Nikolay Bulganin, the son of a office worker, was born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, on 30th May, 1895. As a young man he joined the Bolsheviks and after the the October Revolution was employed by the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage (Cheka) in Turkestan.
Bulganian was later appointed to manage a leading electrical-equipment factory in Moscow. In 1931 he became mayor of Moscow. This was followed by positions as chairman of the Soviet Union's State Bank (1938-41) and deputy premier of the Soviet Union (1938-41).
During the the Second World War Bulganin served under Joseph Stalin in the war cabinet. He was also chairman of the State Defence Committee.
In 1947 Bulganian became minister of the armed forces. Granted the rank of marshal of the Soviet Union and became a full member of the Politburo of the Central Committee.
After the death of Joseph Stalin Bulganin served as deputy premier and minister of defence under Georgy Malenkov. However, he supported Nikita Khrushchev against Malenkov and in February, 1955, was rewarded with the post of chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union.
In the summer of 1957 Bulganian joined with Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, in an attempt to oust Nikita Khrushchev. This was unsuccessful and Bulganian was forced into retirement.
Nikolay Bulganin died on 24th February, 1975.
Kruschev is undoubtedly a clever man; either a dangerous one or a man who will be valuable to the cause of peace. It is impossible to know yet whether he is playing a part or being genuine. Bulganin was, on the other hand, much more easy to assess, and it is not hindsight to say that on that visit I felt convinced his days of glory were soon due for eclipse. A Soviet prime minister who is not also First Secretary of the Communist Party (as Mr. K. was and is) is, as things are, bound to be insecure.
I had met Bulganin, as Chairman of the Moscow Soviet, before the war when he came to study London's transport system and local government; it was my job as Leader of the L.C.C. to show him around. It was the time when the Russians were planning the Moscow underground railway system. I suggested that the then lesser size of Moscow made the enterprise a somewhat doubtful proposition either as a public service or as an economic asset. He made it clear that the Soviet Government intended to construct a tube railway if only for reasons of prestige. Indeed it is a fine job.
Bulganin gave the impression of being the type of level-headed man who could be a fairly important executive in a commercial firm, or more probably a higher civil servant, in any country and under any kind of regime. He seemed an incongruous and unnatural partner with Kruschev as joint ruler of Russia. It was obvious that Kruschev was more politically awake and he had by far the more dominating character. Bulganin was always ready to give way to Kruschev during conversation when both had the same opportunity to yield.
Bulganin syntyi Nižni Novgorodissa, toimistovirkailijan poikana. Bulganin liittyi kommunistipuolueeseen vuonna 1917 ja palveli Tšekassa, kommunistien salaisessa poliisijärjestössä vuoteen 1922 asti. Venäjän sisällissodan jälkeen Bulganinista tuli teollisuusjohtaja, sähkötuotannon ministeriössä vuoteen 1927. Moskovan sähkötuotannon johtaja vuosina 1927–1931. Moskovan kaupungin neuvoston puheenjohtajana.
Kommunistinen puoluekongressi valitsi Bulganinin keskuskomitean ehdokasjäseneksi vuonna 1934. Uskollisena Josif Stalinille hän oli nopeasti järjestämässä muiden kommunistijohtajien tuhoamista Stalinin suurissa puhdistuksissa vuosina 1937–1938. Bulganin oli valittu Venäjän neuvostotasavallan (RSFSR) pääministeriksi heinäkuussa 1937. Bulganinista tuli keskuskomitean täysjäsen vuotta myöhemmin, ja syyskuussa 1938 hänestä tuli Neuvostoliiton varapääministeri ja Neuvostoliiton valtion pankin johtaja.
Toisen maailmansodan aikana Bulganin oli hallituksessa ja myös puna-armeijan johdossa, vaikka hän ei ollutkaan koskaan etulinjan komentajana. Bulganin oli ylennetty kenraalieverstiksi, ja hän oli valtion puolustuskomitean jäsen. Bulganinista tuli sotavoimaministeri, ja hän sai Neuvostoliiton marsalkan sotilasarvon vuonna 1946.
Bulganinista tuli kommunistipuolueen politbyroon ehdokasjäsen. Hän oli uudelleen Neuvostoliiton varapääministerinä, Stalinin alaisena vuosina 1947–1950. Bulganinista tuli politbyroon täysjäsen vuonna 1948. Stalinin kuoleman jälkeen maaliskuussa 1953, Bulganin nousi ensimmäiselle sijalle Neuvostoliiton johdossa, Bulganin valittiin puolustusministeriksi. Hän oli Nikita Hruštšovin liittolainen valtataistelussa Georgi Malenkovia vastaan, ja helmikuussa 1955 Bulganin valittiin Neuvostoliiton pääministeriksi Malenkovin tilalle. Bulganin hyväksyi Hruštšovin talousuudistukset ja destalinisoinnin. Bulganin ja Hruštšov matkustivat yhdessä ulkomailla Intiassa, Jugoslaviassa ja Isossa-Britanniassa. He olivat Ison-Britannian lehdistön mielenkiinnon kohteena  . Heidän toimintaa nimitettiin Neuvostoliiton pr- ja suhdetoiminnaksi, ”charmioffensiiviksi”. Tämä oli täysin uudenlaista ja erilaista Neuvostoliiton ulkopolitiikan hoitamista. Bulganin ja Hruštšov tapasivat Yhdysvaltain presidentin Eisenhowerin Geneven huippukokouksessa kesällä 1955.
Vuonna 1957 Bulganin liittyi kuitenkin Molotovin johtamaan konservatiiviseen ryhmään. Heinäkuussa 1957 konservatiivit yrittivät poistaa Hruštšovin vallasta politbyroon kokouksessa. Bulganin tasapainoili ryhmien välillä. Kun konservatiivit olivat hävinneet ja poistettu vallasta, Bulganin selvisi vähän aikaa vallassa, mutta maaliskuussa 1958 Hruštšov pakotti hänet eroamaan. Bulganin erotettiin keskuskomiteasta, ja hän joutui luopumaan Neuvostoliiton marsalkan arvosta syyskuussa 1958. Bulganin nimitettiin alueellisen talousneuvoston puheenjohtajaksi Stavropoliin. Hän jäi eläkkeelle helmikuussa 1960.
World War II [ edit | edit source ]
During World War II Bulganin played a leading role in the government, and also in the Red Army, although he was never a front-line commander. He was given the rank of Colonel-General and was a member of the State Committee of Defense. In 1944 he was appointed Deputy Commissar for Defence, under Stalin, and served as Stalin's principal agent in the High Command of the Red Army. In 1946 he became Minister for the Armed Forces and was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. He also became a candidate member of the Politburo of the Communist Party. He was again Deputy Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, under Stalin, from 1947 to 1950. In 1948 he became a full member of the Politburo.
1=denotes a character who was a POV for one volume or less
2=denotes a character who was a POV for two volumes
3=denotes a character who was a POV for three volumes
† Denotes a deceased POV.
After Stalins death in March 1953, Bulganin moved into the first rank of the Soviet leadership, being appointed to the key post of Defense Minister. He was an ally of Nikita Khrushchev during his power struggle with Georgy Malenkov, and in February 1955 he succeeded Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. He was generally seen as a supporter of Khrushchevs reforms and destalinisation. He and Khrushchev travelled together to India, Yugoslavia and Britain, where they were known in the press as "the B and K show." In his memoirs, however, Khrushchev recounted that he believed that he "couldnt rely on upon the very existence of Israel as a State." Khrushchev, in his memoirs, admitted the threat was designed simply to divide Western opinion, especially since at the time he did not have enough ICBMs to launch the rockets, and in any case he had no intention of going to war in 1956.
By 1957, however, Bulganin had come to share the doubts held about Khrushchevs policies by the opposition group which Khrushchev and his supporters labelled the "Anti-Party Group" led by Vyacheslav Molotov. In June, when the dissenters tried to remove Khrushchev from power at a meeting of the Politburo, Bulganin vacillated between the two camps. When the dissenters were defeated and removed from power, Bulganin held on to his position for a while, but in March 1958, at a session of the Supreme Soviet, Khrushchev forced his resignation. He was appointed Chairman of the Soviet State Bank, a job he had held two decades before, but in September Bulganin was removed from the Central Committee and deprived of the title of Marshal. He was dispatched to Stavropol as Chairman of the Regional Economic Council, a token position, and in February 1960 he was retired on a pension.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Bulganin
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Nikolay Aleksandr ulı Bulganin (urıs. Николай Александрович Булганин, 30 may (11 iyün) 1895, Nijgar — 24 fiwräl 1975, Mäskäw) — säwit däwlät eşleklese, Säwitlär Berlege Marşalı (1947—1958).
|Tuu datası||11 iyün 1895 ( 1895-06-11 )|
|Ülem datası||24 fevral 1975 ( 1975-02-24 ) (79 yäş)|
Xezmätkär ğailäsendä tuğan. 1917 yılda riäl uquxanäne tämamlıy. 1917 neñ martınnan RSDRP(b) äğzası. 1918—1922 dä Bötenräsäy Fäwqelğädä kämisiäsendä (VÇK) eşli. 1922—1927 dä Xalıq Xucalığı Yuğarı Şurasında (VSNX) eşta, 1927—1931 dä Kuybışev is. Mäskäw ilikter zawutınıñ diriktirı.
1931—1937 dä Mäskäw şahär başqarma qömitäseneñ räise. 1937—1938 dä RSFSR Xalıq Kämisärläre Şurası räise. В 1938—1941 dä häm 1947—1953 tä SSRB XKŞ (1946 dan — Ministırlar Şurası) räise urınbasarı. 1938—1940, 1941—1945 tä häm 1958 dä SSRB Däwlät bankı idäräse räise. Böyek Watan suğışı däwerendä berniçä fruntnıñ xärbi şura äğzası bulğan.
1944 tän SSRB saqlanu xalıq kämisäre urınbasarı, SSRB Qoarallı Köçläre ministırınıñ urınbasarı. 1947—1949 da häm 1953—1955 tä SSRB Qorallı Köçläre (saqlanu) ministırı. 1953 tän SSRB MŞ räiseneñ berençe urınbasarı, 1955—1958 dä SSRB MŞ räise. 1958—1960 ta Stawropol xalıq xucalığı şurası räise. 1960 yildan pinsädä.
SSRB Yuğarı Şurasi diputatı (1—5 çaqırılışlar). Satsiälistik Xezmät Qaharmanı (1955). Şuralar Berlege Marşalı (1947—1958, däräcäsennän mäxrüm itelgän), yanaral-palkawnik (1958). Mäskäwneñ Novodeviçye ziratında cirlängän.
President Eisenhower presents his “Open Skies” plan
President Dwight D. Eisenhower presents his “Open Skies” plan at the 1955 Geneva summit meeting with representatives of France, Great Britain and the Soviet Union. The plan, though never accepted, laid the foundation for President Ronald Reagan’s later policy of “trust, but verify” in relation to arms agreements with the Soviet Union.
Eisenhower met with Prime Minister Anthony Eden of Great Britain, Premier Edgar Faure of France, and Premier Nikolai Bulganin of the Soviet Union (acting for Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev) in Geneva in July 1955. The agenda for the summit included discussions on the future of Germany and arms control. As it became clear that no consensus could be reached on the issue of possible German reunification or the precise configuration of an arms control agreement, Eisenhower dramatically unveiled what came to be known as his “Open Skies” proposal. It called for the United States and the Soviet Union to exchange maps indicating the exact location of every military installation in their respective nations. With these maps in hand, each nation would then be allowed to conduct aerial surveillance of the installations in order to assure that the other nations were in compliance with any arms control agreements that might be reached. While the French and British expressed interest in the idea, the Soviets rejected any plan that would leave their nation subject to surveillance by a Western power. Khrushchev declared that Eisenhower’s “Open Skies” was nothing more than an 𠇎spionage plot.”
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After Stalin's death in March 1953, Bulganin moved into the first rank of the Soviet leadership, being appointed to the key post of Defense Minister. He was an ally of Nikita Khrushchev during his power struggle with Georgy Malenkov, and in February 1955 he succeeded Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. He was generally seen as a supporter of Khrushchev's reforms and destalinization. He and Khrushchev travelled together to India, Yugoslavia and Britain, where they were known in the press as "the B and K show." 
During the Suez Crisis he sent letters to the governments of the United Kingdom, France and Israel threatening rocket attacks on London, Paris and Tel Aviv if they did not withdraw their forces from Egypt. However, this was simply a bluff. Khrushchev, in his memoirs, admitted the threat was designed simply to divide western opinion, especially since at the time he did not have enough ICBMs to launch the rockets, and in any case he had no intention of going to war in 1956. Furthermore in 1959 US intelligence revealed that the Soviet nuclear arsenal was much smaller than the west had believed, and therefore the Soviets would not have had enough rockets to launch in three different directions. The threatening letters actually helped the British and French at the United Nations, since they ensured that all of NATO (including the United States) was committed to defend the UK and France from a Soviet attack.
By 1957, however, Bulganin had come to share the doubts held about Khrushchev's reformist policies by the conservative group (the so-called "Anti-Party Group") led by Vyacheslav Molotov. In June, when the conservatives tried to remove Khrushchev from power at a meeting of the Politburo, Bulganin vacillated between the two camps. When the conservatives were defeated and removed from power, Bulganin survived for a while, but in March 1958, at a session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev forced his resignation. He was appointed chairman of the Soviet State Bank, a job he had held two decades before, but in September Bulganin was removed from the Central Committee and deprived of the title of Marshal. He was dispatched to Stavropol as chairman of the Regional Economic Council, a token position, and in February 1960 he was retired on a pension.