Henry IV Engaged in Royal Touch


Born in Vienna, Austria, in 1755, Marie Antoinette married the future French king Louis XVI when she was just 15 years old. The young couple soon came to symbolize all of the excesses of the reviled French monarchy, and Marie Antoinette herself became the target of a great deal of vicious gossip. After the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, the royal family was forced to live under the supervision of revolutionary authorities. In 1793, the king was executed then, Marie Antoinette was arrested and tried for trumped-up crimes against the French republic. She was convicted and sent to the guillotine on October 16, 1793.

The British Royal Family Tree

A comprehensive who's who of Queen Elizabeth's family, from her grandparents (the first Windsors) to little Archie Harrison and every cousin in between.

The House of Windsor as we know it today began in 1917 when the family changed its name from the German &ldquoSaxe-Coburg-Gotha.&rdquo Queen Elizabeth's grandfather, King George V, was the first Windsor monarch, and today's working royals are the descendants of King George and his wife, Queen Mary. Below follow the line of succession and explore the many branches of the family over which the Queen presides.

King George V, 1865-1936

The grandson of Queen Victoria&mdashand grandfather to Queen Elizabeth&mdashGeorge V was born third in the line of succession and did not expect to become king. That changed after his elder brother Prince Albert Victor died in 1892. George ascended the throne after the death of his father in 1910, serving as King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India until his death in 1936.

Queen Mary, 1867-1953

Queen Elizabeth&rsquos grandmother Queen Mary was royal by birth (her great-grandfather was King George III). Despite technically being a princess of the German Duchy of Teck, she was born and raised in England. She was first engaged to marry Prince Albert Victor, the eldest son of Edward VII and her second cousin once removed, but after Albert&rsquos sudden death in 1892, Mary agreed to marry his brother, the future King George V. The couple married in 1893, and had six children, two of whom would become reigning monarchs. She died in 1953, one year after her son, Queen Elizabeth's father King George VI.

King Edward VIII, 1894-1972

The eldest son of George V and Queen Mary, Edward became king after his father&rsquos death in 1936, but threw the country into crisis months later when he proposed to Wallis Simpson, an American divorcée. As monarch, Edward was head of the Church of England, which at the time did not allow divorced people with a living former spouse to remarry in the church, and thus the government opposed the marriage. Unable to marry Simpson and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated in December of 1936, and was succeeded by his younger brother Albert, Queen Elizabeth&rsquos father, who would go on to become King George VI. Edward&rsquos reign lasted just 326 days, one of the shortest in British history. After his abdication, he was named Duke of Windsor and married Simpson in 1937. They lived abroad until his death in 1972.

Princess Mary, 1897-1965

The only daughter of George V and Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth&rsquos aunt. During World War I, Mary devoted herself to charity work, visiting hospitals and launching fundraising campaigns to support British soldiers and sailors. She later trained as a nurse, and worked two days a week at the Great Ormond Street children&rsquos hospital in London. In 1922, Mary married Viscount Lascelles, who later became Earl of Harewood theirs was the first royal wedding to receive coverage in fashion magazines like Vogue. Those fans of the Downton Abbey movie will recognize Mary from her part in the plot.

Prince John, 1905-1919

The youngest child of George V and Queen Mary, John was diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of four, and was sent to live at Sandringham House where he was cared for by his governess. He died in 1919 at the age of 13, following a severe seizure. His condition was not disclosed to the public until after his death.

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, 1900-1974

King George V and Queen Mary&rsquos third son, Henry was the first child of a British monarch to be educated at school, rather than be tutored at home, and ultimately attended Eton College. He served in the British military and had ambitions to command a regiment, but his career was interrupted by royal responsibilities following the 1936 abdication of his brother Edward VIII. He married Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott in 1935, and the couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Richard. Henry died in 1974 as the eldest surviving child of George V and Mary.

Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, 1901-2004

The wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Queen Elizabeth&rsquos aunt by marriage, Lady Alice was a direct descendant of Charles II through his illegitimate son, the nobleman James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. She married Prince Henry in 1935, days after the death of her father, the 7th Duke of Buccleuch. The couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Richard. Alice died at the age of 102 in 2004.

Prince George, Duke of Kent, 1902-1942

The fourth son of George V and Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth&rsquos uncle. Like his elder brother Henry, George was educated at school, and spent time in the Navy before becoming the first member of the royal family to work as a civil servant. In 1934, he married Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, and the couple had three children: Prince Edward, Princess Alexandra, and Prince Michael. At the start of World War II, he returned to active military service in the Royal Navy and later the Royal Air Force. His death in 1942 in a military air crash marked the first time in more than 450 years that a member of the royal family died during active service.

Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent, 1906-1968

The wife of Prince George, and a princess of the Greek royal house, Princess Marina was the daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. (Prince Philip is her first cousin.) In 1932, she met Prince George during a visit to London, and the couple married two years later theirs was the first royal wedding to be broadcast by wireless radio. The couple had three children: Prince Edward, Princess Alexandra, and Prince Michael. Following her husband&rsquos death in 1942, Marina remained an active member of the royal family and carried out many royal duties across the world, even representing the Queen at some events. She died in 1968 at the age of 61.

King George VI, 1895 - 1952

Known publicly as Prince Albert until his accession, King George VI did not expect to inherit the throne because his elder brother Edward VIII was first in the line of succession.

As the second son of George V and Queen Mary, he was made Duke of York in 1920, after serving in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during World War I. In 1923, he married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, and the couple had two daughters: the future Queen Elizabeth and Princess Margaret. Following Edward&rsquos abdication in 1936, Albert took the throne and assumed the name King George VI. The dissolution of the British Empire and formation of the British Commonwealth were finalized during George&rsquos reign, so he was both the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth. George died in 1952 at the age of 56, and was succeeded by his daughter.

Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother, 1900 - 2002

Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon was born into British nobility, the 9th of 10 siblings. In 1923, she married Prince Albert, the Duke of York, having turned down several previous proposals because she had misgivings about royal life. When her brother-in-law abdicated in 1936, Albert became King George VI and Elizabeth became the Queen consort of the United Kingdom. Upon her husband&rsquos death in 1952, her elder daughter Elizabeth ascended to the throne, and she became known as the Queen Mother. She remained active in public life up to and even after her 100th birthday in 2000 and died at 101, seven weeks after the death of her younger daughter, Princess Margaret.

Prince William of Gloucester, 1941-1972

As the eldest son of Prince Henry and Lady Alice, Prince William was highly educated, studying at Eton College, Cambridge University, and Stanford University. While he later held jobs in banking and in the British civil service, Queen Elizabeth&rsquos first-cousin was also a licensed pilot, and regularly competed in air show races. It was that passion eventually lead to his untimely death. In 1972, at the age of 30, Prince William died in an airplane crash.

Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, 1944-

The younger son of Prince Henry and Lady Alice, Prince Richard initially had a career as an architect, but following the death of his older brother Prince William in 1972, he took on additional royal duties.

That same year, he married Birgitte van Deurs (1946-) whom he met at Cambridge University, and just two years after that, Richard inherited the title of Duke of Gloucester from his father Prince Henry. Now in his 70s, Richard remains active in public life and carries out regular royal duties for his first cousin, the Queen. He and his wife have three children together&ndashAlexander Windsor (1974-), Lady Davina Lewis (1977-) and Lady Rose Gilman (1980-)&ndashand six grandchildren (Xan Windsor, Lady Cosima Windsor, Senna Lewis, Tāne Lewis, Lyla Gilman and Rufus Gilman). The couple resides in Kensington Palace.

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, 1935-

The eldest child of Prince George, the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina, Prince Edward is directly related to both Prince Philip and the Queen. As a grandchild of George V and Queen Mary, he is the Queen&rsquos first cousin, and since his mother was a first cousin to Prince Philip, Edward is also Philip&rsquos first cousin once removed. Edward inherited the dukedom of Kent following his father&rsquos death in a 1942 military air crash. Nearly two decades later, he married Katharine Worsley, and the couple have three children together&ndashGeorge Windsor, Earl of St Andrews (1962-), Lady Helen Taylor (1964-), Lord Nicholas Windsor (1970-)&ndashand ten grandchildren (Lord Edward Windsor, Lady Marina Charlotte Windsor, Lady Amelia Windsor, Columbus Taylor, Cassius Taylor, Eloise Taylor, Estella Taylor, Albert Windsor, Leopold Windsor and Louis Windsor). Now in his 80s, Prince Edward regularly carries out royal duties on behalf of the Queen. He and his wife live on the grounds of Kensington Palace in the royal residence Wren House.

Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, 1936-

Like her two brothers, Princess Alexandra is directly related to both Prince Philip and the Queen. As the eldest daughter of Prince George, the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina, she is both Queen Elizabeth&rsquos first cousin and Prince Philip&rsquos first cousin once removed. Princess Alexandra married the businessman Sir Angus Ogilvy in 1963, and the couple have two children&ndashJames Ogilvy (1964-) and Marina Ogilvy (1966-)&ndashand four grandchildren (Alexander Charles Ogilvy, Flora Alexandra Ogilvy, Zenouska Mowatt and Christian Mowatt). Alexandra is reportedly quite close with the royal couple, and while Sir Angus Ogilvy passed away in 2004, she continues to be an active working royal and resides in St James&rsquos Palace in London.

Prince Michael of Kent, 1942-

Like his brother Prince Edward and his sister Princess Alexandra, Prince Michael of Kent is directly related to both Prince Philip and the Queen.

As the youngest child of Prince George, the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina, he is both Queen Elizabeth&rsquos first cousin and Prince Philip&rsquos first cousin once removed. In 1978, he married Baroness Marie Christine von Reibnitz in a civil ceremony in Austria, and the couple have two children together: Lord Frederick Windsor (1979-) and Lady Gabriella Windsor (1981-). Michael takes on fewer royal responsibilities than his siblings, but he does sometimes represent the Queen at events in Commonwealth countries outside of the United Kingdom. In recognition of this work, the Queen provided Prince Michael and his wife with an apartment at Kensington Palace for a number of years, but after that proved controversial, they now pay rent.

Queen Elizabeth II, 1926-

Elizabeth II is the current Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth. Born third in the line of succession, Elizabeth became the presumptive heir to the throne in 1936, following the abdication of her uncle Edward VIII and the ascension of her father, George VI. In 1947, she became engaged to Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, whom she had first met at the age of 13. The couple were married the same year at Westminster Abbey, and have four children together. After her father died in 1952, Elizabeth ascended to the throne. Currently in her 90s, she is both the longest-reigning and the longest-living British monarch in history, having reigned for more than 65 years. Her great-grandmother Queen Victoria, the second longest-reigning monarch, reigned for 63 years.

Princess Margaret, 1930 - 2002

Queen Elizabeth&rsquos younger sister Margaret was 22 when her sister took the throne, and shortly afterwards became engaged to air force officer Peter Townsend. Because Townsend was divorced, the Church of England would not approve the marriage, and Margaret was famously forced to choose between ending the relationship and losing her royal privileges. She broke off her engagement with Townsend, and in 1960 married society photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones, who was given the title Earl of Snowdon. The couple had two children together, and ultimately divorced in 1978 after a tempestuous 20-year marriage. Margaret died in 2002, at the age of 71.

Antony Armstrong-Jones, Lord Snowdon, 1930-2017

Antony Armstrong-Jones, a.k.a. Lord Snowdon, was the husband of Princess Margaret, and brother-in-law to Queen Elizabeth. Armstrong-Jones was a fashion and society photographer when he met Margaret in 1958, and they married two years later in 1960. The couple had two children together &ndash David Armstrong-Jones (1961-) and Lady Sarah Chatto (1964-) &ndash and four grandchildren (Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley, Lady Margarita Armstrong-Jones, Samuel Chatto and Arthur Chatto), but divorced in 1978. Armstrong-Jones married his second wife Lucy Mary Lindsay-Hogg that same year, and they remained married until 2000. Armstrong-Jones died in 2017 at the age of 86.

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, 1921-2021

Prince Philip was best known as Queen Elizabeth&rsquos husband and consort, but he is also royal in his own right. He was born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, but Philip and his family were exiled from Greece during his childhood, and so he studied in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom before eventually serving in the British Royal Navy. He married then-Princess Elizabeth in 1947, during the reign of her father George VI, and the couple have four children together. When he passed away in 2021 at the age of 99, Prince Philip was not only the the longest-serving consort of a reigning British Monarch, but also the longest-living male British royal in history.

Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, 1948-

The eldest child of Queen Elizabeth, and the heir apparent to the British throne, Prince Charles was born in 1948 in Buckingham Palace. He went on to be educated at a number of institutions including Cheam and Gordonstoun Schools (which his father attended before him) and Cambridge University, before serving in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy.

In 1981, Charles married Diana Spencer, and the couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Harry, before divorcing in 1996. Charles later married his second wife Camilla Parker Bowles in 2005. Having held the title since 1958, Charles is the longest-serving Prince of Wales in history. He is also the first heir to the British throne ever to have a university degree.

Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961-

Diana Spencer was born on July 1, 1961 into British nobility, as the third John Spencer, Viscount Althorp and Frances Roche's four children. She met Prince Charles when she was 16, and married him in July of 1981, becoming the Princess of Wales. Charles and Diana had two children together, Prince William and Prince Harry before divorcing in 1996. One year later, she tragically died in a car accident in Paris on August 31, 1997.

Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, 1947-

The second wife of Prince Charles, Camilla Rosemary Shand is the eldest daughter of military officer and businessman Major Bruce Shand and his wife Rosalind Shand. She is also the granddaughter of nobleman Roland Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe. In 1973, Camilla married her first husband Andrew Parker Bowles, and the couple had two children, Tom and Lisa, before divorcing in 1995. In 2005, Camilla married Prince Charles in a civil ceremony, and she became the Duchess of Cornwall.

Princess Anne, Princess Royal, 1950-

The second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Princess Anne is one of the hardest working members of the royal family. She is also an accomplished equestrian, and was even the first British royal to compete in the Olympic Games. In 1973, Anne married Captain Mark Phillips, and the couple had two children together before divorcing in 1992. Later that year, Anne married Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, her mother&rsquos former equerry. She currently resides in St James&rsquos Palace.

Captain Mark Phillips, 1948-

Princess Anne met her first husband, Captain Mark Phillips, at the 1972 Olympics in Munich, where he was part of the British equestrian team and also competed individually. The couple married in 1973, and had two children together before divorcing in 1992.

Sir Timothy Laurence, 1955-

The second husband of Anne, Princess Royal. A retired Royal Navy officer, Timothy met Anne in 1986 while he was serving as equerry to Queen Elizabeth. After her divorce from Captain Mark Phillips in 1992, Anne and Timothy married, and although he received no title upon the marriage, in 2008 he was appointed as a personal aide-de-camp to the Queen.

Peter Phillips, 1977-

Peter Phillips is the only son of Princess Anne and her first husband Captain Mark Phillips, and the eldest grandchild of Queen Elizabeth. Peter&rsquos parents reportedly turned down the Queen&rsquos offer of a royal title for their son, hoping instead to enable him to lead a more normal life. In 2008 he married Autumn Kelly, and the couple have two children together: Savannah Phillips (2010-) and Isla Phillips (2012-). He and Autumn have since separated.

Zara Tindall, 1981-

Zara Tindall is the younger child of Princess Anne and Captain Mark Phillips and the eldest granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth. That said, she does not hold a royal title. Her parents reportedly turned down the Queen&rsquos offer for one in hopes that Zara might lead a more normal life. Like her mother, Zara is an accomplished equestrian and Olympian, winning a silver medal at the 2012 Olympics in London, and she has been appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire for her services to equestrianism. Zara married Mike Tindall, a former rugby player, in 2011, and the couple have three children together: Mia Tindall (2014-), Lena Tindall (2018-), and Lucas Tindall (2021-).

Prince Andrew, Duke of York, 1960-

The third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Prince Andrew served in the Royal Navy for many years, including during the Falklands War in 1982, and holds the ranks of commander and vice admiral. He married Sarah Ferguson in 1986, and the couple had two daughters, Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie, before divorcing in 1996. In 2019, he stepped back from his working royal duties following enormous public criticism over his association with convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein.

Sarah, Duchess of York, 1959-

The former wife of Prince Andrew, Sarah Ferguson is widely known by the nickname &ldquoFergie.&rdquo Sarah had known Andrew since childhood, and became engaged to him in 1986. The couple married at Westminster Abbey later that year, and went on to have two daughters. Sarah and Andrew announced their separation in 1992, and were divorced four years later in 1996, though by all accounts they still have an amicable relationship.

Princess Beatrice of York, 1988-

Princess Beatrice is the oldest daughter of Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson, and holds a place in the British line of succession even though she is not a working royal. The princess has a career outside the Palace, and currently works for a New York-based artificial intelligence company, but she also often attends major family events like Trooping the Colour and the annual Christmas church services. In July of 2020, she married her boyfriend Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi in a private wedding ceremony in Windsor, and became stepmother to his son, Wolfie.

Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi, 1983-

In July of 2020, Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi married Princess Beatrice in a small private wedding ceremony in Windsor. He has a young son, Wolfie, from a previous relationship&mdashmaking Beatrice an instant stepmother.

Princess Eugenie, 1990-

The younger daughter of Prince Andrew and Sarah, Duchess of York, and Queen Elizabeth&rsquos granddaughter. Eugenie attended St George&rsquos School with her elder sister Beatrice, and later graduated from Newcastle University. In October of 2018, Eugenie married her partner of seven years, Jack Brooksbank, in a ceremony at Windsor Castle.

Jack Brooksbank, 1986-

Jack Brooksbank first met Princess Eugenie in Verbier, Switzerland, while on a ski vacation. The pair dated for approximately seven years before marrying in October of 2018 in front of friends and family in St George&rsquos Chapel at Windsor Castle.

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, 1964-

The youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Edward attended Cambridge University and later joined the Royal Marines, but dropped out after four months. In 1999 he married Sophie Rhys-Jones, and the couple have two children. Prince Edward is a full-time working royal and has recently taken over several responsibilities from his father, following Prince Philip&rsquos retirement from royal duties.

Sophie, Countess of Wessex, 1965-

Sophie Helen Rhys-Jones met Prince Edward while she was working in radio, and the couple dated for six years before marrying in 1999. They have two children together, Lady Louise Windsor and James, Viscount Severn. While she previously had a career in public relations, Sophie is now a full-time working royal like her husband, and frequently supports the Queen, her mother-in-law, in her royal duties.

Lady Louise Windsor, 2003-

The elder child and only daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, Lady Louise is the youngest granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth. She and her brother James embarked on their first royal engagement in 2015, accompanying their parents to South Africa. You might also recognize her as one of the bridesmaids from Will and Kate&rsquos royal wedding in 2011.

James, Viscount Severn, 2007-

The younger child and only son of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, James is the youngest grandchild of Queen Elizabeth. Both he and his older sister Louise embarked on their first royal engagement in 2015, accompanying their parents to South Africa.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, 1982-

The elder son of Prince Charles and Princess Diana, William is currently second in the British line of succession. After attending Eton College and St Andrew&rsquos University, he trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and served in the Royal Air Force, eventually becoming a search-and-rescue pilot. He has since left the military and is now a full-time working royal. In 2011, he married his longtime girlfriend, Catherine Middleton, whom he met at St Andrew&rsquos, and the couple now have three children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis.

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, 1982-

After growing up in Chapel Row near Newbury as the oldest daughter of Carole and Michael Middleton, Kate met Prince William at the University of St Andrews in Scotland. After a long courtship, the couple married at Westminster Abbey in 2011 in a ceremony which was attended by celebrities, dignitaries, and royals from across Europe. She and William have three children together, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis, and Kate now works as a full-time royal focusing on organizations which support young people and mothers, and that help to fight the stigma of mental health issues.

Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, 1984-

The younger son of Prince Charles and Princess Diana, Harry is currently sixth in the line of succession. After attending Eton College like his elder brother William, Harry trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, and served in the British Army where he was twice deployed to Afghanistan, making Harry the first royal to serve in a war zone since his uncle Prince Andrew. In May of 2018, Harry married American actress Meghan Markle in a widely-watched royal wedding. A year and a half later, he and Meghan announced their decision to step back from their roles as working roles, and have since carved out space for themselves in the private sector, inking a deal with Netflix and signing with a speaking agency. In May of 2019, they welcomed their first child, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor the family of three currently lives in Santa Barbara, California. The couple are expecting their second child, a girl, this summer.

Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, 1981-

The Duchess of Sussex broke the mold of the expected royal bride, as a biracial, California-born actress. Markle, who divorced her first husband in 2013, was reportedly set up on a blind date with Harry in 2016, and the rest is history. They married in May 2018 at Windsor Castle, and Meghan spent a year and a half as a working royal before she and Harry decided to step back from their roles. She now lives in Santa Barbara, California with Harry and their son, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor, who was born in May 2019.

Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor, 2019-

The first child of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor was born on May 6, 2019. He is currently seventh in the line of succession.

Prince George of Cambridge, 2013-

The first child and elder son of Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, George was born on July 22, 2013 and is currently third in the line of succession.

Princess Charlotte of Cambridge, 2015-

The second child, and only daughter, of Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Charlotte was born on May 2, 2015. She is currently fourth in the line of succession.

Prince Louis of Cambridge, 2018-

The third child, and second son, of Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Prince Louis was born on April 23, 2018. He is currently fifth in the line of succession.

What Shakespeare’s ‘Henry V’ Tells Us about Leadership, Motivation, Wooing and Hanging

It has been described as one of the greatest battles of all time — the fight between Henry V of England and the French army on October 25, 1415, at Agincourt in northern France. Henry, whose goal was to reclaim English territory seized by France in earlier centuries, had approximately 6,000 men. The French army, depending on which historical report you read, had anywhere from 30,000 to 60,000 soldiers, many of them knights in armor prepared to fight on foot and on horseback. The English army had neither armor nor horses, and they were exhausted by their two-month trek across France trying to reach what was then the English port of Calais.

But they did have what turned out to be a decisive advantage — Henry V’s leadership skills and his ability to innovate in ways that would turn significant disadvantages into game-winning advantages. In addition, before the battle started, he delivered one of the most famous motivational speeches in history — at least as it is written in Shakespeare’s Henry V. The speech has been played on Allied ships crossing the English Channel to Normandy during World War II in locker rooms by football coaches losing at half time, and on the Internet for U.S. soldiers about to leave for duty in Iraq.

Here is how Henry won: He stopped his army on a field that was flanked on either side by woodlands, thus forcing the French army to move forward through a narrow funnel and neutralizing their superior numbers. He took full advantage of a rainfall that had muddied the battlefield and that would prove disastrous for the armored French soldiers — when they slipped backwards wearing their 60-pound armor, they couldn’t hoist themselves back up when they fell forward, they drowned in the mud.

In addition, rather than rely on the more traditional, easy-to-use crossbow, Henry chose the long bow, which could fire arrows more quickly and at greater range. The resulting hail of arrows killed French soldiers behind the front line, taking away urgently needed reinforcements. Henry armed his men with pikes a foot longer than those used by the French, allowing English soldiers in hand-to-hand combat to deliver the first, and usually lethal, blow. And, in what has been described as a last minute innovation, Henry planted sharp stakes in the ground just at the point of the battle’s engagement. The French army’s horses, rushing forward, were impaled on the stakes and fell to the ground, crushing soldiers around them and blocking the path forward for others.

When the fighting stopped after several hours, the French had lost about 6,000 men, and the English about 450.

Some version of this battle has been told in history books, in Shakespeare’s play and, two weeks ago, by Carol and Ken Adelman, founders of Movers & Shakespeares, which uses the world’s greatest playwright to teach modern management skills to executives. The Adelmans were at Wharton as part of a Wharton executive education program called “The Leadership Journey.”

Carol Adelman is director of the Hudson Institute’s Center for Global Prosperity where, among other things, she developed the annual Index of Global Philanthropy and Remittances. Ken Adelman is a former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations and director of the U.S. Arms Control & Disarmament Agency during the Reagan administration.

The two started Movers & Shakespeares eight years ago because, as Carol noted during the course, William Shakespeare offers his audience exceptionally astute insights into human nature and has a genius for telling stories, which, she suggested, “is the best way to learn.” The downside to the bard, she added, is that the language can be tedious and hard to understand — something that comes as no surprise to high school students everywhere.

The Adelmans’ approach is to delve into the language and extract leadership lessons from Shakespeare’s plays. In this particular session, the focus was on Henry V, brought to life by a series of scenes from the 1989 movie starring Kenneth Branagh as Henry and Emma Thompson as the French princess Katharine. The class discussion centered on the battle scene, the motivation speech, Henry’s wooing of Katharine, the punishment meted out to a soldier caught stealing, and the conference between Henry V and the Archbishop of Canterbury before Henry sets sail for France.

This ‘Band of Brothers’

From the description of the battle at Agincourt, it’s clear that Henry V displayed remarkable leadership capabilities, said Ken Adelman. He led by example, situating himself in the middle of the fighting whereas the French king, Charles VI, stayed in Paris, leaving the army under the leadership of a group of nobles. “Henry was willing to innovate, recognizing, for example, the superiority of the long bow and making sure his men were well-trained in how to use it,” Adelman noted. Before Agincourt, the English army was 80% foot soldiers and 20% archers. After Agincourt, it was 20% foot soldiers and 80% archers.

Yet perhaps the English army’s biggest asset was the speech Henry made to his men just before going into battle, including the famous sentence, “All things are ready if our minds be so.” (The words are Shakespeare’s the actual text of the speech does not exist.) Even before speaking, Henry walks among his troops listening to what they are saying and feeling, and then positions himself in their midst to deliver his address. By contrast, the French leaders (in the Branagh movie) are shown at the head of their army, uttering confident phrases unable to be heard by any of their soldiers.

Here are excerpts from Henry’s speech in the play:

“That he which hath no stomach to this fight,
Let him depart his passport shall be made
And crowns for convoy put into his purse:
We would not die in that man’s company
That fears his fellowship to die with us…

Old men forget: yet all shall be forgot,
But he’ll remember with advantages
What feats he did that day: then shall our names
Familiar in his mouth as household words
Harry the King, Bedford and Exeter,
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloucester,
Be in their flowing cups freshly remember’d.
This story shall the good man teach his son
And Crispin Crispian shall ne’er go by,
From this day to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be remember’d
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers
For he today that shed his blood with me
Shall be my brother.”

[email protected] High School

“Henry painted a vision of what success looked like,” said Adelman. “He spoke of God, and never mentioned the word ‘defeat.’ He talked about children being proud of their fathers who fought in this battle. He said ‘we are a band of brothers’ and he is one of them. He connected to the mission and to the people.”

In addition, Adelman noted, Henry said he did not want one more man on his side because it would dilute the glory, and he told the troops that if any man didn’t want to fight, then he should feel free to go. Finally, Henry called out some of his key people “and said they would be household words.” In our workplaces today, Adelman told the class, “we can’t bring religion in but we can remind employees that we have a higher purpose, and we can communicate to them that vision.”

Legitimizing the Mission

Contrast Henry’s moving speech with a scene earlier in Henry V during which the young (age 28) newly crowned king asks the Archbishop of Canterbury a simple question: Does he, Henry, have the right to reclaim France? The response from the Archbishop is long-winded, meandering and almost impenetrable. An excerpt:

“Nor did the French possess the Salique land
Until four hundred one and twenty years
After defunction of King Pharamond,
Idly supposed the founder of this law
Who died within the year of our redemption
Four hundred twenty-six and Charles the Great
Subdued the Saxons, and did seat the French
Beyond the river Sala, in the year
Eight hundred five. Besides, their writers say,
King Pepin, which deposed Childeric,
Did, as heir general, being descended
Of Blithild, which was daughter to King Clothair….”

The speech continues in this vein until Henry finally is forced to repeat the question: “May I with right and conscience make this claim?” (The answer, eventually, is “yes.”) The Archbishop’s performance is not that different, Carol Adelman noted, from executive presentations that ramble use obscure language, irrelevant facts, and charts and graphs that no one understands and allude to unspoken subplots that hint at, rather than reveal, the meaning of the presenter’s words.

Indeed, the outcome of the discussion between Henry and the Archbishop had already been decided before the meeting took place. Based on earlier speeches in the play, it is known that the Archbishop will grant Henry the right to attack France because Henry had earlier agreed to stop a bill in Parliament that would have taxed the church and taken away half its land. We also know that Henry entered the discussion with the full support of the English nobles who had visions of plundering the land and riches of a defeated France. As for the king himself, he favored war in order to gain the respect of the English people and the nobles of the English court. But none of this is mentioned during the talk between Henry and the Archbishop, nor is there discussion of substantive questions, such as: Could England actually win? How many troops would be needed to secure that victory?

So why have the meeting at all? “For unity and affirmation from the church,” said Ken Adelman. “God gives Henry the right to invade France. The battle is legitimized.” Equally important, he added, is that “Henry has the last word, which provides further clarity and legitimization for the mission ahead.” As the king says: “Now are we well resolved and, by God’s help, and yours, the noble sinews of our power, France being ours, we’ll bend it to our awe, or break it all to pieces….”

The question for the leadership course: Is this a good way to reach a major decision? Adelman’s response: “In my experience, this is the only way to go if you want to make a big change in your organization. You have to meet with all the interested parties before hand and get them behind you. You have to meet the specific interests of different groups before you can align the group behind the big goal.”

It’s true in business and also in politics, he noted. Adelman remembered attending a meeting called by the national security advisor (NSA) during the Reagan administration. The object was to debate SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative), an idea which Reagan had long championed. Indeed, the President had already spoken about SDI with all the relevant groups before the meeting even took place, and Adelman as well had been asked by the NSA to show his support. “So when it came time to agree on implementing the initiative, everybody present, including [Secretary of Defense] Caspar Weinberger and [Secretary of State] George Shultz, was on board,” said Adelman. And at the end of the very agreeable discussion, “Reagan looked around the room and said, ‘This has been a great meeting.'”

To Hang or Not to Hang

Henry V is full of other teachable moments, including a scene where Henry’s childhood friend and drinking companion, Bardolph, has been caught stealing a pewter chalice from a French church. Henry had ordered his men to refrain from pillaging French property or harming French civilians anyone who disobeyed this order, he had stated, would be hung.

When Bardolph is captured by one of the English soldiers shortly before the battle and brought to Henry on horseback, tied up and badly beaten, the other soldiers look to their king to see whether he will order the death of his friend. The question for the executive education class becomes: What should Henry have done?

The “anti-hanging” advocates argue that the prisoner had already suffered a brutal beating, that the crime is relatively minor, that Bardolph had no chance to defend himself, and that the outmanned English army needs every soldier it can get for the upcoming battle. The “pro-hanging” advocates respond that the policy was clear, that the king wanted to convey a message to the French people that he would not tolerate the looting of their countryside, that the king should not compromise on core values (one of them being “don’t steal”), and that the king should not undermine his own aides, who were in favor of enforcing the policy.

Henry orders his friend to be hung. While CEOs these days are fortunately not able to hang employees who break a company’s code of conduct, Henry’s decision with regard to Bardolph raises questions about executive authority and the appropriate “punishment” for offenders. “The king may be more concerned with his own reputation” than with whether his decision was morally right or wrong, suggested Adelman, but he is a young king “who needs to show his toughness.”

Artful Wooing

The famous wooing scene in Henry V takes place in a royal palace in Paris during a meeting that is attended by Henry, the French king and queen, and princess Katharine, among others. Henry is negotiating what he insists on calling the “peace treaty” (to avoid humiliating the French with words like “surrender”) and has decided to woo Katharine to be his queen rather than merely order up the marriage, as he is allowed to do under the terms of the proposed treaty. Wooing was probably a good idea, said Adelman: “After all, Henry had just put her father out of business and killed 6,000 French soldiers.” Good communication and persuasion skills could help get this royal couple off on the right foot.

Excerpts from Henry’s wooing of Katharine (whom he is soon calling “Kate”) show just how astute a wooer he is:

“Fair Katharine, and most fair,
Will you vouchsafe to teach a soldier terms
Such as will enter at a lady’s ear
And plead his love-suit to her gentle heart?…

And while thou livest, dear Kate, take a fellow of plain and
uncoined constancy for he perforce must do thee
right, because he hath not the gift to woo in other
places: for these fellows of infinite tongue, that
can rhyme themselves into ladies’ favours, they do
always reason themselves out again. What! a
speaker is but a prater a rhyme is but a ballad. A
good leg will fall a straight back will stoop a
black beard will turn white a curled pate will grow
bald a fair face will wither a full eye will wax
hollow: but a good heart, Kate, is the sun and the
moon or, rather, the sun, and not the moon for it
shines bright and never changes, but keeps his
course truly. If thou would have such a one, take
me and take me, take a soldier take a soldier,
take a king. And what sayest thou then to my love?
speak, my fair, and fairly, I pray thee….”

At one point, Katharine asks if it is possible that she could love an enemy of France. Henry replies:

“No it is not possible you should love the enemy of
France, Kate: but, in loving me, you should love
the friend of France for I love France so well that
I will not part with a village of it I will have it
all mine: and, Kate, when France is mine and I am
yours, then yours is France and you are mine.”

At another point, Henry attempts to speak to Katharine — in French, despite his lack of fluency:

“I will tell thee in French which I am
sure will hang upon my tongue like a new-married
wife about her husband’s neck, hardly to be shook….

When I come to woo ladies, I fright them. But, in faith,
Kate, the elder I wax, the better I shall appear:
my comfort is, that old age, that ill layer up of
beauty, can do no more, spoil upon my face: thou
hast me, if thou hast me, at the worst and thou
shalt wear me, if thou wear me, better and better:
and therefore tell me, most fair Katharine, will you
have me?…

You have witchcraft in your lips, Kate: there is
more eloquence in a sugar touch of them than in the
tongues of the French council and they should
sooner persuade Harry of England than a general
petition of monarchs. Here comes your father.”

The wooing scene, as Adelman and “The Leadership Journey” participants pointed out, was notable — and successful — for several reasons. Henry asked everyone to leave the room except for Katharine and her lady-in-waiting he was a good listener and changed his speech based on what he heard from Katharine he made himself vulnerable by stating that he was a great king and soldier but not very successful with women, and he said he would wear well in old age (alas, he died at age 34).

In addition, he converted himself from an enemy of France into a friend of France by saying he loved the country so much that he took it he had a sense of humor he was respectful and at several points, he even tried to speak Katharine’s native language despite an almost comical inability to do so. As Adelman pointed out: “He incentivized her. She was the princess of a deposed king, and she left the room as a queen of England and France. It was a career-enhancing move for her.”

Channeling Shakespeare on Your Own Stage

“By watching how historical figures behave in settings far before our time — in this case, looking at the characters Shakespeare brought to life in Henry V — we often get very good insights into what is vital in our own leadership or managerial moments,” says Michael Useem, co-director of “The Leadership Journey” and director of the Wharton Center for Leadership and Change Management. “We include Shakespeare in our range of learning experiences because it is one of the more indelible ways we have found of bringing points to life — in part because of the power of his insights and also because of the intrinsic elements of the stories he tells.”

If you are about to walk onto a stage at an offsite event, Useem adds, “looking at the language in Henry V will remind you to offer up the big purpose of why you are there and also to make it personal and motivational. For doing that, Henry V is about as good as it gets.”

King Offa (757 - 796)

Offa (son of Thingfrith, son of Eanulf), King of Mercia, was one of the leading figures of Saxon history. He obtained the throne of Mercia in 757, after the murder of his cousin, King Aethelbald, by Beornraed. After spending fourteen years in consolidating and ordering his territories he engaged in conquests which made him the most powerful king in England. After a successful campaign against the Hestingi, he defeated the men of Kent at Otford (776) the West Saxons at Bensington in Oxfordshire (779) and finally the Welsh, depriving the last-named of a large part of Powys, including the town of Pengwern. To repress the raids of the Welsh he built Offa's dyke, 150 miles long and roughly indicating for the first time what has remained the boundary between England and Wales.

From 776 Offa was the most powerful Anglo-Saxon king until Alfred the Great. He ruled over Kent, Sussex, East Anglia and the Midlands, and allied with Beorhtric of Wessex. His rule never extended to Northumbria but his daughter married the King of Northumbria. Offa died in 796.

French culture in the 17th century

If historians are not yet agreed on the political motives of Louis XIV, they all accept, however, the cultural and artistic significance of the epoch over which he and his two 17th-century predecessors reigned. In their different ways— Henry IV’s interest lay in town planning, Louis XIII’s in the visual arts, and Louis XIV’s in the theatre and in landscape gardening—they all actively stimulated the emergence of great talents and were aided by such royal ministers as Richelieu and Mazarin, who were considered patrons in their own right.

From Henry IV’s reign dates the rebuilding of Paris as a tasteful, ordered city, with the extensions to the Louvre, the building of the Pont Neuf and the Place Dauphine, and, outside the capital, the renovations and extensions at Fontainebleau and Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Henry succeeded in making Paris what it had never been before—the centre of polite society—and, though he was not personally interested in such matters, he must therefore be given some credit for the atmosphere that later led to the establishment of the famous salon of Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet, which flourished from 1617 until 1665. There men of letters mingled with the great nobility to the mutual advantage of both. The guests at her salon included the statesmen Richelieu and the Great Condé the epigrammatist the duc de La Rochefoucauld the letter writer Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné, and Mme de La Fayette the novelist Madeleine de Scudéry the poet François de Malherbe and the dramatist Pierre Corneille.

Richelieu also was a key figure in the artistic and architectural development of Paris during his years in power. He was fortunate to employ the great architect Jacques Lemercier, who built for him, close to the Louvre, the Palais-Cardinal, later the Palais-Royal it contained two theatres and a gallery for the cardinal’s objets d’art. Under the same patron, Lemercier also built the church of the Sorbonne, where Richelieu is buried. In the world of painting, the cardinal supported Simon Vouet, who decorated the Palais-Cardinal, and Philippe de Champaigne, whose surviving portraits include famous representations of Richelieu himself. The cardinal’s most notable contribution, however, was in the field of letters, with the establishment in 1634 of the Académie Française to regulate and maintain the standards of the French language. One of its first tasks was the production of a standard dictionary, a massive work published in four volumes in 1694. The Académie succeeded over the years in making the pursuit of letters socially acceptable, though still inferior to the pursuit of arms. Richelieu’s great interest in the theatre persuaded him to patronize a number of dramatists, including Corneille and Jean de Rotrou.

Richelieu’s patronage of the arts was taken over by his great pupil Mazarin, who collected some 500 paintings. In 1648 Mazarin established the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which encouraged artists to follow the examples of Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French exponent of the Classical style, and of the landscape artist Claude Lorrain. Mazarin housed his own art collection in the Palais Mazarin (now the Institut de France and home of the Académie Française), which itself was enlarged for Mazarin by the architect François Mansart. Mazarin also commissioned Louis Le Vau to rebuild part of the medieval castle of Vincennes, thus setting him off on his successful career.

Louis XIV’s patronage centred on Versailles, the great palace that also played such an important part in the political life of 17th-century France. There André Le Nôtre designed the formal gardens, which still attract a multitude of admiring visitors, as they did when they were first completed. There Jules Hardouin-Mansart added the long, familiar garden facade, and, with unforgettable magnificence, Charles Le Brun decorated the Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors) and the adjoining Salon de la Paix (Salon of Peace) and Salon de la Guerre (Salon of War). There the composer Jean-Baptiste Lully devised and directed a number of musical entertainments with such success that Louis granted him noble status and the office of a royal secretary. There, too, the comic genius Molière was encouraged by the king’s support after the dramatist’s death, Louis was directly responsible for the establishment, in 1680, of the Comédie-Française. There, finally, Louis recognized the genius of Jean Racine, whose great tragedies, from Bérénice (1670) to Iphigénie (1675), earned him membership in the Académie Française and a noble office, that of trésorier de France (treasurer of France), from the king.

This blossoming of the arts was aided though not inspired by the patronage of kings and ministers. The artistic creations evince a strong element of order and simplicity, culminating in the Classical grandeur of Racine’s plays and the facade of Versailles. Thus, they might seem to reflect the growth of political stability and order over which Louis XIV presided. The monarchy continued to expand its support for culture during his reign. In 1663 the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres was founded originally intended to compose inscriptions for royal medals and monuments, it eventually became a centre for historical research. Three years later Louis XIV sponsored the creation of the Académie des Sciences and a training centre for French artists in Rome. The Académie d’Architecture and the Académie Royale de Musique began in 1671. It is, however, dangerous to tie creative achievements in the arts and sciences too closely to their political environment. Moreover, there are significant counterpoints to the theme of Classical order. The philosopher René Descartes’s doubting, rationalist approach to the fundamental questions of God’s existence and man’s relationship to God undermined the rigid adherence to revealed truths propounded by religious orthodoxy. The Jansenist Blaise Pascal, one of the most versatile geniuses of the century, represented and defended a minority religious movement that Louis XIV believed dangerously subversive. Toward the end of his long reign, Louis encountered the fierce social criticism of Jean de La Bruyère and the skepticism of the exiled Huguenot Pierre Bayle, whose Dictionnaire historique et critique (1697 “Historical and Critical Dictionary") raised questions about the sacred status of the Bible and foreshadowed the secularism of the Enlightenment. These discordant elements draw attention to the fact that the absolute state which Versailles was intended to represent concealed tensions that would surface after the king’s death. Nonetheless, the splendour of Versailles and the Classical simplicity of Racine’s tragedies represent a high point in creative human achievement, and it is to the king’s credit that he chose to be identified with them.

King Louis XVI executed

One day after being convicted of conspiracy with foreign powers and sentenced to death by the French National Convention, King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris.

Louis ascended to the French throne in 1774 and from the start was unsuited to deal with the severe financial problems that he had inherited from his grandfather, King Louis XV. In 1789, in a last-ditch attempt to resolve his country’s financial crisis, Louis assembled the States-General, a national assembly that represented the three 𠇎states” of the French people—the nobles, the clergy and the commons. The States-General had not been assembled since 1614, and the third estate—the commons—used the opportunity to declare itself the National Assembly, igniting the French Revolution. On July 14, 1789, violence erupted when Parisians stormed the Bastille𠅊 state prison where they believed ammunition was stored.

Although outwardly accepting the revolution, Louis resisted the advice of constitutional monarchists who sought to reform the monarchy in order to save it he also permitted the reactionary plotting of his unpopular queen, Marie Antoinette. In October 1789, a mob marched on Versailles and forced the royal couple to move to Tuileries in June 1791, opposition to the royal pair had become so fierce that the two were forced to flee to Austria. During their trip, Marie and Louis were apprehended at Varennes, France, and carried back to Paris. There, Louis was forced to accept the constitution of 1791, which reduced him to a mere figurehead.

Meghan Markle's puppy trouble

In her Daily Mail interview, former friend Ninaki Priddy claimed dog-loving Meghan Markle flaunted her status as a way to adopt a dog. Now the owner of two rescues, Markle seems to have a rocky relationship with both of them.

In November 2017, a Kensington Palace spokesperson broke the news that Markle's retriever, Bogart, would not join her overseas. "It takes a toll on an animal to travel so far across Atlantic combined with the hard, long process of getting approval," said the spokesperson. "It's in the best interest of the animal's well-being to stay." Instead of traveling with Markle, Bogart will stay with one of her friends in the United States.

That December, the Daily Mail reported that Markle's other dog, Guy, broke two legs. Circumstances surrounding the injury are unknown, but sources claimed Markle was "distraught" over the accident.

Rose Hanbury's marriage is rumored to be rocky

The seemingly solid relationship between Prince William and Kate Middleton makes it hard to believe that he would ever cheat. With a beautiful wife and three gorgeous kids, the prince looks like he is living in an actual fairytale. On the surface, at least, it appears that their life is idyllic.

Rose Hanbury's life might not be quite as charmed. While Middleton and William are close in age and have known each other since their youth, Hanbury's husband is much older. The 23-year difference in age doesn't just put them in different generations (Hanbury is a millennial while her husband is a boomer), but it also means that their marriage is statistically more likely to end in divorce.

A source who is a member of the same club as Hanbury's brother told The Sun that her marriage isn't the happiest, claiming to have heard the news from her brother. "He let it slip when he had been drinking that Rose is aware of what people are saying about her and William," the insider said. "And it seems Rose's marriage has less romance these days. He's much older than her and they have different interests."

Prince Harry

Prince Henry of Wales, known as Prince Harry, is the younger child of Prince Charles and Princess Diana, and third in line to the throne behind his father and brother William. He was born Sept. 15, 1984. Harry was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Blues and Royals of the Household Cavalry Regiment and served on the ground in Afghanistan before being pulled out over fears for his safety. Harry has been a favorite of the tabloids, with exploits ranging from smoking marijuana and drinking to showing up dressed in a German Afrika Korps uniform at a costume party. He had an on again, off again relationship with Chelsea Davy, a native Zimbabwean. His wedding to Meghan Markle, a biracial American actress, is scheduled for May 19, 2018.

Watch the video: Henry IV, Part 1. In-Depth Summary u0026 Analysis (January 2022).