Information

Henry Cabot Lodge - History


Henry Cobot Lodge

1902- 1985

U.S. Ambassador

US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge was born into a prominent Massachusetts family on July 5, 1902 in Nahat Mass. He went to Harvard College. In 1936, the Republican politician was elected to the US Senate, and was reelected in 1942.

He resigned in 1944 to fight in the Army during World War II, the first Senator to resign from the body in order to fight in a conflict since the Civil War. After the war, Lodge was reelected to the Senate.

Lodge managed Dwight Eisenhower's Presidential campaign in 1952, but was defeated in the same year in his own bid for reelection to the Senate by Democrat John F. Kennedy. Lodge was US Ambassador to the United Nations from 1953 to 1960, when he became Richard Nixon's running mate in the 1960 Presidential election. After the two Republicans lost the election, Lodge served as US Ambassador to Vietnam (1963-64, 1965-67), during which time he supported the escalation of America's military presence in the country. Lodge served briefly as Ambassador to West Germany, and then became chief US representative to the 1969 Paris Peace Talks on Vietnam


Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (Imperial States of America)

Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (May 12, 1850- March 9, 1925) was the 29th President of the United States of America. As President, and as senator from Massachusetts, he was a noted imperialist who helped to forge the American Empire, and laid the foundations for the Imperial States of America.


Henry Cabot Lodge - History

Henry Cabot Lodge

Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American Republican senator and historian from Massachusetts. A member of the prominent Lodge family, he received his PhD in history from Harvard University. As an undergraduate at Harvard, he joined Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles. The failure of that treaty ensured that the United States never joined the League of Nations.

Born in Beverly, Massachusetts, Lodge won election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives after graduating from Harvard. He and his close friend, Theodore Roosevelt, opposed James G. Blaine's nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention, but supported Blaine in the general election against Grover Cleveland. Lodge was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1886 before joining the United States Senate in 1893.

In the Senate, he sponsored the unsuccessful Lodge Bill, which sought to protect the voting rights of African Americans. He supported the Spanish–American War and called for the annexation of the Philippines after the war. He also supported immigration restrictions, becoming a member of the Immigration Restriction League and influencing the Immigration Act of 1917. Lodge served as Chairman of the 1900 and 1908 Republican National Conventions. A member of the conservative wing of the Republican Party, Lodge opposed Roosevelt's third party bid for president in 1912, but the two remained close friends.

During the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, Lodge advocated entrance into World War I on the side of the Allied Powers. He became Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference and Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, emerging as the leader of the Senate Republicans. He led the opposition to Wilson's Treaty of Versailles, proposing twelve reservations to the treaty. He most strongly objected to the provision of the treaty that required all nations to repel aggression, fearing that this would erode Congressional powers and commit the U.S. to burdensome obligations. Lodge prevailed in the treaty battle and Lodge's objections would influence the United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations. After the war, Lodge participated in the creation of the Washington Naval Treaty, which sought to prevent a naval arms race. He remained in the Senate until his death in 1924.

Birth and Death Data: Born May 12th, 1850 (Boston), Died November 9th, 1924 (Cambridge)

Date Range of DAHR Recordings: 1919

Roles Represented in DAHR: speaker

Recordings

Citation

Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. "Lodge, Henry Cabot," accessed June 21, 2021, https://adp.library.ucsb.edu/names/102491.

Lodge, Henry Cabot. (2021). In Discography of American Historical Recordings. Retrieved June 21, 2021, from https://adp.library.ucsb.edu/names/102491.

"Lodge, Henry Cabot." Discography of American Historical Recordings. UC Santa Barbara Library, 2021. Web. 21 June 2021.


Henry Cabot Lodge: American Nationalist

During World War II, Hollywood producer Darryl F. Zanuck, an admirer of President Woodrow Wilson, wanted to make a film to honor him, and the product was 1944’s Wilson. Although the film won five Oscars and many critics of the time praised it, it was a box office bomb and Zanuck subsequently eschewed reference of the film in his presence. A notable part of the film is that it portrays Wilson’s chief rival, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, as a villain. Wilson was a film made in a period of Democratic political primacy and it was not the first film to commemorate a Democratic president and vilify his Republican foe. The film Tennessee Johnson (1942) made a hero out of the 17 th president while making the elderly, dying Thaddeus Stevens the villain. Stevens has a much more positive reputation today while Johnson has a much lower one. Although modern times have not been as kind to Wilson as they were in the 1940s, there has been no similar revival for Lodge.

Background and Support for Expansionist Foreign Policy

Henry Cabot Lodge was born on May 12, 1850. That was the year of the final major compromise on slavery, the Compromise of 1850, which was a series of five bills, among which admitted California as a free state and the Fugitive Slave Act. Many at the time thought and hoped this to be the final resolution of the conflicts between free and slave states, but the next fifteen years proved, to say the least, tumultuous. Lodge grew up in this political environment and the Civil War had left him with a deep impression that good had prevailed over evil with the slaves freed and the union restored. Furthermore, he thought that the United States could and should be the supreme moral actor on the world stage, fighting similar “good vs. evil” battles abroad. Lodge backed increasing America’s influence through growing the navy, embracing the views of the incredibly influential Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan, who held in his books that powerful nations had in common strong sea power. However, this view was coupled with the notion that America should first and foremost be out for its own interests, or you could say, “America First”! Lodge became a prime advocate of the American version of imperialism, backing the annexation of Hawaii and the Treaty of Paris, which secured US control over former Spanish colonies. He regarded America’s version of imperialism as more humane than that of the European powers and that the expansion of American ideals and business would serve to uplift people around the world. With this view in mind, he strongly embraced the foreign and military policies of Presidents Harrison, McKinley, and Roosevelt. Lodge was downright enthusiastic about Roosevelt’s “big stick” foreign policy, including the Panama Canal.

Although Lodge believed in spreading American cultural and economic influence, he did not approve of the reverse: masses of immigrants spreading their influence to the United States, particularly from Eastern and Southern Europe. He was a key figure in the advocacy of immigration restriction by requiring that immigrants be able to read five lines from the U.S. Constitution. Lodge’s proposal passed the House and Senate in 1895, but President Cleveland vetoed it. Lodge thought in political, cultural, and racial terms on the subject. He thought of Eastern and Southern Europeans as lesser but also had realistic political fears: immigrants from these areas tended to vote Democrat. Lodge’s political concern has undoubtedly been proven correct given the state’s current political makeup, fueled by the influx of Catholic working-class immigrants and the out-migration of WASPs. Lodge’s proposal again was vetoed by President Taft in 1913, but four years later Congress succeeded in overriding President Wilson’s veto of the Immigration Act of 1917, which included the literacy test as well as an “Asiatic Barred Zone” and basically prohibited a laundry list of anyone from immigrating who was at risk of being a political or social inconvenience to the United States. He also voted for the Immigration Act of 1924, which slowed immigration to a crawl as it aimed to maintain the levels of race and ethnicity based on the census of 1890, before the major wave of immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe occurred. However, Lodge also opposed more extreme propositions on immigration, such as total bans based on race.

If Lodge’s stances on immigration seem highly uncharitable today, his support for voting rights on race do not. In 1890, Lodge sponsored a bill with Senator George Frisbie Hoar that would have enforced voting rights in the South as well as tackled corruption nationwide. Although it passed on a partisan vote in the House, the measure was filibustered to death in the Senate and used as an issue against the Republicans in the 1890 midterms. His enthusiasm, as well as the Republican Party’s, for passing civil rights legislation waned as a result. Lodge didn’t think highly of social reform movements in general in the 1910s and voted against the constitutional amendments providing for the direct election of senators, Prohibition, and women’s suffrage. For the latter, the state of Massachusetts’ male voters had overwhelmingly rejected suffrage in 1915. The latter stance also came at a political cost as public opinion turned increasingly favorable to suffrage: in 1918, his even more conservative colleague and anti-suffragist John W. Weeks lost reelection to suffragist Democrat David I. Walsh, with suffrage being a central issue of the campaign. This development was tremendously significant as Massachusetts hadn’t had a Democratic senator since 1851, and Walsh was only the second from the state. Lodge himself almost lost his final reelection bid in 1922, coming within a point of defeat. Although Lodge supported the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, he didn’t commit much energy to it and assigned freshman Senator Samuel Shortridge (R-Calif.) to shepherd the bill. Shortridge proved no match for Senators Oscar Underwood (D-Ala.), William Borah (R-Idaho), and Pat Harrison (D-Miss.), whose will to defeat the bill was far greater than the Republican will to pass it.

Henry Cabot Lodge’s stances on most issues was conservative, including his backing of the gold standard, tariffs, and opposition to strong regulations on business. He also supported the tax cuts of the Harding Administration. There were a few reforms he endorsed, such as an abolition of child labor, but he mostly could be counted as a “standpatter”. His influence extended to the judiciary as well, and he recommended Oliver Wendell Holmes to President Theodore Roosevelt, who appointed him Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Although Holmes disappointed Roosevelt in voting against the Administration’s position on an anti-trust case, he would become the most recognized and celebrated justice who never held the post of chief justice for his jurisprudence.

This part of his career is what Lodge is most famous for. In 1912, the conservative Lodge backed Taft over progressive Theodore Roosevelt, but the two remained personal friends. However, there was no friendship between Lodge and the victor, Woodrow Wilson. From the start of the Wilson Administration he stood opposed to his policies. Wilson and Lodge had a surprising amount in common: both held doctorates, they were intellectual equals, both held high opinions of themselves, and both were stubborn. However, on politics they agreed on few things, and Lodge more than anyone else was able to irritate the president. Lodge despised Wilson and thought him to be indecisive, weak, and morally relativistic on foreign policy. He thought Germany was the bad actor in Europe and that Britain, France, and Russia were the good actors and that Wilson should act accordingly. Wilson thought no better of Lodge, believing him to be a man who would do anything for partisan advantage and regarded him and his supporters as having “bungalow minds” (Fleming). The relations between Wilson and Lodge were so awful that neither would be in the same room.

These exceptionally poor relations had far-reaching consequences: in 1918, the Republicans won control of both the House and Senate, placing Lodge as chair of the important Foreign Relations Committee as well as leader of the Senate Republicans. Wilson had blundered at the start when he failed to invite Republicans on the Foreign Relations Committee to Paris with him. Wilson’s League of Nations struck Lodge as being too compromising of American sovereignty, especially the section requiring the United States to come to the defense of member nations. Lodge stated, “The United States is the world’s best hope, but…if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe, you will destroy her powerful good, and endanger her very existence… Beware how you trifle with your marvelous inheritance — this great land of ordered liberty. For if we stumble and fall, freedom and civilization everywhere will go down in ruin” (PBS). On the Versailles Treaty, several factions sprung up: the internationalists, who supported a treaty with no reservations reservationists, who backed a treaty with reservations and irreconcilables, who under no circumstances would back the treaty. Wilson suffered a debilitating stroke during his tour of the United States to promote the treaty and as a consequence was rendered partially paralyzed and mentally impacted by a severe stroke. He refused to give any ground to Lodge despite lacking enough support for a treaty with no reservations and instructed his supporters to vote against a treaty with reservations. Lodge didn’t have enough support for his position either thanks to the votes of the irreconcilables moving against him as well. In the end, the treaty was defeated to the tremendous dismay of Wilson, who left office regarding himself as a failure. Lodge’s success on defeating the treaty gained him further prominence and during the Harding Administration he participated in the Washington Naval Conference, the first arms control conference in history.

Lodge died of a stroke on November 9, 1924, nine months after his arch-rival, Woodrow Wilson. Lodge’s grandson, Lodge Jr., also got into politics and forged a different path, becoming one of the Republican Party’s leading advocates of internationalism, centrism, and immigration liberalization. However, he found no inconsistency in supporting the United Nations with his grandfather’s views since the organization satisfied the restrictions he had advocated for the League of Nations. Despite Wilson (1944) vilifying Lodge on his role in defeating the Versailles Treaty, Lodge’s position on the extent of American commitment to foreign affairs won out the following year and has won out since. Despite his substantial impact on American politics, his lack of revival likely stems from lack of contemporary name recognition, his overall conservatism, and past stances on certain issues that are quite far from mainstream today.

Fleming, T. (2003). So Henry Cabot Lodge Was One of History’s Villains? History News Network.


Collection inventory

Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924) was an author and editor, and a United States senator from Massachusetts.

Henry Cabot Lodge was born at Boston on 12 May 1850, the son of John Ellerton and Anna (Cabot) Lodge. After graduation from Harvard College with the class of 1871 and a year of travel, he entered the Harvard Law School, from which he graduated in 1874. Offered an assistant editorship of the North American Review, Lodge began a literary career whose products include biographies of Washington, Hamilton, Webster, and George Cabot, his great- grandfather, as well as several collections of essays and speeches and contributions to various periodicals. In 1876 he obtained his Ph.D. in political science, the first doctorate in that field awarded by Harvard.

His political career was initiated in 1879 by his successful candidacy for the Massachusetts House of Representatives from Nahant, which he represented for two terms. Failing in attempts to win a state Senate seat and a Republican nomination for Congress, he enhanced his political stature by successfully managing the 1883 Republican gubernatorial campaign in Massachusetts. Although defeated for Congress in 1884, his adherence to the Republican regulars made possible his nomination and election in 1886. During his terms in the House (1887-1893), he became known for his association with the Force Bill and his advocacy of civil-service reform.

Selected by the Massachusetts legislature as senator in 1893, he began his thirty-one- year service in the Senate, where he helped draft the Pure Food and Drug Law, displayed protectionist views on tariff matters, fought free silver, supported acquisition of the Philippines, and opposed women's suffrage and direct election of U.S. senators. He was re- elected to the Senate in 1899, 1905, 1911, 1916, and 1922. In the field of foreign affairs, Lodge held great influence during the Roosevelt presidency. In 1918 he was elected the majority leader of the Senate, and from the Foreign Relations Committee, of which he was chairman, he led opposition to the Peace Treaty and Covenant of the League of Nations. As the senior member of the Senate, he continued in his role of influence on foreign affairs during the Harding administration. Lodge married Anna Cabot Mills Davis their children included George Cabot Lodge (1873-1902), the poet. Senator Lodge died at Cambridge on 9 November 1924.

Scope and Contents of the Collection

The Henry Cabot Lodge Correspondence contains 237 letters and two enclosures of printed material. Span dates are 1877 to 1924, although the years 1910 to 1922 are the most heavily represented. All letters save one are outgoing. The principal correspondents of Senator Lodge in this collection are John D. Henley Luce (69 letters), Stephen Bleecker Luce, naval officer and founder of the Naval War College (39 letters), and Curtis Guild, Jr. (14 letters). There are 108 other letters from Lodge to approximately 77 correspondents and six letters to unidentified correspondents. An index of the correspondence is appended to this inventory.

An enclosure in a note of 29 September 1908 is a Boston imprint of 1822, Defence of the exposition of the middling interest (Shoemaker 8523). The letters reflect constituents concerns on pending legislation. Subjects treated include tariff revision, child labor, national defense, the Corrupt Practices Act, sugar, Puerto Rico, arbitration commissions and treaties, the Spanish-American War, and World War I.

Arrangement of the Collection

Arrangement of the letters is chronological, and enclosures are filed with the letters they accompanied.

Restrictions

Access Restrictions

The majority of our archival and manuscript collections are housed offsite and require advanced notice for retrieval. Researchers are encouraged to contact us in advance concerning the collection material they wish to access for their research.

Use Restrictions

Written permission must be obtained from SCRC and all relevant rights holders before publishing quotations, excerpts or images from any materials in this collection.

Related Material

See also the Theodore Roosevelt Collection for a bound, 400-page volume of typescript carbon copies of letters exchanged between Henry Cabot Lodge and Theodore Roosevelt from 1884 to 1917.


Henry Cabot Lodge

Henry Cabot Lodge was born in Boston on 12th May, 1850. Educated at Harvard University and in 1876 was awarded a Ph.D. in political science. Lodge taught at Harvard and was assistant editor of the North American Review.

Lodge was elected to the state legislature (1880-81), the House of Representatives (1887-93) and the Senate (1893-1924). After the split with Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge led the conservative wing of the Republican Party. A staunch critic of Woodrow Wilson, Lodge complained about the way the administration organised the war effort.

When in November, 1918, the Republican Party gained control of Congress, Lodge, was able to obstruct Wilson's policies. As chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Lodge led the campaign against the ratification of the Versailles Peace Treaty and membership of the League of Nations. Lodge organised the passing of a series of amendments that would require the approval of Congress before the United States would be bound by certain decisions of the League. Woodrow Wilson refused to accept Lodge's amendments and the measure was defeated.

In 1921 Lodge served as one of the USA's delegates to the Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armaments. Henry Cabot Lodge died on 9th November, 1924.


Table of Contents

Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924) was born into a prominent Boston family in 1850. Through his mother’s family, the Cabots, Lodge traced his lineage back to the 17 th century, with one great-grandfather a leading Federalist during the Revolutionary period. Growing up in both an intellectual and privileged household, "Cabot" took naturally to academic subjects, particularly history and literature. Beyond his early devotion to scholarly pursuits, Lodge also enjoyed numerous sports and the great outdoors activities that would later help foster a friendship with Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919).

Harvard Graduate ↑

As was customary among upper-class New England families, Lodge attended Harvard College, graduating in 1871. After marrying Anna Davis (1850-1915), daughter of naval scientist and Naval Observatory superintendent Rear Admiral Charles H. Davis (1807-1877), Lodge returned to Harvard. By 1876, at only twenty-six years old, Lodge had earned both law and doctoral degrees his Ph.D. in Political Science was the first ever issued to a Harvard student. Over the next several years, Lodge – mentored by his former teacher Henry Adams (1838-1918), grandson and great-grandson of two former presidents – worked as assistant editor of the respected intellectual quarterly North American Review and taught American history at his alma mater, publishing several books while on the faculty.


Collection Description

The Henry Cabot Lodge papers span the years 1775-1966 and consist of 183 microfilm reels (P-525) of materials of Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924), historian, Congressman, and United States senator. The Lodge papers are arranged in roughly the order in which they were received from Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. All artifacts, printed materials, and photographs have been removed from the collection. The collection has been divided into six series, described below.

Series I contains the major body of H. C. Lodge correspondence, 1866-1966, arranged chronologically and alphabetically within years on 94 reels. Though largely consisting of Lodge's incoming correspondence, this series also contains a significant number of original Lodge letters. The letters span Lodge's years as a Harvard student and instructor, North American Review editor, Massachusetts legislator, Congressman, United States senator, and Republican Party leader. Included are letters to and from nearly every important literary and political figure at home and abroad, 1871-1924. Among the more prominent correspondents are Brooks Adams, Henry Adams, George Bancroft, Albert J. Beveridge, James G. Blaine, William E. Borah, James Bryce, Calvin Coolidge, Richard Henry Dana, Jr., Charles W. Eliot, Moreton Frewen, Warren G. Harding, John Hay, George Frisbie Hoar, Charles Evans Hughes, Rudyard Kipling, William McKinley, Thomas B. Reed, Carl Schurz, Cecil Spring-Rice, Charles Sumner, William Howard Taft, George Otto Trevelyan, and Henry White. Reel 94 contains typescripts of letters of Brooks Adams, Charles Francis Adams II, and Henry Adams, 1891-1918, and copies of Lodge correspondence with Houghton Mifflin, 1879-1942.

Series II, reels 95-108, contains family correspondence, 1775-1925, and is organized chronologically for each individual. Included are most of Lodge's letters to and from his mother, Anna Cabot Lodge, 1866-1900 some correspondence of his wife, Anna Cabot Mills Davis Lodge his son, John Ellerton Lodge, Jr. other Lodge family members and members of the Blake, Cabot, Davis, Ellerton, and Mills families. In addition, there is some Lodge genealogical material and condolence correspondence upon the deaths of Lodge's mother, wife, and son George Cabot Lodge. (The Society has a separate collection of George Cabot Lodge papers.)

Series III, Miscellaneous Papers, arranged by names and subjects, reels 109-115, contains Lodge's correspondence with select individuals including Worthington C. Ford, Lewis Harcourt, Ellerton James, Henry Lee, Herbert St. George Mildmay, Corinne Roosevelt Robinson, and Barrett Wendell, 1876-1924. Also included are copies of letters of John Lothrop Motley and Charles Sumner, 1835-1877 (reel 97) notes and correspondence concerning Colombian-American relations and the Panama Canal, 1903-1921 (reel 113) the Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armament, 1921-1922 (reel 114) and Lodge business papers (reel 115).

Series IV, Writings and Speeches, etc., reels 116-126, contains primarily original writings and speeches of Lodge. The writings and speeches included on reels 116-120 are largely unorganized and undated. Reels 121-125 are arranged in alphabetical order by title or topic. In addition, this part of the collection has a small collection of Lodge's student notes on history, science, and law, and copies of many of his published articles and reviews.

Series V, Bound Volumes, reels 127-183, contains diaries, journals, letterbooks, notebooks, and scrapbooks of George Cabot (1752-1823), Anna Sophia Cabot (1796-1845), Anna Cabot Lodge (1821-1900), Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924), the Republican District Committee of the Fifth Congressional District, Cecil Spring-Rice, Mrs. L. A. Ward, E. C. Kirkland, and Henry Cabot and are arranged chronologically within each of the nine sub-series. The volumes of Anna Sophia Cabot and Anna Cabot Lodge are primarily European travel journals those of George Cabot are letterbooks, 1783-1818. The bulk of the collection consists of the diaries, letterbooks, historical notebooks, and political scrapbooks of Henry Cabot Lodge. Because of the easy access to printed material in libraries, only the title page or first page of printed materials in the scrapbooks was microfilmed. Due to their deteriorating condition, the scrapbooks of Henry Cabot Lodge consisting primarily of newspaper clippings were discarded after filming. Annotated printed material contained in the scrapbooks was removed from the scrapbook before the volume was discarded. See the Curator of Manuscripts for further information.

Series VI, Oversize, 1893-1924 (reel 183), consists of miscellaneous oversized materials, mainly graphics. These are stored in oversize box 1 (onsite). Also located in this box is Volume 111, an oversize scrapbook. These materials are on microfilm P-525. There are some other miscellaneous oversize papers, mainly certificates and diplomas, which do not appear on the microfilm. These are located in oversize box 2. Oversize boxes are stored onsite at H. C. Lodge Oversize. To access the oversize materials in box 2, which are not on the microfilm, please see the Curator of Manuscripts.


Hero Tales from American History

I read this book in preparation for reading Gumption by Nick Offerman. The two books serve similar premises, but perhaps written 100 years apart. Each chapter is of a different person in history — all of which men — and typically heroes of war. This is to be expected of a book from this period.

I was surprised at how little information I could find about this book. Every summary or description says the same basic stuff — what the book&aposs about, what it serves, etc. When was it written? Published 1 I read this book in preparation for reading Gumption by Nick Offerman. The two books serve similar premises, but perhaps written 100 years apart. Each chapter is of a different person in history — all of which men — and typically heroes of war. This is to be expected of a book from this period.

I was surprised at how little information I could find about this book. Every summary or description says the same basic stuff — what the book's about, what it serves, etc. When was it written? Published 1996? That seems doubtful. Who's the original author, Lodge or Roosevelt? Or was it culled from many authors? The book says not. It's a mystery, about which a fresh vlog is expected. . more

Honestly, meh. This should be re-titled as "White Men who Served in War and/or Political Office." Not one mention of any person of color and the only time "she" was used as a pronoun was in reference to a goddamn boat.

The history was interesting, sure, but the writing was bleh.

I&aposm honestly glad that society has progressed so much as to make this book irrelevant you can&apost write a book about "heroes" and only talk about white men in war and have it be considered a compelling, award-worthy tome. Honestly, meh. This should be re-titled as "White Men who Served in War and/or Political Office." Not one mention of any person of color and the only time "she" was used as a pronoun was in reference to a goddamn boat.

The history was interesting, sure, but the writing was bleh.

I'm honestly glad that society has progressed so much as to make this book irrelevant you can't write a book about "heroes" and only talk about white men in war and have it be considered a compelling, award-worthy tome.

I perhaps had too much expectation for Theodore Roosevelt as an author. . more


Who's Who - Henry Cabot Lodge

Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924), a conservative Republican politician, proved a long-term adversary of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson and, ultimately, his nemesis.

Born to a prominent Boston family on 12 May 1850, Lodge was educated at Harvard from which he emerged with a Ph.D. in political science in 1876, being admitted to the bar the same year.

Lodge acted as assistant editor, from 1873-76, of the North American Review, before lecturing on U.S. history at Harvard from 1876-79. He co-edited the International Review (with John Torrey Morse) between 1880-81.

In 1880 Lodge was elected to the state legislature (until 1881), and to the House of Representatives in 1887 (until 1893). He subsequently served in the Senate from 1893 until his death in 1924.

Lodge took time to write a series of historical works and biographies in addition to carving out a growing political career. His works included biographies of Daniel Webster (1883) and George Washington (1889).

As a Senator Lodge formed a close alliance with Theodore Roosevelt. Despite his reputation as a conservative Republican Lodge was by no means isolationist. In favour of war with Spain in 1898, Lodge also favoured the acquisition of the Philippines.

Lodge firmly believed that America deserved (and should therefore be encouraged to develop) a prominent role in international diplomacy. In order to achieve this he therefore argued for ongoing development of an increased army and navy, military strength being a pre-requisite to diplomatic power.

Conservative and conventional to the extent that he supported the gold standard and protection, Lodge believed incoming 1912 President Woodrow Wilson to be one of the more risky occupants of the Oval Office, with his arch-progressive notions that were anathema to conservatives of Lodge's slant.

Suspicious and contemptuous of Wilson's peace policies, Lodge welcomed U.S. involvement in the First World War, while remaining (as chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations) highly critical of Wilson's prosecution of the war.

A bitter opponent of Wilson (the feeling was mutual), Lodge's position was manifestly strengthened with the election of a Republican majority in the November 1918 mid-term elections. With this election victory Lodge became Senate Majority Leader.

Lodge used his powerful position to oppose Wilson's plan for U.S. participation in the League of Nations. Proposing a series of amendments to Wilson's bill ratifying U.S. entry into the League, Lodge succeeded in watering down U.S. involvement while simultaneously encouraging popular opposition to Wilson.

Wilson, ignoring the advice of his closest advisors (including Colonel House) refused to compromise with his Republican opponents as a consequence Congress never ratified U.S. entry into the League.

In 1920 Lodge was one of a number of Senators who proposed (and secured) Warren G. Harding's nomination for the U.S. presidency.

Henry Cabot Lodge died on 9 November 1924 at the age of 74.

Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Michael Duffy

A howitzer is any short cannon that delivers its shells in a high trajectory. The word is derived from an old German word for "catapult".

- Did you know?


Watch the video: Vietravel Henry Cabot Lodge (January 2022).