Information

Elongated Skulls Increased Kudos in Ancient Peru


Archaeologists dig them up all over the ancient world from Egypt to Peru, and now, these curious elongated skulls are believed to have been “status symbols,” according to a recent paper in Current Anthropology . The ruling elite in parts of ancient South America artificially extended their skulls to "bind communities together with a collective identity,” according to Bioarchaeologist Matthew Velasco of Cornell University.

Although cranial deformation is generally associated with the Inca civilization, more than half a century before they came to dominate the west coast of the Americas “cranial deformation” or “skull binding” was developed by the Collagua people. In southern Peru the Colca River runs for about 450 kilometers before flowing into the Pacific Ocean and it was home of the Collaguas and the Cavanas.

Possible methods used by the Collagua people to shape a child's head.

In his 1966 book The Human Skull: A Cultural History, s cholar Folk Henschen explained that this skull shape was achieved by “small boards tied around children’s heads,” compressing the growing skull and forcing it to elongate. Velasco believes these people “intentionally created tall thin skull shapes,” made these aesthetic modifications to bind "the powerful elite together.” Spanish accounts state that the Cavanas also modified their skulls, widening and flattening them, in contrast to the Collaguas, but this practice was forbidden in the early 16th century.

  • New DNA Testing on 2,000-Year-Old Elongated Paracas Skulls Changes Known History
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  • Elongated Human Skulls Of Peru: Possible Evidence Of A Lost Human Species?

A case of skulls from the Andean Paracas culture, as seen in the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú in Lima. They illustrate head flattening practiced in this culture's elite. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Mr Velasco was the first archaeologist to consider these skulls shapes “as class differentiators within the Collagua” and to test the validity of his suspicions, he examined over 200 skulls from a 300-year period. According the research paper, Mr Velasco’s team noticed “tall thin skulls became increasingly linked to high social status.” The primary observation leading to this conclusion was that females with elongated skulls “ate a broader diet than those without cranial alterations” and these women had endured “fewer injuries from physical attacks than women with unaltered skulls,” Science News reports.

Summarizing his finds Mr Velasco said “Greater standardization of head-shaping practices echoes broader patterns of identity formation across the south-central highlands and may have provided a symbolic basis for the cooperation of elite groups during an era of intensive conflict.”

  • Initial DNA analysis of Paracas elongated skull released – with incredible results
  • New study reveal origins of elongated skulls in the Carpathian Basin
  • Why Did Parents in the Chinookan tribe Perform Cranial Deformation on their Babies?

These skulls are on display at Museo Regional de Ica in the city of Ica in Peru. ( CC BY 2.0 )

Meanwhile, alternative historians present these oddities as having extraterrestrial origins, belonging to unknown subspecies of human being, or that they are descendants from Atlantis. You generally find these researchers sharing their deep insights at “Truth” type conferences with like-minded folk. They all clap together when jabs are made at “accepted” archaeology and anthropology and the two most often repeated lies are “Elongated skulls are larger than normal skulls” and “cranial deformation cannot increase the volume of the skull!” Because no scientists attend such events, nobody stands up and says, “Hold on mate, what you just said is a load of rubbish. You just made that up.”

Sometimes, when book sales are required, elongated skull researchers get carried away and archaeologically, for a few weeks, things get really bent out of shape. The most famous modern skull scam was the “Starchild” incident, when the skeleton of a five-year-old child was discovered in a cave in Mexico dated to about 900 years old. The skull was exceptionally bulbous, just like "gray aliens,” says the skull's owner, Ray Young, who promotes the skull as “alien, or possibly an alien-human hybrid.”

The ‘Starchild’ skull (left).( Fair Use ) Photo of baby with hydrocephalus(right). ( GFDL)

The scientific sector and humans beings with a mature disposition quite readily accepted the reports of neurologists who explained that the “Starchild” had hydrocephaly, a condition where a build-up of fluid causes the young pliable skull to expand. What’s more, a 2003 dna test established that the child had “normal human DNA and was male, having both X and Y chromosomes,” therefore it had a human father and mother. However, a tad embarrassingly, Young (and other support) continues to tout his “alien-human hybrid theory” in the face of a really well understood illness that affected children.

Proto Nazca deformed skull, c 200-100 BC. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Today, we buy cars, clothes and jewelry to indicate our social status, but the ancient people of southern Peru, without malls, adopted “skull binding.” By simply binding wooden blocks to a child’s head with fabric or leather, they would assure they grew up with an oval shaped head. With this simple process being so well understood, anthropologists and archaeologists must find it very disheartening to see grown men touting ‘alien’ and ‘lost civilization theories.’ As they sweat their lives away in trenches, breaking their backs, digging up our past, alternative archaeologists come along and begin challenging them and clouding people’s understanding of history as they indulge in their dying 60s ideologies.

Talking of every and all theory which diverts from the “skull binding” model of how these skulls came to be elongated, leading skeptic Brian Dunning, in a skeptoid.com article, eloquently said: “The elongated skulls of Peru are certainly interesting, but their origin is well understood and no mystery exists outside of the delusions of those who insist on alien or supernatural explanations for just about anything.”

Top image: Skulls from the Andean Paracas (top left). ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ); Paracas skull at Ica Museum(right). ( CC BY 2.0 ); Child head shaping methods (bottom left). .

By Ashley Cowie


Artificial cranial deformation

Artificial cranial deformation or modification, head flattening, or head binding is a form of body alteration in which the skull of a human being is deformed intentionally. It is done by distorting the normal growth of a child's skull by applying force. Flat shapes, elongated ones (produced by binding between two pieces of wood), rounded ones (binding in cloth), and conical ones are among those chosen or valued in various cultures. Typically, the shape alteration is carried out on an infant, as the skull is most pliable at this time. In a typical case, headbinding begins approximately a month after birth and continues for about six months.


Societies around the world portray distinct characteristics which define their culture. From the clothes worn the language spoken and the customs and traditions that are passed from generation to generation, each of these can provide insights into a cultural group. There are, however, a number of universal customs that are practiced on each continent around the globe. They include circumcision, death and burial rituals and cranial deformation. These traditions originated in our remote past. Their purpose and meaning seemingly lost to the sands of time.

It was once believed head modifications developed in Egypt, and then spread around the world. Researchers have concluded that this phenomenon was not isolated to one geographic area and then disseminated out into the surrounding areas. Instead, this bizarre hallmark of ancient societies sprang up around the world in different cultural groups independently. Many have come to believe it to be an inherent step in the evolution of a group’s culture.

What Is Cranial Deformation (The Method Used To Produce Elongated Skulls)

Cranial deformation is a distinct and painful tradition. The objective of cranial deformation is to elongate the shape of the head. This procedure, once performed, cannot be reversed. More importantly, individuals who have had the procedure performed, unlike circumcision cannot conceal it. It is a permanent visible marker that identifies not only a cultural group, but also select individuals within that society.

When a child is born, the infants head is fashioned or molded into a uniquely long and slender shape. The simplest method a caregiver employed was to put pressure on, or gently massage the child’s head daily until the desired shape is achieved. The second method constrains the child’s head in a mechanical device which, over time, will produce the desired elongated shape.

Head modifications are always performed during infancy. This is when the cranial bones are still tender and pliable and the sutures between the cranial bones are unfixed. This allows shaping or reshaping the head. But why would a mother or caregiver subject her child to such a painful and ongoing process?

The Origin Of Cranial Deformation

Skulls displaying clear signs of cranial deformation surfaced in the archaeological record of the early Neolithic Era starting around 10,000 BCE. The practice of head modifications during the Neolithic era (prior to 5000 BCE) appears episodic. This may be due to the number of individuals whose heads were modified or could be tied to the limited number of remains that have been unearthed.

Some of the earliest examples of elongated skulls discovered were unearthed in south-eastern Australia in Coobool Creek and Kow Swamp. Remarkably, finds that date to about the same time were also found in the Shanidar Cave in Iraq. In the eastern highlands of Brazil, a skull was recovered from Confins Cave that dates back to 7566 BCE.

Starting around 5,000 BCE, the tradition of skull modification appears to have expanded. This assumption is based upon the increased number of remains with elongated skulls recovered. Some researchers believe that the convention of cranial manipulation mushroomed as early hunter-gather societies began to coalesce into urban environments. Figurines with deformed crania also start to appear in the archaeological record further supporting the antiquity and distribution of this custom.

Elongated Skulls In Modern Times

In the modern world, the tradition of cranial deformation is often associated with ancient indigenous cultures and not with advanced western civilizations. If it was practiced in the western world, one might assume that it occurred sometime in our remote past and was abandoned by civilized society. This is far from the case. In Europe, researchers, such as neurologist and psychiatrist Achille Foville, documented the practice of cranial deformation in France. Surveying the crania of inmates at a French public asylum, in 1833, he evaluated 431 individuals at the facility. His findings revealed a remarkable 50% of the population with clear signs of deformation, with some of them being considered severe in his estimation.

Regardless of where they have been found, the majority of modified skulls possess striking similarities. Transverse grooves or depressions have been observed on the skulls indicating pressure was applied to the head. These early finds, as well as the many other more recent discoveries, all show clear signs of intentional manipulation and were not the result of genetic or congenital issues.

There are two primary forms of artificial cranial deformation – tabular and circumferential.

Tabular Cranial Modifications

Tabular cranial modifications involve the compression of the front or front and back of the child’s skull by cradle boarding or other cephalic apparatus. It is the most prominent type of deformation found around the world and includes unintentional, yet unnatural, variations to the cranium. After birth, a board is placed on the child’s head and is bound in place. This flattens the child’s forehead. If the child’s head is placed between two boards, one in the front and another in the back and bound, the compression results in a more exaggerated and distinctive head shape. This type of modification causes the skull to expand laterally and superiorly.

Garcilaso de la Vega writing in 1609 described the methods used by the inhabitants of certain regions of Peru. He states:

“From birth they pressed their children’s skull between two planks tied together at the ends, which they tightened a little every day… After three years, a child’s skull was deformed for life, so they removed the apparatus.”

Circumferential Cranial Modifications

Head modification by means of the tabular method can occur unintentionally as a side effect of child care practices. Circumferential modifications, on the other hand, are unquestionably produced intentionally. Constricting bandages are wrapped like a tight ring around the skull forcing its growth upright. This method reduces the diameter of the skull while pushing the cranium upward and backward. Up to three bands were used to produce a conical head form. Evidence, based upon skulls discovered, suggests that the number of bands applied to select individuals within a community varied. The more bands used produces a more exaggerated skull shape. Tight fitting caps or bonnets were also used to create an elongated appearance to the head.

The Mystery Surrounding Elongated Skulls

Surveys of cranial deformation around the world have also unveiled one other remarkable find. If the tradition of cranial deformation had originated in one location and then spread across the globe, then one would expect to find large geographic areas in which tabular head shaping methods were uniquely employed and then others that utilized the circular method. An example of this would be the discovery of only tabular modifications in South and Mesoamerica and circumferential style modifications in Egypt and the Levant.

What we find are many instances where both types are being utilized in relatively close proximity to one another. For example, for the Aymara culture of the highland area near Tiwanaku, Brazil, the predominant practice was of circumferential compression. At the same time, in the coastal areas of Peru, tabular deformations were prevalent. Even in the island countries of Oceania, circular modifications have been found in countries such as Malekula and New Hebrides, while tabular modifications are practiced on the neighboring Solomon Islands and New Caledonia. They have also discovered that the methods, customs, and traditions used appear the most intense in specific geographic areas and deteriorate as one moves away from this focal point until finally the practice is no longer performed. This dispersion suggests that this rite was established in chief cultural centers and then spread into the surrounding areas.

Accentuation Of Elongated Skulls

In addition to the physical manipulation of the cranium, other measures were employed by many cultures to accentuate this modified form. In some cultures, the hair was pulled back and braided, put into a bun or topknot to further accentuate the elongated shape of the head. Pointed hats are also believed to have been worn to exaggerate the shape of the head. The pointed hat that adorned the head of many of the Egyptian pharaohs is an example of this tradition. In Egypt, only the nobility could wear tall pointed hats symbolizing their elevated status.

The donning of pointed hats was not limited to Egyptian royalty. Several conical brimless extremely long gold hats have been discovered in central Europe with the earliest one dating to about 1400 BCE. These obviously were not worn by the common man. In ancient Greece, slaves that were released from bondage were allowed to wear a pointed hat called a pileus. Did this indicate their increased social status? Early art also shows image after image of individuals wearing pointed hats. Were they emulating this ancient tradition with their clothing? Even today, the guest of honor at a birthday party will don a pointed hat to symbolize his importance. Could this tradition be a remnant of a long-forgotten past?

Why Did People Begin Elongating The Skull

Why did people around the world begin this practice? It has been concluded, especially with circumferential compression, that hats, bands or other apparatus was intentionally applied and was not the unintentional outcome of child-rearing practices. Unfortunately, the original meaning or ritual significance has essentially been lost and in many cases has been replaced by the blind following of an ancient tradition. In the few traces of beliefs that have survived we do find a consistency and general theme which may reveal at least in part some of our ancestor’s underlying motivations. Many cultures believe that an elongated head indicates increased intelligence. It was also thought to enhance one’s beauty or was a trait to be admired. Some cultures believe it will make them look fierce in war .

A correlation between deformation and the appearance of social classes has also emerged. In many cultures, a deformed head was an indicator of increased social position. Extending throughout Europe, a large number of elongated skulls have been discovered in ancient tombs. These finds by themselves suggest that the interred individuals had an elevated social standing which warranted a more elaborate burial. Parallel finds have been unearthed in Peru. Some of the most ill-shaped heads were discovered in some of the largest and finest tombs side by side with skulls of normal size and proportion.

Why Elongate The Skull In The First Place?

A chief or members of the royal family, for example, may exhibit increased deformation, while a priest, shaman or individuals with local eminence may display a less intense modification. Thus, he who has the longest head was the most noble. Studies into indigenous cultures like the Native American Chinooks of the Pacific Northwest relay that slaves were never permitted to practice this ritual. The ancient Macrocephali people of Africa, of whom the word macrocephalic is derived, believed that men of low birth had no right to observe this custom. This may explain in part why this modification was not equally employed by all members of a community.

Some cultures report that the practice of cranial deformation was passed on as an edict from the gods. Ancient Polynesian tradition informs us that this right was brought to them by a group of light-skinned people whose home was in the sky. In Central America, claims are made that this custom was employed because the gods told their ancestors to do it. They go on to state that the practice makes it easier to carry burdens. In Peru, the god Manco Cápac ordered the people to perform this strange ritual so that their children would be weak, submissive and obedient.

The Practice Of Cranial Manipulation

It is unclear why the intentional manipulation of the skull was adopted. This practice once decided upon, takes years to unfold before a child is grown and enters into a position of power or prestige. It seems evident that this painful procedure was not a response to some innate primal impulse. It seems hard to fathom that a parent or caregiver would want to inflict years of relentless pain and discomfort on an infant based upon an ancient fashion trend.

Implementation of elongation would also require long termed planning and commitment on the part of the caregiver for it to ever flourish. If it were something that humanity was compelled to do as part of its social evolution, then it would only make sense that it would be found more widely distributed. This practice, however, was confined to certain classes and specific geographic areas. It seems obvious that this tradition was so important to our ancestors that it has lingered and has been passed down through time to the modern era – its meaning and real significance lost.

The willing decision to adopt this practice around the world overnight seems unlikely. Perhaps, this is not a haphazard invention of our ancestors, as is currently believed. It seems more likely this practice was imposed upon the people by an outside source. The special knowledge required by caregivers to implement this delicate procedure appears to have developed overnight. Then, when we take into account the uniformity of the methodology, tools, and techniques used by cultures around the world, it is difficult to accept that the practice originated independently.

Who Imposed Tradition Of Elongated Skulls

French naturalist, Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau, writing in 1889, did not believe that the extraordinary similarities between the skulls could have come about autonomously or as a natural impulse of the human race and asserts that the evidence points to a worldwide culture in archaic times. Who were these people who imposed the tradition of cranial deformation on our ancestors? Survivors of the great flood as recorded in the Bible? Remnants of the Atlantian legacy? Or members of an extraterrestrial race? We do not have the answer to that question right now, but as more evidence is unearthed the true origin of this practice will be revealed.


© Copyright Rita Louise, Inc. – soulhealer.com. All rights reserved.

About Dr. Rita Louise

A gifted and talented clairvoyant medical intuitive, Dr. Rita Louise helps people identify the root causes of their concerns. She is a naturopathic physician and the founder of the Institute Of Applied Energetics that trains students in the art of medical intuition, intuitive counseling, and energy medicine. She has authored six books and produced several feature-length and short films. Dr. Louise has appeared on radio, television and in movies and has lectured on health and healing, ghosts, intuition, ancient mysteries and the paranormal. Her books and articles have worldwide circulation.


ELONGATED SKULLS MAY NOT HAVE HUMAN ORIGINS

Publisher’s Note: I found this article in my google Alerts and it concerns elongated skulls, which I believe my belong to a race of ancient astronauts. It was published online on the skyshipsovercashiers.com website and is uncredited. I plan to return to Peru iin 2015 and will visit Paracas again. Enjoy Dirk

More than 300 elongated skulls – the largest ones in the world – were found in a massive graveyard on Peru’s Paracas Peninsula in 1928. While elongated skulls usually are formed by various methods of head binding, the Paracas skulls are quite different.

Several February 2014 articles report that the Paracas skulls are 60 percent heavier than normal human skulls and have 25 percent more volume. With simple head binding neither the weight nor the volume of a skull is increase, only reshaped.

More importantly, preliminary results of DNA analysis of one of the skulls show it is not human. Below is an article about the findings by Mary-Ann Russon for International Business Times that was published on February 11, 2014.

Initial DNA analysis of one of the 3,000-year-old elongated skulls found in Paracas, Peru, has revealed that they may not have been from humans but from a completely new species, according to Paracas Museum assistant director Brien Foerster (L).

Foerster, who also runs his own tour group company in Peru and has authored 11 books on ancient history, told Ancient Origins that a geneticist who tested skull samples has found that they contain mutated DNA that does not match any known genetic DNA information in GenBank, an open-access sequence database of all the known genetic data in the world.

The unidentified geneticist told Foerster: “It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans.”

“I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree,” the geneticist added.

According to Foerster, the geneticist in question, who apparently does contract work for the US government, is willing to go public, but does not want to come forward until the tests prove the theory conclusively….

When someone from the Ancient Origins website asked Foerster if he thought the Paracus skulls might be alien, he responded: “I’m open to the idea but the thing is I don’t want to go too far in that direction yet because we’ve only had an initial DNA result. But due to the fact that the geneticist has found segments of DNA that don’t correspond to anything, I don’t dismiss the idea of there having been off planet intervention.”


The most fascinating Paracas Elongated Skull discovered to date

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One of the most mysterious Paracas elongated skulls found to date. Image Credit: Brien Foerster, Hidden Inca Tours

One of the most fascinating ancient elongated skull has just been discovered. According to Brien Foerster over at hidden Inca Tours, the mummified head and partial neck of a baby from the Paracas culture of Peru is one of the most amazing elongated skulls discovered to date. This mysterious skull has auburn hair color which is not the typical black color seen in Native American People.

It is believed that the elongated skull dates back to around 2,800 years, most likely belonged to a newborn, or perhaps 3-month year old baby.

What makes this elongated skull so unique?

Well, according to experts, this mummified elongated skull is suggestive of a genetically elongated skull, meaning that it isn’t the result of head binding, since the process of artificial cranial deformation takes at least 6 months to produce the desired effect.

So far, archaeologists in Peru have found hundreds of elongated skulls with peculiar characteristics. This new discovery hints at the possibility that thousands of years ago, an ancient race of people lived in Peru with naturally elongated skulls.

Furthermore, Brien Foerster points out the ‘very fine hair’ of the baby, which curiously is auburn red in color, and not the typical black color seen in Native American People.

According to experts, this —together with the anomalous elongated skull— is one of the best pieces of evidenced which shows a clear genetic differentiation from what one would normally expect.

The red arrows indicate the position of the eye sockets and the mouth. Image Credit: Brien Foerster Hidden Inca Tours

In addition to the auburn hair color and freakishly elongated skull, Brien Foerster notes that the vertebral column of the baby is located further back of the skull than in normal humans which “could well indicate an evolutionary adaptation to compensate for the elongated skull”.

The Paracas elongated skulls have been the subject of debate among experts for years.

In 1928 researchers found on the southern coast of Peru a cemetery that held the remains of 300 individuals with elongated skulls. The discovery was led by Peruvian archaeologist Julio Tello, and it is believed that the skulls may date from about 3,000 years ago. These are known today as the “Paracas skulls”.

Strangely, the volume and weight of the skeletons is anything but normal. According to researchers, the cranial volume of the “Paracas Skulls” is up to 25% larger and 60% heavier than conventional human skulls. And there is more to the mysterious skulls. The human skull is composed of two parietal bones located between the frontal and occipital, forming the sides of the calvaria. The calvaria or also called skullcap, is made up of the superior portions of the frontal bone, occipital bone, and parietal bones. The “Paracas Skulls” only have one.

Interestingly, it seems that Elongated Skulls are a global phenomenon. The elongated skulls phenomenon is not isolated, evidence of this are the countless skulls that have been discovered in all corners of the globe.

The head binding phenomenon has become one of the most puzzling subjects for archaeologists around the globe who seem to avoid, at all cost, exploring the tens of thousands of elongated skulls discovered around the globe: Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Egypt and even parts of Asia.


Alien-like elongated skulls discovered in Croatia similar to finds across the globe

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Archaeologists were recently exploring in Croatia when the happened upon something that immediately caught their eye and has subsequently set off debate about what they found, according to Ancient Origins:

“(The researchers) unearthed three ancient alien-like skeletons and two have artificially elongated skulls. Since 12,000-years-ago in ancient China, all over the ancient world, from Eurasia and across Africa to South America, people deliberately deformed the shapes of their children’s skulls.

“Most archaeologists associate this with an effort to identify one’s cultural origins and/or to indicate social status. Using tightly tied leather and cloths, earth filled bag-headdresses, or rigid wooden blocks, skulls could be altered into bizarre shapes if the method was applied to malleable infant’s skulls when they still had plasticity.”

The burial pit where the individuals were found (Via PLOS.org)

Elongated skulls have been found before, most notably the Paracas skulls unearthed along the coast of Peru. For years, it was speculated that the Paracas skulls were proof that aliens did indeed visit Earth.

The Croatian skulls turned out to be of children aged between 12 and 16. They had lived between 415 and 560 AD and suffered from malnutrition. And all died suddenly, according to researchers:

“The team of scientist believe they could have had a disease like the plague ‘that killed them quickly and didn’t leave any traces on their bones.’ It is known that they died at the same time as the Great Migration Period, a very turbulent period in European history when after the fall of the Roman Empire entirely new cultures arrived in Europe with new traditions.”

CT reconstruction showing one of the elongated skulls (Via PLOS.org)

After further examination of the skulls, it was determined that that one of the skulls belonged to a child of West Eurasian ancestry and didn’t contain any cranial elongation.

A second skull showed a person of East Asian ancestry who had “oblique deformation” meaning that the skull was elongated upward.

The third child was of Near Asian ancestry and had circular-erect type cranial deformation. In this soft of deformation, the bone behind the forehead is flattened, which increased the height of the skull “significantly.”

During the period in which these children are believed to have lived, skull elongation was common:

“(In) the migration period of Europe (4 th – 7 th century AD) … the practice of intentional cranial modification ‘was common among several nomadic groups, but was strongly associated with the Huns from the Carpathian Basin in Hungary, where modified crania are abundant in archaeological sites.'”

CT scans of the so-called circular-erect type cranial deformation (Via PLOS.org)

Deformation of skulls was practiced by the Huns during a period around 453 AD. But why was this done? Merely for cosmetic reasons, or was there another purpose?

Oddly enough, it’s now believed that skull elongation was a sort of status symbol among ancient peoples which “helped foster a sense of community and collective identity.”

There is evidence to support such a hypothesis:

“Bioarchaeologist Matthew Velasco of Cornell University said that some 300 years before the Inca Empire swept the southwestern Americas the powerful social elite in a small ethnic community known as the ‘Collagua,’ who lived in the Colca Valley in south-eastern Peru, intentionally shaped their heads to ‘polarize other groups, resulting in social inequality.'”

Child in the process of having its head flattened, and an adult after the process (Via Trzęsacz /Public Domain)

Accounts from Spanish explorers also mention a group known as the ‘Cavanas,’who also deformed their skulls, but not the tall, narrow way the Collagua did. Instead, the Cavanas “modified their skulls by widening and flattening them.”

While such cranial modifications seem bizarre to us when we examine thousands of years after they occurred, they may well have helped ancient people build a sense of community and better fit into the places they lived, even assuring cooperation which led to their survival:

“These studies all suggest head shaping among those with power may have paved the way for a ‘peaceful incorporation for the Collagua into the Inca Empire’ and that standardization of head-shaping practices echoes broader patterns of identity formation across the south-central highlands. What’s more, it may have provided ‘a symbolic basis for the cooperation of elite groups during an era of intensive conflict.'”

Survival is man’s most basic instinct, and humans will do whatever is necessary to protect themselves and their families. That even includes something as strange as changing the shape of their skulls. It doesn’t prove alien life on Earth, but it does reinforce the notion that mankind is resilient and ever changing as conditions warrant.

Here’s more on cranial modification:


Elongated Human Skulls At The Paracas History Museum In Peru

The Paracas History Museum, in the small town of Chaco 4 hours drive south of Lima is home to a large collection of Elongated Human Skulls. The Paracas royalty, who died out mysteriously 2000 years ago have never been DNA tested, and this process is now being initiated thanks to the museum director Sr. Juan Navarro.

Sr. Juan, on the left, is shown discussing with our September 2014 tour group, from many countries not only the skulls and hundreds of other artifacts, but is also telling them about attributes of the Paracas people which mystify everyone their natural red hair for example, and the mystery surrounding their disappearance.

The cultures represented, in chronological order are the Paracas, Nazca, Huari, Chincha and Inca, showing that the Paracas area hosted Native people for at least 2500 years prior to the arrival of the Spanish.

One of the most spectacular of the skulls is the one in the above photo, right. It has been carbon dated at 1900 years old, died at 20 months, and had red hair…in fact strawberry blonde hair prior to being sprayed with an aerosol preservative which darkened the hair. This baby was a royal Paracas.

The museum is open most days, from 10 am to 5 pm, and entrance costs 10 Peruvian Soles. I, Brien Foerster visit the museum most days that I am in the area. To check out videos of the Elongated Skulls, click HERE.

Come and join us in May 2015 as we explore Elongated Skulls at many sites in Peru and Bolivia tour details HERE.

Or join us in June 2015 as we explore the megalithic sites of Peru and Bolivia as well as Elongated Skulls. Contact Brien for details HERE.

Brien is the author of 15 books, which can be purchased through Amazon or Barnes and Noble in both paper back and e-book formats.


Natural Forming Elongated Skulls In Peru, Human Or Alien Origin?

Thank you. I hate that the most likely conclusion is always passed by because people want it to be aliens. I honestly think it's much more interesting that there may have been different kinds of humanoids that were different kinds of intelligent and advanced in the past.

It matches the shape of the Rothschild man perfectly. Let’s ask him about his family history.

I'll see if I can find a video later but with how relaxed peru is with some of these Brian has held quite a few. They filled a human skulls, human binded skulls and this peru skulls with rice to measure volume. Some of the larger peru skulls were holding almost twice as much rice than the others. The main thing that interests me is the suture marks on the skulls. When human skulls are elongated they still have the same kind of human sutures while the peru skulls are very different. They don't have to be alien, the seem very clearly like another kind of humanoid. Neanderthal, denisovian, homo floresiensis, hybrids of those with each other or those with humans.

Neanderthals head skull elongation/deformity. Highly plausible. Although the bones don't look as thick as the earlier humanoids but they have the same cranial capacity.

Нe level of obliteration of the coronal, sagittal and bregma sutures was analyzed and the three graphics show the homogeneity of the results. Нe degree of obliteration does not appear to be strongly associated with age (p=0.16) and it is necessary to consider a huge interval of age. Figure 1 illustrates similar levels of suture obliteration in both an elderly and a young subject (Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3). НLs demonstrates that the obliteration of the ectocranial sutures does not determine an accurate age of skeletal remains, including the cranial vault.


Contents

The dry environment of southern Peru's Pacific coast allows organic materials to be preserved when buried. [2] Mummified human remains were found in a tomb in the Paracas peninsula of Peru, buried under layers of cloth textiles. [3] The dead were wrapped in layers of cloth called "mummy bundles". These bodies were found at the Great Paracas Necropolis along the south Pacific coast of the Andes. [4] At the Necropolis there were two large clusters of crowded pit tombs, totaling about 420 bodies, dating to around 300–200 BCE. [5] The mummified bodies in each tomb were wrapped in textiles. [6] The textiles would have required many hours of work as the plain wrappings were very large and the clothing was finely woven and embroidered. The larger mummy bundles had many layers of bright colored garments and headdresses. [3] [7] Sheet gold and shell bead jewelry was worn by both men and women, and some were tattooed. [8] The shape of these mummy bundles has been compared to a seed, or a human head. [2]

According to Anne Paul, this shape could have been a conscious choice by the people, with the seed a symbol of rebirth. [3] [7] Paul also suggests that the detail and high quality of the textiles found in the mummy bundles show that these fabrics were used for important ceremonial purposes. [2] [7] Both native Andean cotton and the hair of camelids like the wild vicuña and domestic llama or alpaca come in many natural colors. Yarns were also dyed in a wide range of hues, used together in loom weaving and many other techniques. This combination of materials shows trading relationships with other communities at lower and higher elevations. [7]

The imagery found on these textiles included ceremonial practices. [9] Some depicted a fallen figure, or possibly flying. Some figures appear to have face paint, and hold a severed head, also called trophy heads. [9] Victims' heads were severed and collected during battles or raids. [3] Possibly, the head of a person was considered their life force, the place in the body where the spirit was located. [9] Not only did these textiles show important symbols of the Paracas cosmology, it is thought that they were worn to establish gender, social standing, authority, and indicate the community in which one resided. [8]

Different color schemes characterize the textiles of Paracas Cavernas, early Paracas Necropolis and later Nazca-related styles. [10] The dyes used came from many regions of the Andes and are an example of reciprocity, as people from different altitudes traded with one another for different goods. [9] The color red comes from the cochineal bug found on the prickly pear cactus. [11] The cochineal was ground up with mortar and pestle to create a red pigment. [11] Yellow dyes could be made from the qolle tree and quico flowers, while orange dyes can be extracted from a type of moss called beard lichen. [11] For the color green the most common plant used is the cg'illca, mixed with a mineral called collpa. [11] While blues are created from a tara, the deeper a hue of blue, the more the mineral collpa was added. [11] The process of creating dyes could take up to several hours. Then it could take another two hours for women to boil and dye the fibers. [11] This work was followed by spinning and weaving the fibers.

The woven textiles of Paracas were made on backstrap looms generally in solid color. These webs were richly ornamented with embroidery in two different styles. The earlier linear style embroidery was done in running stitches closely following the furrows of the weaving itself. Red, green, gold and blue color was used to delineate nested animal figures, which emerge from the background with upturned mouths, while the stitching creates the negative space. These embroideries are highly abstracted and difficult to interpret. [12] The later used Block-color style embroidery was made with stem stitches outlining and solidly filling curvilinear figures in a large variety of vivid colors. The therianthropomorphic figures are illustrated with great detail with systematically varied coloring. [13]

The textiles and jewelry in the tombs and mummy bundles attracted looters. [5] Once discovered, the Paracas Necropolis was looted heavily between the years 1931 and 1933, during the Great Depression, particularly in the Wari Kayan section. [14] The amount of stolen materials is not known however, Paracas textiles began to appear on the international market in the following years. [14] It is believed the majority of Paracas textiles outside of the Andes were smuggled out of Peru. [14]

Due to a lack of laws to preserve artifacts and against smuggling, thefts continued to increase, particularly of South American artifacts. [14] In 1970 UNESCO created the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. [15]

While the Paracas culture developed in this region between approximately 1200 BCE and 100 BCE, the Topará culture is thought to have "invaded" from the north at approximately 150 BCE. The two cultures coexisted for one or more generations, both on the Paracas Peninsula and in the nearby Ica Valley. Their interaction played a key role in the development of the Nazca culture and its ceramic and textile traditions. Although the elaborate textiles have been preserved only in the coastal desert sites, there is growing evidence that the associated peoples of these cultures lived and traveled as well among the Pacific lowlands, the Andean highland valleys, and mountain pastures to the east.

Nazca Culture and iconography are believed by scholars such as Helaine Silverman to have evolved from Paracas culture. [6]

Hendrik Van Gijseghem notes that Paracas remains in the Río Grande de Nazca drainage, the heartland of Nazca culture, are limited. He said that, in contrast, there are abundant Paracas remains in the Ica, Pisco, and Chincha valleys, as well as the Bahía de la Independencia. He noted that the southern Nasca region, which became the most populous region of its culture, was never an important area of Paracas occupation. He believes that initial settlement of the region by Paracas populations and subsequent population growth mark the beginning of Nazca society. [16]

In 2018 RPAS drones used by archaeologists to survey cultural evidence revealed many geoglyphs in Palpa province. These are being assigned to the Paracas culture. Many have been shown to predate the associated Nasca lines by a thousand years. In addition, some show a significant difference in subjects and locations, for instance, being constructed on a hillside rather than the desert valley floor. [17] Additional research is being conducted on these geoglyphs.


Strange Elongated Skull found

As a new discovery is unearthed, the puzzle gets even bigger for the elongated skulls of the ancients. The skulls have been reportedly discovered in burial mounds by archaeologists digging in a forest, near the southwestern Siberian city of Omsk.

Scholars at the Omsk Museum of History and Culture don't have a conclusive answer as to the origins of the skulls, but they have dated them and concluded that they're at least 1,600 years old.
However, fearing that people may be too shocked, due to the bizarre deformation of the skulls, the Omsk Museum has apparently also decided to not display the strange skulls publicly.


''This really shocked and even frightened people, because the skull's shape was unusual for a human,'' said Igor Skandakov, director of the Omsk Museum of History and Culture.
They go on to say that the most likely explanation is that ancient communities deliberately deformed the skulls of infants, by applying force to the skull through a head press. What their intentions were, is not clear. Speculation is that the ancients believed elongated skulls would increase their mental abilities.
"It's unlikely that the ancients knew much about neuro-surgery," stated archaeologists Alexei Matveyev, "but, it's possible that somehow they were able to develop exceptional brain capabilities."
For years now, there've been people inclined to believe that the strange skulls belonged to aliens who visited our planet ages ago, and influenced ancient cultures. "There are myths about gods who descended from the heavens and who had elongated heads. They were very special and were revered," said Skandakov.
Similar skulls have been found around the world, some of the more notable have been found in Central and South America, in the graves of indigenous ancient cultures.
In 1995, researcher Robert Connolly photographed this elongated skull, during a trip in which he was collecting materials about ancient civilizations.

This skull, among others, are estimated to be tens of thousands of years old. Apart from its obvious abnormalities, it also exhibits characteristics of both Neanderthal and human skulls – an impossibility, according to anthropology. Neanderthals didn't exist in South America.
Like the Russian find, some believe that the unusual shape of the skulls might be the result of a primitive practice known as "skull binding" in which a person's head was tightly bound with cloth or leather straps throughout his lifetime, causing the skull to grow in this dramatic way.
However, some uncertainty remains around the fact that the exact same deformation was practiced in different areas of the world that at the time, had no contact with each other.

In Mexico, the Maya are well known for their Serpent Gods that wore elaborate, elongated headdresses. It's understood that the upper class Maya wanted to fashion their skulls as such. But, why did their Gods wear such elaborate headdresses? Were their skulls elongated?
Egyptian Gods also wore elongated head-dresses, is there a common link?
Research done by David Childress in Peru, Adriano Forgione in Malta and Andrew Collins, has led to a greater knowledge of elongated skulls. The first is that this is a rare anomaly that has been found since ancient times in various parts of the world. Elongated skulls have not only been discovered Egypt, Mexico and Peru, but also in Malta, the Mittani belt of northern Iraq and Syria and it appears that those possessing such skulls have been associated with the royal or priestly classes.
Except for Peru and Mexico, the other locations are in close geographical proximity therefore the possibility that all of them arising from the same source cannot be ruled out. The genetic source of the Mexican and Peruvian skulls may also be the same since there does appear to be an old world origin of American civilizations.
Is it simply a coincidence that ancient cultures had similar beliefs?
Civilizations around the world have built pyramids, supposedly while not being aware of each other. Other ancient cultures have also erected stone like circles around the world - and yet, we're still taught that they weren't connected.
Is it possible that there was once a previous (and now lost) civilization that connected these cultures? That history of civilization as we know it, is wrong?
Science believes in coincidences, but shouldn't they also try to disprove them?

2 comments:

DNA tests were done on the Paracas, Peru elongated skulls and these were the findings:
Mr. Juan Navarro, owner and director of the local museum, called the Paracas History Museum,Peru which houses a collection of 35 of the 300 Paracas skulls, allowed the taking of samples from 5 of the skulls. The samples consisted of hair, including roots, a tooth, skull bone and skin, and this process was carefully documented via photos and video. Samples from three skulls were sent to the geneticist, although the geneticist was not given any information about what they came from until after the genetic testing, so as not to create any preconceived ideas.

The results of a DNA analysis of one of the skulls are now back, and Brien Foerster, author of more than ten books and an authority on the ancient elongated headed people of South America, has just revealed the preliminary results of the analysis. He reports on the geneticist's findings:

It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans.

The implications are of course huge. “I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree,” the geneticist wrote. He added that if the Paracas individuals were so biologically different
- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-evolution-human-origins/initial-dna-analysis-paracas-elongated-skull-released-incredible#sthash.3DdPGZyA.dpuf

It is well-known that most cases of skull elongation are the result of cranial deformation, head flattening or binding,between two pieces of wood in which the skull is intentionally deformed when an individual is from infant to 3 years old. However, deformation changes the shape of the skull, but it can not alter volume, weight, bone thickness or other characteristics of a regular human skull.