General Sherman's Legacy

Joins the Confederate Army

At the start of the Civil War, Forrest enlisted as a private in the Tennessee Mounted Rifles. As more men joined the outfit, Forrest personally purchased guns, uniforms and supplies to equip the unit. He was soon promoted to lieutenant colonel and placed in charge of raising and training his own battalion. In February 1862, Forrest and his troops were cornered by Union general Ulysses S. Grant at Fort Donelson, Kentucky. His command refused to surrender to Grant and Union forces charged in to take the fort. Forrest led 700 cavalrymen through the snow, past the Union lines, and escaped to Nashville where he coordinated evacuation efforts.

Two months later, in the aftermath of the Battle of Shiloh, at Fallen Timbers, Forrest was commanding the rear guard of the withdrawing Confederate troops. In an attempt to hit the enemy one more time, Forrest drove deep the advancing Union line far ahead of his own men and found himself surrounded by Union troops. After he emptied his two revolvers, he drew his saber and began slashing at the oncoming enemy. One soldier stuck his rifle into Forrest’s side and fired, lifting Forrest off his saddle and lodging a mini ball near his spine. Forrest regained control of his horse, remounted and took off. As Union forces shot after him, he reached down and grabbed an unsuspecting Union soldier and brought him up on the back of his horse, then dumping the man to the ground once he was in the clear.

Beginning in December 1862 and well into 1863, Forrest and his cavalry harassed General Ulysses S. Grant’s forces as they prepared for an attack on Vicksburg. Cutting off communication lines and raiding stores of supplies, Forrest relied on guerrilla tactics and never fully engaged the enemy&aposs superior forces. As a result, General Grant was forced to revise his strategy. Eventually, after a six-month siege, Vicksburg fell, but Forrest continued to attack boldly and retreat swiftly, frustrating one Union commander after the other and further expanding his reputation.

James Longstreet

James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was an American soldier and diplomat. He was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse". He served under Lee as a corps commander for most of the battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Eastern Theater, and briefly with Braxton Bragg in the Army of Tennessee in the Western Theater.

  • Surveyor of Customs in New Orleans
  • U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire
  • U.S. Commissioner of Railroads
  • U.S. Marshal for Northern Georgia
  • United States
  • Confederate States
  • United States
    United States Army
  • Confederate Army
  • Longstreet's Brigade
  • Longstreet's Division
  • First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
  • Department of East Tennessee [1]

After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Longstreet served in the Mexican–American War. He was wounded in the thigh at the Battle of Chapultepec, and afterward during recovery married his first wife, Louise Garland. Throughout the 1850s, he served on frontier duty in the American Southwest. In June 1861, Longstreet resigned his U.S. Army commission and joined the Confederate Army. He commanded Confederate troops during an early victory at Blackburn's Ford in July and played a minor role at the First Battle of Bull Run.

Longstreet made significant contributions to several important Confederate victories, mostly in the Eastern Theater as one of Robert E. Lee's chief subordinates in the Army of Northern Virginia. He performed poorly at Seven Pines by accidentally marching his men down the wrong road, causing them to be late in arrival, but played an important role in the Confederate success of the Seven Days Battles in the summer of 1862, where he helped supervise repeated attacks which drove the Union army away from the Confederate capital of Richmond. Longstreet led a devastating counterattack that routed the Union army at Second Bull Run in August. His men held their ground in defensive roles at Antietam and Fredericksburg. Longstreet's most controversial service was at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, where he openly disagreed with General Lee on the tactics to be employed and reluctantly supervised several unsuccessful attacks on Union forces, including the disastrous Pickett's Charge. Afterwards, Longstreet was, at his own request, sent to the Western Theater to fight under Braxton Bragg, where his troops launched a ferocious assault on the Union lines at Chickamauga, which carried the day. Afterwards, his performance in semiautonomous command during the Knoxville Campaign resulted in a Confederate defeat. Longstreet's tenure in the Western Theater was marred by his central role in numerous conflicts amongst Confederate generals. Unhappy serving under Bragg, Longstreet and his men were sent back to Lee. He ably commanded troops during the Battle of the Wilderness in 1864, where he was seriously wounded by friendly fire. He later returned to the field, serving under Lee in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox Campaign.

Longstreet enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the U.S. government as a diplomat, civil servant, and administrator. His support for the Republican Party and his cooperation with his old friend, President Ulysses S. Grant, as well as critical comments he wrote about Lee's wartime performance, made him anathema to many of his former Confederate colleagues. His reputation in the South further suffered when he led African-American militia against the anti-Reconstruction White League at the Battle of Liberty Place in 1874. Authors of the Lost Cause movement focused on Longstreet's actions at Gettysburg as a primary reason for the Confederacy's loss of the war. Since the late 20th century, his reputation has undergone a slow reassessment. Many Civil War historians now consider him among the war's most gifted tactical commanders.

The Civil War on the Plains

Secession of Texas and 10 other Southern states from the Union in 1860–61 brought no end to the military contest in the southern Plains. The Comanche launched particularly devastating raids into north Texas (December 1863) and against a settlement at Elm Creek (October 13, 1864). On January 8, 1865, a group of Kickapoo that was migrating south to Mexico defeated more than 300 Texas volunteers at Dove Creek.

In Minnesota, meanwhile, Dakota (a Sioux group) tribes had during the 1850s given up claims to most of their lands in return for yearly annuities and life on reserved lands, overseen by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indian Affairs. The continuing onslaught of westward-moving white populations and the mismanagement of the reservations by government officials, however, spawned great bitterness among the Dakota, and in August 1862 their most influential leader, Little Crow (Taoyateduta), led attacks that brought the demise of hundreds of white settlers in a single week. The bloodshed sparked a massive backlash, and on September 23 Col. Henry Hastings Sibley handed the Dakota a stinging defeat at the Battle of Wood Lake. Peace factions then regained the ascendancy in many circles, and, as a result, hundreds of those who had been involved in the early attacks were surrendered to the white authorities. The government subsequently hanged 38 Indian prisoners at Mankato.

Little Crow and others who were determined to fight had in the meantime fled west, only to be pursued by the army in mid-1863. In present-day North Dakota, Sibley, now a brigadier general, fought pitched battles at Big Mound (July 24), Dead Buffalo Lake (July 26), and Stony Lake (July 28) and claimed to have inflicted over 150 casualties and destroyed huge quantities of winter stores in the process. Farther south, Brig. Gen. Alfred Sully descended on roughly 1,000 Dakota at Whitestone Hill on September 3, killing a few hundred warriors and capturing about as many women and children. The army continued the blows into 1864, with Sully and 2,200 men driving off Indian attacks at Killdeer Mountain (July 28) and torching another massive stockpile of supplies and equipment.

In response to the turmoil in the northern Plains, nervous officials in the Colorado Territory convinced themselves that the bloodbath would spread to the southwest. During the first half of 1864, regulars and volunteers thus engaged in a series of skirmishes with Kiowa, Apache, Cheyenne, and Arapaho mounted parties. Col. John M. Chivington then determined to take matters into his own hands, reportedly hoping that a victory over the Indians would jump-start his political career. Camped near Sand Creek, Colorado Territory, were about 500 Cheyenne and Arapaho followers of Black Kettle, who was known to be attempting to make peace. Swearing, according to a fellow officer, to “damn any man that was in sympathy with Indians,” Chivington and his Colorado volunteers swept into the village just after sunup on November 29. They slaughtered between 150 and 200 Indians, mutilating most of the corpses in the process.

General Sherman's Legacy - HISTORY

Home />Citadel History />Brief History

(This brief history was developed by The Citadel Alumni Association History Committee, Spring 2007.)

Table of Contents


John Milton, in his Tractate on Education, described a complete education one that prepares the individual to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously, all offices both public and private, of peace and war. 1 This is the essence of a Citadel education. Since its inception in 1842, The Citadel has sought to prepare its graduates intellectually, physically and morally to be principled leaders and productive citizens in all walks of life.

In 1843, the first Board of Visitors of the Citadel Academy reported to the Governor and General Assembly of South Carolina on the system of education it had devised for Cadets as follows:

The Citadel of the 21st Century remains true to this vision, instilling in Cadets the core values of integrity, honesty, and responsibility in a disciplined academic environment, thereby preparing its graduates to understand their obligations as citizens, and to become principled leaders in whatever their chosen field of endeavor

Citadel graduates have participated in many of the pivotal events in our nation's history, and have fought in every American war since the Mexican War of 1846 3 . Alumni have achieved prominence in such diverse fields as military and government service, science and engineering, education, literature, business, the medical and legal professions, and theology. The Citadel's legacy of service to the State of South Carolina and our Nation is a tradition of which its founding fathers would be justly proud.

Origins of The Citadel

The original site of The Citadel was on what is now Marion Square in the City of Charleston. During the Revolutionary War, a fortification known as a "Horn works" was established in the vicinity of Marion Square. In 1783, this site was transferred to the City upon its incorporation as a municipality. Six years later a small portion of this tract was transferred back to the state for use as a tobacco inspection site. The City retained the remainder of the land known as the Citadel Green which was used as a muster site for militia units. In 1822, the South Carolina Legislature passed an "Act to Establish a Competent Force to Act as a Municipal Guard for the Protection of the City of Charleston and its vicinity." The act provided that a suitable building be erected for the deposit of the arms of the State, and a guard house. 4

Prominent Charleston architect Frederick Wesner designed the building that was to become known as the Citadel, but it was not until 1829 that the structure was erected on the square. Wesner's design, a two story Romanesque structure, incorporated an interior courtyard with Doric columns and Roman arches. It is speculated that Wesner's design was inspired by the Jacques-Louis David painting, The Oath of the Horatii. 5

At the request of the State of South Carolina, troops from the federal garrison at Ft. Moultrie became the first guard of the new state arsenal on January 8, 1830. 6 Federal troops were withdrawn on December 24, 1832, as a result of tensions between the federal government and South Carolina over federally imposed tariffs. State militia at the Charleston powder magazine were then detailed to guard the state arsenal at the Citadel. 7 During the next ten years several smaller arsenals around the state were consolidated at the Citadel in Charleston and at the Arsenal in Columbia, and placed under the guard of two companies of State militia known as the Arsenal and Magazine Guard. 8

Governor John P. Richardson first conceived of converting the Arsenal in Columbia and the Citadel in Charleston into military academies. This was accomplished by act of the State Legislature on December 20, 1842. In his message to the State Legislature in 1842, the Governor spoke eloquently of the purpose to be served by converting the State's arsenals to educational purposes:

The two academies, formally named "the Citadel Academy," and "the Arsenal Academy," were originally established as separate institutions governed by a common Board of Visitors. However, in 1845, the Arsenal Academy was made auxiliary to the Citadel Academy and accepted only first year Cadets, who would transfer to The Citadel to complete their education. 10 On March 20, 1843, the first Cadets reported to The Citadel on Marion Square. This date is celebrated today as "Corps Day" the official anniversary of the formation of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets. 11

The Citadel Prior to the Civil War

The regulations adopted by the Board of Visitors for the Citadel and the Arsenal military academies provided for an equal number of "Beneficiary Cadets" and Pay Cadets, to be selected from each of the 29 judicial districts of the State based on their academic qualifications, moral character, and fitness for military service. In adopting the system of military education and discipline for the academies, the Board of Visitors undoubtedly adopted many of the regulations in effect at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. 12 However, in developing the academic course of instruction for cadets, the Board had much more latitude and endeavored to provide Cadets with as broad an education as possible, both scientific and practical, to prepare them for leadership roles beyond military service. 13

Compared to the more classically focused universities of the day, the practical education provided at the Citadel and Arsenal Academies was unique for its time. During a Cadet's four years at the Citadel Academy, he would undertake a demanding course of academic study in addition to his military training and duties. This course of instruction included the following subjects: Modern History, Geography, English Grammar, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, French, Bookkeeping, Descriptive Geometry, Rhetoric, Moral and Natural Philosophy, Architecture, Civil and Military Engineering, the Science of War, Topographical Drawing, Chemistry, Physics, Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, Constitutional Law, and the Laws of Nations. In addition, Cadets would be schooled in the military arts, including Artillery, Evolutions of the Line, and Duties of non-commissioned and commissioned Officers. 14

The first class of Cadets graduated from the Citadel Academy on November 20, 1846, with 6 Cadets receiving diplomas. Charles Courtenay Tew was First Honor Graduate. Tew would become a professor at the Citadel Academy and later establish the Hillsboro North Carolina Military Academy. During the Civil War, Tew was commissioned an officer in the Confederate Army and rose to the rank of Colonel. He was killed on the eve of his promotion to brigadier general at the battle of Sharpsburg on September 17th 1862, while commanding the 2d Regiment, N.C. State Troops. 15

Also during 1846, the Citadel Academy undertook its first military training exercises to assist America to prepare for war. The 1st South Carolina's Volunteer Infantry also known as the Palmetto Regiment, took its training in military drill and arms from Citadel Cadets in Charleston prior to departing for the Mexican War. 16 William J. Magill, a member of the first class to graduate from the Citadel in 1846, served with distinction as a lieutenant in the 3d U.S. Dragoons under General Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War. Magill later served as Commandant and professor of mathematics at Georgia Military Institute, and during the Civil War served in the First Georgia Regiment rising quickly to the rank of Colonel before being seriously wounded at the battle of Sharpsburg. 17

Life as a Cadet at the Citadel Academy was Spartan and demanding with little time for idle pursuits. A typical day would begin at 0600 hrs (6AM) and end at 2130 hrs (9:30PM) during the winter months, and at 2230 hrs (10:30PM) when the days were longer. Academic classes and military drill and duties took up most of the day, with evenings devoted to study. Saturdays were reserved for inspections. From March 1 until December 1, there was infantry or artillery drill each day except Saturdays and Sundays. On Saturdays, in addition to room inspection, there was inspection under arms, and on Sunday attendance at church services was mandatory. 18

The Association of Graduates (now named The Citadel Alumni Association), was organized at a meeting at the Citadel on November 19, 1852. Charles C. Tew Class of 1846, was elected as its first President, and John P. Thomas Class of 1851, its first Secretary. The Association of Graduates was destined to play a pivotal role in securing the return of The Citadel to State authorities after its confiscation and occupation by federal troops at the end of the Civil War. 19

Prior to the institution of athletics, debate and oratory among literary societies were the main form of competitive activity and relaxation among college students. At the Citadel, two literary societies were formed in the 1840s. The Calliopean society was formed in 1845, and drew its members primarily from the low country of the state. The Polytechnic society was formed in 1847, and drew its members mostly from the upstate. 20 The rivalry between these two societies was great and reportedly their debates were often acrimonious. The societies each occupied well appointed halls within the Citadel itself, and one of the early honors at the military academy was to be elected as President of one of the societies, a position reserved for members of the First or senior Class. 21

On February 22, 1857, a standard of colors was presented to the Corps of Cadets on the occasion of the Washington Light Infantry's semi-centennial celebration in Charleston. 22 This elegant flag is composed of a field of blue Lyons silk, displaying on one side the arms of the State of South Carolina and the name "South Carolina Military Academy" with date 1857, and on the other side an elaborate wreath of oak leaves, enfolding the inscription - Fort Moultrie, Cowpens, King's Mountain, Eutaw Springs, and below this "Our Heritage." 23 The flag served as the Corps of Cadet's battle flag throughout the Civil War. After the Civil War, the flag was safely preserved by John P. Thomas, Class of 1851, and returned to the Corps upon its reformation when the college was reopened in 1882. For many years the flag was borne by the Corps of Cadets color guard as the battalion colors during parades. It is now on display in The Citadel museum. 24

The Citadel and the South Carolina Corps of Cadets during the Civil War

On December 20, 1860, South Carolina formally seceded from the Union, setting the stage for the great civil war that was to follow. In organizing its military units to prepare for war, the South Carolina General Assembly on January 28, 1861, combined the Corps of Cadets at the Citadel and Arsenal into the Battalion of State Cadets and designated the two institutions as The South Carolina Military Academy. The Battalion of State Cadets was made a part of the military organization of the State. 25

During the War, the Arsenal and Citadel continued to operate as military academies, however, classes were often disrupted when the governor called the cadets into military service. Even before January 28, however, the Citadel Academy, its officers and Cadets were called on to perform military duties. A laboratory at the Citadel was set aside for the manufacture of ammunition, 26 and on January 9, 1861, Citadel Cadets manning an artillery battery on Morris Island fired the first hostile shots of the Civil War, repulsing the federal steamship Star of the West, carrying supplies and two hundred federal troops dispatched by President Buchanan to reinforce Union Forces garrisoned at Fort Sumter. 27 During the Star of the West incident, the Cadets flew as their banner a unique flag, observed by eye witnesses on the federal steamer, and described in a dispatch by a Union Officer at Fort Sumter as "a flag with a red field, and a white palmetto tree." 28 A depiction of this flag flying over the Cadet battery on Morris Island can be seen in the Star of the West mural in Daniel Library, and replicas of the flag are now used as the spirit flag of The Citadel Corps of Cadets, known affectionately as "Big Red." 29

During April 12 - 13, 1861, Confederate artillery batteries in Charleston harbor and Union forces occupying Fort Sumter exchanged fire culminating in Fort Sumter's surrender on April 13. Officers of the Citadel were directly involved in establishing artillery positions and directing fire on Fort Sumter. 30 There are few surviving records of Cadets direct involvement in the Fort Sumter bombardment. It is known, however, that many Cadets were in Charleston at the time, and some attached themselves to various military units manning harbor batteries when the bombardment began on April 12. 31 Although most Cadets were officially on leave following the April 9 commencement of the graduating class, a number of Cadets returned to the academy when learning of the bombardment, and were ordered to White Point Gardens to take charge of five, six and twelve pound cannon located at the extreme eastern promenade of the Battery. 32

During the Civil War, mounting and manning heavy guns, guard duty and escorting prisoners were among the military duties most frequently performed by Cadets. Early in the war, Cadets were called upon to train raw recruits in newly formed military units. 33 Cadets traveled as far north as Virginia to conduct training of troops at the front lines. 34 However, members of the Corps of Cadets and its officers actively participated in several campaigns and engagements in defense of Charleston and South Carolina during the War. The regimental colors of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets carries eight battle streamers and one service streamer for the following campaigns and engagements by the Corps of Cadets 35 :

Star of the West, January 9, 1861

Wappoo Cut, November 1861

James Island, June 1862

Charleston and Vicinity, July to October 1863

James Island, June 1864

Tulifinny, December 1864

James Island, December 1864 to February 1865

Williamston, May 1865

Confederate States Army

The engagement at Tulifinny Creek is of historic importance because it involved the deployment of the entire Battalion of State Cadets from the Citadel and Arsenal Academies as an independent military unit engaged in armed combat with Union forces. In December of 1864, the Governor of South Carolina ordered the Battalion of State Cadets from the Citadel and Arsenal to deploy to Tulifinny Creek south of Charleston to reinforce Confederate troops defending a key railroad bridge against a much larger advancing Union force. On December 7, the Battalion of State Cadets, along with Confederate militia units from North and South Carolina and Georgia, engaged a much larger Union force in pitched battle for several hours, advancing against rifle and cannon fire and forcing the federal troops back to their entrenchments. On December 9, the battalion of cadets successfully repulsed a Union counter-attack on their defensive position by the railroad trestle with their disciplined rifle fire. 36 The Battalion of State Cadets suffered eight casualties in the engagement, including one killed, 37 and were commended by Major General Samuel Jones, CSA, Commanding General of South Carolina and Georgia Departments, for their gallantry under fire. 38 A mural depicting the December 9th engagement at the Tulifinny Creek railroad trestle is on display in the Daniel Library.

A large number of Cadets left the academies to join the War. Among these were a group of Citadel and Arsenal Cadets who left the academies in June of 1862 to form a cavalry unit known as the Cadet Rangers. The Cadet Rangers became part of the 6th Regiment, South Carolina Cavalry, 39 and were of incalculable assistance in training the Regiment's officers and non-commissioned officers. They took part in several engagements along the South Carolina coast before deploying to Virginia in 1864. 40 The Rangers are best known for their participation in the battle of Trevilian Station, Virginia, considered the largest and bloodiest engagement of Union and Confederate cavalry during the Civil War. 41 A mural depicting the Cadet Ranger's successful cavalry charge at Trevilian Station under the command of General Wade Hampton, is on display in Daniel Library.

On February 18, 1865, the Citadel ceased operation as a military academy when Union troops captured Charleston and occupied the Citadel building and grounds. The Citadel remained confiscated property of the federal government for nearly 17 years, and was used as a garrison by federal troops. 42 The Arsenal in Columbia was burned by General Sherman's army, and never reopened.

During the War, twelve members of the Battalion of State Cadets were killed or died as a result of wounds or illness suffered in the field. 43 In addition, 4 members of the Cadet Rangers were killed in military service. 44 Of some 224 graduates living during the Civil War, 209 served in the Confederate armed forces, all but 29 as commissioned officers. 4 graduates attained the rank of general, and 19 attained the rank of full colonel. 36 graduates were killed in action or died from wounds on the battlefield. Another 13 died from wounds or disease while in military service. Some 200 former Cadets who had not graduated are known to have died in military service during the Civil War. 45

The Recovery and Reopening of The Citadel

Federal troops were garrisoned at the Citadel from the fall of Charleston in February of 1865 until 1879. 46 Although the State made attempts to recover possession of the Citadel from the federal government, its recovery and reopening as a college, were to take many years, and is due primarily to the unfailing efforts of the Association of Graduates. 47

In December of 1877, alumni of the Citadel Academy met in Charleston to reconstitute the Association of Graduates. Brigadier General Johnson Hagood, Class of 1847, who would later become Governor of South Carolina (1880 - 1882), was elected President of the Association. Under Hagood's leadership, the Association undertook a successful campaign to gain general public and political support for reopening of the Citadel as an educational institution. In 1878, Governor Wade Hampton appointed a new of Board of Visitors for the Citadel, with General Hagood as Chairman, and five regular members, all of whom were graduates of the Citadel Academy. 48 This Board of Visitors was to take responsible charge of the movement to recover and reopen the Citadel. 49

On January 29, 1882, the Secretary of War ordered the commanding officer of the federal Military District of South Carolina to evacuate the Citadel, 50 and on January 31, 1882, the South Carolina General Assembly passed "AN ACT to authorize the Re-opening of the South Carolina Military Academy." 51 After seventeen years, the Citadel was once again under the control of the State and the Board of Visitors.

On October 2, 1882 one hundred eighty-nine cadets reported to the reopened Citadel. Colonel John P. Thomas, Class of 1851, who had headed the Arsenal Academy during the Civil War, was appointed Superintendent. 52 The 1882 Act authorizing the reopening of the Citadel, continued the practice of competitive appointments for deserving young men from the several counties in the state who were referred to as "beneficiary" or scholarship Cadets, as well as providing for the enrolling of pay Cadets. However, the 1882 Act established for the first time the requirement that after graduation, beneficiary Cadets teach for two years in the free public schools of the County from which they received their appointment to the Academy. 53

Colonel Thomas and the Board of Visitors established the same strict system of military and academic discipline for the Citadel Academy as before the war. In doing so, they were careful to delineate that the aim of the military system was to further scholastic achievement and produce men who were equal at once to civil and military achievements. Military discipline was not be used to compel mechanical obedience to a rigid code, but to impress upon Cadets ethical propositions and the high thought of duty and responsibility. 54

Rebirth and Growth of The Citadel

In 1882, in anticipation of the reopening of the Citadel, the Charleston City Counsel acted to gain control of the spacious grounds in front of the Citadel with a view of converting the entire square into a parade ground and public mall. This grand idea of a military plaza resulted in the creation of Marion Square. 55 By act of the State Legislature the historic Citadel Green in front of the Citadel on Marion Square, was permanently preserved as a place for military exercises, with the proviso that the Corps of Cadets of the State Military Academy would likewise have the right to use the Citadel Green for military exercises and recreation. 56

In 1890, the office of Commandant of Cadets was created and Lieutenant John A. Towers, 1st U. S. Artillery, USA, was detailed by the United States Army to the Citadel to become the Citadel Academy's first Commandant of Cadets. 57

In 1898, America went to war against Spain. Seventeen Citadel graduates served with volunteer regiments in the Spanish-American War, and the first South Carolina unit to be mustered in was commanded by Captain Edward Anderson, Class of 1886. 58 Another five graduates served with the Regular Army. 59

In 1900, in recognition of the high academic standards maintained at the Citadel, the South Carolina General Assembly granted the Board of Visitors authority to award the bachelor of science degree to graduates. 60

By 1910 enrollment at the Citadel had steadily increased to 242 Cadets, bringing the Citadel to full capacity. 61 In order to accommodate the large number of Cadets and officers, the General Assembly approved construction of a fourth story to the Citadel which was completed in 1911. 62 Believing the term "academy" was no longer appropriate for a college level institution, the General Assembly accepted the recommendation of the Board of Visitors to change the Academy's name to "The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina." 63 Also in 1910, the General Assembly granted the Board of Visitors the authority to award the degree of civil engineer to graduates. 64 This act was in recognition of the strong emphasis on engineering instruction at the college, and the national prominence which many of its alumni had attained in the engineering profession. 65

World War I

On April 8, 1917, Congress declared war on Germany commencing America's entry into World War I. With the approval of the Board of Visitors and Governor of South Carolina, The Citadel offered all of the college's military facilities to help train recruits. 66 The National Defense Act had established the Reserve Officers Training Corps in 1916, and this provided Citadel Cadets and recent graduates a direct opportunity to become officers in the U.S. military. All members of the Class of 1917 entered military service upon graduation, 6 received commissions as officers in the Regular Army, and 13 received commissions as officers in the Marine Corps. 67 Again in 1918, all members of the graduating class entered military service. 68 Citadel graduates volunteered with Allied forces prior to America's entry into the war 69 , were on the first American convoys that sailed off to war on June 13, 1917, and participated and distinguished themselves in most of the major battles of World War I. 70 In all, 316 Citadel graduates served in World War I, 277 as commissioned officers. 71 Six graduates died in the war and 17 were wounded. 72

Move to the Ashley River Campus

Despite numerous building additions, by 1918, enrollment had outgrown the capacity of the Old Citadel on Marion Square. The City of Charleston offered the State a large tract of one hundred seventy six acres adjacent to Hampton Park and along the Ashley River for a new campus 73 . The first main buildings to be completed were the main barracks (Padgett Thomas), the College Building (Bond Hall), Alumni Hall and the Mess Hall (Coward Hall). 74 Although not originally planned or budgeted, a hospital building was among the first buildings completed on campus due to a generous gift from an anonymous citizen of Charleston. 75 The Romanesque style of architecture was followed in constructing the buildings and the use of arches and courtyards replicated those at the old Citadel. 76 According to reports, the corner stone of the College Building was laid on a beautiful Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1920, by the Grand Mason of South Carolina, in an imposing ceremony that included a parade of 2,200 Masons in their full regalia and an audience of over 5,000, including several hundred alumni. 77

Accreditation and Expansion of the Academic Curriculum 1922-1932

On December 5, 1924, The Citadel's academic credentials reached an important milestone when its application for membership in the Southern Association of Colleges was approved. 78 Other colleges gaining membership in the Southern Association of Colleges on this same date were Furman University and Texas A&M. 79

Until 1916, there were only three majors that Cadets could pursue at The Citadel: civil engineering, the sciences or a literary course. Increased enrollment at the college allowed for the introduction of further elective courses of instruction. In 1924 business administration was added as an elective course, 80 and within a few years, elective courses of study in education and psychology were added, followed by electrical engineering, chemistry, pre-medical chemistry-biology, English, history, social science and modern languages. The first bachelor of arts degree was awarded in 1925. 81

The first homecoming at The Citadel was observed on October 25, 1924, culminating in a football game in which The Citadel Bulldogs were victorious over Furman. 82

Establishment of The Honor Code

The first reference to an honor system at The Citadel was in the 1919 Guidon. It specified that Upperclassmen were subject to the Honor System. The freshmen (or 4th class cadets) at The Citadel, who were known as "Recruits" at that time, were not held to the criteria of the Honor System. This system proved controversial and was dropped in 1925. In 1955, West Point Cadets visiting The Citadel gave a presentation on the Honor System adopted at the United States Military Academy. This drew strong support among the Corps of Cadets, and in September of 1955, the Honor Code was officially adopted for the Corps of Cadets by order of General Mark Clark, then President of The Citadel. 83 The Honor Code states simply that: "a Cadet does not lie, cheat or steal, nor tolerate those who do."

General Charles Pelot Summerall's Presidency of The Citadel

Upon his retirement as Chief of Staff of the United States Army, General Charles Pelot Summerall became the tenth President of The Citadel. General Summerall's distinguished service in the United States Army, dating from the Boxer Rebellion in China to his leadership of the 42d and 1st Divisions and V Corps of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I, established him as one of America's great generals and provided The Citadel with immense national prestige. 84 His leadership of the college during the Great Depression enabled The Citadel to weather the economic depression and remain a vital and growing educational institution. 85 Under General Summerall, the college's campus was greatly expanded to include LeTellier Hall, the Summerall Chapel, Capers Hall, McAlister Field House, Law and Stevens barracks. 86

World War II and the Korean War

During World War II The Citadel and its alumni once more responded to the call of our nation. A higher percentage of its students entered military service than any college in the nation, other than the federal service academies. 87 Even before the United States entered the war, Citadel alumni were serving in the armed forces of allied nations. 88 Of 2,976 living graduates in 1946, 2,927 served their country during the war. Before the end of the war, two hundred seventy-nine Citadel Men had given their lives in defense of our country. 89

During 1941-45, in addition to educating and providing military training for members of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets, The Citadel and its faculty provided specialized screening and training programs for the war effort, matriculating over 10,000 military personnel in such programs as The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP), the Engineering, Science, and Management War Training Program (ESMWT), the Army Specialized Training and Reassignment Program (ASTRP), and Specialized Training and Reassignment (STAR). 90

In 1950, The Korean War broke out and the United States led the United Nation's military effort to repulse the North Korean invasion of the south. Over 1,500 alumni served in the Korean War with Thirty one alumni paying the ultimate sacrifice for our country. General E. A. Pollock '21, USMC, who would upon retirement become Chairman of The Citadel's Board of Visitors, commanded the 1st Marine Division in Korea and served under General Mark Clark, then Commander in Chief of the United Nations Command. General Clark would upon his retirement from the Army, become President of The Citadel in 1954. 91

General Mark Clark's Presidency

General Mark W. Clark became President of The Citadel in 1954, and served until 1965. Prior to coming to The Citadel, General Clark had had an illustrious military career. Among his numerous Army assignments were serving as commander of the 5th U.S. Army in Italy during World War II and serving as Commander in Chief of the United Nations Command during the Korean War. General Clark's reputation for leadership and his relationships with international dignitaries brought further national and international recognition to The Citadel.

During General Clark's tenure as President, the campus continued to expand to include the Daniel Library and Museum, Mark Clark Hall, Jenkins Hall, the Howie Memorial Carillon, the McCormick Beach House on the Isle of Palms. 92 General Clark is responsible for the formal adoption of the Cadet Honor Code at The Citadel in 1955, 93 and establishing the Greater Issues Series, a program of distinguished speakers. He is also credited with formation of the college's endowment foundation, establishing The Citadel Summer Camp for boys, as well as revitalizing the college's varsity sports programs. 94

The Citadel of the Modern Era

The Citadel's unique educational experience, combining rigorous academic preparation within a disciplined military environment, has continued to keep pace with the changing nature of our society. During the 20th Century, The Citadel established itself as one of the leading undergraduate liberal arts colleges in the Southeast. 95 It has also expanded its academic programs to serve the needs of the South Carolina low country by establishing the undergraduate Evening College in 1966, and Graduate School programs in 1968. 96 Citadel Cadets and graduates have continued to serve our nation bravely, in the tradition of the citizen-soldier, participating in every conflict our nation has faced since the Korean War, including Viet Nam, the Gulf War, Kosovo, and the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq.

During the latter part of the Twentieth Century, The Citadel experienced the same social change that has transformed America in general. The first African American Cadet, entered The Citadel in 1966 and the first women entered the South Carolina Corps of Cadets in 1996. Cadets from many foreign countries have added to the cultural diversity of the Corps of Cadets since the 1920s, when the first Chinese students arrived. These were followed by Cadets from Puerto Rico (prior to its becoming a commonwealth) in the late 1940s, Thai and Taiwanese Cadets in the 1960s and 1970s, and Jordanian and Iranian Cadets in the 1970s. 97 Today, the Citadel's Corps of Cadets represents a rich and diverse group of young men and women from across America and many different foreign countries, intent on preparing themselves to be principled leaders in their chosen fields of endeavor.

The ultimate test of any academic institution is the quality and character of its graduates. Through three different centuries, The Citadel's contribution of leaders to society has been greatly disproportionate to its size. Numerous alumni have served as flag officers in all branches of our uniformed military services. They have served as governors, United States Senators and Congressmen, distinguished jurists, ambassadors, presidents of universities and colleges, prominent theologians, engineers, doctors, lawyers, writers and business executives in many diverse fields of endeavor. The record of Citadel graduates has more than validated the hopes of Governor Richardson in 1842, that the institution he sought to establish would produce useful citizens. At the beginning of the Twenty-First Century, The Citadel continues to stand as a bulwark of Duty, Honor, God and Country, dedicated to producing principled leaders for service to the state of South Carolina, and our nation.

1. John Milton. (1608–1674). Tractate on Education. The Harvard Classics, NEW YORK: P.F. COLLIER & SON COMPANY, 1909–14

2. John Thomas, The History of the South Carolina Military Academy (Charleston, S.C.: Walkers, Evans and Cogswell 1893), p. 43.

3. Thomas, pp 472–473, William H. Buckley, The Citadel and The South Carolina Corps of Cadets (Arcadia Publishing 2004) p.7

6. O. J. Bond, The Story of The Citadel (Richmond, VA Garratt and Massie 1936), p. 7

Sherman Antitrust Act

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Sherman Antitrust Act, first legislation enacted by the U.S. Congress (1890) to curb concentrations of power that interfere with trade and reduce economic competition. It was named for U.S. Sen. John Sherman of Ohio, who was an expert on the regulation of commerce.

What is the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act?

The Sherman Antitrust Act was enacted in 1890 to curtail combinations of power that interfere with trade and reduce economic competition. It outlaws both formal cartels and attempts to monopolize any part of commerce in the United States.

Who was the Sherman Antitrust Act named for?

The Sherman Antitrust Act was named for U.S. Senator John Sherman, an expert on the regulation of commerce. It is also sometimes called, simply, the Sherman Act. Sherman also played a leading role in the establishment of the national banking system.

What are the main provisions of the Sherman Antitrust Act?

The Sherman Antitrust Act comprises two main provisions that prohibit interferences with trade and economic competition and that make illegal the attempt to monopolize any part of trade or commerce. These provisions are enforceable by the U.S. Department of Justice.

What is the “rule of reason” interpretation of the Sherman Antitrust Act?

The U.S. Supreme Court applied the “rule of reason” interpretation to the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1920 to specify that only “unreasonable” restraint of trade is unlawful, allowing large firms more latitude. The interpretation was reversed in 1945, and the prohibition of monopolies was subsequently periodically enforced, including the breakup of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1984.

One of the act’s main provisions outlaws all combinations that restrain trade between states or with foreign nations. This prohibition applies not only to formal cartels but also to any agreement to fix prices, limit industrial output, share markets, or exclude competition. A second key provision makes illegal all attempts to monopolize any part of trade or commerce in the United States. These two provisions, which constitute the heart of the Sherman Act, are enforceable by the U.S. Department of Justice through litigation in the federal courts. Firms found in violation of the act can be ordered dissolved by the courts, and injunctions to prohibit illegal practices can be issued. Violations are punishable by fines and imprisonment. Moreover, private parties injured by violations are permitted to sue for triple the amount of damages done them.

For more than a decade after its passage, the Sherman Act was invoked only rarely against industrial monopolies, and then not successfully, chiefly because of narrow judicial interpretations of what constitutes trade or commerce among states. Its only effective use was against trade unions, which were held by the courts to be illegal combinations. The first vigorous enforcement of the Sherman Act occurred during the administration of U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (1901–09). In 1914 Congress passed two legislative measures that provided support for the Sherman Act. One of these was the Clayton Antitrust Act, which elaborated on the general provisions of the Sherman Act and specified many illegal practices that either contributed to or resulted from monopolization. The other measure created the Federal Trade Commission, providing the government with an agency that had the power to investigate possible violations of antitrust legislation and issue orders forbidding unfair competition practices.

In 1920, however, the U.S. Supreme Court applied the so-called “rule of reason” interpretation of the Sherman Act, which specifies that not every contract or combination restraining trade is unlawful. Only “unreasonable” restraint of trade through acquisitions, mergers, exclusionary tactics, and predatory pricing constitute a violation of the Sherman Act. This interpretation allowed large firms considerably more latitude. But in a case involving the Aluminum Company of America (1945), the court reversed its stance, declaring that the size and structure of a corporation were sufficient grounds for antitrust action. Since that ruling, the prohibition against monopoly has been periodically enforced, involving in some cases the dismemberment of the offending firm. One notable example late in the 20th century was the 1984 breakup of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, which left the parent company, AT&T, as a provider of long-distance service while seven regional “ Baby Bell” companies provided local telephone service. Many of the original Baby Bell companies subsequently merged.

One of the largest antitrust suits since that time was brought against Microsoft Corporation. A decision in 1999 found the company had attempted to create a monopoly position in Internet browser software, but a court-ordered breakup of Microsoft was overturned by an appeals court in 2001. In 2019 the Supreme Court allowed a large class action lawsuit alleging violations of antitrust law to proceed against Apple Inc. In the same year, the Justice Department began a broad review of potentially anticompetitive behaviour by “market-leading online platforms,” presumably including Google and Facebook, and a coalition of attorneys general from 48 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico announced coordinated antitrust investigations into alleged monopolistic practices by Google.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan, Senior Editor.

Service in the Civil War

In May 1861, Sherman was appointed colonel in the 13th U.S. Infantry, and was assigned command of a brigade under General William McDowell in Washington, D.C. He fought in the First Battle of Bull Run, in which Union troops were badly beaten. He was then sent to Kentucky and became deeply pessimistic about the war, complaining to his superiors about shortages while exaggerating the enemy&aposs troop strength. He was eventually put on leave, considered unfit for duty. The press picked up on his troubles and described him as "insane." It is believed Sherman suffered from a nervous breakdown.

In mid-December 1861, Sherman returned to service in Missouri and was assigned rear-echelon commands. In Kentucky, he provided logistical support for Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant&aposs capture of Fort Donelson in February 1862. The following month, Sherman was assigned to serve with Grant in the Army of West Tennessee. His first test as a commander in combat came at Shiloh.

Likely fearing renewed criticism of appearing overly alarmed, Sherman initially dismissed intelligence reports that Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston was in the area. He took little precaution shoring up picket lines or sending out reconnaissance patrols. On the morning of April 6, 1862, the Confederates struck with Hell&aposs own fury. Sherman and Grant rallied their troops and pushed back the rebel offensive by day&aposs end. With reinforcements arriving that night, Union troops were able to launch a counter-attack the next morning, scattering Confederate troops. The experience bonded Sherman and Grant to a lifelong friendship.

Sherman remained in the West, serving with Grant in the long campaign against Vicksburg. However, the press was relentless in its criticism of both men. As one newspaper complained, the "Army was being ruined in mud-turtle expeditions, under the leadership of a drunkard [Grant] whose confidential adviser [Sherman] was a lunatic." Eventually, Vicksburg fell and Sherman was given command of three armies in the West.

Time Travel: Why did Sherman spare Savannah?

One of the great enduring mysteries locked in the history of Savannah is why Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman chose not to burn down the city of Savannah.

Sherman sought approval from Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, then in command of all Union armies, and President Abraham Lincoln for his plan to march his army of 60,000-62,000 soldiers from Atlanta to Savannah. After some initial misgivings and reluctance, both Grant and Lincoln approved the strategy. About mid-November 1864 Sherman started his infamous "March To The Sea."

Sherman allegedly declared that "Until we can repopulate Georgia, it is useless to occupy it, but the utter destruction of its roads, houses and people will cripple their military resources. &hellipI can make the march and make Georgia howl!" ('Sherman's March' by Burke Davis)

He further articulated his intent was "to whip the rebels, to humble their pride, to follow them to their inmost recesses and make them fear and dread us."

How did this Civil War campaign play out? Did Sherman torch everything in his path?

No. This was not a "scorched earth" mission, even though there was a ton of destruction by his forces. More than 300 miles of rail lines in 40 counties of central Georgia were rendered useless, some of it becoming labeled "Sherman's neckties" for the end product of the Union efforts.

One account indicates that by the end of the march, roughly 5,000 horses, 4,000 mules, 13,000 head of cattle and millions of pounds of corn and fodder had been seized by Sherman's men. The plundering of the towns of Georgia became widespread and on occasion Southern women were raped. Confederate soldiers avenged these atrocities and lettered messages were affixed to the slain perpetrators warning "Death To All Foragers" (Sherman's March). Union soldiers themselves executed such offenders also.

Some cities were burned by Sherman while others were not. What about Savannah? Why was it spared?

Many interesting theories have been advanced, some more credible than others.

First, it is suggested that the Northern general had a girlfriend who lived in Savannah and this led him to exercise the restraint. One of my fellow tour guides quickly debunks this notion by rhetorically asking his patrons if they have ever seen pictures of the general. Pictures and historical descriptions of Sherman are not very flattering. Vanity just didn't seem to enter into his persona, unlike that of General Hugh Kilpatrick of the Union.

Secondly, it is alleged that Savannah was spared because the city was too beautiful to burn.

Thirdly, some stories forward the notion that a mason rode out to ask for leniency knowing that Sherman was a member of that brotherhood, too.

Another theory is that a deal had already been struck and approved by Sherman. Brigadier Gen. John W. Geary and the mayor of Savannah, Dr. Richard Arnold, had met and settled upon terms of surrender of the city. The city would surrender without resistance in exchange for the promise by Geary to protect the city's citizens and their property. Geary telegraphed Sherman and the latter accepted the terms. Thus, the protection of property could easily be interpreted to foreclose any thoughts of setting fire to the city.

One group of scholars says we have the U.S. Department of the Treasury to thank for the decision not to ignite the town. Treasury agent A.G. Browne arrived in town several days before Christmas 1864 for the purpose of laying claim to certain highlights of the spoils (including 25,000-38,000 bales of cotton) captured by the Union. It was really his idea that Sherman should present the city as a gift to Lincoln.

Sherman agreed. Why destroy it if you are going to gift wrap it?

Probably the most compelling reason, in the opinion of this writer, is the one offered by Burke Davis in his aforementioned book: Savannah was a port and as such an invaluable prize as a naval base and supply center. A "Federal garrison there would not only solidify the gains &hellip it would close to the enemy one more port to which blockade-runners had been bringing supplies to keep the Confederacy alive."

Having said all that, maybe we have assumed a fact not in evidence - that the city of Savannah was actually spared. There was, in fact, a huge fire that destroyed 100-200 buildings and killed several people in Savannah on the night of January 27-28, 1865, according to the Savannah Daily Herald.

This fire was thought to be caused by an incendiary device but there was no definitive answer as to who may have started it, according to author Derek Smith of "Civil War Savannah."

Union men were still occupying the city at the time and some officers assisted in fighting the fire. Sherman had already left town before the fire occurred. Sometimes there are no answers, just more questions!

Sherman belatedly admitted that the South had treated blacks unjustly

By the end of the Civil War, Sherman recognized that the South had severely mistreated its black population. Three months before the Confederacy’s final surrender at Appomattox, he proclaimed:¹

“The South deserves all she has got for her injustice to the negro.”

Still, it’s notable that Sherman never expressed any qualms about the institution of slavery itself, or about the morality of forcibly holding human beings in perpetual bondage. Convinced as he was that blacks were inherently inferior to whites, he probably considered his view that slavery was not in itself evil but should be made more humane, an enlightened one.

General Sherman's Legacy - HISTORY

John F. Weir, Roger Sherman, ca. 1902
- Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Roger Sherman is the only person to have signed all four of the most significant documents in our nation’s early history: the Continental Association from the first Continental Congress, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. He began life as a surveyor and a cordwainer (someone who makes shoes and other items from leather) before establishing himself as a political icon of the American Revolution. He spent the last 30 years of his life devoted to public service, often simultaneously holding multiple high-profile political and judicial positions. Known for his sensibility and control over his emotions, Sherman was, in Thomas Jefferson’s words, “a man who never said a foolish thing in his life.”

Born in Newton, Massachusetts, on April 19, 1721, Roger Sherman was the second of seven children born to William and Mehetabel Sherman. William was a farmer, as well as a cordwainer, and helped teach Roger his early trade. A natural ability with numbers helped Roger teach himself surveying. When Roger was 19, William died and Roger assumed responsibility for his father’s estate. He moved the family in June of 1743 to join oldest brother William in New Milford.

Sherman’s self-discipline with his surveyor training paid off two years later, when the Connecticut General Assembly appointed him the surveyor of New Haven County and, later, Litchfield County, a post he held until resigning in 1758. It was during these years in New Milford that Roger began to actively participate in town affairs, perhaps motivated by his growing interest in land speculation. It was also at this time that he married his wife, Elizabeth Hartwell. Roger and Elizabeth wed on November 17, 1749, and had seven children. His three oldest sons would serve as officers in the Continental army.

Roger soon expanded his interests into retail, opening a store that sold tables, chairs, brooms, razors, and other household items. He also began publishing almanacs. In his almanacs, Sherman included entries on astronomy, religious festivals, weather, and his views on the values of colonial currencies. These pursuits did not keep his attention for long, however. Roger began spending more time surveying and also took up the study of the law. Sherman passed the bar in February of 1754 and the following year became justice of the peace for Litchfield County, an appointment that coincided with his election to Connecticut’s General Assembly. Shortly after the death of his wife in October of 1760, he resigned his political post and moved his children to New Haven.

Civic Service in New Haven

After arriving in New Haven, Sherman gave up practicing law, as well as surveying, and once again settled into life as a merchant, opening a store of books and general merchandise located across from Yale College. Not long after, as he was returning from a visit to his brother in Woburn, Massachusetts, Rebecca Prescott, the niece of his brother’s wife, passed by him on the road. Roger turned his horse around and headed back toward Woburn to begin a courtship that ended in his marriage to the 20-year-old Prescott on May 12, 1763. Roger’s second marriage resulted in the birth of eight more children.

A rapid succession of political appointments followed Sherman’s marriage. In 1764 he was again elected to the General Assembly and in 1765 appointed justice of the peace for New Haven County. Shortly after, he took on the additional responsibility of being the treasurer of Yale College, a post he held until 1776.

“no laws bind the people but such as they consent to be Governed by”

The tide of sentiment that was rising in the colonies at this time did not fail to capture Sherman’s interest. The increasingly restrictive policies of the British parliament resulted in the passing of numerous acts aimed at garnering revenue from the American colonies. Parliament passed these acts without colonial consent. The announcement of the 1773 Tea Act motivated Sherman to declare his belief “that no laws bind the people but such as they consent to be Governed by.” His reputation of service to the colony, along with his strong patriot sentiment, got him elected as a delegate to the first Continental Congress.

Sherman excelled in his new work at the national level. Throughout the Revolutionary Era, he was known as a steadfast worker and an informed, attentive legislator. He is reported to have risen every morning at 5:00 a.m., begun work at 7:00 a.m., and continued working until around 10:00 p.m. Sherman was placed on the committees that drew up the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation (the new nation’s first constitution). He involved himself in issues of supply purchasing, Native American affairs, and the administration of the post office. In addition, he served on the Board of War in 1776 and on the Board of Treasury. Sherman proved a capable and efficient legislator, despite what some perceived as a lack of polish in his oratory skills. His good friend John Adams described him as “one of the most sensible men in the world,” possessing the “clearest head and steadiest heart,” but poked fun at his manner of public speaking. “Sherman’s air,” Adams quipped, “is the reverse of grace there cannot be a more striking contrast to beautiful action than the motion of his hands…it is stiffness and awkwardness itself, rigid as starched linen.”

Print showing Roger Sherman, Mayor of New Haven, 1911, wood engraving – Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

In 1784, Sherman returned from Congress and was elected the first mayor of the newly incorporated city of New Haven. Three years later, while still mayor of New Haven and a judge of the Superior Court in Connecticut, he was sent to represent Connecticut at the Philadelphia Convention. At the convention, Sherman was integral in shaping the country’s new constitution. In addition to being a vocal supporter of Alexander Hamilton’s proposal for federal assumption of states’ debts, he is credited with fathering the Connecticut Compromise, which ultimately led to the formation of a bicameral legislature (with the size of representation in the House being based on a state’s population, but the size of each state’s representation in the Senate being equal).

A Lasting Legacy to the Nation

After his service at the Philadelphia Convention, the Connecticut General Assembly elected Roger to serve in the US House of Representatives in 1789. The posting conflicted with his judicial responsibilities and Sherman was forced to resign from his judgeship. Two years later, William Samuel Johnson resigned his Senate seat to concentrate on his duties at Columbia College in New York City. Sherman was quickly named as Johnson’s replacement. His service only lasted until March of 1793, however, when he returned home to New Haven due to failing health. On July 23, 1793, Roger Sherman died of typhoid fever.

Sherman’s legacy is one of dedicated public service. Not only did he devote a large portion of his life to politics, but his grandson, Roger Sherman Baldwin, went on to serve both as a US senator and as governor of Connecticut. Two of his other grandsons, George F. Hoar and William M. Evarts, also served as US senators, with Evarts serving as secretary of state under President Rutherford B. Hayes. Sherman’s meticulous nature and ability to control his emotions made him a leader in many critical decision-making processes during the founding of the United States. Fisher Ames, a leader in the House of Representatives, once remarked that if he [Ames] was ever absent from a debate, when it came time to vote on the issue, he “always felt safe in voting as Mr. Sherman did for he always voted right.”

Gregg Mangan is an author and historian who holds a PhD in public history from Arizona State University.

Watch the video: When Georgia Howled: Sherman on the March (January 2022).