face mask before entering. A limited number of shoppers are allowed in the store at any one time.

Hours of Operation:
Open Monday thru Saturday
10:00 AM – 5:00 PM

Donations are now being accepted Monday thru Saturday between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. only. NO APPOINTMENTS ARE REQUIRED! Bring help to lift heavy items as volunteers and staff are not permitted to assist.

The Sisters Habitat ReStore has been part of the community since April 2007. We sell home improvement merchandise, quality use furniture, electronics, sporting goods and more. By donating to the ReStore, you can help eliminate the cost of disposal for merchandise and help families in the Sisters area as money for the donated items goes toward building homes for local families. We also offer a tax deduction as allowed by law for donations.

We sell home improvement merchandise to the public at up to 75% off retail prices, and we provide a source for home improvement donations by wholesalers, manufacturers, renovation specialists, demolition companies, retailers, individuals and others.

Besides our manager and assistant manager, our store is operated strictly by our wonderful volunteers. They help sort items, set up displays and assist customers. At this time, we are not offering pick up or delivery service.

Appliances, Large (Working Only)
Appliances Small
• Stand alone only (no built in), microwave ovens with turntable, bagless vacuum, heaters & fans.
Bed frames and headboards (No metal bedframes)
Building materials
Camping Supplies
Carpeting and rugs
• (5 years or Newer)- See Manager for Approval
• Thin flat screen TV with remote and stand, Laptops, Speakers & Stereo equipment, USB & Bluetooth peripherals
Flooring (minimum 100 sq ft)
Framed art
Furniture (no tears or stains)
Gardening: tools, large and small pots, mowers and spreaders
Holiday decorations
Lamps & Lighting
Medical Equipment (home care only)
Pet supplies
Picture Frames
Plumbing Supplies (Only new fixtures and sinks)
Sporting goods
Toilets (New only)
Windows- with manager’s approval
Wicker Furniture

Disclaimer: The “YES” list is subject to change. Donations are taken at staff discretion.

We Do Not Accept

Alpine skis
Automotive accessories
Bath cabinets
Bunk Beds & Metal Hollywood bedframes
Computers (5 years or older)
Doors without frames
Exercise equipment
Flammable liquids
Fluorescent Fixtures
Fluorescent Tubes and Bulbs
Microwaves (old & heavy)
Musical organs
Pool Tables
Shower doors
Sleeper Sofas
Vacuum cleaners (with disposable bags)
TV’s (tube, projections, flat screen)
Windows without frames
Anything that doesn’t work!

Disclaimer: The “NO” list is subject to change. Donations are taken at staff discretion.

We Do Not Accept Hazardous Waste or Electronic Waste

Auto batteries
Fertilizers & garden chemicals
Household liquids (cleaners, detergents, soaps, sprays, oil)
Motor Oil
Pharmaceuticals & medications

Cash registers
Cell phones & telephones
Computer monitors & mouse* (check with manager newer computers we can sometimes take)
CPUs (towers& desktops)
Disk drives & PC boards
Fax Machines
VHS Players

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Ridgeway PC-1193 - History

The Ridgeway Historic District is significant as an example of a virtually intact turn-of-the-century town whose development was inextricably tied to agricultural prosperity. A majority of the buildings in the district were built between 1890 and 1915, the heyday of cotton production in the area. The community developed in an east-west linear pattern paralleling the Southern Railway tracks, completed in 1850. After a period of economic depression following the Civil War, Ridgeway began to develop as a commercial center serving area farmers. By 1880 there were ten stores located in the commercial district, two stores still survive. The town’s merchants constructed modern new brick stores along Palmer Street and some also built their homes in the residential section adjacent to the central business district. The district contains approximately thirty-one buildings including a commercial block with a predominance of simply ornamented two-story brick stores and a residential block with primarily asymmetrical, frame, weatherboarded houses lining the tree shaded streets. Styles include Queen Anne, Neo-Classical, Victorian, and Bungalow. Also included are a school, the town hall, and the police station. Listed in the National Register November 26, 1980.

View a map showing the boundaries of the Ridgeway Historic District.

View the complete text of the nomination form for this National Register property. In addition, the Historic Resources of Ridgeway includes historical background information for this and other related National Register properties.

Most National Register properties are privately owned and are not open to the public. The privacy of owners should be respected. Not all properties retain the same integrity as when originally documented and listed in the National Register due to changes and modifications over time.

Images and texts on these pages are intended for research or educational use. Please read our statement on use and reproduction for further information on how to obtain a photocopy or how to cite an item.

Continued Growth

The Ridgeway congregation continues to encourage to men who want to preach. Some who preach today have been given an opportunity to advance their talents. Consequently, many men have chosen to preach. Bill Arnold, Johnny Arnold, Chuck Crow, Fred Snow, Delbert Wilson, Milton Wilson, Clay Hendrix, Josh Arnold, David Good, have taken this opportunity.

Teachers have a large part to do with the growth and development of the Lord’s Church here at Ridgeway. We currently have over 40 people from our congregation teaching classes. Each one deserves much more than can ever be repaid.

The congregation appointed elders to serve as leaders in December 2000. Those named were Johnny Matlock, Bill Arnold, Bill Collins, and James Widner. Current deacons are Bill Arnold and James Widner.

In October 2002, four deacons were added to help manage duties that need to be accomplished for special events, building and equipment upkeep. Tom Collins, David Good, Marc Arnold, and Robb Hulsey were our first deacons.

Our deacons recently were Jay Martin, Robb Hulsey, Bill Wilson, Brian Curtis and Tom Collins. Also, i n May 2017 we added two deacons and replaced one long time deacon. Hence, our current deacons are Johnny Austin, Bryan Curtis, Allen Everett, Robb Hulsey, Jay Martin and Matt Widner. We appreciate those individuals that volunteer to help with the administration of our community. (See Deacon Duties)

Welcome Home to the Village of Ridgeway!

Ridgeway is a village in Iowa County, Wisconsin, United States. It is the fourth most populous community in the county. The 2020 DOA estimate of the population is 647 people (653 at the 2010 census). The village is located adjacent to the Town of Ridgeway and Village of Barneveld. It is part of the Madison Metropolitan Statistical Area. The village is currently expanding and adding single family homes in the Cardinal Way Subdivision, is home to many area businesses and organizations, expansive scenic views, park amenities, and recreational opportunities.

Ridgeway is located at 42°59′56″N 89°59′32″W (42.99915, -89.992326).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.26 square miles (3.26 km2), all of it land. More community information.

Ridgeway PC-1193 - History

The earliest settlers of the Ridgeway area of lower Fairfield County appear to have been Scots-Irish Presbyterians. In Doctor George Howe's History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina (Columbia, 1870), he states, "In October 1799, a society on Cedar Creek petitions supplies, and prays it may be known on the minutes of Presbytery by the name of Aimwell." However, in the old Session Book of the Aimwell Presbyterian Church in Ridgeway is the statement, "On the first Saturday in January, 1840, the semi-centenary was observed and 63 dollars was subscribed for the board of publication." This places the origin of Aimwell Church as 1790.

When John Rosborough and his wife, Ann Cubit, moved to Ridgeway from Lebanon section of Fairfield in 1790, they "brought with them a fervent desire to organize a church," wrote Mrs. E. D. goodson for the 150th anniversary of Aimwell in 1940. The first services were held in the Rosboroughs' home on the site of the present Century House in the town of Ridgeway. The first church building appears to have been erected about 1799 on land near Cedar Creek, given the previous year by Francis Robinson. The Reverend George Reed or Reid was the first pastor, and served for seven years. Mr. John Rosborough was ordained as the first elder. Following the Reverend Mr. Reed, Aimwell was served by the Reverend William G. Rosborough, who, Howe tells us, was prepared at Mount Zion College, and received under the care of Presbytery in 1793.

The first church was burned. A second log church was built on a site near the present Bethlehem Colored Church across the street from the Crumpton House in Ridgeway, and this church was used until 1833. This marked the erection of Aimwell on the site of the present cemetery on land given the Presbyterians by Edward Gendron Palmer of Valencia. This building was erected in 1833 the fourth building was dedicated November 18, 1859. This building was described in later years by the late Eloise Davis Ruff as "white, foursquare, with a recessed porch and columns." The were two doors opening on the porch and in the enclosed ends were concealed the steps leading up into the gallery where the colored servants sat. In the body of the church were three rows of pews. A melodian, given by Miss Sallie Means, stood near the pulpit, The choir was composed of Mrs. Henry Davis, Miss Ann Thomas, and Miss Mattie Roseborough, with Miss Sallie Means, at the melodian. Behind the church, built of sturdy logs, was the session house, with a huge log fireplace," concluded "Miss Eloise," as she remembered Aimwell about the time of the Confederate War.

Early members of Aimwell and residents of lower Fairfield County were the Rosboroughs, Robinsons, Craigs, Boulwares, and Colemans. Some of the first settlers had come from Scotland and Ireland by way of Virginia and North Carolina, whereas others, like John Rosborough, had come directly to South Carolina by way of Charleston from Ireland during the potato famines of the late eighteenth century. He had married Ann Cubit in Carolina after she came to Beaufort with her English sea captain father.

In the late 1800s, about 1885, Aimwell built a frame church in the town of Ridgeway, and it was used primarily for prayer meetings for the greater convenience of the members. The church in the cemetery was eventually taken down, and given to the colored Presbyterians, and rebuilt on the Smallwood Road just south of the town limits. Like its parent white church in the town both have been brick veneered in recent years and continue to serve their respective congregations, the fourth Aimwell serving the colored people, and the fifth Aimwell serving the white congregation. In the days of the first and second churches, and the early days of Aimwell in the cemetery, the colored members were listed in the same congregation and attended the same services. Church segregation in the South is an outgrowth of the Civil War. Virtually all Southern churches had white and colored members before the War, and the Episcopal Church in South Carolina had more colored than white members.


Edward Gendron Palmer of Saint James' Parish, Santee, Charleston District, came to Fairfield in 1824, the first of the lowcountrymen to move into this area and to exert an influence in the county out of all proportion to their numbers. Mr. Palmer had married Caroline, the daughter of Doctor James Davis, "eminent physician of his day," who lived at Quinine Hill near Columbia and who persuaded his son-in-law to migrate to the more healthful up country. Mr. Palmer purchased a plantation, Bloomingdale, on Dutchman's Creek several miles northwest of New Lands, as Ridgeway was then called. Not finding Bloomingdale as healthful as he had hoped, Mr. Palmer temporarily moved into a house he owned on what is now Palmer Street in Ridgeway, while building Valencia.

One of the first to follow Mr. Palmer to the upcountry was Samuel Peyre Thomas of St. Stephen's Parish, Charleston District, who built Valley Grove, the lands of which adjoined Bloomingdale. Having received his Bachelor of Arts degree at Harvard College in 1825, S. Peyre Thomas returned to his birthplace Betaw on the Santee in St. Stephen's Parish. Here he awaited his twenty-fifth class reunion, Mr. Thoms states, "Upon becoming of age a few months after my returning home from college, I found myself in possession of ten Negroes and about Two thousand Dollars. With this small property, I removed to Fairfield District and purchased a small farm and have ever since been engaged in the production of cotton." In 1834, Mr. Thomas married Jane Fears Rosborough, daughter of John Rosborough, whom he describes in another letter, now also in the Harvard Library Archives as "one of the most estimable men, and most correct in principle, that I ever knew." Valley Grove was built in 1835, burned in 1841, and was described by Mr. Thomas as "very costly." The family lived in the former Valley Grove kitchen for some years thereafter.

In the meantime, Mr. Thomas' plantation had been greatly enlarged by his wife's inheritance through her late father's death of lands adjoining Valley Grove. Mr. Thomas then determined to build on this former Rosborough land, nearer Ridgeway, on the Longtown-Camden Road. Here he had commenced the building of Magnolia less than a mile east of the village of Ridgeway when he died on June 28, 1854. Magnolia was completed by his widow and sons and remained the family home until it was sold to settle the estate of his daughter, Anne (Mrs. Charles E. Thomas). Another house now occupies the site below St. Stephen's Church.

Through the influence of Messrs. Palmer and Thomas in lower Fairfield District, David Gaillard, Samuel DuBose, and Theodore DuBose of St. John's Parish also move to Fairfield in this period, all of these setting near Winnsboro. With the opportunity of entering their sons at Mount Zion Institute, several lowcountry widows - Mrs. Isabella Peyre Porcher, Mrs. Sarah Palmer Couturier , and Mrs. Mary Gaillard, among others - also moved to Fairfield at this time. Through marriage and family connections General John Bratton and Mr. Isaac Dwight were also attracted to the county.

In the summer of 1835, John Peyre Thomas, M.D. elder brother of Samuel Peyre Thomas, traveled through Fairfield, visiting most of these lowcountry settlers of the upper country. Continuing to Greenville County, where he spent the summer with his wife, the former Harriet Jane Couturier, Dr. Thomas suffered the cruel blow of her death soon after the birth of their sixth child in Greenville. Dr Thomas returned to Fairfield and determined to settle here, purchasing several tracts of land to make up Mount Hope Plantation, most of which had been owned by the Kennedys and Rosboroughs.

The next year Dr. Thomas married his late wife's sister, Charlotte Henrietta Couturier, and brought her to Mount Hope where their country plantation home was under construction.


Confederate Headhunters, February 17-19, 1865

Ridgeway takes its name from the ridge which bisects this lower area of Fairfield County between the Broad and Wateree Rivers. When the Charlotte and South Carolina Railroad, of which Mr. Edward G. Palmer of Ridgeway was the first president, was completed in 1850, the new railroad followed the ridge north of Columbia toward Winnsboro. Ridgeway drains east of the railroad into the Wateree River, and west of the railroad into the waters of the Broad River. Ridgeway, at an elevation of six hundred and twenty-five feet above sealevel, is the highest point on the Southern Railway between Augusta, Georgia, and Charlotte, North Carolina.

The semaphore and telegraph lines marked the next great development through the county. The first telegraph line was run in 1854 and 1855, the wires being stretched from tree to tree. However, Ridgeway did not become a telegraph office until the latter part of the Civil War, when the Confederate government established better provision for rapid communication. And the fact that Ridgeway had a telegraph office accounts for its "greatest and darkest days in history."

General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, commanding general of the Military Division of the West, Confederate States of America, established his headquarters at Ridgeway on Friday February 17, 1865, in the Coleman house, just across the street from the telegraph office. General Beauregard had evacuated Columbia that morning in advance of General Sherman's Union Army approaching the capital city across Broad River. General Beauregard maintained his headquarters at Ridgeway until Sunday, February 19, when it was ascertained that Sherman would advance north rather than toward Charleston or Wilmington through Camden.

General Beauregard with his staff traveled from Columbia to Ridgeway by way of the "Common Road," which roughly paralleled the Charlotte and South Carolina Railroad. After General Beauregard set up his headquarters in the Brick House (now know as the Century House), the first telegram that he sent from Ridgeway was to General Robert E. Lee in Richmond as follows:

"Ridgeway, S.C., February 17, 1865, 9:30 P.M. Enemy having forced crossing of Saluda and Broad Rivers above Columbia, city had to be evacuated this morning. My forces are retiring to this place (Ridgeway). Everything possible shall be done to retard enemy's advance, but I cannot separate cavalry and infantry without fear of disaster, owing to the small number of latter, only 3,000 effectives. Moreover having no supply trains, troops must move along railroads." Signed G. T. Beauregard.

The next day, Saturday, Colonel Otey ordered 15,000 rations to be transported from Chesterville (now Chester) to Ridgeway. Lieutenant General Wade Hampton, chief of calvary, remained near Columbia in an effort to delay Sherman's march north, and to offer such rear guard action for General Beauregard as might be feasible and possible. The popular South Carolina cavalryman, Wade Hampton, had been promoted only a few days before this to the rank of Lieutenant General by special order of President Jefferson Davis.

RIDGEWAY, Sir Thomas (c.1566-1631), of Torre Abbey, Devon

b. c.1566,1 1st s. of Thomas Ridgeway&dagger of Tor Mohun, Devon and Mary, da. of Thomas Southcote&dagger of Shillingford St. George, Devon and coh. to her grandfa. John Barnhouse of Prestcot, Devon.2 educ. Exeter Coll. Oxf. 1581, aged 15 I. Temple 1583.3 m. by 1591,4 Cecily (d.1627), da. of Henry Macwilliam&dagger of Stambourne, Essex and coh. to her bro. Henry, 3s. 2da. (1 d.v.p.).5 suc. fa. 15986 kntd. Aug. 16007 cr. bt. 25 Nov. 1611,8 Bar. Ridgeway of Gallen-Ridgeway [I] 25 May 1616, earl of Londonderry [I] 23 Aug. 1622.9 d. 24 June 1631.10

Offices Held

Customer, Dartmouth and Exeter, Devon by 1595-160511 commr. prize goods, Dartmouth 1597,12 investigate complaints by Dartmouth corporation 1598,13 j.p. Devon 1598-at least 1626,14 sheriff 1599-1600,15 commr. piracy 1603-4.16

Commr. inquiry into ex-monastic lands, co. Dublin 1606,17 survey, Ulster 1608,18 Ulster plantation from 1609,19 co. Wexford from 161420 freeman, Ballynakill, Queen’s Co. 1612.21

Member, Anne of Denmark’s Council from 160322 commr. Union with Scotland 160423 v.-treas. and treas.-at-wars [I] 1606-16,24 PC [I] 1606-16,25 commr. levy Crown debts 1609, 1613,26 trade 1610-11,27 visitation 1615.28

Capt. of ft. [I] by 1608-at least 1611, horse by 1610.29


Ridgeway’s family settled around Exeter by the late fifteenth century, but came to prominence only with his grandfather, John, a lawyer who represented Dartmouth and Exeter in Parliament between 1539 and 1554. Having acquired the Tor Mohun estate, at the northern end of Tor Bay, John entered local government, serving as a Devon feodary and magistrate. Ridgeway’s father, Thomas, also sat for Dartmouth, and held the county shrievalty in 1590-1.32 This comfortable gentry background afforded Ridgeway himself a fairly lengthy education. Entering the Inner Temple in 1583, after a spell at Oxford, he was apparently still studying law four years later, when he reported one of the Inn’s butlers for being an active Catholic. He subsequently became a Devon customs official, and in 1597 either he or his father supplied a ship for the Islands Voyage.33 A year later, Ridgeway inherited a patrimony consisting of at least four Devon manors, and in 1599 he purchased Torre Abbey from Edward Seymour*. The house had changed little since its monastic days, but Ridgeway ‘re-edified those almost decayed cells to a newer and better form’.34 His rising profile was confirmed by his appointment as sheriff of Devon in the same year, and he received his knighthood in August 1600 while still executing this office. Ridgeway’s wife was a maid of honour to Elizabeth I, and his brother-in-law, Sir John Stanhope I*, became vice-chamberlain of the Household in 1601. It was presumably through the latter’s influence that Ridgeway was selected to help carry the canopy over the royal effigy at the queen’s funeral in 1603.35

Ridgeway consolidated his Court ties early in the new reign when he was appointed a member of Anne of Denmark’s Council, with particular oversight of the queen’s Devon estates.36 Shortly afterwards he was returned to the 1604 Parliament as his county’s senior knight. Despite being a novice Member he emerged as one of the more active figures in the Commons, receiving 39 committee nominations and making 15 speeches during the first session. He evidently made an immediate impression on the House. In the first few days of business, he was appointed to the committee for privileges, and to select committees to consider general grievances and draft the bill for continuance of expiring statutes (22-4 March). He was also named on 28 Mar. and 12 Apr. to attend the king in connection with the Buckinghamshire election dispute.37

Some of Ridgeway’s appointments clearly reflected his personal interests, or the concerns of his constituents. His status as Dartmouth and Exeter’s customer explains his nomination to the legislative committee concerning corrupt port officials (5 May), while his support for the free trade bill and his inclusion in the committee for the pilchard trade reform bill mirrored Devon’s mercantile priorities (31 May and 20 June).38 As a magistrate he had recently helped to try 11 alleged witches, and he doubtless brought this experience to bear while chairing the committee for the bill against witchcraft, from which he reported on 5 June. He made no other speeches on religious issues but, presumably on the strength of his solidly anti-Catholic views, he was appointed on 19 Apr. to help prepare for a conference on religious grievances. Similarly he was named to the committee for the bill to bar attainted recusants from securing restitution in dignity or blood (30 May).39 Ridgeway was also nominated on 12 June to help consider the estate bill introduced by his Devon colleague, Edward Seymour. Nothing is known of his recreational pursuits, but his speech on 19 May supporting the bill against hunting with guns, and his nomination to three other legislative committees on related themes suggests that he enjoyed the customary gentry sports.40

Nevertheless, Ridgeway’s Court connections meant that the government had expectations of him. In late April a private bill was introduced to confirm the Crown’s grant of Berwick-upon-Tweed castle to the chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir George Home. The measure was contested, and probably occasioned an undated letter from Sir John Stanhope to Lord (Robert) Cecil&dagger, reporting his efforts to rally support for an unspecified bill. Stanhope confirmed that Ridgeway and another kinsman, Sir John Holles*, would ‘use their best endeavours’ during the forthcoming debate ‘and Ridgeway, who is strong with his Devonshire crew, assures me of a good party’. Certainly, when the Home bill finally passed its second reading, he was nominated to its committee (30 May).41 Ridgeway presumably also supported the Tunnage and Poundage bill, being named to its committee on 30 May, though the text of his only speech on this subject does not survive (12 June).42

However, Ridgeway did not automatically toe the government line on every issue. He apparently used his own judgment on the bill to settle a jointure on Queen Anne from the Crown’s estates, a measure which would have interested him as a member of the queen’s Council. Appointed to the bill’s committee on 4 July, he continued to back the legislation two days later despite reservations being voiced by the queen’s lawyers.43 On the issue of purveyance, his allegiance lay firmly with his own constituents. Around the time of the Easter recess, he and Edward Seymour attended the board of Greencloth to defend Devon’s delays in compounding for this prerogative levy, and secured more time for payments. Ridgeway subsequently spoke in favour of John Hare’s* proposals for reforming purveyance, which offered much less financial compensation than the government was seeking (18 May).44

Ridgeway was even less co-operative over the Union. Although not known to have contributed to any of the early debates on this subject, he was nominated, perhaps on the strength of his Court connections, to attend a conference with the Lords (14 Apr.), and to serve on the commission for the Union (12 May). However, when the agenda for the next conference was considered on 16 May, Ridgeway apparently sought to confuse matters by proposing that the issue of wardship should also be raised with the Lords. On 24 May he secured a Commons’ resolution to the effect that the act of subscribing to the proposed draft treaty should not bar individual commissioners from expressing dissenting views when the document was debated in Parliament. Eight days later he was named to the select committee to consider the bishop of Bristol’s book attacking the Commons’ proceedings over the Union. He subsequently demanded a written retraction from the cleric, and offered several Elizabethan precedents to justify this firm line (11 June).45

On the issue of wardship, Ridgeway’s stance is harder to discern. He was appointed to two conferences with the Lords concerning the petition to the king requesting permission to discuss this topic (26 Mar., 22 May), and may have been aware that Cecil, the master of the Wards, was inclining towards reform. Certainly, his unsuccessful motion on 16 May for wardship to be discussed in conjunction with the Union indicated a greater willingness to pursue the former issue. Ten days later it became clear that the idea of compounding for wardship no longer enjoyed the government’s backing, and the Lower House, wrong-footed by this volte-face, sought to justify its actions. On 1 June Sir Edwin Sandys reported back from the latest conference on wardship that the Lords were still blocking reform. Ridgeway responded by moving that,

This motion was immediately adopted, and Ridgeway subsequently chaired the committee that drafted the well-known Form of Apology and Satisfaction of the Commons. However, when he reported the text on 20 June it provoked mixed reactions, and no further action was taken.46

On the face of things Ridgeway had simply been voicing the Commons’ confusion and indignation when he proposed the Apology. Nevertheless, it has also been argued that by referring the whole matter to a drafting committee, Ridgeway sought to cool the dispute with the Crown, or perhaps defuse Sandys’s call for the House to defend itself against criticism by the Lords. If so, the tactic was successful, for while the Apology encouraged the Commons to vent its spleen on a range of issues, the three-week delay allowed time for calmer counsels to prevail - hence the decision not to adopt formally the finished declaration. At the very least, Ridgeway must have had second thoughts about the wisdom of proceeding any further with the Apology, as he did not support Sir William Strode’s attempt to revive it on 29 June. Whatever his true intentions may have been, Ridgeway cannot have incurred any lasting royal displeasure, as he was included in a small deputation sent to the king on 28 June after James was injured by a horse.47

On occasion, Ridgeway completely misjudged the mood of the Commons. On 24 May 1604 Members debated relief measures for officers recently discharged from the army in Ireland. One of his own relatives may have been affected, and he objected violently to the proposal that money should be raised by a levy on inns and alehouses. However, his own solution, that the king, the Lords and his fellow Members should collectively provide £4,000, predictably fell on deaf ears.48 He enjoyed greater success on 28 June, when he cleared the way for the Commons’ customary charitable collection by rejecting initial proposals to set compulsory rates, also arguing on 4 July against penalizing absent Members for non-payment. It is a measure of his high standing in the Commons that Ridgeway was entrusted with the task of organizing a feast which took place on 3 July at Merchant Taylors’ Hall in the City. Around 132 Members attended, along with their servants, and the delicacies included a marzipan model of ‘the Commons House of Parliament sitting’.49

Ridgeway was present for the opening of the second session, being named to committees to examine the Spanish Company’s charter and to scrutinize the bill for better execution of penal statutes (5-6 November).50 Following the prorogation necessitated by the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, he remained a conspicuous figure in the House, receiving a further 22 committee nominations, and making seven recorded speeches. The Commons’ first priority was to address the immediate political crisis, and Ridgeway was appointed to committees to consider how to counter the twin threats of papist plotters at home, and Catholic mercenaries like Guy Fawkes who served in the Spanish Netherlands (21 Jan. and 6 February). He was also named on 23 Jan. to the committee for the bill to establish an annual thanksgiving for the Plot’s failure. His puritan leanings were reflected in his subsequent appointments to the legislative committee concerning deprived ministers, and to a conference on grievances relating to the ecclesiastical courts (7 Mar. and 10 April).51

As in the first session, Ridgeway attracted some business relating to West Country concerns. The subjects of the bills which he was named to consider included regulations on cloth dimensions, corrupt customs officials, impositions on merchants, and unlawful fishing (5 Feb., 15 and 19 Mar., 3 April). He was also entrusted, on 25 Jan., with chairing the committees for bills on poor relief and the Cornish estates of Sir Jonathan Trelawny*. Ridgeway reported the latter measure on 4 Feb., but failed to bring the other legislation back to the House.52

Once again, the government’s finances formed one of Ridgeway’s major preoccupations. On 28 Jan. he was nominated to the committee for the Tunnage and Poundage Act amendment bill. Much more significantly, on 10 Feb. he initiated debate on supply, delivering a detailed account of the Crown’s needs, for which he had clearly been briefed. His closing motion for a committee to draft a subsidy bill was promptly seconded by Sir Maurice Berkeley, his colleague on Anne of Denmark’s Council. Sir Edward Hoby* subsequently commented that Ridgeway had been drafted into this role because of the current dearth of privy councillors in the Commons. Named to help prepare the bill, Ridgeway reminded Members on 20 Feb. that ‘that king could not be safe, that was poor’, and on 6 Mar. again stressed James’s ‘wants and necessity’. Finally, on 25 Mar. he helped to secure a vote by which an increased grant of three subsidies and six fifteenths was agreed and scheduled.53

In addition to his quasi-ministerial interventions over supply, Ridgeway significantly modified his stance on purveyance, though this was not immediately apparent. On 30 Jan. he was named to help consider John Hare’s radical reform bill, which aimed to sweep away most of the current practices. As this approach was unacceptable to the government, Ridgeway may have sought membership of the committee in order to monitor the bill’s progress for Cecil, now earl of Salisbury. He was also appointed, on 22 Feb., to help draft a message to the Lords defending Hare’s conduct during a conference on purveyance. However, two days later he broke ranks with Hare, and instead backed Sir Robert Johnson’s proposal for a general composition, the option preferred by Salisbury. On 6 Mar., according to Robert Bowyer*, Ridgeway repeated his argument, ‘but not with much reason’. He was now an isolated figure on this issue, as most Members continued to back Hare’s bill. On 18 Apr., the last day of business before the Easter recess, he was granted indefinite leave of absence.54

Ridgeway’s departure from the Commons was probably in response to his appointment as the next vice-treasurer and treasurer-at-wars in Ireland, since news of the government’s decision reached the Irish Privy Council on 29 April. He was most likely nominated by his predecessor, Sir George Carey&dagger, his cousin and near neighbour in Devon, who had been supplying him with an Irish pension of £66 13s. 4d. since 1602.55 Ridgeway formally took up his new offices in June 1606, though he reached Ireland only in late October, after weathering a 48-hour storm in the Irish Sea. On 22 Nov. his Commons’ seat was declared vacant, on the grounds that he held his Irish offices for life, and could therefore not be regarded as a temporary absentee from the House.56

The English government had already assured the Irish lord deputy, Sir Arthur Chichester, that he would find Ridgeway ‘a gentleman of very good sufficiency’, but the new treasurer faced a massive challenge. In November 1606 he reported to London that, even with the bullion that he had personally delivered to Dublin, he was over £2,000 short of meeting his current obligations, and that Ireland’s ordinary revenues had been overestimated in England. He immediately drew up plans for reforming the Irish customs, encouraging local trade, and penalizing recusants more severely. Unfortunately for Ridgeway, however, the supply of funds from England did not increase significantly, nor did Irish trade greatly improve, which made it difficult to borrow money locally.57 In December 1611 he observed bitterly to Salisbury that ‘he had better be in his grave than long continue a treasurer here in a necessitous time’. Following Salisbury’s death the situation deteriorated still further. Under lord treasurer Suffolk, Ridgeway was obliged to offer bribes in order to obtain regular shipments of bullion, and get his accounts passed. Despite all these problems, Ridgeway claimed in 1615 that he had doubled the Irish ordinary revenues, and that ‘there was never more done in Ireland for the king’s honour and profit and stability of the kingdom, with so little money out of England, than in the same time’.58

Ridgeway was a leading player in the plantation of Ulster. His involvement began in 1608, when he helped to suppress Cahir O’Dogherty’s rising there, after which he helped to carry out a preliminary survey of escheated lands.59 This task paved the way for the plantation, and in 1610 Ridgeway travelled to London to settle the remaining issues on behalf of the lord deputy, winning praise for his ‘sufficiency’ from the king himself.60 Ridgeway became one of the principal undertakers in county Tyrone, with well over 2,000 acres in Dungannon and Clogher baronies. By now he also owned lands in county Monaghan, and an estate at Gallen, Queen’s County, south-west of Dublin.61 These were generous rewards for his services, but in the short term they also represented a significant financial burden, as he was required to develop his plantations. By late 1611, in addition to bringing in settlers from London and Devon, he had built a fort at Glascough, county Monaghan, and had castles under construction at Gallen and in Clogher barony.62

In 1613 Ridgeway was returned to the Irish Parliament as Member for county Tyrone. As a leading government spokesman, he nominated Sir John Davies* as Speaker, and helped in the ensuing contest to install him in the chair by force. Two years later, during the Parliament’s third session, he steered through Ireland’s first ever grant of subsidies, a major revenue advance. However, recognizing that some concessions were needed in return, he also backed the lifting of restrictions on the country’s recusant lawyers, a move disliked by the king.63 Visiting London in August 1615 to brief the government again, Ridgeway discovered plans to divide his two offices of vice-treasurer and treasurer-at-wars, leaving him only the latter. Although he warned that this would worsen his cashflow problems, and complained that he sat in the Irish Privy Council only in his capacity as vice-treasurer, his objections were ignored. When lord deputy Chichester was recalled three months later he lost his principal ally, and his patents were suspended in February 1616.64 By way of compensation, Ridgeway was offered an Irish barony, but this grant also was stayed when it emerged in March that he was still attempting to execute both treasurerships. He lost both posts in June, and his peerage patent was sealed only in December, after a preliminary examination of his accounts. These were not finally passed until December 1618, at which point he was charged with a deficit of £7,400 12s. ¼d.65

During the next few years Ridgeway divided his time between Ireland and Devon. In 1619 he testified for the prosecution during the earl of Suffolk’s corruption trial. The surcharge on his official accounts placed a massive burden on his already strained finances, and in 1621 he mortgaged many of his English estates to his sometime London agent, George Mynne*, and a prominent London merchant, Robert Parkhurst, who took responsibility for the bulk of his debts.66 Despite these problems, in 1622 Ridgeway agreed to exchange most of his Ulster property for the earldom of Londonderry.67 By 1623 he owed almost £17,000 to assorted creditors, and was forced to sell the same English lands outright to Mynne and Parkhurst. Thereafter, he retired almost permanently to his seat at Ballynakill, in Gallen, merely returning to England briefly in 1629 to sell more property. He died at Ballynakill in June 1631.68