Victorian Britain is famed for championing innovation and invention, fuelled by vast mass production and industrialisation.
These capabilities were realised most brilliantly through the tunnels, bridges and ships of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the great engineer who sought to connect the world through his masterpieces in iron.
Here are 5 amazing facts about the extraordinary civil engineer.
1. Both his parents were imprisoned
Brunel’s parents, Marc Isambard Brunel and Sophia Kingdom, met in Rouen during the French Revolution. As a known royalist, Marc fled to New York. Sophia, who remained in Paris to finish studying, was suspected as a British spy and thrown in prison until the Revolution subsided.
Professor of Modern History David Andress talks Dan through the French Revolution: the causes, the context, its significance and its wide-felt consequences.Watch Now
The couple reunited in England and married in 1799. In 1806, Sophia bore a son, Isambard Kingdom, who took his names from both parents.
Isambard’s childhood was happy, albeit extremely tainted with the family’s financial problems. His father was a brilliant engineer and inventor, developing methods to mass produce ships’ pulleys, amongst other things. Despite this, Marc Brunel ran up debts and was held in debtors’ prison.
Sir Marc Isambard Brunel. Image Credit: Public Domain
After three months it became public knowledge Marc was planning to be bailed out by Alexander I of Russia, and move his family to St Petersburg. Under pressure from the likes of the Duke of Wellington, the British government relented and cleared his debts, on the condition he remained in Britain and put his talent to use.
2. He was a natural born talent
Isambard Brunel showed a natural talent for engineering and mathematics from a young age. He was encouraged to draw buildings and had started learning Euclidian geometry by the time he was 8 years old. He was sent to France to apprentice under Louis Breguet, France’s most celebrated maker of watches and scientific instruments.
Construction of the Thames Tunnel. Image Credit: Public Domain
At 20, Brunel helped his father design and construct the 1,300 foot Thames Tunnel, which undercuts the Thames between Rotherhithe and Wapping.
The father-son team developed a tunnel shield to protect the workers 75 feet under the river, where raw sewage and ignited methane gas was prevalent. Prince Albert took a keen interest, and Marc’s efforts were rewarded with a knighthood.
3. He was only 5 feet tall
Despite his achievements, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was known for being visibly self-conscious about his height. He often tried to appear taller by sitting up straigt when on horseback or by wearing a very tall top hat.
‘I often do the most silly useless things to appear to advantage before or attract the attention of those I shall never see again or whom I care nothing about.’ – Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Many have dubbed his incredible engineering feats to have been a result of his “short man syndrome”.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel only stood at a meagre 5 feet tall. Image Credit: Public Domain
4. He designed Clifton Suspension Bridge
In 1830, Bristol was in need of a new bridge. Brunel submitted four designs to the committee, which was headed by Thomas Telford. All entries were rejected, and Telford’s own designs proposed. Public outcry forced the committee to hold a competition, which Brunel won.
In this short episode, Dan visits Clifton Suspension Bridge, one of the most beautiful and iconic bridges in the country.Watch Now
When it was constructed, the 700-foot bridge over the River Avon was the longest span of any bridge in the world. The two masonry towers, which reached 245 feet above the river gorge, held the roadway through tensioned cables.
This method used drastically less material and proved to be far cheaper. The bridge faced many problems in the early years and wasn’t completed until 1864. Despite this, it remains in use for over 4 million vehicles each year.
5. He christened the Great Western Railway
In 1833, Brunel was appointed as chief engineer of the Great Western Railway, an ambitious project aimed to link London to Bristol through a 124-mile railway route. After weeks of researching and surveying the geography, Brunel chose the flattest route.
Despite this, many obstacles remained. Rivers, valleys and hills were combated through innovative viaducts, bridges, stations and tunnels. The 1.8-mile Box Hill Tunnel in Wiltshire was greatly celebrated as the longest railway tunnel of its time, and with such an accolade, it was bedecked with a grand classical design.
Victorian Postcard of Paddington Station. Image Credit: Public Domain
The GWR enabled towns such as Swindon and Reading to become some of the fastest growing of 19th century Europe. The location of locomotive sheds in these towns demanded a need for housing for workers, which gave Brunel the impetus to build hospitals, churches and housing estates.
As the main terminal for GWR, Brunel worked with the architect Matthew Digby Wyatt from 1838 to design Paddington station. It was heavily influenced by the Joseph Paxton’s glass design for the Crystal Palace. The first train left the station on 16 January 1854.
6. He launched the SS Great Britain
In 1836, Brunel married Mary Elizabeth Horsley, the eldest daughter of composer and organist William Horsley. They established a home at Duke Street, Westminster.
From around this time, the newly married Brunel began to design steamships for transatlantic voyages. He hoped to extend the journey of the GWR not only from London to Bristol, but onwards to New York by steamship.
In this episode, Dan gets to explore one of his favourite places in all the world - the SS Great Britain - including some areas that are normally off-limits.Watch Now
In 1838, the SS Great Western was launched. She was the first steamship purpose-built for crossing the Atlantic and used regularly for transatlantic passenger travel between 1838 and 1846. She was an iron-strapped, wooden, side-wheel paddle steamer which had four masts to hoist auxiliary sails.
Brunel went one further in 1843, when he launched SS Great Britain, the largest ship of her time. Regarded as the first modern steamship, she was built of metal, powered by an engine and driven by propeller rather than paddle wheel.
Launch of the Great Britain in 1843. Image Credit: Lordprice / CC BY-SA 2.5.
In the same year, Brunel accidentally lodged a half-sovereign coin in his windpipe as he performed a magic trick for his children. Forceps and a specially designed machine failed to shake it loose.
At the suggestion of his father, he was strapped to a board and turned upside down, finally jerking the coin free. He spent time recuperating at Teignmouth, which he enjoyed so much he purchased an estate there.
7. He designed a hospital for the Crimean War
When Britain entered the Crimea war in 1854, many British soldiers suffered from cholera, dysentery, typhoid and malaria. Florence Nightingale sent a plea to The Times for the government to produce a solution. In response, Brunel was asked to design a pre-fabricated hospital which could be transported to Turkey and quickly constructed.
A map of the pre-fabricated Renkioi hospital. Image Credit: CC BY 4.0.
The Renkioi hospital provided access to sanitation, ventilation, drainage, and even rudimentary temperature controls – designs which are still used today. Some sources claimed that out around 1,300 patients treated in the hospital, there were only 50 deaths. Florence Nightingale described them as ‘Those magnificent huts’.
8. He suffered a stroke on board SS Great Eastern
The Great Eastern in 1866. Image Credit: Public Domain
Brunel’s final and most ambitious project was SS Great Eastern. It was built to take passengers non-stop from London to Sydney. The maiden voyage was a disaster, as the ship was damaged by an explosion.
Brunel himself never knew of such events. As he tested SS Great Eastern’s engines before she set sail, Brunel had a stroke on the deck, probably as a result of a lifetime of heavy smoking. He returned to his home at 18 Duke Street where he died 10 days later, aged 53.
His success derived from a lifetime of constant innovation and ingenuity:
‘I am opposed to the laying down of rules or conditions to be observed in the construction of bridges lest the progress of improvement tomorrow might be embarrassed or shackled by recording or registering as law the prejudices or errors of today’
18 Famous Bridges in London (with photos)
Some other London bridges might not be quite as beautiful, but they’re usually the vantage point for some of the best views of London.
One of the most famous bridges of London, Tower Bridge, is among the best bridges in the world. It’s one of the great icons of London, spanning the river next to another of the great London sights, the Tower of London.
Other bridges on the Thames in London have been immortalised in song, from the ‘London Bridge is falling down’ nursery rhyme to the Kinks’ wistful ‘Waterloo Sunset’.
Our guide to the best bridges in London includes the most popular section of the river, from Westminster and London Eye to Tower Bridge. These can easily be visited in a few hours on the Bridges of London Walk, but there are also some outstanding bridges London has hidden away in the suburbs to the west.
We’ve also included another bridge in north London, far from the Thames, which has one of the best panoramas of London you could hope to find.
So settle back and enjoy our guide to the best of the bridges of London.
visit the bridge and enjoy the marvel of Brunel and the view is amazing.
you can park over the bridge and then walk back to the bridge. theres an area to take pictures.
We visited on a dreary wet day but were still blown away by this amazing feat of engineering. Parked 10 mins away, parking was £1 an hour by side of road. Lots of longer walks but weather wasn't suitable for a long trek. Excellent visitor centre. Only a coffee cart and no café.
Toilets just by the bridge and in visitor centre.
The bridge itself is a masterpiece of engineering but set against the backdrop of the gorge which it spans with Bristol in the far background it is a joy to behold. If you are not good with heights then walking across the bridge (free) will test your mettle but the views are wonderful and it's great to get close up to the structure itself.
St Paul’s Cathedral
St Paul’s is another of the top few most famous London landmarks, the symbol of London’s rebirth after the 1666 Great Fire and also the city’s spirit of resilience as it survived the London Blitz. Its great dome still dominates the western end of the City of London, and provides an outstanding viewpoint to survey the ever-changing cityscape. Don’t miss the interior, Sir Christopher Wren’s masterpiece, with its lavish golden arches and sculpture the high point of English Baroque.
Born On This Day
John George Appold, FRS  (Shoreditch, London 14 April 1800 – Gloucestershire 31 August 1865) was a British fur dyer and engineer. Appold was the son of a fur-skin dyer, established in Finsbury. Succeeding to his father’s business at the age of twenty-two, he introduced into it so many scientific improvements that he soon amassed a considerable fortune and was able to devote his time and attention to his favourite mechanical pursuits. His inventions, though numerous and evincing very great ingenuity, were not of the very highest class.
Perhaps the most important of them was his centrifugal pump. This procured him a ‘council medal’ at the Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace in 1851, and it is highly commended in the report of the juries on that exhibition. Appold’s pump with curved blades showed an efficiency of 68%, more than three times better than any of the other pumps present. It should be mentioned that the medal was for the special form of pump, the principle having been known and acted upon many years before.
Another invention of considerable value was a brake, employed in laying deep-sea telegraph cables. This apparatus was used in laying the first Transatlantic cable in 1858. Appold was very liberal in communicating his ideas to others. He was on terms of friendship with many of the chief engineers of his time, and was consulted by them frequently with advantage. He patented but few of his ideas, preferring generally to give them freely to the public. His house was a museum of mechanical contrivances, such as doors which opened at a person’s approach, and shutters which closed at the touch of a spring, while the same movement turned on and lighted the gas. Probably, had he been compelled to rely for his support on his mechanical talents, his inventions would have been further developed, and have been brought more prominently into notice than they were. As it was, he was a man of high reputation among his contemporaries, who left behind him but little to keep his name from forgetfulness. He is commemorated with a memorial tablet inside St Leonard’s, Shoreditch and buried at West Norwood Cemetery.
Jan Tomáš Forman (Czech: [ˈjan ˈtomaːʃ ˈforman] 18 February 1932 – 13 April 2018), known as Miloš Forman ([ˈmɪloʃ ˈforman]), was a Czech American film director, screenwriter, actor, and professor, who until 1968 lived and worked primarily in former Czechoslovakia.
Forman was one of the most important directors of the Czechoslovak New Wave. His 1967 film The Fireman’s Ball, on the surface a naturalistic representation of an ill-fated social event in a provincial town, was seen by both movie scholars and authorities in Czechoslovakia as a biting satire on Eastern European Communism, resulting in it being banned for many years in Forman’s home country.
Since Forman left Czechoslovakia, two of his films, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest and Amadeus, have acquired particular renown, each of which gained him an Academy Award for Best Director. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest was the second film to win all five major Academy Awards (Best Picture, Actor in Leading Role, Actress in Leading Role, Director, and Screenplay) following It Happened One Night in 1934, an accomplishment not repeated until 1991 by The Silence of the Lambs. Forman was also nominated for a Best Director Oscar for The People vs. Larry Flynt. He also won Golden Globe, Cannes, Berlinale, BAFTA, Cesar, David di Donatello, European Film Academy, and Czech Lion awards.
By Rebecca Erbelding: The Untold Story of America’s Efforts to Save the Jews of Europe
Rebecca is an archivist, curator, and historian at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. She and her work have been profiled in The Washington Post, The New York Times, and The New Yorker, and featured on the History Channel, NPR, and other media outlets. The following is excerpted from her book, Rescue Board.
Père Marie-Benoît (Anglicized, Father Mary Benedict in Italian, known as Padre Maria Benedetto 30 March 1895 – 5 February 1990)
born Pierre Péteul, was a Capuchin Franciscan friar who helped smuggle approximately 4,000 Jews into safety from Nazi-occupied Southern France. On 1 December 1966, he was honored with the Medal of the Righteous among the Nations for his courage and self-sacrifice. His actions to save Jews during the Holocaust were the reason for his epithet Father of the Jews (French: Père des juifs).
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Famous Orc names
Shards of Frostmourne. Grommash Hellscream. Former chieftain of the Warsong clan, first orc to drink the blood of Mannoroth and the one to redeem them during the Third War. Horde, Warsong clan. Deceased. Buried in Demon Fall Canyon, Ashenvale. Garrosh Hellscream 200 Female Orc Names for Your Fantasy World. 1. Mursha 2. Naz 3. Maui 4. Nobfang 5. Duzhar 6. Naffurty 7. Buzum 8. Zoguz 9. Ta 10. Mekslag 11. Glugka 12. Nazgul 13. Bugsel 14. Mag 15. Nazsnaga 16. Nubbog 17. Nubshak 18. Magnob 19. Gobgul 20. Morskab 21. Skarsnaga 22. Grumshak 23. Mekbag 24. Skarsnaga 25. Naruz 26. Nazarg 27. Uzshak 28. Brubwort 29. Brubsnaga 30. Skarstuf. 31. Shakfang 32. Urty 33. Wazfang 34. Maggo HALF ORC NAMES. Half-Orcs are usually the offsprings of humans and Orcs, but they could just as well be the offspring of Orcs and other beings. They're also usually beings shunned from the societies of their parents as a result of being neither fully one or the other, and thus inferior in the eyes of both
Female Orc Names Morrowind [ edit ] Agrob , Badbog , Bashuk , Bogdub , Bugdurash , Bula , Bulak , Bulfim , Bum , Burub , Burzob , Dura , Durgat , Durz , Gashnakh , Ghob , Glasha , Glob , Gluronk , Gonk , Grat , Grazob , Gulfim , Kharzug , Lagakh , Lambug , Lazgar , Mogak , Morn , Murob , Murzush , Nargol , Orbul , Ragash , Rolfish , Rulfim , Shadbak , Shagar , Shagdub , Sharn , Sharog , Shelur , Sloomalah , Uloth , Ulumpha , Urzoth , Urzul , Ushug , Yazgas Orc name generator . This name generator will generate 10 random orc names. Orcs are brutish, usually ferocious humanoids. They usually have green skin, muscular bodies, tusks, a hatred for nature, and a lack of hygiene. J.R.R. Tolkien first created the orcs, but they have since been adapted over and over in all sorts of works of fiction With famous Orcs like Grial the Feykiller, Kiah the Flameaxe and several others I thought it'd be cool to hear other ideas for Orc names that are: Terrifying, Intimidating, Cool, Fun, Scary, Evil, and for various levels of ranks In my google searches, I can only seem to find three famous orcs for D&D but they're all older editions. Obould Many-Arrows is the most famous example. The other two are Shield of Innocence and Vraak ir Vrakk. Shield was an orc paladin of Torm, while Vraak was a general
Gorgûn was the name that Ghân-buri-Ghân of the wild men of the Drúadan Forest used for the Orcs in their own language. Yrch was the term used by Haldir and his brothers, who were Elves of Lothlórien Orc name generator - Dungeons & Dragons . This name generator will give you 10 names which will generally fit orcs of the Dungeons & Dragons universe. Orcs are huge, muscular humanoids capable of destroying almost any foe in their relentless onslaught Fandom Apps Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. D&D Beyon
Famous Names Bestellen? - Alles Voor Uw Beautysalo
- Butatō, Giant, Ogre, Goblin, Trow, Troll, Oni An orc /ɔːrk/ is a fictional humanoid creature akin to a goblin. Orcs were brought into modern usage by the fantasy writings of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially The Lord of the Rings
- Oh i've had many a serious name in the past. this one is for the lawls while i game with my friend. A change of pace to say the least. Came up with a name Obouldarrows To pay homage of a Forgotten Realms character in the The Orc King book
- g my Orc shaman as I'm kind of out of ideas. I would like to know what to think on when you name a orc by the lore and with the in
- Orcs were a race of humanoids that had been a threat to the civilized cultures of Toril, particularly Faerûn, for as long as any could remember. This changed somewhat in the years preceding and immediately after the Spellplague, when a horde of mountain orcs under the command of King Obould Many-Arrows unified into a single kingdom, one that was remarkably civilized.citationneeded 1.
- Looking to make an Orc DK but not sure about a good name for it. Anyone know of any good Orc names I could try and use if they are not taken
Hello, I wanted to roll an alt and decided to make an orc warrior. I'm not that good with names, so I was wondering if anyone in the community had some good names. I want a name that fits with the both orc and warriors. Although I don't RP, I like actual names. It'll be a fury warrior if that helps with the naming. Please no stupid names ^^ Thank Listing the 10 most powerful orcs in World of Warcraft history. Leave your thoughts on who you think are the strongest?----- Merchandis.. Orc Name Generator Orcs are noble warriors, with an ancient culture forged in the crucible of warfare. Down trodden, outcast, and even the sojourner Orcs hail from Orsinium, their mountain homeland which as been razed many times by invaders Orc names generated by FantasyNameGen.com. Fantasy Name Generator. Generated orc names: Balcnag Gor Gashbolg Gorbaa Orc Name Generator - World Of Warcraft is free online tool for generating Orc_wow_names randomly. It will help you to generate 1000's of cool Orc_wow_names which you can use in books, novels, games, or whatever fantasy world you want to use it. For generating Orc_wow_names simply scroll down and click on the Get Male Names, Get Female Names Button to randomly generate 10 Orc_wow_names
Orc (Arena) Orc (Daggerfall) Orsimer (Morrowind) Orsimer (Oblivion) Orsimer (Skyrim) Orsimer (Online) Orsimer (Legends) Orsimer (Blades) Orsinium [edit | edit source Cool names for orcs can be found with this orc name generator. Find orc names for games such as Elder Scrolls Skyrim, World of Warcraft (wow), and Lord of the Rings (lotr). The generator will create a new random orc name each time you click the button. Female orc names as well as male orc names can be generated Whether you need some name inspiration for your new furry friend or want to enjoy some nostalgic trivia, here's a list of some famous dog names from A to Z. Astro Astro, a Great Dane, was the [ Orc Name Generator Latest 2019. If you looking on the internet a cool World of Warcraft or Elder Scrolls Orc Name Generator So, You Come to a right place now my team share this generator on the request base for random name generates male or female. when you playing a game online or want a perfect Dungeons and Dragons character names so my team help for you to find out a perfect name
ORC NAMES LIST: Author: Source: Date Added: Description: Unknown Unknown November 12, 2001 Following, is a list of orcish names somewhat consistant with Tolkien's naming conventions. Abghat Adgulg Aghed Agugh Aguk Almthu Alog Ambilge Apaugh Argha Argigoth Argug Arpigig Auhgan Azhug Bagdud Baghig Bahgigoth Bandagh Barfu Bargulg Baugh Bidgug. Find out today's birthdays and discover who shares your birthday. We make it simple and entertaining to learn about celebrities You can see how Orc families moved over time by selecting different census years. The Orc family name was found in the USA between 1880 and 1920. The most Orc families were found in the USA in 1880. In 1880 there were 8 Orc families living in Pennsylvania. This was 100% of all the recorded Orc's in the USA
The Latin word Orcus is glossed as Orc, þyrs, oððe hel-deofol (Goblin, spectre, or hell-devil) in the 10th century Old English Cleopatra Glossaries, about which Thomas Wright wrote, Orcus was the name for Pluto, the god of the infernal regions, hence we can easily understand the explanation of hel-deofol. Orc, in Anglo-Saxon, like thyrs, means a spectre, or goblin Can I use the random orc names that this tool creates? Yes you can. The Story Shack claims no copyright on any of these names, but it is of course possible that some of the values this name generator provides are already owned by anyone else, so please make sure to always do your due diligence Typically, this is the name of a favorite thing or relative. Family names don't exist most orcs have last names related to some great deed of heroism or honor. However, in the case of truly incredible deeds, an orc might take on the last name of his father to ensure that the chronicle of that terrific deed lives on Famous people / organisations. Find out about some of the 3,300 people buried and others commemorated at Westminster Abbey, many of them among the most significant in the nation's history The names of a few fourteenth-century armorers have come down to us, but substantial documentation begins only in the fifteenth century. The same holds true for the manufacture of sword blades, staff weapons, bows and crossbows, firearms, and ordinance (cannon founding), where famous names rarely appear before the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Notable orcs - Wowpedia - Your wiki guide to the World of
- Top 7 Famous Gladiator Names Going through tough, rough, sometimes to-the-death battles in ancient Rome, the gladiators were the superstars of the day. The battles brought in thousands of fans to the arenas even powerful patriarchs graced these spectacles with their presence
- Many of the names are taken from the One Hundred Stories of Demons and Spirits, some are direct edits from old woodcuts. MYTHOLOGICAL DRAGON LIST Dragons from mythology and folklore FAMOUS DRAGONS, SERPENTS & WRYMS A huge alphabetical list of names of famous dragons from myth, legend and literature NAMES OF DRAGONS Wow! This list is tremendous
- Discover the most famous people named Corey including Corey Scherer, Corey La Barrie, Corey Fogelmanis, Corey Funk, Corey Campbell and many more
The heraldry.sca.org site is copyright 1995-2021 Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. The copyright of certain portions of heraldry.sca.org are retained by the original contributors as noted. External links are not part of the heraldry.sca.org web site. Inclusion of a page or site here is neither implicit nor explicit endorsement of the site Home » people » Real names of famous musicians. Real names of famous musicians. Adele (Adele Laurie Blue Adkins) Alice Cooper (Vincent Damon Furnier) Alicia Keys (Alicia Augello-Cook Dean) Alla Nazimova (Mariam Edez Adelaida Leventon) Alpha Blondy (Seydou Kon) Andr 3000 (Andr Benjamin) Aphex Twin (Richard David James) Ariana Grande (Ariana.
400 Orc Names for Your Fantasy World - EverydayKnow
- Famous People of the Middle Ages - Robert the Bruce, Famous King of Scotland Facts and a short biography with key dates about the life story of this important Medieval figure who was famous as the greatest Scottish King, the story of Robert the Bruce and the spider and his victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314
- Her claim to fame is pretty much being herself - an image she perpetuates through self-posting online updates of daily activities on platforms such as Twitter and Instagram. Another narcissistic characteristic, if true, is she is rumored to have released controversial material, including a sex-tape, herself to make her name more famous
- His name is associated with behaviourism theory which he presented and called it 'Radical Behaviourism'. According to him, the notion that an individual possesses free will is merely an illusion. He was a strong proponent of conditioning because he believed that all human actions are based on a pattern followed by favourable or unpleasant stimuli which leads to conditioning
- 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 I 10 J 11 K 12 L 13 M 14 N 15 O 16 P 17 R 18 S 19 T 20 V 21 W 22 Z 23 See also 24 External links The following is an list of famous Jews, in alphabetical order, notable followers of Judaism (either from birth or following conversion) or people who professed a Jewish cultural identity. The list includes people who distinguished themselves in the fields of.
- Famous alcoholics you didn't know were alcoholic. You'll be surprised at most, if not all, the names. Amaze yourself and surprise your friends! They include the infamous, rich, powerful, and influential. But you didn't know they suffer from alcoholism.
- g practices for this handout were primarily taken from a series of books called Catálogo de Pasajeros a Indias (Catalog of passengers to the New World). The books contain lists of records of the people who traveled from Spain to the New World in the 16th century
- Learn the life stories of your favorite famous figures with our extensive collection of biographies
Famous For: E=m*c 2 Albert Einstein excelled in mathematics early in his childhood. He liked to study math on his own. He was once quoted as saying, I never failed in mathematicsbefore I was fifteen I had mastered differential integral calculus. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Nationality: English Famous For:Mathematical Principles of Natural. Thefamouspeople.com chronicles the life history of some of the world's most famous people and achievers. The biographies of these people feature the achievements and works that have influenced the course of history
A List of Famous Poets includes Poems and Biographical information of the most Famous Poets. Read and Enjoy Poetry by Famous Poets ___ Most Famous Landmarks and Cultural Monuments in the World: Most Famous Monuments: Everybody knows the most famous landmarks in the world, you can name it, or? Anyhow, on the next pages you will find some, if not all, most famous landmarks and monuments around the world, as well as some, not everybody knows Famous Canadians provides history and biographies of famous people from Canada. Canadians who represented the country in different fields internationally
This is a list of common, well-known or infamous diseases.This is neither complete nor authoritative. This is not intended to be a list of rare diseases, nor is it a list of mental disorders.. This list includes both common names and technical names for diseases. This is deliberate where multiple names are in common use for the same disease, all of those names should link to the main article. Famous names were identified significantly better than famous faces. There was also a significant group × test material interaction [F(2,59) = 21.71, P < 0.0001]. Both the Alzheimer's disease and control groups performed better on the name than the face identification task (t = 9.64, P < 0.0001 and t = 5.25, P < 0.0001 for the two groups,. A Famous-Named Foreigner is a character hailing from some foreign nation who, due to the authors not knowing anything about local naming conventions and/or thinking it would make their nationality more recognizable and/or just being lazy, is named after some very famous person from the respective nation's history or culture. Which most of the time sounds pretty ridiculous to the local ear, due. Wordsmith.org: the magic of words Other Services A.Word.A.Day Internet Anagram Server The Anagram Times Pangram Finder Palindrome Miner Wordsmith Talk Wordsmith Chat Wordserver Listat About Advanced Hall of Fame Checker Animation Odds & Ends FAQ Tips Uses Search Contribute Contac Alba was the name of a genetically modified rabbit created as an artistic work by Eduardo Kac. Oolong Oolong was a rabbit owned by photographer Hironori Akutagawa, who was famous for his ability to balance a variety of objects on his head. Oolong was one of the internet's first viral sensations. Cinnamo
. Those given names which are not Arabic, but rather in a Magribi language, are marked with an asterisk (*). Some people do not use given names, but replace them with a certain type of devotional name (see below) or more rarely with honorific names (see below) Fauci, Kamala.da Vinci?America's preeminent infectious disease expert, Anthony Fauci, and its incoming vice president, Kamala Harris, join the Renaissance master himself, Leonardo da Vinci, atop this year's list of most mispronounced words, as compiled by the U.S. Captioning Company, which captions and subtitles real-time events on TV and in courtrooms.The list release Time for a reminder of the rules I think. We begin by naming a famous person - for example, Tom H anks.. The next player thinks of a famous person, whose first name starts with the letter that begins the prior famous person'slast name - in this instance, ' H'.. So the person might say H illary C linton.. The next player who needs to think of a name that starts with ' C
Whether famous, infamous, or just lacking in the recognition they deserve, it is difficult to deny the significant contribution they have made to the world. Current Most Famous Humanitarians of All Time . These famous humanitarians continue to make headlines with all of their good deeds and are listed mostly by amount donated. Bill Gate Famous Players Orchestra performs and records historic cinematic music used by movie theater orchestras during the silent film era Famous People in other sciences. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was the famous naturalist known for his book titled The Origin of Species. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) invented the telephone. Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859) was an engineer specialized in railway traction, tunnels, and bridges Names Encyclopedia - stats, etymology, anagrams, famous people, rhymes Welcome to Namespedia! Everyone has a name, but most people have a vague idea what their name means. This site is for those who want to discover name meanings, origins, distribution across the globe, genealogy tracking,.
Best ORC Names for your fantasy world - Give a Good Name
- Famous Haiku The following are some of the more famous haiku that were penned by the early Japanese haiku masters such as Bashō, Issa, Buson and Shiki. As original haiku are in Japanese and our English 5-7-5 syllables are an approximation at best, much of the poetry below does not appear in 5-7-5
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- Famous Inventors. Discover the men and women behind some of the most famous inventions and innovations of history. Research almost any famous historical or current inventor with these biographies, A-to-Z lists, photo galleries, and timelines
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- Names of famous Japanese Musicians, Politicians, Sports Figures, TV & Movie Personalities, Cultural Leaders, Writers, etc LIST OF JAPANESE CELEBRITIES A long list of Japanese Comedians. Models, Actresses, Actors etc. NAMES OF FAMOUS BARBARIAN
- 10 Famous Indian Authors You Must Read India has been celebrated for its art, literature and writing since ancient times. There are over twenty languages spoken in India and literature that includes over twenty of these languages
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Some of the most famous novels and literary moments of all time were written and inspired by cafes in Europe. From the American ex-pat writers in Paris to Henrik Ibsen's continental travels, cafes were a place to work while socializing, building stories, and of course, eating and drinking The most popular given names vary nationally, regionally, and culturally.Lists of widely-used given names can consist of those most often bestowed upon infants born within the last year, thus reflecting the current onomastic trends, or else be composed of the personal names occurring most within the total population Chelsea have already drawn up a list of three defensive targets for the summer after appointing Thomas Tuchel as their new head coach (Image: POOL/AFP via Getty Images). After forking out over £200million on transfers last year, Chelsea decided against splashing any more cash in the winter market and have instead began drawing up plans for the summer '23rd MESS' was created in 1980 by Branko Bačanović Bambi. Find more prominent pieces of poster at Wikiart.org - best visual art database
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Greatest Film Directors of All-Time: These honored selections are designed as a tribute to some of the greatest directors of predominantly English-language films, with suggested or recommended Best Films or 'Must-See' Films from their filmographies. . Unfortunately, some very talented directors have been pushed aside (50 is a limiting number), but it should be noted that many of these. Only occasionally are the angels given names. Michael, for instance, was the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people (Israel) (Daniel 12:1).Undoubtedly, among the most significant of angelic appearances were those by the angel whose name was Gabriel.He was sent twice to the prophet Daniel The Most Famous Explorers and Navigators in History Without the names of Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook and the like, the world would still be a messy place to live in. But with the help of their critical mind, navigation skills and great explorations, everything's on set and the world is now a better and organized place
Such sources are often not useful for Society name research, since their goals differ from ours, but this particular list appears to be pretty good. It was scanned out of Sir Nicolas Nicholas Harris, History of the Battle of Agincourt and of the Expedition of Henry the Fifth into France in 1415 to which is added the Roll of the Men at Arms in the English Armory , 3rd edition (London: Johnston. . From Dosabhai Framji Karaka, History of the Parsis I, London 1884. pp. 162-3. According to Karaka this is an almost complete list of names of Parsi men and women in general use at present
We have the best collection of Famous quotations for all occasions! Browse over 25,000 quotes online from over 6,700 famous authors. In Famous Quotes and Authors you'll find the wit and wisdom of men and women from all walks of life and from all ages - from Benjamin Franklin to Ronald Reagan, Abraham Lincoln to William Shakespeare, Margaret Mead to Garrison Keillor Writers: use it to create character names Expectant parents: use it to pick baby names Website registrants: use it create an alternate identity I originally wrote this application to generate lists of random names to populate a test database with 1000's of users. If you use this site, send me an email and let me know. Thanks Japanese prints are covered in full in this new website, with some of the most famous Japanese art included in this homepage, with many available to buy online from our recommended art retailers, Art.com and Amazon. We cover all the famous Japanese painters such as Hokusai, Morita, Hiroshige and Kitagawa 10 Famous Failures to Success Stories That Will Inspire You to Carry On. 15 Things Narcissists Don't Do. 10 Signs You Are Dating A Great Guy Who You Should Never Let Go. 10 Things You've Never Considered About People With Tattoos. 8 Amazing Benefits of Grapes (+5 Refreshing Recipes
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Browse through name meaning, rankings, other people's comments, ratings, and other statistics in addition to the name meanings. Even if you are here just to browse, we hope that you will enjoy a unique spin on a fascinating study field. We offer name meanings for over 45,000 different baby names, surnames, and city names from all over the world You can search the database of 1833 variaties of cheese by names, by country of origin, by kind of milk that is used to produce it, or by texture. The database includes information on most famous sorts of cheese such as Cheddar , Camembert , Stilton or Parmesan , as well as rarities like Crottin de Chavignol On our list below, you will find great names listed in order of popularity, like Copernicus, Hipparchus, and Ptolemy, among others. Read about the most famous astronomers of all time and their contributions. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Famous For: Formulating the heliocentric illustration of the univers Names of Famous Middle Ages Artists The most famous artists of the Middle Ages included men such as Donatello, Giotto, Leon Battista Alberti, Cimabue, Filippo Brunelleschi, Fra Angelico and Lorenzo Ghiberti. A short biography and timeline of each of these famous artists can be accessed from the following links
FamousKin.com is a free genealogical website devoted to discovering family connections of famous people to each other, and to helping those not-so-famous to connect to them as well Famous Potters of Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England . For information on many other potters - check out the A-Z of Stoke-on-Trent Potter Don Bottomley of Beaverton, Ore. plays the puzzle with puzzlemaster Will Shortz and NPR's Lulu Garcia-Navarro
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- THE MEANING OF ENGLISH NAMES What do English Boys' Names Mean? Here is fairly comprehensive list of first (Christian) names used in the English-speaking world (Great Britain, the United States, Ireland Australia etc.). It also includes an indication of the traditional meaning of these names
- o Trigger from five rented horses to be his mount in a Western film in the 1930s, changing his name from Golden Cloud to Trigger because of his quick
- Famous Mathematicians. Each of these articles, accessible to upper primary students, focuses on a well-known mathematician. What Did Turing Do for Us? Age 7 to 18. Dr James Grime takes an Enigma machine in to schools. Here he describes how the code-breaking work of Turing and his contemporaries helped to win the war
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The new Olympic Channel brings you news, highlights, exclusive behind the scenes, live events and original programming, 24 hours a day, 365 days per year Famous For: Discovery of the neutron Sir James Chadwick is known for the discovery and identification of the neutron. Working with Hans Geiger, Chadwick studied beta radiation in which he was able to demonstrate the presence of a continuous electromagnetic spectrum. He was a participant on the now famous Manhattan project Fauci, Kamala.da Vinci?America's preeminent infectious disease expert, Anthony Fauci, and its incoming vice president, Kamala Harris, join the Renaissance master himself, Leonardo da Vinci, atop this year's list of most mispronounced words, as complied by the U.S. Captioning Company, which captions and subtitles real-time events on TV and in courtrooms.The list release
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Four and a half of the six million Jews murdered by the Nazis and their accomplices are commemorated here. This database includes information regarding victims of the Shoah: those who were murdered and some whose fate has yet to be determined TOP 10 GREATEST INDIAN CHIEFS. California Indian Education's tribal resource is being compiled to introduce young Native American Indian students to a few of their nations' most famous Indian chiefs of North America, brave tribal leaders and warriors who have left their mark on the recorded history of our great lands — please do your own research to learn more in-depth facts, tribal. Identity Crisis: When Your Name Is Famous But You Aren't Average people who have the same names as celebrities will tell you they put up with a lifetime of lame jokes. Sharing names with people.
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famous meaning: 1. known and recognized by many people: 2. known and recognized by many people: 3. known by very. Learn more Arts Architecture History Architects L . 23. Last update
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The Paris Review is a literary magazine featuring original writing, art, and in-depth interviews with famous writers Question: What are the different names for the Israelites, and what do they mean? Answer: The Jewish people are referred to by many different names in the Bible. They are called Israelites, Jews, Hebrews, children of Abraham, Daughter Zion, God's chosen people, etc. One of the most common names for the Jewish people in the Bible is Israelites
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A lot of famous African Americans have made their mark in diverse fields such as music, sports, movies, theatre and world politics. Slavery was rife in the 18th and 19th centuries and black people were treated as nothing more than mere possessions The Cathedral is often described as 'England in stone' as its history is intrinsically linked to England's history. From Archbishop Langton's role in the Magna Carta negotiations to the power struggle between King Henry II and Archbishop Thomas Becket, Canterbury Cathedral's history is as rich as it comes Business Construction and Maintenance Design Architects . 2,836. Last update Common name. Abe Lincoln: Whites: Former United States president hailing from the caucasian sector of race. Abeed: Blacks: Arabic term that means Black, many Middle Eastern immigrants to the United States use this: Abi-Dabi: Arabs: A mispronunciation of the capitol city of The United Arab Emarites, which is Abu-Dhabi: Abo: Australian Aboriginal
Just arrived back from an amazing four hour private function can not praise our crew enough we were a party of 17 - 3 children we all had a fantastic time especially the children, food tasty staff very accommodating ,nothing was too much - highly recommended thank you
Booked this trip online in advance when planning our trip into Windsor.
It was really easy to do and we just printed off our ticket. We booked the 2 hour trip.
The place was very easy to find less than a minute from Windsor castle. The boat was very big and clean with nice clean toilets and a great bar with a selection of alcohols, soft drinks and hot drinks. They even came over and took your drink order and bought them to you.
The tour was good and the information given as you went along wasn't dull like most tours but was very informative and relevant with modern info about films the buildings have been in etc.
I'd definitely recommend this tour for people of all ages and think it offers great value for money and the staff is very helpful and friendly.
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10 Famous Bristol Landmarks to Visit
A happening place to hang out, chock-full of heritage and history, Bristol is a one-stop-shop for visitors looking to discover new and exciting landmarks, with plenty to satisfy even the most voracious of sightseers.
Visit Bristol and you can explore a city closely associated with the country&rsquos biggest cultural icons, including engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel and graffiti artist Banksy.
Check out these brilliant Bristol landmarks below and uncover a city brimming with culture, history and some very special critters &ndash more than enough to keep you amused for a short holiday in this fine location.
Direct trains to Bristol Temple Meads can be caught from stations across the network, including London Paddington, making it an easy and relaxing way to visit these top attractions.
We ask all passengers to wear a face-covering in stations and on trains. Make sure you plan your journey in advance, reserving a space and downloading tickets to a mobile device if you can, and avoiding travel when it&rsquos busy. For more safety guidelines, visit gwr.com/safety.
1. Bristol Zoo Gardens
At the heart of one of Bristol&rsquos prettiest neighbourhoods, Clifton, full of cosy cafes and elegant eateries, is one of the country&rsquos most popular zoos. Established way back in the Victorian era, Bristol Zoo Gardens has long been dedicated to breeding and conserving endangered species, and home to around 300 mammals, including red pandas, gorillas, penguins, meerkats and more. For those of you looking for a little extra, don&rsquot forget to purchase a ticket to the exhilarating ZooRopia, an adventure ropes course that will see you swinging through the treetops like a gibbon.
Context for World Heritage Bridges
Publié le 14 novembre 2011 .
To order an hard copy, please click here
A joint publication with TICCIH, 1996
By Eric DeLony Foreword
Bridging rivers, gorges, narrows, straits, and valleys always has played an important role in the history of human settlement. Since ancient times, bridges have been the most visible testimony of the noble craft of engineers. A bridge can be defined in many ways, but Andrea Palladio, the great 16th century Italian architect and engineer, hit on the essence of bridge building when he said ". bridges should befit the spirit of the community by exhibiting commodiousness, firmness, and delight." In more practical terms, he went on to explain that the way to avoid having the bridge carried away by the violence of water was to make the bridge without fixing any posts in the water. Since the beginning of time, the goal of bridge builders has been to create as wide a span as possible which is commodious, firm, and occasionally delightful. Spanning greater distances is a distinct measure of engineering prowess.
In terms of engineering, bridges are discussed by design or type (beam, arch, truss, cantilever, suspension, or moveable) length (usually expressed in terms of clear or overall span) and materials (stone, wood, cast and wrought iron, and what we use today - concrete and steel). The purpose of this contextual essay is to provide parameters of value and significance so that we can focus our attention on those bridges - globally - that best illustrate the history of bridge building, and to encourage their preservation.
What is a World Heritage bridge? The World Heritage Committee states that to be of World Heritage status a monument or site must be of outstanding universal value. It must illustrate or interpret the heritage of the world in terms of engineering, technology, transportation, communication, industry, history, or culture. World Heritage industrial sites and monuments must meet one or more of the following criteria and pass the test of authenticity:
Represent a masterpiece of human creative genius
Have exerted great influence, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in engineering theory, technology, construction, transportation, and communication
Be an outstanding example of a type which illustrates a significant stage in bridge engineering or technological developments.
A World Heritage bridge, like other properties, must meet the test of authenticity in design, materials, workmanship, or setting (the Committee has stressed that reconstruction is only acceptable if carried out on the basis of complete and detailed documentation of the original artefact and to no extent on conjecture). The criteria of authenticity may apply to Japanese bridges like the Kintaikyo spanning the Nishiki River in Iwakuni or Palladio's bridge over the River Brenta at Bassano a Grappa near Venice (Italy). In the same context, some bridges have been moved when unable to function at their original location. It is not unusual in the USA, for example, to relocate a metal truss bridge to a less travelled road when it can no longer handle the traffic the same probably holds true for other countries. This is within the functional tradition of some bridge types and should not be viewed as a negative factor in determining the integrity of a relocated structure.
The definition of authenticity is in the process of being expanded to include intangible values such as a bridge that embodies the spirit or character of a people or place, as New York City is embodied in the Brooklyn Bridge, San Francisco in the Golden Gate, London in Tower Bridge, Sydney (Australia) in the Harbour Bridge, or Bosnia-Herzegovina in the recently destroyed Stari Most in Mostar.
Bridges nominated for World Heritage listing also must have legal protection and management mechanisms to ensure their conservation. The existence of protective legislation at the national, provincial, or municipal level is therefore essential and must be clearly stated in the nomination. Guidelines for nominations state that each property should be compared with properties of the same type dating from the same period, both within and outside the nominating State Party's borders.
For the purpose of this contextual essay, bridge design and construction is dealt with chronologically by material and by type. In addition to the obvious evaluation factors as age, rarity, integrity, and the fame of the builder, consideration also is given to the substructure (piers, abutments, foundation), the superstructure (beam, arch, truss, suspension, and combinations thereof), the materials of construction (their strength and properties), the evolution of construction techniques, and whether the bridge advanced structural theory or methods of evaluating material behaviour.
Bridges discussed in this essay illustrate important types or technological turning points and are listed at the end. Some, like the Pont du Gard (France) and the Iron Bridge (UK), are already inscribed on the World Heritage List. Others may be candidates for listing given adequate study, comparison, and evaluation. Not every potential World Heritage bridge candidate is cited. It is the job of TICCIH and its member countries to identify and make a case for outstanding bridges so they can be appreciated and protected like the great architectural and natural monuments already designated.
The first bridges were natural, such as the huge rock arch that spans the Ardèche in France, or Natural Bridge in Virginia (USA). The first man-made bridges were tree trunks laid across streams in girder fashion, flat stones, such as the clapper bridges of Dartmoor in Devon (UK), or festoons of vegetation, twisted or braided and hung in suspension. These three types - beam, arch, and suspension - have been known and built since ancient times and are the origins from which engineers and builders derived various combinations such as the truss, cantilever, cable-stayed, tied-arch, and moveable spans.
The essential difference among types is the way they bear their own weight - the "dead load" and the "live load" - a person, the railway train, wind, or snow that is applied to the bridge. The weight of beam, truss, and girder bridges bears directly downwards from their ends on the ground, piers, or abutments. Arch bridges thrust outwards as well as downwards, acting in compression. The cables of suspension bridges act in tension, pulling inwards against their anchorages.
If two or more beam or girder spans are joined together over piers, they become continuous, a form favoured by European engineers, who had the mathematical knowledge to analyse the indeterminate stresses introduced by such systems. A case in point is the Town lattice truss invented by Ithiel Town, an American, in 1820, which is a rare instance of reverse techno- logical transfer. The form originated in the USA, but was widely adopted in Europe, especially in iron railway bridges. The lattice fell into disfavour in the USA, where a preference existed for statically determinate bridges of heavy timber, whose forces were easier to calculate.
A more complex form of the beam is the truss, a rigid self- supporting system of triangles transferring both dead and live loads to the abutments or piers. A more complex form of the girder is the cantilever, where trussed and anchored ends of the girder support a central span. They were favoured for deep gorges or wide fast-flowing streams where false work, a temporary structure, usually of timber, erected to assist in the construc- tion of the permanent bridge, is impossible to build. The three principal types - beam, arch, and suspension - often were combined in a variety of ways to form composite structures, the type selected depending on the nature of the crossing, the span required, the materials at hand, and the type of load anticipated - pedestrian, vehicular, railroad, or a channel of water as in aqueducts.
Other than the clapper bridges of England and similar spans surviving in other countries, bridges dating from prehistoric periods are rare. Bridges of twisted vines and creepers found in India, Africa, and South America, the ancient cantilevers of China, Kashmir, and Japan, if any survive, or the wooden arches of Japan may be candidates for World Heritage listing because they perpetuate primitive ingenuity and craft technology that is important to recognize. Since some of their materials cannot be original, these structures will have to pass the test of authenticity.
In 51 BC, during the Gallic War, Caesar attested to the construction of narrow wooden bridges by Gallic builders over wide rivers as the Loire, Seine, and Allier of 600ft (200m) span, used by pedestrians and domestic animals. The stone vault probably first sprang forth in Anatolia and the Aegean region of Asia Minor (central and western Turkey) in the 2nd millennium BC for short spans in civic construction. The Mesopotamian civilizations introduced the first major development of brick vaulting in the royal palaces, and also probably the first important arch bridges in the 6th century BC.
Figure 1 Ponte Saint-Martin (c 25 BC) near Torino (Italy). Shunsuke Baba, photographer
The greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the Romans. They applied a civil engineering repertoire on an unprecedented grand scale and achieved impressive results. Roman engineering introduced four significant developments to the art of bridge building that never had been prominent before: the discovery and extensive use of natural cement, development of the coffer dam, perfection and widespread application of the semi-circular masonry arch, and the concept of public works (Figure 1).
In these important respects, the Roman engineer vastly improved upon the efforts of his predecessors. Public water supply was the most significant aspect of Roman civil engineering: nothing like it had been achieved before nor was it to be emulated until the 19th century. Structural evolution achieved by Roman engineers is manifest in aqueducts, dam construction, and highway bridges that relied on the development of concrete, and a growing awareness of its strength.
The Romans mixed a cement, pozzolana, found near the Italian town of Pozzuoli (ancient Puteoli), with lime, sand, and water to form a mortar that did not disintegrate when exposed to water. It was used as a binder in piers and arch spandrels, and mass-formed in foundations. Coffer dams (temporary enclosures built in river beds to keep the water out while the foundations were established) were made by driving timber piles into the river bed, removing water from the area enclosed, and then excavating the soft ground inside. Despite the use of coffer dams, Roman bridge foundations typically were not deep enough to provide sufficient protection against scour. Most of the Roman bridges that survive are those built on solid rock such as the Pont du Gard aqueduct (c AD 14) near Nîmes (France), the Alcantara Bridge (AD 98) on the Spanish-Portuguese border, and the aqueduct at Segovia (AD 98), which are three of the most famous surviving Roman bridges and aqueducts. Scholars have researched Roman bridges and aqueducts for many years, so it should be possible to arrive at a well reasoned selection of Roman-built bridges for World Heritage listing.
Figure 2 Phra Phutthos (12th century), Kompong Kdei vicinity (Cambodia), was constructed at the end of the 12th century during the reign of Jayavarman VII. With more than twenty narrow arches spanning 246ft (75m), this is the longest corbeled stone-arch bridge in the world. Institute of Asian Culture, Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan
Bridge building in Asia extends back earlier in time than in Europe. Because structural concepts of suspension, cantilever, and arch were first developed there with great sophistication, every effort should be made to identify surviving examples (Figure 2). China was the origin of many bridge forms: Marco Polo told of 12,000 bridges built of wood, stone, and iron near the ancient city of Kin-sai. The first chain-link suspension bridge, the Panhogiao or Panho Bridge (c206 BC), was built by General Panceng during the Han Dynasty. In 1665, a missionary named Kircher described another chain-link suspension bridge of 200ft (61m) made up of twenty iron links, a common bridge type built during the Ming Dynasty that was not adapted until the 19th century in America and Europe. China's oldest surviving bridge, and the world's oldest open-spandrel segmental arch, is the Zhaozhou Bridge (c AD 605), attributed to Li Chun and built south-west of Beijing in Hebei Province during the Song Dynasty. Its thin, curved stone slabs were joined with iron dovetails so that the arch could yield without collapsing. This technique allowed the bridge to adjust to the rise and fall of abutments bearing on spongy, plastic soils and the live loads of traffic.
Following the decline of the Roman Empire with its many engineer- ing achievements, beam, arch, suspension, and cantilever bridge building flourished in China while languishing in Europe for nearly eight centuries. Chinese bridge builders experimented with forms and materials, perfecting their techniques. Selected examples, found in the countryside and parks, may be candidates for World Heritage listing.
Other fine bridges survive in Iran, such as the Bridge of Khaju at Isfahan (1667), with eighteen pointed arches, carrying an 85ft (26m) wide roadway with walled, shaded passageways, flanked by pavilions and watch towers. This magnificent bridge, combining architecture and engineering in splendid functional harmony, also served as a dam, and included a hostelry where travellers found cool rooms for rest and refreshment after hot desert crossings (Figure 3).
Picturesque bridges, such as the Kintaikyo at Iwakuni (1673), with its five wooden arches intricately wedged, slotted, and dovetailed together, are found in Japan. The superstructure of this bridge has been rebuilt for centuries (the central three arches every 18- 22 years, and the side spans every 36 years), maintaining the fine craft tradition of the bridge keepers for centuries (Figure 4). Shogun's Bridge (1638), crossing the Daiya-gawa River in the sacred City of Nikko, is the oldest known cantilever. The bridge was badly damaged in the typhoon of 1902, rebuilt, and exists today bearing foot traffic. It consists of hewn stone piers pierced with rectangular holes that permit the insertion of tightly fitting cut-stone struts, two anchor spans, timber beams jutting out in cantilever form, and a suspended span.
Figure 3 Bridge of Khaju (1667), Isfahan (Iran), combining architecture and engineering in splendid harmony, functioned as a bridge, dam, and a resort for thirsty travellers coming off the desert.
Shunsuke Baba, photographer
Figure 4 Kintaiko (1673), Iwakuni (Japan), with its five wooden arches intricately wedged, slotted, and dovetailed, has been faithfully rebuilt for centuries. Each generation of craftsmen has carefully replicated the joinery techniques and materials of their predecessors.Shunsuke Baba, photographer
The revival of bridge building in Europe following the fall of the Roman Empire was marked by the spread of the pointed arch westward from its origins in the Middle East. The pointed arch typically was a Gothic architectural form important structurally in the development of palaces, castles, and especially the cathedrals of western Europe, but not very important for bridges. Medieval bridges continued such multi-functional traditions as the Isfahan Bridge in Iran. Chapels, shops, tollhouses, and towers adorned fortified bridges such the 1355 Pont Valentré at Cahors (France) or the Monnow Bridge (1272, 1296) at Monmouth, Wales (UK), which were built with defensive ramparts, firing slits, and drawspans.
Christian religious orders formed after the fall of the Roman Empire greatly assisted travellers by building bridges. In western and central Europe, religious groups managed popular financial institutions, with Papal sanction, both for bridge construction and for hospitals. The influence of these groups lasted from the end of the 12th to the early 14th century, and their perseverance ensured the construction of major bridges over wide rivers as the Rhône and the Danube.
The bridge over the Rhône at Avignon (1187), for example, a wooden deck on stone piers, was built by such an order under the inspired vision of a young shepherd, later canonized as St Bénézet for his accomplishment. The four surviving arches, dating from the bridge's rebuilding around 1350, rank as one of the most remarkable monuments of medieval times in view of the 101-110ft (31-34m) elliptical arches with radii varying at the crown and haunches.
As the Middle Ages drew to a close, stone arches of remarkable spans were built in mountain valleys where rock abutments provided solid foundations for spans in excess of 150ft (50m), such as the Vieille-Brioude and the Grand Pont du Doux in France.
Renaissance and Neo-Classical bridges
The great era of medieval bridge building was followed by the Quattrocento, the transition period from the medieval period to the Italian Renaissance, when the confidence and unbounded enterprise of engineers was manifested in bridges like the 1345 Ponte Vecchio, an early Florentine bridge in Italy, designed by Taddeo Gaddi, that carries a street of goldsmiths' shops on three segmental arches. This was followed by the technical efficiency and artistic advancement of Renaissance ideals of civic order during the Neo-Classical period of the 17th and 18th centuries, represented by long span and multiple stone arches: eg Santa Trinità (1569) in Florence, the Rialto (1591) in Venice, and the Pont Neuf (1607) in Paris. These bridges, which are among the most famous bridges in the world today, are all on the World Heritage List, although only as components of historic town centre inscriptions. Renaissance engineers had learned much about foundations since Roman times, though they rarely were able to excavate deeply enough to reach hard strata. They had, however, perfected techniques of spread footings - wide timber grillages resting on piles driven into the river bed upon which stone piers were laid. In the foundation of the Rialto Bridge, designer Antonio da Ponte drove six thousand timber piles, capped by three stepped grillages so that the abutment stones could be laid perpendicular to the thrust lines of the arch. Though built on soft alluvial soils, the bridge continues to support a street of jewellery shops enjoyed by tourists four centuries later.
The end of the Italian Renaissance witnessed a new vision of bridge construction. More than merely utilitarian, bridges were designed as elegant, grand passage-ways that were part of the visual perspective of the idealized cityscape - major accents to the totally redesigned merchant and capital cities. No country attempted to advance this concept more than France at the end of the 16th century, where a national transportation department of architects and engineers was set up, responsible for designing bridges and roads (Ponts et Chaussées). This corps of specialists gave the Neo-Classical period a range of monumental and elegant bridges on rivers as the Loire (Blois, Orléans, Saumur) and the Seine in Paris. This model spread all over Europe, producing large monumental urban bridges in capitals such as London, Saint Petersburg, and Prague.
In Italy, Bartolomeo Ammannati evolved a new form for the Santa Trinità Bridge - a peculiar double-curved arch whose departure from an ellipse was deliberately concealed by a decorative escutcheon at the crown. Its 1:7 rise-to-span ratio resulted in an elegantly shallow, long-arch span widely adapted in other bridges of the Renaissance. The bridge was reconstructed using original stones recovered from the river following demolition during World War II.
By the mid-18th century, masonry bridge building had reached its apogee. French engineer Jean-Rodolphe Perronet designed and built the Pont de Neuilly (1774), the Pont de Saint-Maxence (1785), and the Pont de la Concorde (1791), the latter completed when Perronet was eighty-three. Perronet's design goals were to slim down the piers and to stretch arches to the maximum. The Pont de la Concorde still represents the perfection of masonry arch construction, even though sceptical officials forced Perronet to shorten the unprecedented centre span of the bridge to 92ft (28m). Long, elegant, elliptical arches, piers half their former widths, special machinery for construction, and the introduction of an architectural motif used until the 1930s, the open parapet with turned balusters, completed this outstanding bridge. Widened in the 1950s, its original appearance was carefully maintained. Another masterpiece of the French Classical style is the Pont de Bordeaux of nineteen arches, more than 1640ft (500m), completed in 1822.
Figure 5 Pontypridd Bridge (1756) over the Taff in South Wales (UK), had to be rebuilt several times until its builder, William Edwards, got the correct rise-to-span ratio to ensure that the 140ft (43m) arch would not collapse after removal of the falsework.Shunsuke Baba, photographer
In the United Kingdom, a young Swiss engineer, Charles Labelye, was building the English equivalent of Perronet's bridges. On his first bridge, Westminster (1750) over the Thames, he developed the caisson, which made it possible for pier foundations to be built in deep, fast-flowing waters. To solve a problem that had confounded bridge builders since Roman times, Labelye used huge timber boxes constructed on shore, floated into position, and slowly sunk to the bottom of the river by the weight of the masonry piers being laid above. Fifteen semicircular arches, incrementally diminishing in length from the centre and rising in a graceful camber, set a high engineering and architectural standard that stood for over a hundred years.
England's other great bridge designer during this period, John Rennie, built the first Waterloo Bridge in 1811. Its level road and arches lasted until 1938. Rennie's next great bridge was Southwark Bridge (1819), also over the Thames in London, which was built not in stone but in the new miracle material of the 19th century - cast iron. It had three arches whose central span of 240ft (73m) dramatically demonstrated the potential of the new material.
Wooden bridges are some of the most ancient. The first Roman bridge, the Pons Sublicius (c 621 BC), was a wood-pile structure over the Tiber in Rome, extending pedestrian access to the Aventine Hill. The earliest detailed description of a wooden bridge, a timber-pile structure over the Rhine constructed in 55 BC, was written by Julius Caesar in his De Bello Gallico. The best extant model of this type survives today over the Brenta at Bassano a Grappa, near Venice. It was built by Palladio in 1561, destroyed in 1945, and reconstructed identical to the original in 1948.
By the mid-18th century, carpenters working in the forested regions of the world further developed the timber truss bridge. The most famous were two Swiss brothers, Johannes and Ulrich Grubenmann, who built bridges at Schaffhausen, Reichenau, and Wettingen that combined diagonal struts and trusses to produce remarkably long spans for their time. The Schaffhausen Bridge (1757), over the Rhine in northern Switzerland, had two spans, 171ft and 193ft (52m and 59m) respectively, which rested lightly on an intermediate pier when loaded. It was burned by the French in 1799 during the Napoleonic Wars. One of the few Grubenmann bridges to survive is Rumlangbrücke (1766), with a span of 89ft (27m).
Figure 6 Bridgeport Bridge (1862), clear-spanning 208ft (63m) over the South Fork of the Yuba River near Grass Valley, California (USA), has two parallel trusses based on the Howe patent of timber and iron rods, flanked by solid wooden arches cut to the curves and reflected in the exterior siding. It is the second longest covered wooden bridge span in the USA, after the Blenheim Bridge (1855) in New York State, which is 210ft (64m). Jet Lowe, HAER Collection
European engineers visiting the New World during the 19th century marvelled at the spans achieved by American timber bridges. Especially noteworthy was Louis Wernwag's 340ft (104m) arch truss of 1812, the "Colossus," over the Schuylkill in Philadelphia, the longest spanning bridge in the world at the time. Covered bridges, sheathed in wood to keep the structural timbers from deteriorating, are an icon of the American landscape. Outstanding spans that survive today include the Cornish-Windsor Bridge (1866) over the Connecticut River and the Bridgeport Bridge (1862), whose clear span of 208ft (63m) makes this gateway to the California goldfields the second longest single span. According to the National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges Inc, some 800 wooden covered bridges survive in the USA, more than in any other country (Figure 6).
Regardless of the capability of advanced societies like the Romans to build bridges in stone, the material for the ages, its cost always remained a problem. Wooden bridges were an economic alternative important to every civilization during all historic periods from prehistoric times to the first American settlement, from classical Rome to the European Enlightenment, including China, Japan, and south-east Asia. Wooden bridges have played a major role in the history of human development. The architectural varieties and structural types - girder, arch, suspension, truss, pontoon, and covered - were numerous. By virtue of the nature of their material, extant examples are scarce, as is the historic record. Nature, acts of God, war, and arson have decimated wooden bridges throughout time. A special global effort should be initiated to identify, access, and protect wooden structures of all kinds. A group of experts should be convened in the USA and in other parts of the world where timber bridges survive to recommend a selection for nomination to the World Heritage List.
Theoretical advances during the Renaissance and Neo-Classical period
Thanks to Galileo, Renaissance mathematicians and scientists understood beam action and the theory of framed structures. The truss, used by the Romans as stiffening on the Rhine bridge (55 BC) and in roof structures, was refined by the Italian architect- engineer Andrea Palladio. His classic treatise on Greek and Roman architecture, I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura, was published in 1570, and was widely distributed after translation into English by Isaac Ware in 1755. It contained the first drawings of a truss, the simplest and most easily visualized form for transferring both dead and live loads to piers and abutments, accomplished by a rigid self-supporting system of triangles. Palladio built several truss bridges, the most important being the Bassano Bridge (1561) over the River Brenta in the Veneto region in northern Italy. Destroyed several times, it has been carefully rebuilt faithfully following the original layout and exists today as the only example of one of Palladio's bridges.
The truss form, derived from the Romans, represents one of the Renaissance's most significant contributions to bridge building. Renaissance engineers also devised daring innovation in arch forms - the segmental, elliptical, and multi-centred.
The Hungarian, Janos Veranscics, reviewed these and other achievements in the structural arts at the end of the Renaissance in Machinae Novae, published in 1617. Several concepts that later became standard bridge practice first were illustrated in this volume: the tied arch, the Pauli or lenticular truss (in wood), the all-metal truss (in cast brass), a portable, metal chain-link suspension bridge, the use of metal in reinforcing wooden bridges, and the eye-bar tension member (again in brass).
In 1716, Henri Gautier published Traité des Ponts, the first treatise devoted entirely to bridge building, during the Age of Reason when empirical bridge design gave way to rationalism and scientific analysis. The book became a standard work of reference throughout the 18th century. It covered both timber and masonry bridges, their foundations, piers, and centring.
A far-sighted policy that led to the first national department of transportation in France was started by Henri IV and Sully at the end of the 16th century. During the second half of the 17th century, it was reorganized by Colbert as the Corps des Ingénieurs des Ponts et Chaussées, a group of state architects and engineers, during the reign of Louis XIV. In 1747, the École des Ponts et Chaussées, the oldest academic institution in the world for civil engineering education in the design of roads and bridges, was started, with Perronet as its first director. The first theoretical studies concerning the stability of arches, transmission of forces, and the multi-radius form were conducted at the school by La Hire, Gautier, Bélidor, Coulomb, and Méry.
Though extremely versatile, wood has one obvious disadvantage - it burns. Wernwag's Colossus, destroyed by fire in 1838, is but one example of many outstanding wooden bridges lost in this manner throughout history. There was another material, however, whose use at the end of the 18th century offered bridge engineers an alternative to the traditional materials of timber, stone, and brick. Although it had first been used in antiquity, iron was the miracle material of the Industrial Revolution. The Greeks and Romans had used it to reinforce stone pediments and columns in their temples and iron links had been forged by the Chinese and used in suspension bridges.
The successful smelting of iron with coke, rather than charcoal, by English ironmaster Abraham Darby in 1709 freed iron production from fuel shortage restrictions, made large castings possible, and facilitated creation of the arch ribs for the world's first iron bridge, built seventy years later. In 1754, Henry Cort of Southampton (England) built the first rolling mill, making possible the efficient shaping of bar iron in 1784 he patented a puddling furnace by means of which the carbon content in cast iron could be reduced to produce malleable iron. These two milestones of metallurgy realized the potential of iron as a major building material. Bridges were one of the first structural uses of iron, preceded only by columns (not yet beams) to support the floors of textile mills.
Figure 7 Dunlaps Creek Bridge (1839), Brownsville, Pennsylvania (USA), spans 80ft (24m) on five elliptical ribs of cast iron made of nine 14ft (4m) segments flanged at the ends and bolted. The triangular bracing in the spandrels is reminiscent of Telford's iron bridges in Shropshire (UK), and the tubes resemble the eliptical arches of the Pont du Carrousel, built over the Seine in Paris in 1834. Library of Congress
The first successful all-iron bridge in the world was designed by Thomas Farnolls Pritchard, an architect who suggested using the material as early as 1773. Built by two ironmasters, Abraham Darby and John Wilkinson, to demonstrate the versatility of cast iron, the bridge spans 100ft (30m) over the River Severn at Coalbrookdale (UK), on five semi-circular ribs of cast iron. The Iron Bridge was followed by a succession of cast-iron arches built throughout Europe. Few cast-iron arch bridges were built in the USA as the iron truss, derived from wooden forms, was preferred. One iron arch, however, merits mention, as it is the oldest iron bridge in America. Dunlaps Creek Bridge (1839), designed by Captain Richard Delafield of the Army Corps of Engineers for the National Road in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, survives to this day, still carrying traffic (Figure 7). Because the material could be moulded into elaborate shapes, extravagantly decorative iron arches were used for pedestrian bridges on the grounds of estates and imperial palaces, such as Catherine the Great's Tsarskoye Selo in St Petersburg (Russia), or urban pleasure grounds, such as Central Park in New York City (USA). Both places have remarkable collections of cast-iron arch bridges.
Figure 8 Royal Albert Bridge, Saltash, Cornwall (UK), was the last great enterprise of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, England's foremost Victorian engineer. This photograph served as the frontispiece to William Humber's A Complete Treatise on Cast and Wrought Iron Bridge Construction, published in 1864, and shows one of the great lenticular spans being jacked into place. It was 445ft (135m) long, consisting of a single wrought-iron elliptical tube upper chord and a curved bottom chord of linked eyebar chains connected by open truss bracing. The trusses were fabricated on shore, then floated into position and jacked into position over the Tamar. Institution of Civil Engineers, London
Engineers in the 19th century improved the technology of sinking foundations to bedrock. Up until that time, coffer dams and crude caissons were the only means by which foundations could be constructed in water. Their use was limited by the length of wooden piles and by soils that were unsuitable for pile driving because they were either too soft or too hard. Credit for developing the first pneumatic caisson belongs to William Cubitt and John Wright, who used the technique on the bridge (1851) over the River Medway at Rochester (UK). It was similar to the caisson developed by Labelye, but differed in that the chamber resting on the river's bottom was airtight and required workmen to enter by means of airlocks after the water had been driven out by pneumatic pressure. Working in this environment, men suffered from the little understood "caissons disease," now better known as "the bends." The eventual diagnosis of this condition permitted the construction of bridges of unprecedented scale, overcoming the impediment of deep, broad rivers. Isambard Kingdom Brunel used the technique for sinking the piers of his bridge at Chepstow, Wales (UK) and, on a much grander scale, on the Royal Albert Bridge (1859) over the Tamar at Saltash in Cornwall (Figure 8). Here, the central pier was built on a wrought-iron caisson 37ft (11m) in diameter, sunk to bedrock in 70ft (21m) of water and 16ft (5m) of mud.
Another improvement in foundations in the early 19th century involved hydraulic cement. A better scientific understanding of the material by the Frenchman Vicat and the Englishman Aspdin and discovery of the material in a natural state in 1796 on the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames estuary, by Lafarge at Le Teil (France), and by Canvass White on the Erie Canal in New York in 1818, led to its use in sinking foundations by the new method of direct flow into coffer dams underwater, as at the suspension bridge at Tournon (France) in 1824. Hydraulic cement had the amazing ability to set under water, and was consequently used in aqueducts, piers and abutments, culverts, and locks.
Following the construction of the Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale, Thomas Telford, a gifted, self-educated Scottish engineer, built a number of cast-iron arches throughout the British Isles. These included canal aqueducts, which were extraordinarily innovative arrangements in which the cast iron had real structural value. On both the Longdon-on-Tern (1796) and the Pontcysyllte (1805) aqueducts, the cast-iron sections that formed the side walls of the trunk were wedge-shaped, behaving like the voussoirs of a stone-arch bridge and bolted through flanges. Telford's most ambitious notion, however, was his proposal of 1800 for a single cast-iron arch of 600ft (183m) span over the Thames to replace Old London Bridge. An earlier proposal was unveiled in France by Montpetit in 1779 for a bridge of 400ft (122m) over the Seine, thought to have been the inspiration for Telford's idea. Even the young United States got into the act when Thomas Paine, the political philosopher, proposed an iron arch of 400ft span over the Schuylkill in Philadelphia. But the next most outstanding achievement after Coalbrookdale was the cast-iron arch over the River Wear at Sunderland (UK), because it actually was built. Completed in 1796 by Thomas Wilson, the bridge had an unprecedented span of 236ft (75m).
Figure 9 Rio Cobre Bridge (1800), Spanish Town, Jamaica, the oldest iron bridge in the western hemisphere, was designed by Thomas Wilson and employs the same iron voussoir, incremental circular spandrel bracing, and cast-iron plate deck as the earlier Wearmouth Bridge. Essentially a "kit bridge," the system of small castings held together by wrought-iron ties, tubes, and bolts lent itself to export. Many bridges of this type were shipped to distant colonies of the British Empire Eric DeLony, photographer
Today, several collections of cast-iron arches survive in different countries, the largest being in the United Kingdom, six in the USA, a few in France and Spain, and a remarkable selection surviving in Russia, dating back to the reign of Catherine the Great. These need to be studied and a selection made for nomination.
By 1800, most European engineers were open to using cast iron. Architects, however, preferred traditional materials such as granite and marble for the visible parts of buildings and wood for hidden structural parts like roof trusses, and did not accept cast iron as having aesthetic merit or structural value. In the USA, still blessed with abundant virgin forests, the early 19th century was the era of "carpenter engineers." Men like Timothy Palmer, Lewis Wernwag, Theodore Burr, and Ithiel Town followed British custom by conceiving and building truss forms predicated on intuition and pragmatic rules of thumb. Their craft tradition of knowledge, passed down from master to apprentice, contrasted with the scientific analysis and mathematical formulas practised by French government engineers. Models were built and loaded to failure and broken members replaced with stronger ones until the model supported loadings equivalent to a real live load plus a safety factor.
Patents were granted in the USA for composite wood and iron bridges, transitional structures that capitalized on the availability of cheap timber. When the American iron industry caught up with Europe's by the mid-19th century, bridge building took the direction of composite pin-connected trusses, with sophisticated castings for joint blocks and compression members, and forged eyebars and wrought-iron rods for tension members, all fabricated to high tolerances. This allowed them to be assembled easily and inexpensively in the field by unskilled labour using simple tools and erection techniques. The system prevailed in the USA because that country lacked a skilled labour force, and the remoteness of many bridge sites hampered the use of sophisticated machinery or the shipping of large bridge parts over long distances. A spirited debate ensued between England and the former colony during the last quarter of the 19th century over which system was best: easily erected pin-connected trusses on the "American plan," or European-style riveted trusses. Even though the rigid riveted truss was of superior design, American bridges remained competitive in world bridge markets until the early 20th century because they were cheaper and swiftly erected.
Figure 10 Gauntless Viaduct (1825) is the only fragment of the original Stockton & Darlington Railway. Fortunately, the ironwork was preserved and featured during the centenary celebration of the world's first railway in 1825. It was later displayed at the former rail museum at York, as shown in this photograph. In 1975, when the museum became the new National Railway Museum, it was moved and erected at its original site in West Auckland (UK). Robert Vogel, Smithsonian Institution, photographer
For years, the distinction of being the world's oldest surviving iron railway bridge has been accorded by scholars to the Gaunless Viaduct (1825), on display at the National Railway Museum, York (UK) (Figure 10). Designed by George Stephenson for the first railway, the 37 miles (23km) between Stockton and Darlington in north-east England, it consists of four 12.5ft (4m) lenticular truss spans with curved top and bottom chord members of 2.5in (6cm) diameter wrought-iron rods and five vertical iron posts cast integrally with the wrought-iron chord members. In the last 20 years an older bridge has been discovered in South Wales (UK) at Merthyr Tydfil, a major early 19th century iron-producing centre. Pont-y-Cafnau (Bridge of Troughs) is a unique cast-iron combined aqueduct tramroad bridge below the confluence of the Taff and Taff Fechan, built in January-June 1793 by Watkin George, Chief Engineer of the Cyfarthfa Ironworks, to carry an edge railway and water channel. An iron trough-like girder is carried in an A-frame truss of cast iron spanning 47ft (14.2m), held together by mortise-and-tenon and dovetail joints. The next extant iron railway bridge seems to be another recently discovered at Aberdare (1811), followed by Gaunless. The oldest still in service is Hall's Station Bridge, a Howe truss designed in 1846 by Richard Osborne, a London-born Irishman who worked as engineer for the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, although its current use is vehicular and not rail. The first major iron truss with pin connections was built in the USA in 1859, and the earliest iron cantilever in Germany in 1867, over the Main at Hassfurt.
Figure 11 Bollman Bridge (c 1869), Savage, Maryland (USA). This pre-restoration photograph shows the paired stanchions located at mid-span that support the anchorage block where the radiating suspension stays all meet in pinned connection. The octagonal profile of the vertical and horizontal compression members was a design motif of Wendel Bollman, the bridge's designer. He, along with Albert Fink, who designed a similar type of structure known as the Fink truss, motivated the chief engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Benjamin Henry Latrobe III, to use iron bridges exclusively for the system's major spans. William Barrett, HAER Collection
Another important composite iron truss surviving from the early period of iron bridge construction is the Bollman bridge (c 1869) at Savage, Maryland (USA) (Figure 11).
Britannia Bridge (1850) across the Menai Straits, Wales (UK), designed by Robert Stephenson and William Fairbairn, was the prototype of the plate-girder bridge, eventually used throughout the world. Originally intended to be a stiffened suspension bridge of four spans, each span (459ft (140m) over the channel 230ft (70m) land spans) consisted of paired rectangular wrought- iron tubes through which the trains passed. Although Navier published his theory of elasticity in 1826, so little was known of structural theory that Stephenson relied primarily on empirical methods of testing, modifying, and retesting a series of models to design the tubes. They were fabricated on site, floated into position, and raised into place by hydraulic jacks. Riveting was done both by hand and using pneumatic riveting machines invented by Fairbairn. So strong were the tubes that the suspension chains were abandoned. The bridge continued in service until irreparably damaged by fire in May 1970, when the world lost one of its most remarkable 19th century engineering monuments was lost, but the near-contemporary Conway Castle Bridge (1848) survives.
Although the 19th century was marked by significant technological progress, such breathtaking achievement had its price. Three- quarters of the way through the century, two events, one on either side of the Atlantic, sobered the engineering profession. These took the form of accidents: the Ashtabula, Ohio, bridge disaster of 1876 in the USA, and the Tay Bridge disaster in Scotland (UK) in 1879. Forewarnings had occurred in Europe as early as 1847, when one of Robert Stephenson's composite cast and wrought-iron girder bridges over the River Dee on the Chester & Holyhead Railway collapsed. Three years later, 478 French soldiers were pitched into the Maine at Angers when one of the anchoring cables of a suspension bridge embedded in concrete tore loose during a storm, mainly owing to resonance oscillation and by the oxidation of the iron wires. The Dee Bridge disaster spurred the development of malleable wrought-iron girders, thought to be of safer construction. Collapse of the Basse-Chaine Bridge resulted in a twenty-year moratorium on cable-suspension bridge construction in continental Europe.
Scientific analysis of bridge design during the 19th century
It took the worst bridge disasters of the century in the USA, Great Britain, and France to usher in the development of standards, specifications, and enough regulation to protect the travelling public. The loss of 83 lives caused by the collapse of a cast- and wrought-iron truss in Ashtabula prompted an investigation by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The loss of 80 lives by failure of a section of the two-mile-long Tay Bridge resulted in similar inquiries in Britain.
The reasons for these major failures were similar: ignorance of metallurgy resulted in uneven manufacturing methods and defective castings, and inadequate inspection and maintenance were inherent at both bridges. For the Tay Bridge, exceptionally strong vibrations due to dynamic wind stresses under a moving load created a lack of aerostatic stability and eventual failure. It took engineers another quarter-century to perfect bridge design according to advanced theories of stress analysis, understanding of material properties, and renewed respect for the forces of nature. A definitive understanding of the physical oscillations and vibrations of structures did not occur until the middle of the 20th century after the Tacoma Bridge collapse in the USA in1940.
Advances in design theory, graphic statics, and a knowledge of the strength of materials by engineers such as Karl Culmann and Squire Whipple were achieved in the second half of the 19th century, but the factor that most influenced the scientific design of bridges was the railroads. Engineers had to know the precise amount of stresses in bridge members to accommodate the thundering impact of locomotives. Founded on the pioneering work of the American Squire Whipple and other European engineers as Collignon, the last quarter of the 19th century witnessed broad application of both analytical and graphical analysis, testing of full-size members, comprehensive stress tables, standardized structural sections, metallurgical analysis, precision manufacturing and fabrication in bridge shops, publication of industry-wide standards, plans, and specifications, inspections, and systematic cooperation between engineers, contractors, manufacturers, and workers. The combined experience of the railroads, bridge manufacturing companies, and the engineering communities enabled the railroads successfully to tackle long-span iron and steel bridges and long-span trussed-roof train sheds, two engineering icons of the 19th century.
Figure 12 Whipple Truss Bridge (1867), Normanskill Farm, Albany, New York (USA), remains in service to this day, restricting only buses and trucks, thus testifying to the efficacy of Whipple's design. All members are original, their sizes determined by the forces they carried, deduced from scientific analysis.Smithsonian Institution
The first practical design solution was obtained independently in the USA by Squire Whipple in 1847, and in Russia by D I Jourawski in 1850. Whipple had been working on the problem since before 1841, when he patented and built his all-iron bowstring truss bridge, which proved exceptionally suitable for short highway and canal spans. His book on stress analysis, A Work on Bridge Building, is recognized as the USA's contribution to structural mechanics for the period. His major breakthrough was the realization that truss members could be analysed as a system of forces in equilibrium, assuming that a joint is a frictionless pin. Forces are broken down into horizontal and vertical components whose sums are in equilibrium. Known as the "method of joints," it permits the determination of stresses in all members of a truss if two forces are known. Whipple clearly outlined methods, both analytical and graphical, for solving determinate trusses considering uniformly distributed dead loads and moving live loads. Over a dozen of Whipple's bowstring trusses survive as elegant illustrations of his breakthrough conclusions (Figure 12).
The next advance was the "method of sections" published in 1862 by A Ritter, a German engineer. Ritter simplified the calculations of forces by developing very simple formulae for determining the forces in the members intersected by a cross-section. The third advance was a better method of graphical analysis, developed independently by James Clerk Maxwell, Professor of Natural Philosophy at King's College, Cambridge (UK), published in 1864, and Karl Culmann, Professor at the newly established Federal Institute of Technology (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule) in Zürich (Switzerland), who published his methods in 1866. The solution of bending in a cantilever was developed over a long period of time, starting with Galileo's famous illustration of the wooden beam, anchored in the ruinous masonry wall, holding a stone weight at its end. Although it was not entirely accurate, subsequent solutions were discussed in terms of Galileo's cantilever. C A Coulomb in France hypothesized in 1776 that the flexural stress in a cantilevered beam had a maximum value in compression on the bottom edge and a maximum value in tension on the top with a neutral axis somewhere between the two surfaces. The problem of understanding bending moments in mechanical terms was described by Louis Marie Henri Navier in his Résumé de leçons données à l'École des Ponts et Chaussées in 1826. The Swiss mathematician Leonard Euler provided the solution to the elastic buckling of columns as early as 1759.
Railroad viaducts and trestles
Railroads, the transportation mode that revolutionized the 19th century, generated a bridge type that merits special attention. The limited traction of locomotives forced the railroad engineer to design the line with easy gradients. Viaducts and trestles were the engineering solution for maintaining a nearly straight and horizontal line where the depth and width of the valley or gorge rendered embankments impracticable. These massive, elevated structures were first built in Roman style of multiple-stone arches and piers. Later, when wrought iron and steel became available, engineers built viaducts and trestles of great length and height on a series of truss spans or girders borne by individual framed towers composed of two or more bents braced together.
Figure 13 Thomas Viaduct (1835), Relay, Maryland (USA). This illustration from The United States Illustrated, published in the 1850s, shows the heroic proportions of this massive stone structure, constructed while the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was still influenced by the British precedent of strong, durableconstruction.Smithsonian Institution
The Thomas Viaduct on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (1835) (Figure 13), the Canton on the Boston & Providence Railroad (1835), and the Starrucca on the New York & Erie Railroad (1848) are the oldest stone viaducts and three of the great monumental structures of the USA's early railways. Examples in Europe include the Viaduc de Barentine (1846), constructed by British navvies under the direction of MacKenzie and Thomas Brassey in brick rather than stone, and the Viaduc de Saint-Chamas (1847), both in France. In the United Kingdom, notable viaducts include the 181ft (55m) Ballochmyle Viaduct (1848), designed by John Miller for the Glasgow & South Western Railway, the largest masonry-arch span in the country the Harrington Viaduct (1876), the longest at 3500ft (1067m), carried on 82 brick arches the Meldon Viaduct (1874), the best surviving iron viaduct in Devon and, in concrete, the Glenfinnian Viaduct (1898), which has 21 arches of mass-poured concrete.
Most notable of the early trestles was the Portage Viaduct in the USA (1852), a remarkable timber structure designed by Silas Seymour, carrying the Erie Railroad over the Genessee River, 234ft (71m) above the water and 876ft (276m) long (Figure 14). It was destroyed by fire in 1875, to be replaced in iron, and later in steel. One of the first iron viaducts was the 1673ft (510m) long Crumlin Viaduct (1857), constructed by Thomas W Kennard and designed by Charles Liddell for the Newport-Hereford line, 217ft (66m) above the Ebbw Vale in Wales (UK). It served as the prototype for later ones, such as the Viaduc de la Bouble (1871), a series of lattice girders on cast-iron towers flared at the bottom, built under the direction of Wilhelm Nordling. It was 1296ft (395m) long by 216ft (66m) high on the Commentry-Gannett line in France.
Figure 14 Portage Viaduct (1852) (USA), photographed shortly after it was completed for this stereoscopic view, was the wonder of visiting engineers, who used it frequently as an example of American timber bridge construction technology in European texts Eric DeLony, photographer
Figure 15 Kinzua Viaduct (1900), located on the Bradford Branch in a remote region near the town of Kushequa in north-west Pennsylvania (USA), was originally constriucted in 1882 by the New York & Erie Railroad to service lumber mills in this lush, forested corner of Pennsylvania. The present structure, 302ft (92m) high and 2052ft (625m) long, replaced the original when Erie officials decided that the bridge could no longer support their heavier trains. Today the viaduct forms the main attraction of a state park. Jack Boucher, HAER Collection
The first viaduct of iron in the USA was designed by Albert Fink for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad over Tray Run in the Cheat River valley in (West) Virginia, a remote, wild, yet picturesque site in the wilderness. Dating from 1853, it was a series of inclined cast-iron columns resting on stone pedestals connected at the top by cast-iron arches, the whole system braced by wrought-iron ties. Examples surviving today in North America include the Kinzua Viaduct (1900) on the former Erie Railroad in Pennsylvania (Figure 15), and the Lethbridge Viaduct (1909) on the Canadian Pacific in Alberta, composed of alternating 67ft (20m) trestles and 100ft (30m) girders, at 5327ft (1624m) long the longest and heaviest in the world. The Tunkhannock Viaduct (1915), 240ft high (73m) by 2375ft long (724m), is the largest reinforced concrete-arch bridge in the world.
Although suspension bridges had been known in China as early as 206 BC, the first chain suspension bridge did not appear in Europe until 1741, when the 70ft (21m) span Winch Bridge was constructed over a chasm of the River Tees (UK), with the flooring laid directly on two chains. It was an American, James Finley, however, who built the first practical suspension bridge in 1796 in the USA. This was a bridge over Jacobs Creek near Uniontown, Pennsylvania, which Finley described as a "stiffened" bridge in an article he published in Portfolio in 1810. The span displayed all the essential elements of the modern suspension bridge: a level deck hung from a catenary system suspended over towers and anchored in the ground, and a truss-stiffened deck, resulting in a rigid bridge capable of supporting relatively heavy loads.
The world's first wire-cable suspension bridge was a 408ft (124m) temporary footbridge built in 1816 for the workers of wire manufacturers Josiah White and Erskine Hazard over the Schuylkill in Philadelphia. The USA contributed little more until the middle of the century, but these inventions were immediately followed up in Europe. The French and Swiss continued to use wire cables, developing methods of fabricating the cables in situ. In 1822, Marc Séguin proposed a suspension cable made up of one hundred thin iron wires, erected his first suspension bridge (actually a catwalk like the White and Hazard bridge) over the Cance at Annonay, and proposed a major structure over the Rhône at Tournon. By scientific testing, he proved the strength of the wire cable - twice that of the English iron eyebar chain - and described all in Des ponts en fil de fer, published in 1824. The world's first permanent wire-cable suspension bridge, designed by Séguin and Guillaume-Henri Dufour, was opened to the public in Geneva in 1823, followed by Séguin's Tain-Tournon Bridge, a double suspension span over the Rhône, completed in 1825. Its 1847 replacement still stands, probably the oldest wire-cable suspension bridge in the world, with its carefully replicated wooden stiffening truss and deck. Several of Séguin's first-generation wire-cable suspension bridges, dating from the 1830s, remain over the Rhône at Andance and Fourques, but the decks have been replaced with steel. Wire cable attained its place as the system par excellence for long-span bridges in 1834, with the 870ft (265m) Fribourg Bridge, designed by Joseph Chaley over the Sarine in Switzerland. From this developed the typical European standard - cables of parallel, thin wires, light decks stiffened by wooden trusses, piers and abutments sunk - using hydraulic cement - of which hundreds were built.
Figure 16 Menai Suspension Bridge (1826)(UK) sat on massive stone piers and viaduct approaches to gain the 50ft (15m) clearance required by the British Admiralty for the passage of ships. Shunsuke Baba, photographer
The British preferred to use chains of linked eyebars, and achieved spans of lightness and grace, all the more effective in contrast with the colossal masonry suspension towers. The United Kingdom's first large-scale suspension bridge was the Menai Bridge on the London to Holyhead road over the straits of the same name in North Wales (Figure 16). Travellers would board a ship at Holyhead for the final leg of the trip to Ireland. It was designed by Thomas Telford and completed in 1826, with an unprecedented span of 580ft (177m) using wrought-iron eyebars, each bar being carefully tested before being pinned together and lifted into place. The roadway was only 24ft (7m) wide and, without stiffening trusses, soon proved highly unstable in the wind. The Menai bridge was twice rebuilt before the entire suspension system was replicated in steel in 1940 and the arched openings in the towers were widened. The oldest suspension bridge extant today is the Union Bridge over the River Tweed at Berwick (UK), a chain-link bridge designed and erected by Captain Samuel Brown in 1820, with a span of 449ft (137m).
With the French declaring a moratorium on suspension-bridge construction following the collapse of the Basse-Chaine Bridge in 1850, the creative edge passed back across the Atlantic, to be picked up by Charles Ellet and John Augustus Roebling in the USA. After studying suspension bridges in France, Ellet returned with the technology and built a 1010ft (308m) bridge over the Ohio River at Wheeling, (West) Virginia, in 1849, which was the longest in the world. Thanks to techniques developed by the Roeblings and used in the structure's rebuilding, following a storm that ripped the cables off their saddles, the bridge remains in service today.
Figure 17 Niagara Bridge (USA), whose completion in 1855 vindicated John Roebling's conviction that the suspension bridge would work for railroads, lasted nearly half-a-century before it had to be replaced in 1896. At mid-century, it was the only form capable of uniting the 821ft (250m) gorge in a single span. This half-stereoscopic viewshows the massive stiffening trusses and the wire-cable stays that tied the deck superstructure to the walls of the gorge. Eric DeLony Collection
Roebling had arrived in the USA ten years earlier and established a wire-rope factory in Saxonburg, Pennsylvania, which he later moved to Trenton, New Jersey. Educated in Europe, he would have been exposed to the concepts of wire-cable suspension bridge engineering of the French and Swiss. He and Ellet competed for primacy in suspension bridge design. Roebling won out when he took over design of the Niagara Suspension Bridge from Ellet, successfully completing it in 1855 (Figure 17).
The inherent tendency of suspension bridges to sway and undulate in wavelike motions under repeated rhythmic loads such as marching soldiers or the wind was not completely understood by engineers until the 1940s, following the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge ("Galloping Gertie"). Credit for designing the first suspension bridge rigid enough to withstand wind loads and the highly concentrated loadings of locomotives belongs to John Roebling. His first masterpiece was the Niagara Suspension Bridge, with a span of 821ft (250m) on the Grand Trunk Railway below Niagara Falls. The two decks, the upper for the railway and the lower for common road service, were separated by an 18ft (6m) stiffening truss. In addition, the truss was braced with radiating cable stays inclined from the tops of the suspension towers and anchoring cables tying the deck to the sides of the gorge, arresting any tendency to lift under gusts of wind. For the four main cables, Roebling used parallel wires laid up in place but, instead of individual strands like the "garland" system preferred by the French, he bunched the strands together in a single large cable and wrapped them with wire, a technique he patented in 1841 but one that Vicat had illustrated in 1831 in his Rapport sur les ponts en fil de fer sur le Rhône.
Few bridges in the world built since the Brooklyn Bridge in New York (USA) can stand entirely clear of its shadow. Completed in 1883, the plan involved two distinctive stone towers, four main cables, anchorages, diagonal stay cables, and four stiffening trusses separating the common roadway and trolley line from a pedestrian promenade. With a record-breaking span of 1595ft (486m), the Brooklyn Bridge was designed by John Roebling, but it was built by his son and daughter-in-law after he died of blood poisoning following an accident while surveying the location of the Manhattan tower in which his foot was crushed. Massive Egyptian towers, pierced by pointed Gothic arches, stand 276.5ft (84m) above mean high water and 78.5ft (24m) below on the Manhattan side, 44.5ft (14m) on the Brooklyn. Diagonal stay cables give the bridge its distinctive appearance, but function to stiffen the deck. It took two years to lay up each of the four 15.75in (40cm) diameter main cables with 5434 wires, the pioneer use of steel wire (Figure 18).
Figure 18 Brooklyn Bridge (1883) still serves as a majestic portal to Manhattan (USA) for travelers coming from Brooklyn and for ships as they approach from the harbour. The bridge is indelibly linked with New York and, along with San Francisco's Golden Gate, symbolically represents these two famous American cities. Jack Boucher, HAER Collection
Figure 19 Delaware Aqueduct (1849) was being used as a toll bridge in 1969 when it was recorded by the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), the USA's official engineering heritage program. The towpath of the wooden canal trunk would have been level with the upper most set-back of the masonry piers. David Plowden, HAER Collection
Two other Roebling suspension bridges survive, both recently rehabilitated. One spanning the Ohio River at Cincinnati was completed in 1867. The 1849 Delaware Aqueduct was designed to carry a wooden trunk of water on the Delaware & Hudson Canal. The latter was carefully rehabilitated by the US National Park Service and is the oldest surviving suspension bridge in the USA (Figure 19).
Structural steel is stronger and more supple than cast or wrought iron, and allowed greater design flexibility. The last thirty years of the 19th century witnessed the phasing in of steel plates and rolled shapes, leading to the enormous production of steel trusses and plate-girder spans of ever-increasing lengths throughout the world. Steel arches and cantilevers were favoured for long spans because they better withstood the impact, vibration, and concentrated loads of heavy rail traffic.
The earliest known use of steel in bridge construction was the 334ft (102m) suspension span across the Danube Canal (1828) near Vienna (Austria), designed by Ignaz von Mitis. The steel eye-bar chains were forged from decarburized iron from Styria. Steel halved the weight of wrought iron, but remained prohibitively expensive for another forty years before steelmaking processes such as the Bessemer and the open-hearth were perfected (it is uncertain whether the Styrian ironmasters created real steel or whether the decarburization was a mechanical process resulting in a surface-hardened steel, a kind of wrought iron rather than the mass steel that results from the Bessemer process). The first major bridge utilizing true steel was the Eads Bridge (1874), the most graceful of the Mississippi River crossings in the USA, built by the Keystone Bridge Company, which subcontracted fabrication of the steel parts to the Butcher Steel Works and the iron parts to Carnegie-Kloman, both of Pittsburgh. Its ribbed, tubular steel arch spans of 502ft, 520ft, and 502 ft (153m, 159m, and 153m) and double-decked design shattered all engineering precedents for the time: the centre span was by far the longest arch. Mathematical formulae for the design were developed by Charles Pfeiffer. The cantilever method of erection, devised by Colonel Henry Flad and used for the first time in the USA, eliminated the centring that would have been impossible in the wide, deep, and fast-flowing Mississippi. While recovering from illness in France, the designer James Buchanan Eads found the solution to sinking piers in deep water. He investigated a bridge under construction over the Allier at Vichy that used Cubitt and Wright's pneumatic caissons - floorless chambers filled with compressed air.
The first major bridge of steel in France was the Viaur Viaduct (1902), a three-hinged steel arch of 721ft (220m) flanked by 311ft (95m) cantilevers. The crowning achievement of the material during the 19th century, however, was the mighty Forth Railway Bridge in Scotland (1890). Its design was motivated by the Tay Bridge disaster. About 54,000 tons of Siemens-Martin open-hearth steel were required for the 1710ft (521m) cantilever spans whose main compression struts of rolled steel plate were riveted into 12ft (4m) diameter tubes. Another authority on the effects of wind on structures was Gustav Eiffel, who conducted similar experiments in France prior to designing another of the world's great arch bridges, the 541ft (165m) Garabit Viaduct (1885) in the windy valleys of the Massif Central, though he held to wrought iron, not being convinced of the efficacy of the new material.
Steel arches of enormous span were built during the first few decades of the 20th century. One of the greatest is the Hell Gate Bridge in the USA (1917), a two-hinged trussed arch, the top chord of which serves as part of a stiffening truss. Designed by Gustav Lindenthal to span the Hell Gate at the northern tip of Manhattan Island for the New England Connecting Railroad, it is framed between two massive stone towers. The 978ft (298m) arch, weighing 80,000 tons (81,280 tonnes), was the longest and heaviest steel arch in the world. The next was Bayonne Bridge (1931), which remains one of the longest steel arches in the world today. It was built during the Depression by a team assembled under the direction of Swiss-born and educated engineer, Othmar Ammann, chief engineer of the Port Authority of New York, one of the remarkable public works organizations of the USA, if not the world. Opening three weeks after the George Washington Bridge, then the longest suspension bridge in the world, this second record-breaking span was financed and built by the Port Authority simultaneously, the two projects forming one of the greatest public work endeavours since Roman times. The Bayonne Bridge connects Bayonne (New Jersey) and Staten Island (New York) with a manganese-steel parabolic two-hinged arch of 1675ft (511m) span and 266ft (81m) rise, the deck clearing high water by 150ft (46m). As in the Hell Gate, the arch's top chord acts as a stiffener, the bottom chord carrying the load. The Bayonne Bridge was designed to be 25ft (8m) longer than the nearly identical Sydney Harbour Bridge in Australia, started five years earlier.
Bridges in areas other than Europe and the USA should be investigated, as the colonial empires of several nations were at their peak during the autumn years of the 19th century. In India, for example, the British built several long-span railway bridges, such as the Hooghly and the Sukkur bridges which exceeded 1000ft (300m) in span and are interesting because they were constructed using the simplest equipment and armies of unskilled labour.
This structural form was mentioned in the previous section on steel bridges in the discussion of the Eads Bridge, where the erection of the arches employed principles of the cantilever, and the Forth Railway Bridge, perhaps the world's greatest cantilever. A discussion of this type of bridge is warranted because of its engineering interest and because the form illustrates the outstanding application of iron and steel to bridge construction.
Cantilevers were one of the first bridge types, many being built by the ancient cultures of China and India. The first modern cantilever was Heinrich Gerber's Hassfurt Bridge over the Main in Germany (1867), with a central span of 124ft (38m). It was a continuous girder hinged at the points of equal resistance where the moments of the uniform load were zero. According to W Westhofen, who wrote the classic account of the Forth Bridge, the idea first was suggested by John Fowler, co-designer of the Forth Bridge, around 1846-50. In Britain and the USA the form was known as cantilevers, in France as portes-à-faux, and in Germany as the Gerber Bridge, named after the builder. By inserting hinges, the continuous girder can be made statically determinant. This was their first attribute, but later as the possibility of erection without scaffolding was recognized - the ability of the arms of the bridge to be built out from the piers, balancing each other without the need for falsework. This became the great advantage. The principle also is applicable to other bridge types such as arches, an example being the Eads Bridge, where the width, depth, and current of the mighty Mississippi prevented the erection of falsework.
In 1877, C Shaler Smith provided the first practical test of the principle when he built what then was the world's longest cantilever over a 1200ft (366m) wide and 275ft (84m) deep gorge of the Kentucky River near Dixville, Kentucky (USA). The cantilever resolved the difficulty of erecting falsework in a deep wide gorge. The anchor arms were 37.5ft (11m) deep Whipple trusses that extended 75ft (23m) beyond the piers. From these were hung 300ft (91m) semi-floating trusses fixed at the abutments and hinged to the cantilever, making the overall span from pier to abutment 375ft (114m). The bridge was rebuilt in 1911 by Gustav Lindenthal using the identical span lengths, but with trusses twice as deep.
The next important cantilever was a counterbalanced span designed by C C Schneider for the Michigan Central Railroad over the Niagara Gorge in 1883. With arms supporting a simple suspended truss, this 495ft (151m) span and the nearly identical Fraser River span in British Columbia (Canada) directed the attention of the engineering world to this new type of bridge. These two were the prototypes for subsequent cantilevers at Poughkeepsie, New York, the Firth of Forth Bridge in Scotland, and the Québec Bridge in Canada.
The Poughkeepsie Cantilever (1886) was the first rail crossing of the Hudson River below Albany, 55 miles (89km) north of New York City. Built by the Union Bridge Company of New York to designs by company engineers Francis O'Rourke and Pomeroy P Dickinson, the overall length is 6768ft (2063m), including two cantilevers of 548ft (167m) each. Strengthened in 1906 by adding a third line of trusses down the middle designed by Ralph Modjeski, citizens on both sides of the river are working to have this magnificent, but now abandoned, bridge incorporated as part of the Hudson Greenway trail system.
Figure 20 Forth Bridge (1890): an historic photograph showing the FifeTower at North Queensferry, Scotland (UK), nearing completion. The illustration is from Wilhelm Wethofen's article published in Engineering Magazine, 28 February 1890.
The world's most famous cantilever also is one of the world's first and largest steel bridges and held the record for longest cantilever for 27 years. Pontists are familiar with the brilliant demonstration used by Sir Benjamin Baker to illustrate the structural principles of the Firth of Forth Bridge: two men sitting on chairs with outstretched arms and sticks supporting Kaichi Watanabe, a visiting engineering student from Japan, sitting on a board, representing the fixed piers, cantilevers, and suspended span. To ensure that there was no repeat of the Tay disaster, Baker conducted a series of tests, gauging wind at several sites in the area over a two-year period, arriving at a design pressure of 56lb/ft2 (274kg/m2), which was considerably in excess of any load the bridge would ever sustain. Each of the two main spans of the bridge consists of two 680ft (207m) cantilevers with a 350ft (107m) suspended span for a total length of 1,710ft (521m). John Fowler and Benjamin Baker designed the Forth Bridge (1890) to resist wind loads 5.5 times those that toppled the Tay Bridge (Figure 20).
The Forth Bridge's record was broken in 1917 when the Québec Bridge was finally completed, spanning the St Lawrence River near Québec (Canada) with an 1800ft (549m) cantilever span. Its predecessor failed in 1907 while under construction, killing 82 workmen and ending the career of one of America's most prominent engineers. Theodore Cooper had taken the commission reluctantly with a fee insufficient to hire assistants, to allow for written specifications, or to provide for on-site inspections. The design was not recalculated when Cooper, intent on exceeding the span of the record-holding Forth Bridge, increased it from 1600ft to 1800ft, which was ultimately to result in the failure of one of the main compression members of the lower chord in the south anchor. The second bridge also had its problems as well when one of the jacks failed while lifting the 5000 ton centre suspended span, dropping it into the river. A duplicate truss was successfully lifted into place within two weeks and the bridge was finally opened. This bridge, designed by E H Duggan and Phelps Johnson with Ralph Modjeski as consultant, was criticized by many engineers as being the ugliest, while the cantilever was generally regarded as a type, especially those of American origin, whose profile was unsightly despite their record lengths.
The largest cantilever in Europe was Saligney's Danube Bridge near Czernavoda (Romania), with a span of 623ft (190m). Another great cantilever is the Howrah Bridge over the Hooghly River at Calcutta (India), with a span of 1500ft (457m).
Reintroduction of masonry and concrete
Concrete is an ancient material. It was first discovered and used by the Romans in their aqueducts and temples, to be sporadically rediscovered throughout time by engineers who used it in its mass- poured form. The discovery of natural cement in 1796, on the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames Estuary (UK), renewed interest in the material, but the age of concrete began its most vigorous development with Joseph Aspdin's invention in 1824 of artificial Portland cement. This mixture of clay and limestone, calcined and ground, resulted in a material having broad application for buildings and bridges. The scientific studies of Vicat on natural and artificial cements initiated in 1816 at the Pont de Souillac (France) revealed the first understanding of the chemical properties of hydraulic cement. Canvass White, an engineer on the Erie Canal (USA), discovered natural cement in 1818 and established a mill to manufacture the substance at Chittenango, New York. The primary benefit of the material was its ability to set under water. Naming it hydraulic cement, he patented the process in 1819 and used it for aqueducts, abutments, culverts, and lock walls.
In 1831, Lebrun, a French engineer, designed the first concrete bridge to span the River Agout, although it never was built. A significant early structural use of concrete in the USA was in 1848 for the foundations and deck of the Starrucca Viaduct on the New York & Erie Railroad, a mighty stone-arched bridge with an overall length of 1040ft (317m), designed by Julius Walker Adams and built by James Pugh Kirkwood.
Later, the use of artificial cement combined with more sophisticated understanding of the mathematical principles of arch theory resulted in renewed interest in stone and masonry arch bridges in Europe. Beginning in the mid-19th century, masonry railroad viaducts were an important civil engineering technology for continental Europe. The most impressive were the 1969ft (600m) long Chaumont Viaduct (1857) and the 240ft (73m) high Sainte-Brieuc (Barentin) Viaduct (1860), both in France, and the Goltzschtal Viaduct in Germany, which used 26 million units of brick.
The French engineer, Paul Séjourne, expressed the most elegant modern restatement of the principles of this most ancient material in his masterpiece bridges of stone, the 279ft (85m) span Pont Adolphe in Luxembourg (1903) and the bridge at Plauen, Germany (1905), which was the longest ever achieved in stone masonry, with a span of 295ft (90m).
The beginning of concrete as a major material of bridge construction dates from 1865, when it was used in its mass, unreinforced form for a multiple-arch structure on the Grand Maître Aqueduct conveying water from the River Vanne 94 miles (151km) to Paris. Engineers in the late 19th century demonstrated the possibilities of reinforced concrete as a structural material. With concrete resisting compressive forces and wrought iron and steel bars carrying tension, bridges of dramatic sweeping curves evolved. Today's long-span reinforced- concrete bridges are descended from French gardener Joseph Monier's flower pots and his numerous bridge patents granted between 1868 and 1878. He is credited with being the first to understand the principles of reinforced concrete when in 1867 he patented plant tubs of cement mortar strengthened with iron-wire mesh embedded in the concrete and moulded into curvilinear forms. Not being an engineer, he was not permitted to build bridges in France and so he sold his patents to German and Austrian contractors Wayss, Freitag and Schuster, who built the first generation of reinforced concrete bridges in Europe: the Monierbrau 131ft (40m) footbridge in Bremen (Germany) and the Wildegg Bridge, with a span of 121ft (37m), in Switzerland. Additional patents were granted in Belgium, France and Italy, especially to the Frenchman François Hennebique, who established the first international firm to market his bridges before World War I. His first masterpiece was built at Millesimo (Italy) in 1898, and that at Châtellérault in France (1900) remains as one of the first notable reinforced concrete arch bridges in the world, with a central span of 172ft (52m) and two lateral arches of 131ft (40m). In 1912, Hennebique set a new world record with a bridge over the Tiber in Rome (Italy) with a span of 328ft (100m). Other important three-span bridges with impressive central spans were built in France by Eugène Freyssinet, such as the bridges at Veurdre (1910) and Boutiron (1912).
In France, where much of the original thinking on reinforced concrete occurred, the record span was the Saint-Pierre du Vauvray Bridge (1922) by Freyssinet. He perfected the technique of prestressing concrete by inserting hydraulic rams in a gap left at the crown of arches, then activating the rams to lift the arches off the falsework and filling the gap with concrete, leaving only permanent compressive stresses in the arches. The Vauvray Bridge over the Seine was the record span at 430ft (131m), the deck being hung from hollow cellular arch ribs on wire hangers, coated with cement mortar, and supporting the road on light concrete deck trusses. The Vauvray Bridge was destroyed in World War II, leaving the Plougastel Bridge (1930) over the River Elon at Brest, with three spans of 567ft (173m), as the longest reinforced concrete arch span until 1942.
Swiss engineer Robert Maillart designed three-hinged arches in which the deck and the arch ribs were combined to produce closely integrated structures that evolved into stiffened arches of very thin reinforced concrete and concrete slabs, as at the Schwandbach Bridge (1933), near Schwarzenbach (Switzerland). Maillart's early apprenticeship with Hennebique sharpened his awareness of the plastic character of the material. His profound understanding of reinforced concrete allowed him to develop new, light, and magnificently sculptural forms. Maillart's bridges are of two distinct types: stiffened-slab arches and three-hinged arches with an integrated road slab. The 295ft (90m) Salginatobel Bridge (1930) near Schiers (Switzerland) is the most spectacular and classic example of this type in the world.
The world's longest concrete and masonry arch bridge is the Rockville Bridge (1902), which carries four tracks of the former Pennsylvania Railroad over the Susquehanna River (USA) on 48 arches, 70ft (21m) each, for a total length of 3820ft (1164m). It was part of a massive twenty-year improvement programme under the direction of William H Brown, chief engineer. The largest all- reinforced concrete bridge, however, is the Tunkhannock Viaduct (1915) built by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad in north-eastern Pennsylvania (USA), composed of ten semi-circular double-arch spans of 180ft (55m) with the spandrels filled with eleven smaller arches. Like Rockville, it was a major component in another early 20th century US railroad improvement project, this time a massive realignment. Abraham Burton Cohen was the rail line's designer of the reinforced-concrete bridges.
The first major reinforced-concrete bridge in the United Kingdom was the Royal Tweed Bridge (1928), made up of four rhythmic open- spandrel arches filled with vertical posts increasing in span from 167ft (51m) to 361ft (110m) as the roadway climbs from low to high embankments on each side of the river.
Sweden is another country that excelled in building elegant and innovative reinforced-concrete arch bridges of extremely long span. The first was the Traneberg Bridge (1934) in Stockholm, designed by Harbour Board engineers Ernst Nilsson and S Kasarnowsky with Eugène Freyssinet consulting. Its 593ft (181m) span was surpassed briefly in 1942 by the Esla Bridge in Spain with a span of 631ft (192m), but within the same year the title for the longest arch was regained for Sweden by S Haggböm with the Sando Bridge, the longest reinforced- concrete arch in the world at 866ft (264m).
Moveable and transporter bridges
This essay ends with two of the oldest types of bridges known to humankind. The bascule or draw span was developed by Europeans during the Middle Ages. There was a resurgence of moveable bridges during the late 19th century. Reliable electric motors and techniques for counterbalancing the massive weights of the bascule, lift, or swing spans marked the beginning of modern moveable-bridge construction. They are usually found in flat terrain, where the cost of approaches to gain high-level crossings is prohibitive, and their characteristics include rapidity of operation, the ability to vary the openings depending on the size of vessels, and the facility to build in congested areas adjacent to other bridges.
Completion of Tower Bridge over the Thames in London (1894), a 260ft (79m) roller-bearing trunnion bascule and the best known bascule bridge in the world, and Van Buren Street Bridge in Chicago, the first rolling lift bridge in the USA (patented by William Scherzer), marks the efficient solution to problems of lifting and locking mechanisms. In 1914, the Canadian Pacific Railroad completed the world's largest double-leaf bascule, spanning 336ft (102m) over the ship canal at Sault-Sainte-Marie, Michigan, rebuilt with identical spans in 1941. The Saint Charles Airline Railway Bridge (1919) spanning 16th Street in Chicago was at 260ft (79m) the longest single-leaf bascule when it was completed. In 1927, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad built the world's longest single-span swing bridge, 525ft (160m), over the Mississippi at Fort Madison, Iowa. One of the most interesting and unusual moveable bridges is the Lacey V Murrow Bridge (1940), whose design reached back to the pontoons built by Roman legions. The depth and breadth of the lake precluded the construction of conventional piers on pilings, cantilever, or suspension spans, and so Washington State bridge engineers designed a floating bridge supported by hollow concrete pontoons to connect Seattle and Mercer Island. Equally unique was the retractable floating draw span for ocean-going ships in the lake. Three other bridges of this type were completed over the Hood Canal (1961) and at Evergreen Point (1963). A span parallel to the Murrow Bridge now carries the increased traffic of Interstate Highway 90.
A comparable example of an unusual type of moveable bridge in Europe is the transporter bridge, where a platform suspended by cables from tall towers and superstructure is carried on an overhead framework. This type of bridge also reaches back into history, integrating ancient technology such as the rope ferry with new structural forms and materials such as the iron beam and the strongest steel cables. The transporter bridge was the original solution to spanning the mouth of a river or entrance to a harbour and also served as a monumental gateway. Although it was patented in the UK and the USA in the mid 19th century, the first significant example was built by French engineer Ferdinand Arnodin, at Portugalete (1893) in Spain. Arnodin also invented the twisted steel cable, an important innovation for this type of bridge. The only other survivors are located in the United Kingdom at Middlesbrough and Newport (Wales) and at Martrou (France).
The author deeply appreciates the review and comments on this essay by the following individuals: Dr Shunsuke Baba (Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Okayama University, Japan), Professor Louis Bergeron (École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France), Sir Neil Cossons (Director, Science Museum, London, UK), Dott. Roberto Gori (Università di Padova, Italy), Dr Emory Kemp (Director, Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology, West Virginia University, USA), Dr Michael Mende (Hochschule für Bildende Kunst, Braunschweig, Germany), David Simmons (Editor, Timeline, Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, USA), Dr Itoh Takasaki (Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Japan), and Robert Vogel (Curator Emeritus, Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA).
He is especially indebted to Michel Cotte (Tournon, France), whose review provided insights on bridge types, chronological structure, and other subtleties of European bridge history that the author was not aware of. His thorough review gives this paper a solid European foundation.
POTENTIAL WORLD HERITAGE BRIDGES
Clapper Bridges (Bronze Age): Dartmoor, Devon, England (UK)
Bridges of twisted vines & creepers: India, Africa, South America
Ponte Saint-Martin (c 25 BC): near Torino (Italy)
(*)Puente Romano (1 BC, AD 5): Mérida (Spain) 1
Alcantara Bridge (AD 98): near Cáceres (Spain) 2
Ancient cantilevers: Japan, China, Tibet 3
Zhaozhou Bridge (c 605): Beijing vicinity (China)
Phra Bhutthos (12th century): Kompong Kdei vicinity (Cambodia) 4
Jiangdonggiao (1565): (China) 5
Shogun's Bridge (1638): Nikko (Japan)
Bridge of Khaju (1667): Isfahan (Iran)
Kintaikyo (1673): Iwakuni (Japan)
(*)Bridge over the Tigris (1065): Diyarbakir (Turkey)
(*)Bridge over the Batman River (1146), Malabadi (Turkey)
(*)Steinerne Brücke (1146): Regensburg (Germany)
Monnow Bridge (1272, 1296): Monmouth, Wales (UK)
(*)Puente del Diablo (1290): Martorell, Barcelona (Spain)
(*)Arabic Bridge (14th century): Arevalo, Ávila (Spain)
(*)Ponte della Maddalena (1345): Borgo a Mazzano, Tuscany (Italy)
Ponte Vecchio (1345): Florence, Italy 6
Pont d'Avignon (c 1350): France
Pont Valentré (1355): Cahors (France)
(*)Karluv Most (1357): Prague (Czech Republic)
Renaissance and Neo-Classical
(*)Old Bridge over the Main (1543): Würzburg (Germany)
Ponte Santa Trinità (1569): Florence (Italy)
Rialto Bridge (1591): Venice (Italy)
Pont Neuf (1607): Paris (France) 7
Aqueduct at Tomar (1613) and Elvas (1622): Portugal
Ratisbonne Bridge over the Danube: Germany (nd)
Dresden Bridge: Germany (nd)
Bridge over the Gironde: Bordeaux (France) (nd)
Pontypridd Bridge (1756): South Wales (UK)
(*)Kapellenbrücke (1333), Paintings (1611): Lucerne (Switzerland)
Bassano Bridge (1561, 1948): Bassano della Grappa (Italy)
Rumlangbrücke (1766): Switzerland
(*)Bridge over the Rhine (piers 1580, wood superstructure c 1800): Sackingen (Switzerland/Germany)
(*)Bridge over the Rhine (1804): Reinhau (Switzerland)
(*)Bridge over the Rhine (1816): Diessenhofen (Switzerland/Germany)
(*)Bridge over the Jagst (early 19th century): Unterregenbach (Germany)
Bridgeport Bridge (1862): Grass Valley, California (USA)
Cornish-Windsor Bridge (1866): New Hampshire/Vermont (USA)
Cast-iron arches in Tsarskoye Selo (18th century): St Petersburg (Russia) 8
Decorative bridges (18th century): Ducal Gardens of Wörlitz, Dessau (Germany) 9
Pont-y-Cafnau aqueduct and tramway bridge (1793): Merthyr Tydfil, Wales (UK) 10
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct (1795): Llangollen, Wales (UK)
Rio Cobre Bridge (1800): Spanish Town (Jamaica)
Gaunless Viaduct (1825): National Railway Museum, York, England (UK)
Dunlaps Creek Bridge (1839): Brownsville, Pennsylvania (USA)
Laves Beam Bridge (1844): Royal Gardens, Hannover (Germany)
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Hall's Station Bridge (c 1846): Pennsylvania (USA)
Conwy Castle Bridge (1848): Wales (UK)
High Level Bridge (1849): Newcastle upon Tyne, England (UK)
Royal Albert Bridge (1859): Saltash, Cornwall, England (UK)
(*)Waldshut-Koblenz Railroad Bridge over the Rhine (1859): Switzerland/Germany
Cast-iron arches in Central Park (1860s): New York City (USA)
(*)Kleve-Griethausen Bridge over the Lower Rhine (1865): Germany
Whipple Truss Bridge (1867): Normanskill Farm, Albany, New York (USA)
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Truss Bridge (c 1869): Savage, Maryland (USA)
(*)Schwedler Arch-Truss Railroad Bridge over the Elbe (1873): Langendorf (Germany)
Ponte Ferroviaria de Dona Maria Pia (1877): Italy
(*)Maria Pia Bridge (1877): Oporto (Portugal)
(*)Dom Luiz I Bridge (1886): Oporto (Portugal)
Railroad Viaducts & Trestles
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Thomas Viaduct (1835): Maryland (USA)
Boston & Providence Railroad, Canton Viaduct (1835): Massachusetts (USA)
Balcombe Viaduct (1839): West Sussex, England (UK)
Viaduc de Barentine (1846): France
Ballochmyle Viaduct (1846): Cumnock, Scotland (UK)
Viaduc de Saint-Chamas (1847): France
Chappel Viaduct (1847): Essex, England (UK)
New York & Erie Railroad, Starrucca Viaduct (1848): Lanesboro, Pennsylvania (USA)
(*)Goltzschtal Viaduct (1851): Netschkau vicinity (Germany)
Viaduc de la Bouble (1871): France
Meldon Viaduct (1871, 1879): Okehampton, Devon, England (UK)
Viaduc de Garabit (1885): Saint-Fleur vicinity (France)
New York & Erie Railroad (Bradford Branch), Kinzua Viaduct (1900), Pennsylvania (USA)
Glenfinnian Viaduct (1897): Highland Region, Scotland (UK)
Wüppertal Tramway System (1913): Wüppertal (Germany)
Railway Bridge over Kiel Canal (1913): Rendsburg (Germany)
Lethbridge Viaduct (1909): Alberta (Canada)
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Tunkhannock Viaduct (1915): Nicholson, Pennsylvania (USA)
Union Bridge (1820): Berwick-on-Tweed, England (UK)
Menai Suspension Bridge (1826): Wales (UK)
Conwy Suspension Bridge (1826): Wales (UK)
(*)Szechenyi Bridge (1849, 1915, 1949): Budapest (Hungary)
Tain-Tournon Bridge (1847): France
Delaware & Hudson Canal, Delaware Aqueduct (1849): Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania (USA)
Wheeling Suspension Bridge (1849): West Virginia (USA)
Clifton Suspension Bridge (1864): Bristol, England (UK)
Brooklyn Bridge (1883): New York City (USA)
Pont Rail Gisclard (1909): France 11
Acueducto de Tempul (1925): Spain
Eads Bridge (1874): St Louis, Missouri (USA)
(*)Railway Bridge over the Danube between Fetesti and Czernadova (1895): Romania
(*)Mungstener Brücke (1897): Germany
New York Connecting Railroad, Hell Gate Bridge (1917): New York City (USA)
(*)Road bridge over the Rhine (1928): Nijmegen (Netherlands)
Bayonne Bridge (1931): Bayonne, New Jersey (USA)
Sydney Harbour Bridge (1931): Sydney (Australia)
Poughkeepsie Cantilever (1886): Poughkeepsie, New York (USA)
Forth Railway Bridge (1890): Scotland (UK)
Québec Bridge (1917): Canada
Reinforced concrete bridges
Pont de Châtellérault (1900): France
Pennsylvania Railroad, Rockville Bridge (1902): Rockville, Pennsylvania (USA)
Risorgimento Bridge (1911): Rome (Italy)
Royal Tweed Bridge (1928): Berwick-on-Tweed, England (UK)
Plougastel Bridge (1930): Brest (France)
Salginatobel Bridge (1930): Schiers (Switzerland)
Schwandbach Bach Bridge (1933): Schwarzenbach (Switzerland)
Traneberg Bro (1934): Stockholm (Sweden)
(*)Motorway Bridge (1938): Stadtroda (Germany)
Viaducto Ferrioviario Francisco Martín Gil (1942): Spain
Strömsund Bro (1955): Sweden
Moveable and transporter bridges
(*)Puente de Vizcaya (1891): Portugalete (Spain) 12
Martrou Bridge over the Charente: France (nd)
Barton Swing Aqueduct (1893): Eccles, England (UK)
Tower Bridge (1894): London, England (UK)
Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge (1911): England (UK)
Atchison, Topeka & Sante Fe Railroad, Fort Madison Bridge (1927): Fort Madison, Iowa (USA)
Lacey V Murrow Bridge (1940): Seattle, Washington (USA)
Canadian Pacific Railroad, Sault-Sainte-Marie Bridge (1941): Michigan (USA)
- Bridges marked (*) were suggested by Michael Mende.
- The Pont du Gard (France), the Segovia Aqueduct (Spain), and other Roman and Renaissance bridges in the historic centres of Rome, Florence, and Segovia are already on the World Heritage List.
- Primitive bridges, if any survive, may be candidates for World Heritage listing because they illustrate primitive ingenuity and craft technology, which it is important to recognize and preserve.
- The Phra Bhutthos (Cambodia), the Jiangdonggiao (China), the Ponte Saint-Martin (Italy), the Steinerne Brücke (Germany), Pontypridd Bridge (UK), Rumlangsbrücke (Switzerland), the Menai Suspension Bridge (UK), the Puente Ferroviario de Dona Maria Pia (Italy), Strömsund Bro (Sweden), the Pont Rail Gisclard, and Acueducto de Tempul (Spain) were suggested by Professor Shunsuke Baba.
- Stone girder of 76ft (23m) span, total length of bridge 920ft (281m).
- The Ponte Vecchio and the Ponte Santa Trinità form part of the Florence World Heritage site. The Ponte Vecchio replaced a similar bridge that failed in 1333. Some authorities attribute its design to Fra Giovanni da Campi rather than the architect Taddeo Gaddi.
- The Pont Neuf and several other bridges over the Seine form part of the Paris - Banks of the Seine World Heritage site.
- Several collections of cast-iron arches survive in different countries. The largest is in England, there are six in the USA, a few in France, and a remarkable selection in Russia, all of which could be studied as a specific type with the object of possible eventual World Heritage nomination.
- Most of these bridges were designed by Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorf and not all are iron. They include the Roman Bridge (1788), the tree-trunk Hornzachenbrücke (1774), the Treppenbrücke, based on the Mathematical Bridge in Cambridge (1773), the Wolfsbrücke (1811), the Chinese Chain Bridge (1781), the Sun Bridge (1796), and the Iron Bridge (1791).
- A case for the world significance of this bridge was made by Stephen Hughes of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales.
- This and the Acueducto de Tempul, designed by Albert Gisclard and Eduardo Torroja respectively, are possible candidates for listing as early cable-stayed suspension bridges.
- A suspension ferry (transporter bridge) 525ft (160m) long by 141ft (43m) high.
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The author is Chief of the Historic American Engineering Record, National Park Service, US Department of the Interior. He may be contacted at the following address: