Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis - History

The Religious Wars that had gone on incessantly between England, France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire are ended by the Treaty of Cateau- Cambresis. Under its terms France renounces claims to Italy, and confirms Spanish control of much of Italy.

Cateau-Cambrésis, Treaty of

Cateau-Cambrésis, Peace of — ▪ European history (April 3, 1559), agreement marking the end of the 65 year (1494–1559) struggle between France and Spain for the control of Italy, leaving Habsburg Spain the dominant power there for the next 150 years. In the last phase… … Universalium

treaty — /tree tee/, n., pl. treaties. 1. a formal agreement between two or more states in reference to peace, alliance, commerce, or other international relations. 2. the formal document embodying such an international agreement. 3. any agreement or… … Universalium

Cambrai, Treaty of — or Paix des Dames (French: Peace of the Ladies ) (August 3, 1529) Agreement ending one phase of the wars between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V, temporarily confirming Spanish (Habsburg) control in Italy. It was called the Paix des… … Universalium

Château de la Motte, Joué du Plain — The Château de la Motte is a château located in the commune of Joué du Plain (Orne) in Lower Normandy, France. The Chateau began as a Viking motte and bailey fortress, and evolved into the 18th and 19th century Chateau seen today. The two most… … Wikipedia

April 3 — Events*1043 Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. *1077 The first Parliament of Friuli is created. *1559 The Peace of Cateau Cambrésis treaty is signed, ending the Italian Wars. *1834 The generals in the Greek War of Independence stand … Wikipedia

France — /frans, frahns/ Fr. /frddahonns/, n. 1. Anatole /ann nann tawl /, (Jacques Anatole Thibault), 1844 1924, French novelist and essayist: Nobel prize 1921. 2. a republic in W Europe. 58,470,421 212,736 sq. mi. (550,985 sq. km). Cap.: Paris. 3.… … Universalium

Italy — /it l ee/, n. a republic in S Europe, comprising a peninsula S of the Alps, and Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and other smaller islands: a kingdom 1870 1946. 57,534,088 116,294 sq. mi. (301,200 sq. km). Cap.: Rome. Italian, Italia. * * * Italy… … Universalium

Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier — Édouard Mortier, 1st Duc de Trévise 15th Prime Minister of France In office 18 November 1834 – 12 March 1835 Preceded by … Wikipedia

Spanish Empire — For the use of the imperial title in medieval Spain, see Imperator totius Hispaniae. Spanish Empire … Wikipedia

Spain — /spayn/, n. a kingdom in SW Europe. Including the Balearic and Canary islands, 39,244,195 194,988 sq. mi. (505,019 sq. km). Cap.: Madrid. Spanish, España. * * * Spain Introduction Spain Background: Spain s powerful world empire of the 16th and… … Universalium

There shall be peace between Henry and Elizabeth and their subjects.

That neither shall invade the realm of the other.

That neither shall assist any prince or people who invade the realms of the other.

That the present treaty shall continue in force even if the previous articles be violated by the subjects of either realm, in which case the offenders shall be punished, and none others.

That the inhabitants of each kingdom shall have liberty to trade with the other.

That, during this peace, no armed vessel shall leave any of the ports of either France or England without giving previous security to the Admiral of France or England, respectively, that the above provisions of the peace shall not be violated.

That the King of France shall have peaceable possession for the space of eight years, of Calais, Ruysbank, Nyhuse, Merk, Oye, Hammes, Sandgate, and Guisnes, with their appurtenances, acquired by the King of France during the late war with Queen Mary. At the end of eight years the premises shall be restored to England.

That along with the town of Calais should also be restored to England 16 brass pieces of artillery viz., 3 cannons, 3 demy cannons, 3 bastards, and 7 smaller pieces, called mayennes.

That the King of France shall cause seven or eight, (and not more) substantial merchants, not subjects of France, to become bound to the Queen of England, in the sum of 500,000 crowns of gold of the sun, for the restitution of the premises at the end of the period specified.

That it shall be lawful for the King of France from year to year to change the securities mentioned in the last article, and to substitute others, whom the Queen of England shall be bound to accept.

That the King of France shall surrender to the Queen as hostages for the ratification of the treaty, the following personages, (for whose sufficiency he vouches) viz., Frederick de Foix, Count de Candale, and Chaptal de Buch, Louis de Saint Maure, Marquis de Nesle and Count de Laval, Gaste de Foix, Marquis de Trani, and [Antoine] du Prat, Prevost of Paris, and Sieur de Nantoillet, who shall become bond for the said sum of 500,000 crowns until the merchants mentioned in § 9 shall be produced.

That these hostages shall not be detained in custody in England, but shall make oath that they will not depart from England without the Queen's licence.

That it shall be lawful for the King to change these hostages every two months.

That during this period of eight years it shall not be lawful either for the King of France, or the King and Queen of Scotland, or the Queen of England, to make any hostile attempt upon the realm or subjects of the other. If this be done by the King of France, then he and the King Dauphin shall be bound to surrender Calais and the places aforesaid, and if this be not done the merchants or hostages, (as the case may be,) shall be bound to forfeit the sum of 500,000 crowns aforesaid. If on the other hand, the subjects of the Queen of England violate the treaty, the King of France, the King Dauphin, and the merchants or hostages, shall be free from their promises and bonds respectively. Private individuals violating this treaty shall be punished by their own Sovereigns.

The port of Aymouth, in the realm of Scotland, and all buildings erected either by the French, the Scotch, or the English, in violation of the treaty of Boulogne, of March 1549, shall be demolished within three months from the date of this treaty.

All suits and claims between the King of France and the King and Queen of Scotland on the one hand, and the Queen of England on the other, shall mutually remain whole and entire. These, it is hoped, will speedily be terminated.

Neither of the contracting parties shall harbour the rebels or traitors of the other, but shall give them up within twenty days after being required thereto.

That letters of reprisal or marque shall be given only against the chief delinquents, their goods and factors and this only after the denial of justice.

That in this treaty shall be comprehended, on the part of France, the King of Spain, and the King, Queen, and realm of Scotland and on the part of the Queen of England Philip King of Spain.

That each of the contracting parties shall cause the truce to be proclaimed at Paris and London within ten days of the date of the present treaty, and within the ports and chief towns of France and England as speedily as possible.

That the King of France and the Queen of England shall respectively swear to observe the articles of this treaty.

1. The commission from Henry II., appointing deputies for the execution of the above treaty. (See 22 Jan. 1559.)

2. The commission of Elizabeth to the like effect. (See 20 Jan. 1559.)

The treaty is dated at Cateau Cambresis, 2 April 1559,
— Signed, (on the part of France) Carolus Cardinalis de Lotaringia F. de Montmorency Jacques d'Albon De Morvillier E. d'Orleans De Laubespine:
(on the part of England) W. Howard, Thomas Ely, N. Wotton.
With the seals of the five French Commissioners.

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis - History

On this day in Tudor history, 3rd April 1559, the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between King Henry II of France and King Philip II of Spain. The previous day, 2nd April 1559, it had been signed between Elizabeth I and Henry II.

The treaty, or rather treaties, brought the Italian Wars to an end. But what were these wars? How was England involved? And what were the terms of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis? Find out more in today’s talk.

An Overview of the Results of the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis 1559

Thank you to regular contributor Heather R. Darsie for this article on the 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.

After sixty-five long years of war, the Habsburg and Valois families finally brought the Italian Wars to an end on 3 April 1559. The Italian Wars were fought over territory in Italy, particularly the duchy of Milan. In 1551 Henry II, King of France, carried on his father Francis’ battle with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, which came to be between Henry II and Philip II of Spain by 1559. The purpose of the treaty was to settle all territorial disputes. The peace ushered in at Cateau-Cambrésis would last the better part of one hundred and fifty years.


Francis Drake circumnavigates the world

Drake was the first English person to achieve this (and the second person in history at the time). It was estimated that Drake returned with approximately £400,000 of Spanish treasure from regular raids of Spanish ports in South America.

Francis Drake is knighted on the Golden Hind

This was an important symbolic gesture, which angered Philip II. He saw Drake as a pirate and therefore deemed Elizabeth’s act as deliberately provocative.

The Throckmorton Plot

Mary, Queen of Scot’s cousin (the French Duke of Guise) intended to invade England, free Mary, overthrow Elizabeth and restore Catholicism. English Catholic Francis Throckmorton was the link of communication within this plan. Spymaster and Secretary of State from 1573 Francis Walsingham uncovered the plot. Throckmorton was tortured and although he confessed, was then killed. Thereafter, up to 11,000 English Catholics were either arrested or placed under surveillance.

The French Catholic League signed this treaty with Philip II of Spain. The aim was to rid France of heresy (Protestantism). This meant two of the most powerful European nations were now united against Protestantism, placing Elizabeth in a precarious position.

This significantly committed Elizabeth to support the Dutch rebels directly against the Spanish. She pledged to finance an army of 7,400 English troops and placed Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, in charge of them. Essentially, this meant England and Spain were now at war.

All Catholic priests are ordered to leave the country

With the seemingly imminent war between Spain only a matter of time, Elizabeth was determined to rid England of the ‘enemy within’. Catholic priests were ordered to leave so as not to influence the English Catholics with divided loyalties.

First English colony in Virginia established

This was viewed as significant because it was seen as a means to increase trade, to expand Protestantism and to use the area as a base for attacks on Spanish colonies in the New World. In this sense, the colonisation of Virginia should be understood in relation to the wider conflict with Spain.

Elizabeth and James VI agreed to maintain Protestantism as their respective countries’ religion. James also pledged to help Elizabeth if invaded. The treaty essentially allowed Elizabeth to focus on developing events in the Netherlands and not worry about protecting her northern border.

Surviving colonists abandon Virginia and return to England

The failure of the colonisation was due to: the resistance of the Native Americans conflict amongst the English settlers (who collectively had the wrong mix of skills to make the settlement a real success) the loss of supplies via the damage incurred on The Tiger and the fact that the voyage set off too late for crops to be planted (causing dependence on the rightfully suspicious Native Americans).

Philip II and the Pope supported the plot that would involve the invasion of England by the Duke of Guise. The invasion would include the murder of Elizabeth and the placing of Mary, Queen of Scots on the throne. Anthony Babington, an English Catholic, wrote to Mary about the plot. The plot was uncovered by Sir Francis Walsingham, who intercepted and read Babington’s letters to Mary.

Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed

Mary’s clear awareness and support of the Babington plot led to her being sentenced to death in October 1586. Elizabeth, however, did not sign the death warrant until February 1587.

Babington and other known plotters were hanged, drawn and quartered.

Colony is established at Roanoke

Despite the failure of 1585, another attempt to colonise Virginia took place. Many colonists this time were poverty-stricken Londoners (it was felt they would be used to hard work and would therefore be happy to work for a new life in the New World). Working for the British, Native American Manteo was placed in charge of the expedition by Sir Walter Raleigh. Native American hostility occurred from the start, however. John White (another leading colonist) sailed back to England to report on the problems being experienced.

The ‘singeing of the King’s beard’

Francis Drake led an attack at Cadiz on the Spanish fleet, who were preparing for an invasion of the English. The attack was a success. 30 ships were destroyed, as well as lots of supplies. This delayed the Spanish attack and gave the English more time to prepare (hence the attempted invasion of the Armada one year later in 1588).

Philip II of Spain launches the Armada

The plan was that 130 ships (equipped with 2431 guns) would sail along the Channel to the Netherlands, where they would pick up 27,000 troops, led by the Duke of Parma. The invasion failed, however.

Failure of the Armada

July 31 st : Battle of Plymouth – two Spanish ships were captured.

August 3 rd - 4 th : Spanish ships were outgunned and forced to move to Calais in France.

August 8 th : Battle of Gravelines – fireships caused the Spanish fleet to scatter. They never met with the Duke of Parma and were forced to sail around the British Isles. Most of the fleet was then destroyed by storms.

English sailors land at Roanoke to find it abandoned

John White led another group to Roanoke, 3 years after the attempt to colonise it. However, the settlement was abandoned and no trace of the colonists was ever found.


Warfare Edit

Religious fighting and warfare spread with Protestantism. The radical new doctrine in Germany brought other simmering social tensions to a boil peasant revolts flared in 1525, resulting in chaos and bloodshed across Austria, Switzerland and southern Germany. Wealthy landowners were the target of downtrodden rebels demanding social equality and sharing of wealth in common. Armies loyal to ruling princes suppressed the revolt, and the leaders were executed. Martin Luther, chief initiator of the Reformation, turned against the rebels and defended the authorities' moves to put them down.

Peace of Augsburg Edit

The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 declared the Prince's religion to be the official religion of a region or country (cuius regio, eius religio). This resulted in the acceptance of toleration of Lutheranism in Germany by Catholics. When a new ruler of a different religion took power, large groups had to convert religions. Most people found this to be realistic, and the process did not end until 1648.

In northern Europe (north Germany, Netherlands, and France), the middle class tended to be Protestant, which corresponded with their work ethic and philosophy. Peasants readily converted religions in order to obtain jobs.

Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis Edit

With the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559, Spain and France agreed to stop fighting with each other in order to unite against their common Protestant threat, particularly Calvinism, which was considered more of a threat than Lutheranism.

French War of Religion Edit

In France, religious civil war took place from 1562 to 1598 between Catholics and Protestants. The crown usually supported the Catholics but occasionally shifted sides, while the nobility was divided among the two camps. The three leading families in the nation competed for control of France. These families were the Valois family, which was currently in power and was Catholic, the Bourbon family, which consisted of Huguenots (French Protestants), and the Guise family, who was also Catholic. Ultimately, the Bourbon family won the war, but its leader Henry of Navarre was unable to be crowned because the strongly Catholic city of Paris shut itself down. Henry put Paris under a year of siege before finally deciding to convert to Catholicism himself in 1593. The civil war in France was ended by the Edict of Nantes in 1598, which reaffirmed that Catholicism was the official religion in France, but also granted a significant degree of religious and political freedom to Protestants.

Henry IV could be described as a politique, or one who cares more about his nation's peace and prosperity than he does the enforcement of religious toleration.

In 1566, on the Assumption of the Virgin day, a group of Calvinists in the Netherlands stormed Catholic churches, destroying statutes and relics in a town just outside of Antwerp. Dutch Calvinists resented the Catholic religion and their conflicts with the religion, as well as Spanish King Philip II's deep devoutness and close-mindedness toward other religions. The high nobility pleaded with him for more tolerance but some of them were put to death for their insolence. One of the underlying reasons was that Philip wanted to establish an absolute monarchy in the Netherlands and the religious issue gave him a way to put pressure on the parliament. William of Orange escaped to Germany from where he tried to incite a rebellion from 1568 onwards but with little success at first. In 1570 the coastal regions got hit by a weather-related disaster, the All Saints flood that left many regions devastated and the Spanish authorities showed little compassion. William of Orange, then encouraged Sea Beggars, or pirates, to invade the ports of the coast. In 1572 the small town of Brielle was taken by what were no more than outlaws, greeted enthusiastically by the population. The town declared itself for the prince of Orange and this example was followed by a number of other towns in the relatively inaccessible provinces of Holland and Zeeland.

Philip sent Spanish troops in response. They took Naarden and Haarlem and inflicted horrible suffering on the population. Other towns proved far harder to take and this caused Philip to run out of money. In what became known as the Spanish Fury, in November of 1576, Philip's unpaid mercenary armies attacked the city of Antwerp killing 7,000 in 11 days. Antwerp was by far the richest city at the time and the influential merchants got the parliament to convene and raise money to pay off the marauding mercenaries. By doing so the parliament basically took over control from the king in far Madrid and this was the last thing the king wanted. He sent more troops with an ultimatum to the parliament to surrender or else and appointed the Duke of Parma as the new governor of the Netherlands. In 1579, the southern ten provinces of the Netherlands, which were Catholic, signed the Union of Arras, expressing loyalty to Philip. During that same year, William of Orange united seven northern states in the Union of Utrecht, which formed the Dutch Republic that openly opposed Philip and Spain. In 1581, the Spanish army was sent to retake the United Provinces of the Netherlands, or the Dutch Republic, who had just declared their independence.

On July 10, 1584, William of Orange was assassinated, and after his death, the Duke of Parma made progress in his reconquest, capturing significant portions of the Dutch Republic. However, England, under the leadership of Elizabeth I, assisted the Dutch with troops and horses, and as a result Spain was never able to regain control of the north. Spain finally recognized Dutch independence in 1648.

Catholic Philip II of Spain desired to remove Elizabeth I of England from the throne after her rise to power following "Bloody" Mary Tudor's fall to illness. Philip was primarily angry over Elizabeth's actions against English Catholics, but he was also upset as a result of attacks by English privateers upon Spanish vessels, Elizabeth's assisting enemies of Spain such as the Netherlands, and the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots.

Philip devised a plan to invade England. The four components of this plan were to bring a large army into the Netherlands under the lead of the Duke of Parma and get them prepared to invade England. In addition, the Duke of Medina-Sardonia would prepare a large fleet with extra men, and equip the men to join up with the Duke of Parma's army. Then, Spain would use its fleet to win control of the English Channel and protect the Duke of Parma's invading force as it crossed. Finally, the troops would invade England and force Elizabeth to agree to Spain's demands: to allow English Catholics to worship in the way that they wanted, to stop assisting Protestant Dutch rebels in the Spanish Netherlands, and to pay reparations for the cost of the invasion as well as English damage to Spanish ships. Philip did not, however, have any intent to conquer England - he simply desired Elizabeth to cede to Spain's demands. Although on 29 July 1587, Pope Sixtus V had granted Papal authority to overthrow Elizabeth, who had been declared a heretic by Pope Pius V, and place whomever he chose on the throne of England.

Initial Problems with the Plan Edit

There were a number of problems with Philip's plan. First, the Duke of Medina-Sardonia was appointed leader of the operation. He had no naval experience and was fatalistic. Moreover, the Duke of Parma refused to cooperate, as he wanted to be the commander. As a result, he did not assemble enough vessels. In addition, during the preparations, Sir Francis Drake of England raided the city of Cadiz and sank 30 Spanish vessels and burnt barrel staves, resulting in the food for the armada becoming spoiled. Finally, the invasion consisted of 131 ships, resulting in difficult communications.

The Attack Edit

The Armada arrived in late July of 1588, and was spotted immediately by English lookouts. At this time, the Duke of Parma still needed a few more days to prepare the troops. On July 20, Admiral Howard of England devised a plan using fireships, or ships filled with combustibles, to attack the Spanish fleet. These attacks resulted in the Spanish fleet cutting its anchors. On July 29, the major confrontation took place, called the Battle of Gravelines. The Spanish tactics were outdated - they were to sail in close, fire one volley at the English ships, and then proceed to board the English vessels. However, the English navy had devised new tactics, using smaller, more maneuverable ships with longer range, movable cannons. But this new tactic was not decisive, because little damage was done to ships in formation. On the other hand all attempts to leave the formation led to immediate destruction by combined fire of the English ships. When the English fleet was able to scatter the Spanish formation with burners, the Armada decided to retreat. This, coupled with the so-called "Protestant Wind" that blew the Spanish ships through the English Channel, resulted in the Spanish defeat. On May 28, 1588, the Armada had set sail with 131 ships and 30,000 men. 67 ships and around 10,000 men returned. Many ships sank along the Irish coast, about 5000 men died from starvation and others were executed in Ireland by English authorities.

Results of the Spanish Armada Edit

The Spanish fleet was able to recover from this defeat in numbers, but morale was shattered. The events marked the rise of English naval power. In addition, they resulted in Dutch independence since Spain could not defeat England. The events were thus a blow to the Counter-Reformation, leading to an overall decline in the Counter-Reformation's effects.

It is a common misconception that the failure of the armada resulted in the decline of Spain.

After the failed invasion of England, Spain soon began to enter a period of decline. This occurred for a number of reasons. The Counter-Reformation had drained considerable Spanish resources. Moreover, many of the resources of the Spanish colonies had been exhausted. Additionally, only one-third of Spain's population actually worked - one-third of the population belonged to the clergy and another one-third belonged to lower nobility - and there was no middle class in Spain, and a small higher class. Finally, inbreeding caused inept leadership in the monarchy.

The Thirty Years' War was sparked by the Defenestration of Prague, at which Protestants threw Catholic ambassadors out of a window in the city of Prague. The Thirty Years' War had started as a war along religious frontlines, but the role of religion greatly diminished later. The Catholic French funded the Protestant Dutch, Protestant Princes in the Holy Roman Empire, as well as other non-Catholic nations such as Sweden, Denmark, and the Ottoman Empire, since all of these nations were fighting the Habsburgs. France, led by Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister for Louis XIII, desired to reduce the power of Austria by funding Austria's enemies. The war was essentially a fight between the two powers to determine which would become the main power in Europe. Although a high member of the hierarchy of the Catholic Church, Richelieu can be described as a politique, as he put national interest ahead of his religion. Indeed, Richelieu openly funded Protestant groups in his fight against the Habsburgs.

Precursors to the War Edit

The Schmalkaldic Wars and the Peace of Augsburg started in the 1540s and ended in 1555 created a number of issues for Charles V of Habsburg. The debate over what religion German states could adopt had not been resolved, as the Peace of Augsburg provided for the states' princes to adopt either Catholicism or Lutheranism, but not Calvinism. The issue of the German princes' power and sovereignty was also at bay, as the princes increasingly desired more power. Finally, the princes had been seizing Church land, angering Charles V.

Bohemian Phase (1618-1625) Edit

Protestant Bohemians rebelled for religious freedom and independence from Habsburg rule. The Defenestration of Prague, in which rebels threw two of the Holy Roman Emperor's, Ferdinand II, Catholic officials from a castle window, initiated the war in 1618. After ruthless retaliation by Ferdinand, Bohemia was completely converted to Catholicism and defeated.

Danish Phase (1625-1630) Edit

King Christian of Denmark supported north German Protestants. Catholic general Albert Wallenstein was hired to defeat Protestant forces and restore Catholic land lost. As a result of Austrian victories, Ferdinand II issues the Edict of Restitution in 1629, ordering that no longer could Protestants seize and secularize Catholic land. In the Siege of Madgeburg, Wallenstein's mercenary force, out of control, massacred the entire town of Madgeburg, including both Protestants and Catholics. Again, Austria is victorious, and Denmark is relatively easily defeated.

Swedish Phase (1630-1635) Edit

Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, devout Lutheran, came to Germany's aid. Austria ultimately defeated Sweden, and it looked like peace was likely. The Edict of Restitution was thus withdrawn.

French/International Phase (1635-1648) Edit

Though a Catholic state, France had felt threatened by the strengthened Habsburg Empire, and joined the war in 1635 on the side of the Protestants, thus ending the strictly religious character of the war. A combined French/Swedish alliance triumphed over Habsburg forces, while the Dutch, also allied to France, finally won their formal independence from Spain. In 1648, with all sides exhausted, a final series of peace treaties were prepared.

Peace of Westphalia (1648) Edit

The Treaty of Westphalia ended the last major religious war in Europe. The settlement would serve as a model for resolving conflict among warring European nations, as it represented the first time a diplomatic congress addressed and resolved a dispute. This was the first time that all parties were brought together at once rather than two or three at a time.

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis - History

On this day in Tudor history, 3rd April 1559, the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between King Henry II of France and King Philip II of Spain. The previous day, 2nd April 1559, it had been signed between Elizabeth I and Henry II.

The treaty, or rather treaties, brought the Italian Wars to an end. But what were these wars? How was England involved? And what were the terms of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis? Find out more in today’s talk.

An Overview of the Results of the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis 1559

Thank you to regular contributor Heather R. Darsie for this article on the 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.

After sixty-five long years of war, the Habsburg and Valois families finally brought the Italian Wars to an end on 3 April 1559. The Italian Wars were fought over territory in Italy, particularly the duchy of Milan. In 1551 Henry II, King of France, carried on his father Francis’ battle with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, which came to be between Henry II and Philip II of Spain by 1559. The purpose of the treaty was to settle all territorial disputes. The peace ushered in at Cateau-Cambrésis would last the better part of one hundred and fifty years.


1559. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis between France and Spain (April).

Death of Henry II at a Tournament.

Supremacy of the Guises, uncles of the Queen.

1560. La Renaudie’s Conspiracy, the Tumult of Amboise (March).

Edict of Romorantin against the Huguenots.

Arrest and sentence of Condé.

Accession of Charles IX under guardianship of Catherine di Medici and Anthony of Navarre.

1561. Estates General of Orleans (Jan.).

The Catholic triumvirate—Guise, Montmorenci , S. André—Estates of Pontoise (Aug.).

Colloquy of Poissi between Catholic and Calvinist divines (Sept.).

1562. The tolerant Edict of January. Navarre joins the Catholics.

Massacre of the Congregation of Vassi by Guise’s followers (March).

Condé and Coligni seize Orleans (April).

English at Havre. Capture of Rouen by Catholics (Oct.), and death of Navarre.

Defeat of Huguenots at Dreux .

Capture of Condé and Montmorenci . Death of S. André

1563. Murder of Guise before Orleans by Poltrot (Feb.).

Capture of Havre from English (July).

1564. Peace of Troyes with English. Tour of Catherine and Charles.

1565. Their interview with Elizabeth of Spain and Alva at Bayonne (June).

1566. Troubles in the Netherlands.

1567. Second War. Attempt of Condé to seize the Court at Meaux (Sept.).

Condé attacks Paris. Battle of S. Denis. Death of Montmorenci (Nov.).

1568. John Casimir’s Germans join Condé.

Peace of Longjumeau or Chartres (March).

Flight of Condé and Coligni (Aug.).

1569. Defeat of Huguenots at Jarnac (March).

Death of Condé. Invasion of Deux Fonts.

Defeat of Coligni at Moncontour (Oct.).

Defence of S. Jean d’Angely .

Louis of Nassau at Rochelle.

1570. Peace of S. Germain (Aug.).

1571-2. French schemes on Netherlands.

Louis of Nassau with French aid seizes Valenciennes and Mons.

Marriage of Navarre and Margaret.

Massacre of S. Bartholo­mew (Aug.).

1572. Navarre and Condé abjure Reform.

Local resistance of Huguenot towns.

1573. Sieges of Rochelle and Sancerre.

Negotiations of the Crown with Orange.

Election of Anjou to throne of Poland (May).

1574. Fifth War. Conspiracy of Navarre and Alençon—its discovery.

Execution of La Mole and Coconas .

Arrest of Marshals Montmorenci and Cosse .

Negotiations for marriage of Alençon with Elizabeth (1573-4)

Confederation of Huguenots and Politiques under Damville in Languedoc.

Return of Henry III from Poland (Sept.).

Death of Cardinal of Lorraine (Dec.).

1575. Escape and revolt of Alençon. Invasion of John Casimir (Sept.).

1576. Escape of Navarre (Feb.).

Alençon, John Casimir , and Condé march on Paris.

Peace of Monsieur (April). Its favorable terms for the Huguenots.

Catholic League of Picardy (June).

Estates General of Blois and Catholic revival.

1578. Alençon in the Netherlands. Growing antagonism to the Crown.

1579. Alençon in England. French occupation of Cambrai and La Fere .

1580. Seventh or Lovers’ War (Feb.).

Treaty of Plessis between Alen9on and United Provinces.

Henry recognizes Alençon’s expedition to Netherlands.

1581. Alençon lord of the Netherlands his visit to England and betrothal to Elizabeth.

1582. Alençon in the Netherlands.

Catherine interferes for independence of Portugal.

Defeat of French fleet off Azores.

1583. Alençon’s treacherous attempt on Antwerp (Jan.).

Assassination of Orange (July).

1584. The League of Paris (Dec.).

1585. The Pact of Joinville between Guises, Cardinal Bourbon, and Spanish agents (Jan.).

Henry III refuses the sovereignty of the Netherlands (Feb.).

1587. War of the Three Henries .

Navarre defeats Joyeuse at Coutras (Oct.).

The King makes terms with the German auxiliaries who are cut to pieces by Guise (Nov.).

Remarkable retreat of the Huguenot horse.

1588. The day of the Barricades (May).

The King forced to fly from Paris.

The Estates General of Blois.

Murder of Henry of Guise and the Cardinal of Guise by the King (Dec.).

1589. Death of Catherine di Medici (Jan.).

League of the King and Navarre.

Their march on Paris. Murder of Henry III (Aug.).

1589. Two Bourbon Kings, Henry IV and Charles X.

Henry’s retreat from Paris to Normandy.

Differences between Mayenne and the Sixteen at Paris.

Spanish influence in Paris.

1590. Henry’s victory at Ivry (March).

Siege and starvation of Paris.

The Duke of Parma relieves the town (Sept.).

1591. The Royalists capture S. Denis, blockade Paris, and take Chartres.

Terrorism of the Sixteen and their suppression by Mayenne.

1592. Siege of Rouen and its relief by Parma. His retreat to the Netherlands and death (Dec.).


  • The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, ending the Italian Wars, was agreed there on 2–3 April 1559.
  • Until 1678, the city belonged to the Spanish Netherlands (now called Belgium). France conquered the city officially by the treaty of Nijmegen signed in 1678.
  • On 28 March 1794, allied forces under the prince of Coburg, defeated French forces at Le Cateau.
  • Le Cateau formed the right wing of the front of II Corps of the British Expeditionary Force at the Battle of Le Cateau on 26 August 1914, during its withdrawal from the Battle of Mons.

Heraldry Edit

The Musée Départemental Henri Matisse installed in the Palais Fénelon in the center of Le Cateau boasts the third largest collection of Matisse works in France.

Pierre Mauroy was a high school student in Le Cateau, and later its representative at the general council for the Nord department.

Elizabeth I and Scotland

A Spanish Proposal
The first marriage proposal [to Elizabeth I] came from Philip of Spain himself. He would get a papal dispensation allowing his marriage with his deceased wife's half-sister. To his great astonishment, his offer was politely declined by the daughter of Anne Boleyn, who, if such a dispensation were valid, could not herself claim to have been born in wedlock. The disappointed suitor took another wife, a princess of France.

A curious popular superstition that he sent the Spanish Armada thirty years afterwards to punish Elizabeth for refusing him must be put away among the fairy tales of history. The matter of pressing importance to Elizabeth was to free herself from foreign complications for the moment. There was an armistice in the French war, and the treaty of Cateau Cambresis allowed England to retire with her honour saved by the French king's promise to restore Calais after eight years, supplemented by the formal recognition of Elizabeth as the lawful Queen of England while she herself evaded the formal recognition of Mary as heir-presumptive.

New Act of Uniformity and Supremacy
The religious question was promptly dealt with. No changes were made till parliament met at the beginning of 1559. The Marian legislation was then reversed, and the new settlement took shape in the new Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity. By the former, the title of Supreme Head was dropped, but the Crown was declared to be "supreme in all causes as well ecclesiastical as civil." The refusal of the oath was not to be counted as treason, but was a bar to office.

Religious opinions were to be a ground for proceedings only when they controverted decisions of the first four General Councils of the Church Universal, or were in plain contradiction to the Scriptures. The Act also authorised the appointment of a court for dealing with ecclesiastical offences, which was actually constituted twenty-four years later as the Court of High Commission.

The new Act of Uniformity required the use of a new service-book which differed very little from that of 1552, though in some respects it reverted to the less emphatically Protestant volume of 1549. Refusal to accept the two Acts caused the deprivation of all the bishops except one, and the ejection of a small number of the lower clergy from their benefices.

The vacated sees were filled almost entirely from among the less extreme Protestants, Matthew Parker being made Archbishop of Canterbury. Critics hostile to the "doctrine of the continuity of the English Church and of the apostolic succession in its priesthood rest their case on doubts of the validity of the ordination of Bishop Barlow, who consecrated Archbishop Parker &mdash doubts for which the evidence gives no sufficient warrant.

The principle of the settlement was approximately that at which Somerset had aimed the enforcement of a sufficient uniformity of practice and ceremonial along with the admission of very wide variations of doctrine but a definite rejection of transubstantiation. Methods of Church government and ques­tions of ceremonial, not questions of actual doctrine, were those which for the most part disturbed the peace of the comprehensive Church which was thus established.

Financial administration was also vigorously taken in hand, immediate confidence was inspired by the known probity of the financial agents selected by Cecil, by the obvious self-reliance with which the government faced its difficulties, and by its hardly expected stability. It soon became manifest that there was to be no wastage, and that every penny of the public supplies would be strictly expended on national objects under stringent supervision.

Every loan that was negotiated was repaid with an admirable punctuality and with the restoration of public credit, the negotiation of loans became a comparatively easy matter. The financial problem was in great part solved by the skill with which the whole of the debased coinage in general circulation was called in and was replaced by a new coinage of which the real and the nominal values were the same.

During the same period Scotland was also settling her own affairs, which were reaching a crisis at the moment of Elizabeth's accession. In the eleven years since Somerset's invasion in 1547, the French party had held the ascendency. Although the Earl of Arran, the heir-presumptive, who held also the French title of Duke of Chatelherault, was nominally regent, Mary of Lorraine was the real ruler of the country, and in 1554 she became actually regent, Chatelherault retiring.

It was in fact her policy to turn Scotland into a province of France &mdash by no means with Scottish approval. The appointment of Frenchmen to the most responsible offices of the state intensified the general uneasiness. An attempt to establish a property tax had to be promptly abandoned, and when the regent in 1557 proposed to invade England in the interests of France, she met with an obstinate refusal from the leading nobles.

Marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots
In the following year Queen Mary was married to the Dauphin, and the Scottish com­missioners for the marriage treaty returned from France with an angry consciousness that if they had given way to the French demands, which they refused to do, Scotland would have ceased to be the ally and would have become in effect the subordinate of France.

Now hostility to France meant of necessity inclination, towards England. In the past it might at almost any time have been claimed that patriotism and hostility to England would go hand in hand but under the existing conditions patriotism came near to involving hostility to France. Moreover, the coming of the Reformation had introduced a new factor. The Guises in France were at the head of what, in that country at least, may be called without offence the Catholic party Mary of Lorraine in Scotland had identified herself with the Clerical party.

If Protestantism triumphed in England, Scottish Protestantism would inevitably turn to England for support, as it had done a dozen years before. Scotland would in any circumstances refuse, as she had always refused, anything that pointed to subjection to the richer country, but the idea of a union which involved no subordination was one which now might possibly be rendered accept­able to the Scottish people, even as it had seemed desirable to far-seeing statesmen in both countries.

During Mary Tudor's reign in England, the regent in Scotland had been obliged to walk warily in matters of religion, and the reformed doctrines had spread apace, several of the nobles ranging themselves upon that side prominent among whom were the Lord James Stuart, the young queen's illegitimate half-brother, and the Earls of Argyle and Morton, to whom was shortly to be added the Earl of Arran, a title which was now borne by the son of the Duke of Chatelherault.

Lords of the Congregation
The Protestant lords, soon to be known as the Lords of the Congregation, were already in 1557 assuming an aggressive attitude, which became directly defiant in the next year when an old man named Walter Mills was burnt for heresy. And before the end of that year the professed Protestant Elizabeth was on the throne of England.

Before the end of May 1559 it was already certain that there would be an armed struggle in Scotland. In July Henry II of France was killed in a tournament his son Francis II and Mary Stuart became king and queen. Both in France and Scotland the Guise interest was predominant and the Lords of the Congregation opened communications with England, while French troops were landed in Scotland to support the regent.

It was at this stage that Elizabeth got fairly started on her matrimonial diplomacy. Philip of Spain now wished her to marry his cousin the Austrian Archduke Charles. The Scots proposed that she should marry the young Earl of Arran, whose prospective claim to the Scottish throne might be made an immediate one by the deposition of Mary Stuart. Elizabeth played with both offers, though she had no intention of accept­ing either. It was her favourite method to avoid committing herself to anybody. But in the next year, under persistent pressure from Cecil, she did commit herself to supporting the Lords of the Congregation not, in theory, against the queen, but against the regent who was abusing the royal authority.

The French withdraw from Scotland
Elizabeth was already able to send an efficient fleet to sea, and the arrival of an English squadron in the Forth cut off all prospect of French reinforcement for the regent. This was followed up by tie despatch of an army to help the Lords of the Congregation. The regent was shut up in Leith, which was vigorously defended but in June she died, and with her death the position of the French troops in Scotland became practically untenable. An arrangement was entered upon variously known as the Treaty of Edinburgh or of Leith. The French were to evacuate Scotland, having given a pledge that the demand of the Lords of the Congregation for religious toleration should be recognised, as well as Elizabeth's own right to the throne of England.

Virtually the triumph of the Lords of the Congregation was secured with the death of the regent and the disappearance of the French troops. It was certain that after this any serious attempt to bring back the French would be impracticable. Mary might, and did, refuse to ratify the treaty, but the fact of the evacuation was decisive.

Before the end of the year, the death of Mary's husband changed the whole situation. She was no longer Queen of France. The queen-mother, Catherine de Medicis, meant to secure her own ascendency over the new King Charles IX, and France had no longer the same interest as before in the possibility of Mary's accession to the English throne. The presumption remained that such an event would bring England into close alliance with France, but nothing more.

Queen Mary returns
There was a possibility that Philip might attach Mary to himself, though unless he could succeed in doing so it would still be emphatically opposed to his interests to see Mary on the English throne. Elizabeth could for the present remain free from the fear of Spanish intervention on Mary's behalf, and would rather make it her aim to attach Mary to England. The Scots of both parties saw possibilities of advantage for themselves in the return of the young queen to her native country. In August 1561 Mary left the land in which she had been bred and reached the bleak shores of her own northern kingdom.

A History of Britain

This article is excerpted from the book, 'A History of the British Nation', by AD Innes, published in 1912 by TC & EC Jack, London. I picked up this delightful tome at a second-hand bookstore in Calgary, Canada, some years ago. Since it is now more than 70 years since Mr Innes's death in 1938, we are able to share the complete text of this book with Britain Express readers. Some of the author's views may be controversial by modern standards, particularly his attitudes towards other cultures and races, but it is worth reading as a period piece of British attitudes at the time of writing.

Watch the video: Résultats des élections municipales au Cateau Cambresis (January 2022).