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Sam'al Lion



King statue, Sam`al-Zincirli

This basalt king statue of the Neo-Hittite/Aramaen kingdom was unearthed in Sam`al hilani within the walls of a citadel. Hittite king stands on the lions.

The statue housed in the Museum of Oriental Antiquities, İstanbul dates back to 850-800 BC,

  1. Roger Ling John Boardman, The Cambridge ancient history. Plates Tom 3, Cambridge University Press, 1984, p. 75

This basalt king statue of the Neo-Hittite/Aramaen kingdom was unearthed in Sam`al hilani within the walls of a citadel. Hittite king stands on the lions.

The statue housed in the Museum of Oriental Antiquities, İstanbul dates back to 850-800 BC,

  1. Roger Ling John Boardman, The Cambridge ancient history. Plates Tom 3, Cambridge University Press, 1984, p. 75

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Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard

The Sword of Summer

Magnus Chase, the human she brought to Valhalla

Magnus Chase sees her circling over him like a vulture when Surt knocks him aside. She then dives down to Magnus as he and Surt hit the river. When she is bringing Magnus to Valhalla, she tells him to stop squirming or he'll fall into 'The Gap'. She later comes to Magnus' room to introduce herself. When he asks if his mother is there, she says no. When Magnus says he is no hero, she slams him against the wall and tells him not to say that at dinner. When the horn sounds for dinner, she takes him to the dining hall. While in the elevator she answers some of Magnus' questions and explains to him about the great hall. When he asks about her personal life, she tells him to stop before the other einherjar arrive. During dinner she answers more of Magnus' questions. When she learns that Magnus' death was filmed, she becomes worried. After his video is shown there is an uproar. When her father's name is mentioned, everyone in the hall starts to boo at her. When the Norns reveal Magnus as a son of Frey and give their prophecy, Samirah is expelled from the Valkyries and vanishes in a flash of light.

Desperate to clear her name, she sets out to find the Sword of Summer. She goes to the funeral home where Magnus' body is. She knocks out Hearthstone searches Magnus' body, but turns up empty-handed. Magnus, Blitzen, and Hearth spot her and follow her. When they find her, she attacks them. Sam and Hearth get into a short fight until Magnus disarms her. She says she is not working for her father and wants the sword to become a Valkyrie again. She decides to join forces with them. They go to a dock where Blitz throws Mimir's head into the water to hydrate it. She and Hearth bow and she urges Magnus to do the same. Mimir tells her that Magnus was not meant to go to Valhalla, but his new body could allow him to master the sword. When he offers her knowledge in exchange for her service, she declines, saying her loyalty lies with the All-Father. He then leaves and they talk about it over lunch.

On their way to the food court in the Transportation Building, Sam says she does not trust Mimir. When Blitz says he is wiser than Odin, she says that he's only saying that because they work for Mimir, silencing the dwarf. When they reach the food court she is hesitant to eat there. Amir Fadlan, the manager's son, recognizes Sam and asks why she was not in school. She lies to him, saying she was getting credit for tutoring 'Jimmy' (Magnus) and his friends in Geometry. He tells her to say hi to her grandparents for him. She tells Magnus that Amir and his father are her relatives. While they wait for their food, a pigeon threatens to make sure they never eat at Fadlan's Falafels again. She, Blitz and Hearth urge Magnus not to cooperate with him, but he does. The pigeon then turns into an eagle when it brings them their food and eats all but one pickle chip. Sam identifies the bird as a jotunn. When the eagle takes off with Magnus on him, they follow and find him on the Boston public library. They reprehend him for making the deal, but settle to go fishing.

When they get to the docks and meet Harald, he lets Sam and Magnus take his boat, but not Blitz and Hearth. The four agree to meet at the library later. The demigods pick out a giant bull head as bait, haul it to the boat, and set sail. While at sea, she tells Magnus about her life, how her parents met, and her desire to become a Valkyrie. When they cross into Jotunheim, they throw the bull head over and wait. When they get a bite, it nearly takes them under. Sam stops Harald from cutting the line and introduces Magnus to hee big brother, Jormungand. Sam helps Magnus reel in Jormungand until his head is above the water. Then Ran shows up and demands they release him, as if he fully awakes he will flood the eastern seaboard. When she cuts the line and Magnus asks for the sword, she demands his soul in return. When Magnus starts to barter with the sea goddess, Sam aids him. Before Ran leaves she tells Sam that she does not need to be a Valkyrie to fly, as it is in her blood. When they get the sword and apple she wipes a tear from his cheek. When Magnus asks her what Ran meant, she dismisses it. She then goes to the wheel to make sure Harald drops them off in Midgard. When they get back to the docks she heads home to her angry grandparents and agrees to meet Magnus the next morning at the public gardens.

Sam ditches her physics class to meet Magnus, Blitz and Hearth at the make way for ducklings sign in the public garden. While Magnus finds the way to Nidavellir, she, Blitz and Hearth hold off the advancing Valkyries and einherjar. When Magnus opens a portal, Blitz goes in first and Sam and Magnus help Hearth through the portal. The four climb the World Tree until they find a knothole the sword wants them to go through. Hearth gets stuck and before they can free him Ratatosk appears. While Blitz drags Magnus in to the vanishing knothole she and Hearth hide under her hijab.

Hearth aids her while she is recovering from the squirrel's screech. Sam shapeshifts into a deer to distract one of the stags in the tree and make their way to Alfheim, much to Hearth's displeasure. They met up with Magnus and Blitz in Nidavellir where they exchange stories. Blitz tells them that he was challenged to a crafting contest by Eitri Junior, in which the loser is decapitated. At Blitz's apartment he makes them egg rolls. After, Blitz tells them more about the contest, his feud with Junior and what happened to his father. Sam is shocked at what she hears. After he leaves, she asks Hearth if Blitz is any good, he shows them the tanning bed that Blitz made for him, and he says, yes he is, but not under pressure. He tells them that Junior will hire people to sabotage Blitz. Hearth suggests that Sam sabotage Junior by shapeshifting, and she storms off. During the contest, she shapeshifts into a horsefly and bites Juniour, ruining his builds. She then turns back when the contest is over and sticks to the back of the crowd.

When Blitz is declared the winner, they receive the earrings for Blitz's mother Freya, and the rope Andskoti, but they discover Junior lied about knowing the location of the Fenris Wolf's island. The old dwarf said that the information was classified but that Thor might know. When Magnus calls Sam forward to aks her if she knows where Thor is, Junior identifies her as the horsefly that bit him, and the four run for their lives. When running she, Magnus and Blitz duck into an alleyway. After Freya takes Blitz so that she can have her earrings, Sam, Magnus, and Hearth prepare to fight off the dwarves when Sumarbrander talks and fends them off on his own. Sumarbrander then renames himself "Jack". They meet up with Hearth who leads them to a river going out of Nidavellir. When Magnus collapses and the dwarves find them again, she and Hearth grab Magnus and jump.

Sam wakes up in Jotunheim and vomits after Magnus heals her. They talk to one of Thor's immortal goats, Otis, who went looking for help for his master. On their way to Thor, Sam tells Magnus what Hearth told her about his childhood. Otis then tells them that they were unconscious for a day, much to their shock. When they reach their destination, Otis' brother Marvin tells them that Thor is drowning and that if they fail to save him he'll kill them. Sam watches as Magnus throws Jack at the giantess and kills her. Thor congratulates Magnus and invites him, Sam, and Hearthstone to dinner, where they eat Otis and Marvin.

Sam sits as far away from Thor as possible and does not talk often. When Thor says that she seems familiar she says she was a Valkyrie. Sam tells Magnus that she doesn't like to shapeshift because she feels like she's becoming more like Loki when she does itand tells him her family's history with the Norse Gods and that she can never have a normal life. Magnus promises to help her get everything she wants in her life and the two turn in.

The four climb to Geirrod's fortress the next day and rest while they decide what to do next. Hearth then summons one of Sleipnir's sons, an eight-legged horse, which she does not want to talk about, especially when Blitz mentions that Loki was Sleipnir's mother. The four mount the horse dubbed Stanley by Magnus, and the horse jumps off the cliff. She enjoys the free fall. At Geirrod's fortress, she deduces that a swan in the giantesses' captivity was Gunilla. She and Magnus sneak into the room and decide to introduce themselves as guests. When they do so one of the giantesses, Griep lifts them in a chair so they could be heard better, then tries to smash them on the ceiling. They then barter for Thor's weapon and Gunilla. Griep and Gjard agree to do so if they give themselves up and give them Jack. They then say they killed their sister, which tricks them into admitting they were trying to kill them. Jack takes out Griep but Gjard covers her nose and mouth. She attempts to launch a salt shaker at the giantess but Magnus misinterprets it and jumps on the knife and sent it into the giantess' chest, allowing Jack to finish her off. Sam checks on Magnus, who says his leg will be fine in an hour, but Gerriod arrives. When Hearth and Blitz arrive they aid the demigods in getting out of the fortress. They run into the giant and claim guest rights. They begin to barter for Thor's weapon, Gerriod agrees to give it to them if they play catch with him for ten minutes. They agree and he throws hot coals at them. She rouges them and calls Magnus crazy when she guesses his plan. When Gerriod causes the ceiling to fall on himself she dusts herself off and is shocked to see Gunilla holding Blitz hostage. Hearth manages to distract Gunilla while Sam sends her back to Valhalla. She then breaks the lock on the door holding the weapon. Thor arrives and reveals that he knew she was a daughter of Loki, and that he did not dislike all of Loki's children. He then sends them to where they need to be.

Sam wound up in her bedroom where her grandparents were relieved to see her, and then grounded her. She then appeared at Malcolm X Middle School and saved Magnus from falling. Upon learning about his encounter with Hel, Sam expresses her condolonses about his mother. She also commends him for resisting Hel's temptation, which according to her, isn't something many can do. She tells him how she became a Valkyrie and that Odin told her to get him. Magnus then tells her that they were meant to go on this quest and they leave to meet up with Blitzen and Hearthstone.

She and Magnus meet up with Blitz and Hearth at Long Wharf who tells them the good news about them, the demigods congratulate them. The four then go to find the dwarf brothers. When they find them, Blitz pulls them aside and tells them that the brothers will try to kill them and abandon them. Nevertheless, they buy four tickets. Sam kept her axe out to keep the Dwarves in check. When they dock on Lyngvi, the Dwarves demand their valuables for a return trip, but leave when Magnus says they do not need a return trip. The four then head for the wolf.

When they meet the wolf she denies that they are related. The Fenris Wolf says he influenced Odin into choosing her to become a Valkyrie. She is tempted to kill the wolf but is stopped by Hearthstone. Gunilla arrives with two other Valkyries and Magnus' hall mates. Sam tries to reason with Gunilla to no avail. Gunilla orders their arrest, but Magnus's hall mates disobey her. Surt then arrives with a small army and threatens to kill everyone. She, Magnus, Blitz and Hearth head to rebind the wolf. She knocks her brother off of Magnus but becomes beaten in the process. Once the wolf is re-tied she heads to Blitzen and Hearthstone, when the island begins to fade she and the other rush to the shore.

When they arrive at the hotel they are brought to the feast hall to have judgment passed on them. The Thames call her and are about to pass judgment when X reveals himself to be Odin. After Odin explains what he did over the past two years he awards Magnus and his friends and gives Samirah a choice: be reinstated as a Valkyrie, or serve directly under him and go on tough missions with great reward. She chooses the latter. Odin gives her full access to all of the nine worlds. She attends the funeral for the fallen Valkyries.

The Hammer of Thor

Six weeks after the quest for Sumarbrander, Sam meets Magnus for coffee at the Thinking Cup and tells him that she has been busy with schoolwork and Valkyrie duty. She tells him that she is taking pilots lessons as a gift from the Fadlans, which Magnus teases her by saying it is a gift from Amir. She tells him that she is meeting an informant but gets word that a hero is about to die. She leaves, missing her informant, who turns out to be Thor's goat Otis. Otis tells Magnus that Thor's missing hammer is in a wight's barrow in Cape Cod.

Alex Fierro, her half-sibling

Sam reaps the soul of her half-sibling, Alex Fierro, who gives her a black eye. At the dinner feast in Valhalla that day, Sam accidentally includes a video of her personal life with Alex's death video.

After the dinner feast, Sam and Magnus talk. She tells him that Loki had paid her grandparents a visit, told them everything, and gave them invitations to a wedding he arranged between Sam and an earth giant named Thrym. She also tells him that she told Amir the truth about her life. She is desperate for any way she can prevent the marriage to Thrym. Magnus gives her Otis' information.

The next day, Sam and Magnus fly a winged horse to Cape Cod, where they meet up with Blitzen and Hearthstone. They enter the wight's barrow where, instead of finding Thor's hammer, they find the body of Prince Gellir and his blade, the Skofnung Sword. Gellir and the Draugr come to life and attempt to kill the four, but Sam, Magnus, Blitz, and Hearth kill them all.

Before they can leave with the sword, Loki and Randolph Chase appear, intending to take the sword. Loki, who has control over Sam, wills her to stop breathing, and she falls unconscious. While Magnus is distracted with protecting Sam, Randolph draws the sword and stabs Blitzen with it. Magnus cuts the sword out of Randolph's hand and prevents him and Loki from taking it. Loki and Randolph leave, and Sam wakes up. Hearthstone immediately blames her for Blitzen getting stabbed. Magnus summons sunlight to freeze Blitz in stone to prevent him from bleeding out.

They leave the Wight's barrow. Sam calls an Uber, and they head to the Provincetown Airport. At the airport, Sam calls her flight instructor and begs him to bring his plane up, which he agrees to. While they wait for the plane, she asks Magnus to watch over her while she prays.

The plane arrives, along with Amir. Sam flies the plane to Norwood. Magnus and Hearth, along with the petrified Blitzen, jump out of the plane mid-flight to travel to Alfheim.

While the three of them retrieve the Skofnung Stone to heal Blitz, Sam is busy trying to open Amir's eyes to the Norse world. She decides to take him to see the Bifrost Bridge, with Alex and Halfborn Gunderson as chaperones. Amir is unable to see the bridge until Magnus unknowingly heals his mind.

Sam, Amir, Magnus and Alex go up the bridge to see Heimdall. He informs them that the earth giants are gathering for an invasion, but won't begin until after Thrym marries Sam. She vows to Heimdall, who is the guardian of the sacred marriage bed, that she will never marry anyone except Amir. Heimdall also shows them a message from Utgard-Loki.

Heimdall drops the four of them back in Boston. They head to the Transportation Building food court, where Amir makes falafels while Sam, Magnus, and Alex discuss Utgard-Loki. After they finish eating, Sam agrees to meet up with Magnus and Alex in the morning to travel to Jotunheim. She disappears in a flash of golden light.

The next day, the three of them set out for Jotunheim along with Blitzen and Hearthstone. Sam flies and carries Hearth with her, while Magnus, Alex, and Blitz ride Stanley the eight-legged winged horse.

Sam and Hearth arrive at Utgard-Loki's palace, Utgard Lanes, a day earlier than Magnus, Alex, and Blitz. The giants almost kill them seven times. At one point, when Sam asks for a drink, the bartender drops her into a full beer mug. She is only saved when Hearth uses a rune to crack the glass. They are asked to put Utgard-Loki's cat outside, but are unable to, as the cat is actually an African bush elephant. When they very carefully ask for sleeping bags, the giants seem to comply, but give them curled shavings of titanium instead of sleeping bags.

When Magnus, Alex, and Blitzen finally arrive, the five of them are required to compete against the giants in contests of skill. Sam goes first, challenging the giants to an axe throwing contest. Her competitor is a ten-year-old cross-eyed giant named Little Billy. He throws his axes flawlessly. Sam, however, throws her axe at him, deducing that he was not a giant he is Fear itself. She wins the contest. After Blitz, Hearth, Magnus, and Alex win their contests, Utgard-Loki agrees to give them the information he promised. He tells them that the wedding is a rouse made to get Loki the Skofnung Sword and Stone to free himself. Sam also realizes that they will not get the hammer back, as the gift to the bride is given the day after the wedding. Utgard-Loki gives them to options, die on the spot or find the hammer themselves, before the giants attack.

As the giants come closer, they are saved by the goddess Sif and brought to her home in Asgard. She and Alex are both uneasy as Sif and Loki have a bad relationship. For most of their conversation she has her fingers on her axe, but regardless, speaks to Sif in a respectful tone acknowledging the kindness she displayed in rescuing them as well as the generous gift of runes to Hearthstone. The goddess tells them where to find Thor and what she can give them in return for finding the hammer. She then sends them to tell Thor about the hammer. The thunder god thinks she has volunteered to marry Thrym to get the hammer back and she tells him no, but Alex volunteers to take Sam's place as the bride. While she thinks the plan is risky, she agrees to it after talking with Alex. She, Alex, and Magnus stay with Thor and Sif while Blitz and Hearth gather einharjar for the assault. At breakfast she talks with Magnus while Alex is getting ready. He tells her that she is the bravest person he knows and she invites him to her real wedding. When Alex returns she goes to change into a dress similar to Alex's bridal gown. She laughs at Magnus in his tuxedo and they head off to the wedding.

The three meet up with Marvin and Otis and head to bridal veil falls. They are greeted by Thrynga and Magnus introduces her as Prudence, much to her annoyance. After a long journey they arrive in a barroom. As Thrynga orders the bar to be cleaned for the feast, she, Alex and Magnus see if they can find the hammer. She talks for Alex during the feast and us shocked to learn that the ceremony will be held in Loki's prison. When they arrive, they are greeted by her father, who asks Alex to lift the veil to ensure it is Sam, luckily Alex shape shifts to look like Sam and Loki believes it, thinking that the real Samirah is Alex. Soon after that her father requests for their special guest to come forth. Revealing Randolph Chase. During the ceremony she is nervous about their cover being blown.When Alex attacks Thrym, she uses her spear and charges at Randolph before her father commands her to stop. When hearth encases Loki in ice, she runs towards Loki and Randolph but is stopped by the giants. While she was destracted Randolph frees her father. She watches as her father kills the venomous serpent and commanded her and Alex to die. After the battle she is angered that Loki escaped.

Back at Valhalla, she is to distracted by her father's escape to enjoy the feast. Helgi invites her and her friends to his office. The manager says that if Loki can be captured and rebound, Ragnarok can be delayed. He tasks her and her friends with doing so. After the meeting she is briefed by Odin's ravens on the mission at hand. In the morning she invites Magnus for coffee. She tells Magnus what the ravens have shown her, that her ancestor encountered Norse gods on his travels and that they must sail to Scandinavia by midsummer. She also tells him that she will retire from her Valkyrie duties after Loki is recaptured. She wants to go to college, get her pilots license and marry Amir. Magnus informs her of someone he can go to for help, who she correctly guesses to be his cousin (obviously Magnus had informed Sam about Annabeth and possibly about the Greek and Roman pantheons).

The Ship of the Dead

After her father escaped his binder, Sam has trained with Alex to resist Loki's control over her. She and Alex meet up with the rest of the crew in Boston Harbor. She tells Magnus that she is fasting for Ramadan, she can not eat food or drink during daylight hours. Before he leaves, Amir tells Sam that he loves her, flustering Sam. She says her goodbyes to Amir and she and Alex board the ship. Magnus talks with her about resisting her father's custody control over her. Just as they are about to meet up with Blitz and Hearth, nine women come out of the water and drag the ship in. They surface in a cauldron and are fished out by Aegir. She claims guest rights and he invites them to a meal, which consists of Hearth and Blitz. She says that since it is Ramadan, she can not eat dwarf or elf and must break fast with them. She leaves with Alex to play and devise a plan. They return for dinner and one of Aegir's daughters calls Magnus by name. She and Alex tell Magnus to get Aegir to talk about mead to calm him down. After he agrees to their terms he lets them escape is they can get past his daughters. She fights one of the maidens with her spear and escapes when Njord arrives and Hearth blasts a wall. When they surface she scolds Magnus for promising to beat Loki in a flyting. Njord tells her to get below deck and eat something as the sun is about to rise. She goes with the others while Magnus, Blitz and Hearth talk to the Vanir.

She trains with Alex, Magnus and Jack to help her resist her father's influence over her. The four talk after training and Magnus complements her for her strength and focus during Ramadan. She and Alex have a small conversation on the side.

When they arrive in York she, along with Halfborn and Mallory, watch the ship while Alex, Magnus and T.J. scout out the town. They defend the ship and she manages to tame a water horse that pulls her under, impressing Halfborn and Mallory. When the sun sets she breaks fast with dates and heads to the galley for more food.

When Magnus, Blitz and Hearth return she hears their story of what happened in Alfheim. They arrive in Flåm and split up to find a train station. She goes with Magnus and Mallory while Halfborn, T.J. and Alex go in another direction. Mallory drags her and Magnus after the old woman she saw minutes before she died. The woman reveals herself to be Frigg, her mother. Sam is startled by being in her presence. She tells them Loki will set sail in a day or two and tells them where to find Kvasir's mead. The goddess leaves and the train moves. While the entire enharjar jump out the window, she flys down. She talks with Mallory about how her mother is able to preserve order and peace within Asgard, something Mallory was able to do with floor nineteen. They then set out to get the mead and devise a plan. The three confront the slaves outside where the mead is held. She goes along with Mallory's plan to help the giants and is startled when the daughter of Frigg tricks them into killing themselves. The three try to open the door and are helped by Gunlod, the daughter and prisoner of the mead's keeper. She holds up her canteen to place the mead into and they pry open the doors and receive the mead. Just then Gunlod's father and uncle return. She flies back to the big banana with Mallory and the. Suttung stays to fight Magnus while Baugi follows her. Bragi fallows her to the ship and they fight him. She is impressed that Halfborn was able to take the jotun out on his own. The set sail and after breaking fast at nightfall she speaks with Magnus about his flyting with her father. She reassures him that her will be fine and heads bellow deck. They arrive in Jotunheim in the morning.

She pulls the Big Banana through the ice until it can no longer travel. They walk to shore and are invited in by Skadi to explain themselves. Everyone, aside from her, bathes and has a hot meal. Skadi tells them that Loki will launch Naglfar by noon the following day. She impresses the giantess by saying she despises her father just as much as she does. Skadi allows them to spend the night. As she is finishing her morning prayers she notices Magnus and talks to him about his flyting with Loki. She also mentions Alex. After everyone else eats breakfast they get ready to ski to Naglfar.

They arrive at the port and she and Alex stay with Magnus while the others form a diversion. The son of Frey turns them invisible with the Othela rune Hearth gave him and they heard toward the ship. After narrowly avoided a group of skeletons they board Naglfar. The search the ship for her father and when their invisibility wears off she takes out some of the hoard with her spear. When her father declined the flyting she attacks him, however she stops when Hrym intervenes. When Loki tells her to hold his hat, she declines and lets it fall on the ground. She watches the flyting and worries when Magnus is losing. She is pleased with Magnus's complement towards her about her spear of light scorch the giants in combat, saving the ship from vatnavaettir, outflying Baugi as an eagle with Kvasir's mead, all while fasting! She resists Loki's command again when he tells her to scuttle away as a lizard. She blocks her father's escape while Mallory imprisons him in the nut. She helps Magnus up and they make their way to the edge of Naglfar. She tells everyone to jump and they land on the backs of water horses what get them out of the harbor just as it freezes over.

They spend three days at sea. During this time the crew barely talks to each other. She speaks with Magnus about what he said about his kiss with Alex. They arrive at Vigridr, the battle field where the einharjar will die during Ragnorok, and are greeted by the gods. They are brought to the feasting tent and hand over Loki. She gets a signed copy of Orin's new autobiography. When they get back to Valhalla she is happy and surprised to see Amir in the feast hall. They leave for Eid al-Fitr, the end of Ramadan feast, with their families and Alex.

9 from the Nine Worlds

Just Another Decapitated Head

She is mentioned by Odin, who considered her to be the most logical choice of the next captain of the Valkyries until she chose to be his valkyrie in charge of dangerous missions.

This Is Why I Hate Clothes Shopping

Sam is surprised when Amir shows her a baby blue tuxedo he is wearing for her grandparent’s fiftieth anniversary. However Abdel Fadlan tells her he is joking. She tells him to get a new outfit at Blitzen’s Best before she responds to a possible heroic death. She gets worried after not hearing from him and asks Alex to check the shop for Amir. When Alex tells her about Stan, she goes to the shop and saves Amir. She apprehends the sorcerer while Alex helps Amir get out of Nabrok.

Speaking of Trolls.

Hearthstone mentions the daughter of Loki when alone with Thomas Jefferson Jr., saying that she, along with Blitz and Magnus, are the only ones in his friend group who knows how to sign.

My Eighth-Grade Physics Actually Comes in Handy

Odin talks with her while about the three roosters who, when they hatch, will crow to signal the start of Ragnarok. He tells her that he has recently seen two of the eggs, Gullinkambi in Asgard and Nameless in Helheim, and conformed they are not hatching. But the third egg, Fialar in Jotunheim, is being clouded by the giants and he does not know is the egg is hatching or not. He sends Sam to go to the land of giants and take a picture of the egg. She agrees and departs at once.

As Sam scours Jotunheim she finds the nest on the side of a hill. However before she could take a picture a jotunn, Eggther, arrives and she hides in some nearby trees. He starts to serenade the egg with a harp before falling asleep. Sam weighs in on her options and tries to move the harp with a vine she finds in a tree, the harp is to heavy to move and she quickly thinks of another plan. After remembering a physics lesson from eighth grade, decides to move the harp to distract the giant and quickly take a picture. She ties the other end of the vine around a tree and uses her hijab to tie herself around the middle. Just as she is about to set her plan in motion, Thor comes jogging by and she quickly unties herself and gets out of his way. He catches the vine and drags the tree and harp with. Eggther wakes up and chases after Thor. Sam considers taking the egg with her before remembering she cannot stop Ragnarok from happening. She takes a picture and leaves.

I Play with Fire

She, T.J., Mallory, Halfborn, Blitz, and Hearth go to Muspellheim to help Alex with her mission with Surt, only to arrive when her half-sibling has defeated the fire giant.


Neo-Hittites

Neo-Hittites or Syro-Hittites: modern name for the successor states of the Hittite Empire, which had desintegrated in the early twelfth century BCE.

Demise of the Hittite Empire

In the early twelfth century BCE, the Mediterranean Bronze Age system collapsed. Hattusa, the capital of the Hittite Empire in central Anatolia, had already been evacuated in the final decades of the thirteenth century the empire itself, which had dominated Anatolia and northern Syria, disappeared many towns in the Levant were sacked the Mycenaean culture in Greece came to an end in 1177 BCE, king Ramesses III of Egypt had to defend the Delta against invading "Sea People". This crisis marks the beginning of the "Dark Age", which lasted until about 800 BCE. However, these four centuries are not completely dark.

The vacuum created by the demise of the Hittite Empire was filled by several new nations - the Aramaeans in Syria are a case in point - and states. Some of these new, Iron Age principalities, however, continued the languages and traditions of the Bronze Age Hittites and are therefore called "Neo-Hittites". This label is of course a bit subjective, but it is certainly significant that the neighbors of these states called them Hittite.

Tarhuntassa and Karchemish

Initially, there were two main successor states, Tarhuntassa in southern Anatolia and Karchemish in Syria and the land of the Upper Euphrates. The ruler of this second state called himself “great king” and appointed other rulers, which soon became more or less independent. They include Malida (later known as Melitene) and Kummaha (in the Classical period known as Commagene) in the northwestern arc of the Euphrates Kurkuma along the Upper Pyramos Halpa (i.e., Aleppo) and Patina (along the Lower Orontes). Sam'al started with kings with Neo-Hittite names, but soon was ruled by kings with Aramaean names.

Although Karchemish had lost control of its northern and western territories, it remained an important kingdom. Uriah the Hittite, one of the courtiers of king David in Jerusalem, must have been from Karchemish. note [2 Samuel 11.]

Within the successor states of Karchemish, we find people who spoke Aramaic. Some principalities had a dynasty that also spoke this language. However, it is possible to overstate the importance of the difference. In Sam’al, the rulers first had Hittite names and later Aramaic names, but there appears to have been no great break.

The disintegration of Tarhuntassa is less well understood, but is clear that it disintegrated into four parts: north of the Taurus Mountains was Tabal, which included Tyana and several other towns in the western Taurus was Hilakku and in the coastal plain was Que (with important centers in Adana and Karatepe). The two last-mentioned successor states would later reunite and become known as Cilicia. What remained of Tarhuntassa, essentially the valley of the Calycadnus river, was later part of Pamphylia.

/> Karatepe, South Gate, musicians (copy)

In the end, most of these states were taken over by the Assyrians, who had finished their conquest by the end of the eighth century BCE. Only Tabal and the core of Tarhuntassa retained their independence and would survive as Cappadocia and Pamphylia.

Artistic Styles

The art of the Neo-Hittites is documented on various sites. Art historians distinguish two periods:


Archaeology

The site was excavated in 1888, 1890, 1890–91, 1894 and 1902 by a German Oriental Society expedition led by Felix von Luschan and Robert Koldewey. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ]

They found a heavily fortified teardrop-shaped citadel, which was surrounded by the as yet unexcavated town and a further enormous double fortification wall with three gates and 100 bastions. Among the notable objects found at the site are five giant statues of lions carved from stone, which apparently had guarded the gates of the city, but may have been ritually buried together within the citadel. The German excavations on the citadel recovered large numbers of relief-carved orthostats, along with inscriptions in Aramaic, Phoenician, and Akkadian. These are on exhibit in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, and Istanbul. Also found was the notable Victory stele of Esarhaddon celebrating his victory over Taharqa. Unfortunately, the field diaries of the excavation were lost during World War II.

In August 2006, the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago began a new long-term excavation project at the site of Zincirli under the directorship of David Schloen. Four seasons of excavation have been conducted through 2009. [ 6 ]


Sam'al Lion - History

The Chicago-Tübingen Expedition to Zincirli is a joint project of the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute and the University of Tübingen’s Institut für die Kulturen des Alten Orients. We are conducting excavations and geophysical surveys at Zincirli Höyük (ancient Sam’al) in southeastern Turkey, near the border with Syria. We combine annual field research at this important site with studies of the history, culture, and ecology of the surrounding region to shed light on Bronze and Iron Age developments in a pivotal zone of interaction between the Levant, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. The region around Zincirli—the modern districts of İslahiye and Nurdağı in the western part of the province of Gaziantep—was the heartland of the Iron Age kingdom of Sam’al, which controlled a major route of travel and trade from northern Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea. This kingdom is attested in ancient inscriptions discovered in and around Zincirli and in Mesopotamian cuneiform inscriptions found elsewhere.

The site of Zincirli, ancient Sam’al, near the Amanus Mountains (view to the northwest)

The Chicago-Tübingen Expedition is directed by Dr. David Schloen, a Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Chicago, and Dr. Virginia Herrmann, a Junior Research Group Leader at the University of Tübingen. In addition to the support received from these two universities, we are grateful to the following agencies that have generously funded our work: the Neubauer Family Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Wenner-Gren Foundation, and the Carl-Humann-Stiftung. From 2006 to 2013, the project (known as the Neubauer Expedition to Zincirli) was directed by David Schloen, with Dr. Amir Sumaka’i Fink as the associate director. In 2014, the University of Tübingen became a partner and Virginia Herrmann was named as co-director. The current leadership of the project also includes the following assistant directors: Dr. Tuna Kalaycı (since 2016), who is an Assistant Professor of Archaeological Sciences at the University of Leiden Dr. Kathryn Morgan (since 2017), who is an Assistant Professor of Classical Studies at Duke University and (since 2021) Dr. Timur Demir, who is an Assistant Professor of Archaeology at Gaziantep University.


History

The site of Samʼal was occupied in the Early Bronze Age (c. 3000-2000BCE), and Middle Bronze Age since c. 2000 until 1650, [1] when it was sacked by Hittite king Hattusili I.

State of Mamma

At least from c.1700 to 1650 BCE Zincirli Höyük was a trading hub with the production of wine transported in a specific type of vessel, the globular flask, being part of the trade centered in the ancient Syrian state of Mamma, [3] Zincirli was located only 9 km north of Tilmen Höyük, the capital of the Zalpa/Zalwar kingdom, which eventually became one of the twenty vassal small states of the Yamhad kingdom based on Aleppo. [4] Recent excavations by Chicago-Tubingen Expedition revealed that the supposed palace of Hilani I in Zincirli (believed to be from Iron Age Samʼal period) was actually a big temple from Middle Bronze Age II, lasting roughly from 1800 to 1650 BCE). [5] The archaeological site of Zincirli was abandoned after Hattusili I's sack in 1650 BCE, but later rose again in the Iron Age, eventually becoming a kingdom. With the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Samʼal became a vassal state and later a province of that empire.

In 2020, the site was "convincingly identified" with Zalpa, mentioned in the Hittite "Queen of Kanesh" myth. [6]

Kingdom of Samʼal

Kingdom of Samʼal (in Samalian Yādiya, in Aramaic Ya'udi) was a middle power of the Middle-East in the first half of the 1st millennium BCE. It was near the Nur Mountains. Samʼal was the capital of the country. Royal steles and stone tablets from the period, of Kilamuwa and Panamuwa II, are the main sources for historical data about this timeperiod.

It became a middle power at the end of the 10th century BCE. It had expanded from being a city state and gained territories from Carchemish, around Adana from Quwê and remained independent. It didn't become part of Cilicia. In 859 BC Alimus was saved with the help of Hayyanu, king of Samʼal. He didn't participate in the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC, but Assyria had been blocked in the Western area. Though the campaign of Assyria in 825 BC occupied the vital territories of Samʼal, Quwê had been defeated, but it had been reorganised as Denyen. After the death of Shalmaneser III, Ya'udi again became independent.

Some rulers of Samʼal had aggressive expansionist politics others acceded to one of the anti-Assyrian Syrian coalition. Assyrian sources are not clear regarding Samʼal. Ya'udi was one of Assyria's satellite states in the annals of Shalmaneser III. Though around 830 BC Azitawadda, king of Denyen, states Ya'udi is his satellite country – at the same time, Kilamuwa mentions on his stela that he hired Assyria against Denyen. Other sources from the same period mention Ya'udi as a satellite state of Denyen and Assyria wanted to occupy this territory. Kilamuva might offer for Deyen to be a satellite state. Before this, he should defeat his greatest foe, Azitawadda. Assyrians won over Denyen and Samʼal in 825 BC. Samʼal became independent after the death of Shalmaneser III.

There is an alternative opinion which states that Ya'udi and Samʼal were originally separate royal houses and Samʼal, the younger of the two, fought against the Assyrians at Alimus in 859 BC, in 858 BC when Shalmanser III crossed the Euphrates for the first time, and again in 853 BC at the Battle of Qarqar. The Kingdom of Samʼal was founded by Hayyanu and his successor was Ahabbu of Siri'laya (Zincirli) in 854 BC. Whereas Gabar, the founder of Ya'udi, and his successors became a member of the Assyrian satellites. This makes clear why Shalmaneser III lists Ya'udi (Bit-Gabbari) but not Samʼal as a satellite state. The Kingdom of Ya'udi wanted to open a corridor between Assyria and Denyen. It was prevented by the unified Syrian forces. This unity had been dissolved in 825 BC. After the death of Shalmanezer III Denyen couldn't occupy it but the Samalians could. Samʼal annexed Ya'udi and moved into the palace of Kilamuva.

At the end, in 717 BC, Assyria occupied the country under the rule of Sargon II.


2,800-year old Aramaic incantation mentions fire-producing ‘devourer’

Circa 9th century BC, an ancient incantation described the capture of the ‘devourer’ that could seemingly produce ‘fire’. The discovery of the text, made in 2017, pertained to the world’s oldest known Aramaic incantation. The text was found inscribed on a container inside a possible shrine at the Zincirli (or Sam’al – as it was known in the ancient times), in Turkey. And in a recent presentation at the Society of Biblical Literature, researchers talked about how the mysterious incantation was the work of one “Rahim son of Shadadan” and it enigmatically mentioned the “seizure of a threatening creature [called] the devourer”.

The conjuring also makes a point about how the blood of the devourer is needed to treat someone with an ailment caused by the ‘fire’ of the devourer. According to one of the presenters, Madadh Richey, a doctoral student in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago, it is still not clear as to how this blood would be used as a cure – i.e., whether by consuming it or smearing it.

Even more perplexing is the visual representation of various creatures by the side of the small inscription on the container. These illustrations of (possibly) critters like a scorpion, a centipede, and a fish, are found on both sides of the container. Interestingly enough, the container in itself was probably originally used for storing makeup and then repurposed for inscribing the bizarre incantation.

Now the illustrations might just provide a clue as to what this ‘devourer’ entity was. According to one of the conjectures made by the researchers, the devourer and its ‘fire’ might pertain to the scorpion or centipede and its sting. To that end, the archaeologists in the area were actually afflicted by the presence of scorpions, with one of the local workers even being stung by a specimen that crawled through his backpack. Fortunately, the species found here do not possess a particularly harmful venom, and thus the predicament was solved by using first aid.

Reverting to the incantation, the researchers believe it was inscribed sometime between circa 850 – 800 BC, thus making it the oldest known Aramaic invocation. Quite intriguingly, the building (or shrine) that housed the container was probably built around a century later, thus signifying the importance of the incantation long after it was pronounced by ‘Rahim’. The structure additionally revealed a statuette base representing a crouched lion with red inlaid eyes, dating from 10th – 9th century BC – and it might have supported the figure of a striding deity. As for the historical side of affairs, Sam’al was the capital of a tiny Aramean kingdom, between 900 – 720 BC, until it was captured by the Assyrians (Neo-Assyrian Empire).

Image Credits: Roberto Ceccacci/ Courtesy of the Chicago-Tübingen Expedition to Zincirli


What is the "devourer?"

The illustrations suggest that the "devourer" may actually be a scorpion or centipede as such, the "fire" may refer to the pain of the creatures' sting, Richey told Live Science.

In fact, scorpions pose a hazard to archaeologists working at the site. "We always have to check our shoes and bags for scorpions on the excavation, even though most of the local scorpions do not have a very dangerous venom," said Herrmann, noting that shortly after the incantation was removed from the site, "one of our local workers was stung by a scorpion that had crawled onto his backpack that was sitting on the ground," and the archaeological team rushed to apply first aid.


Watch the video: Michelle Pfeiffer - I am sam (January 2022).