Information

Tucker Class Destroyers


Tucker Class Destroyers

The Tucker Class Destroyers were an improved version of the previous O'Brien class, and were the first US destroyers that had the ability to lay mines,

Work on the design of the Tucker class ships began in the autumn 1912. The class was authorized by Congress in March 1913, for construction in FY 14.

In September 1912 the General Board asked C&R to provide a sketch design for a rather ambitious new design. This was to be armed with six 21-in twin torpedo tubes, four 4in guns, 20 mines, an operational radius of 2,500nm at 20 knots and a top speed of 34 knots. C & R responded with a massive 2,160ton destroyer, with 40,000shp and three shafts. Each one would cost $1.9 million, a vast increase on the $760,000 for the previous O'Brien class ships. The new ships would be larger than HMS Swift, the largest destroyer yet constructed (and one of Admiral Fisher's failed experiments).

The Chief Constructor was opposed to the new design and preferred an improved O'Brien design. In November the General Board gave way and asked for plans for four different variants of the O'Brien with different armament. A plan with four 4in guns and six twin torpedo tubes was judged to be most practical, and in late November C & R was asked to work on a 29.5kt destroyer with an operational radius of 2,500 miles at 20 knots. Two anti-aircraft guns were to be carried if possible and the ability to lay 36 floating mines was required. They were to have a bow strong enough to ram enemy destroyers.

The new design was approved by the Secretary of the Navy on 2 December 1912. A basic design was approved on 29 January 1913 and the class was authorised later in the year. One key feature was the demand for more even performance within the class, after earlier ships were found to have wildly different operating ranges.

Wadsworth (DD-60) was first US destroyer to get geared turbine engines, which were later adopted in most US destroyers.

All but one of the Tucker class ships had a single cruising turbine that could be used to power one shaft. USS Wadsworth (DD-60), with her experimental geared turbines, didn't have a separate cruising engine.

USS Tucker (DD-57) was based at Queenstown from May 1917 to the summer of 1918 to take part in the anti-submarine campaign, then at Brest to help escort US troop convoys to France. During this second period she was awarded a 'probable kill' for an attack on a U-boat on 8 August. After the war she was decommissioned in 1921, but then reactivated to serve with the Coast Guard from 1926 to 1933, as CG-23. After returning to the Navy she was briefly used as a Sea Scout training ship, but then sold for scrap in 1936.

USS Conyngham (DD-58) moved to Queenstown in April 1917 with the first batch of US destroyers. She was based there for the entire war. She was decommissioned in 1922, but reactivated to serve with the Coast Guard from 1924 to 1933. She was scrapped in 1934.

USS Porter (DD-59) served at Queenstown from May 1917 until June 1918, then at Brest. On 28 April 1918 she badly damaged U-108. She was decommissioned in 1922, but reactivated for the Coast Guard from 1924 to 1933. She was scrapped in 1934.

USS Wadsworth (DD-60) was the flagship of the first US destroyer squadron to move to Queenstown in April 1917. She took part in a series of attacks on U-boats during her time at Queenstown, although without confirmed successes. In April 1918 she moved to Brest, where she remained for the rest of the war. After the war she was used to support the trans-Atlantic flight of four Curtiss NC flying boats in 1919. She was decommissioned in 1922 and scrapped in 1936.

USS Jacob Jones (DD-61) was based at Queenstown from May 1917. On 6 December 1917 she became the only US destroyer lost to enemy action during the First World War, when she was sunk by U-53 with the loss of two-thirds of her crew.

USS Wainwright (DD-62) was part of the first US destroyer squadron to move to Queenstown. She took part in a number of attacks on possible U-boats, before moving to Brest in the summer of 1918. After the war she served with the Coast Guard from 1926 until 1934. In 1933 she was briefly recalled to Navy duty to help guard the Florida Strait during a revolution in Cuba. After returning to the Navy she was soon scrapped.

In the mid-1920s four of the five surviving Tucker class ships were transferred to the Coast Guard to take part in the 'Rum Runner' patrol, with the new classifications CG-21 to CG-25. They were part of a second group of destroyers to join the Coast Guard, adding to the original force of 20.

The surviving members of the class were scrapped between 1934 and 1937 under the terms of the London Naval Treaty of 1930.

Displacement (design standard)

1,090t (DD-57 to DD-59)
1,060t (DD-60)
1,150t (DD-61 to DD-62)

Displacement (loaded)

1,205t

Top Speed

29.5kts at 17,000-18,000shp
29.56kt at 16,399shp at 1,103tons on trial (Tucker)

Engine

2-shaft Curtis turbines
4 boilers
17,000shp apart from
18,000shp (DD-58, DD-59)
17,500shp (DD-60)

Range

2,500nm at 20kts (design)

Length

315ft 3in

Width

30ft 6in (DD-58, DD-59, DD-51)
29ft 9in (DD-57, DD-60, DD-62)

Armaments

Four 4in/50 guns
Eight 21in torpedo tubes in twin mountings
Depth charges

Crew complement

99

Ships in Class

USS Tucker (DD-57)

USS Conyngham (DD-58)

USS Porter (DD-59)

USS Wadsworth (DD-60)

USS Jacob Jones (DD-61)

USS Wainwright (DD-62)

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War


Tucker Class Destroyers - History

Above: Tucker, Massachusetts Bay, 17 November 1937. Below: in the Pacific in the 1930s.

Following shakedown training, Tucker joined the destroyer forces attached to the United States Battle Fleet and was based at San Diego Calif. As part of Destroyer Squadron 3, Destroyer Division 6, she operated with the Battle force along the west coast and in the Hawaiian Islands. In February 1939, she took part in Fleet Problem XX, the naval exercise in the Caribbean personally observed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt from Houston (CA-30)

As the international situation in the Pacific worsened, President Roosevelt ordered the Fleet to remain in Hawaiian waters after the conclusion of exercises in the spring of 1940. Tucker then operated between the west coast and Hawaii through the end of the year. On 14 February 1941, she arrived at Pearl Harbor from San Diego, and then proceeded to New Zealand, arriving at Auckland on 17 March to &ldquoshow the flag&rdquo in that area of the world.

Returning to Pearl Harbor from the South Pacific, she took part in routine exercises at sea before returning to her home port of San Diego, Calif., on 19 September. Getting underway again after a short stay, Tucker steamed to Hawaii as part of Task Force 19 and began operations anew in the Hawaiian Islands in November. After one month of maneuvers in the Hawaiian operating area, she returned to Pearl Harbor for a tender overhaul.

On 7 December 1941, Tucker lay peacefully moored at berth X-8, East Loch, Pearl Harbor, in the center of a nest of five destroyers and tender Whitney (AD-4) to port of Tucker lay Selfridge and Case to her starboard were Reid and Conyngham, with Whitney outboard of Conyngham. Suddenly the drone of airplane engines and the roar of exploding bombs and torpedoes shattered the Sunday morning calm Japanese planes swept over the harbor and wheeled above like hawks.

On board Tucker, GM2c W. E. Bowe observed the unfolding attack and promptly manned a machine gun on the ship&rsquos after superstructure, commencing fire even before the general quarters alarm sounded. Within two minutes, the after 5-inch guns came into action, joining the concentrated gunfire emanating from the nest of ships in which Tucker lay. This veritable storm of shells and bullets produced hits on two enemy aircraft, both of which spun into the lush green hills and exploded.

As the damaged fleet licked its wounds and rolled up its sleeves to begin the war, Tucker patrolled off Pearl Harbor before spending the succeeding five months escorting convoys between the west coast and Hawaii. Tucker then received new orders sending her to the South Pacific.

With the reinforcement of United States island bases in the Pacific, Tucker escorted Wright (AV-1) to Tutuila, American Samoa, as part of the drive to fortify these outposts. The destroyer then escorted her charge to Suva, in the Fiji Islands, and thence to Nouméa, New Caledonia. Steaming then for Australia, she arrived at Sydney on 27 April. After taking on fuel the following day, she visited Melbourne, Perth and Fremantle before heading back to Sydney.

In company with Wright, Tucker returned to Suva, arriving there on 3 June 1942, the day before the commencement of the climactic Battle of Midway. For the remainder of June and into the first week of July, Tucker operated out of Suva, and then relieved Boise (CL- 47) on 10 July on convoy escort duties. On 30 July, the destroyer arrived at Auckland and, the following day, steamed for the Fiji Islands.

At Suva, she received orders to escort the SS Nira Luckenbach to Espiritu Santo, and, on 1 August, the two ships departed by way of a route north of Éfaté Island and west of the Malekula Islands. Threading their way through the Bruat Channel, both ships then set courses to enter the Segond Channel for the final leg of their voyage to Espiritu Santo. At 2145, Tucker struck a mine, which exploded and broke the destroyer&rsquos back. She slowed to a halt, mortally stricken, and began folding up like a jacknife.

The explosion instantly killed three men. Nira Luckenbach quickly sent boats to aid in rescuing the destroyermen as they abandoned their sinking ship.

By the next morning, YP-46 had arrived on the scene and attempted to tow the stricken destroyer into shallower water to facilitate salvage operations. Breese (DMS-18) also arrived and stood by as YP-46 valiantly struggled to beach the foundering Tucker. However, the efforts soon came to naught and Tucker jackknifed and sank in 10 fathoms at 0445 on 4 August 1942.

The minefield into which she had steamed had been laid by United States forces only the day before, on 2 August, and its existence had not yet been radioed to Tucker and Nira Luckenbach. Thus, Tucker&rsquos commanding officer and her crew had no idea of the dangerous waters into which they had steamed so unknowingly. The destroyer&rsquos only casualties were three men killed in the initial explosion and three more listed as &ldquomissing.&rdquo

Her name was struck from the Navy list on 2 December 1944. Tucker received one battle star for her World War II service.


Contents

Tucker was authorized in 1913 as the lead ship of her class which, like the related O'Brien class, was an improved version of the Cassin-class destroyers authorized in 1911. Construction of the vessel was awarded to Fore River Shipbuilding Company of Quincy, Massachusetts, which laid down her keel on 9 November 1914. Six months later, on 4 May 1915, Tucker was launched by sponsor Mrs. William Garty, the great-great-granddaughter of the ship's namesake, Samuel Tucker (1747–1833), a Continental Navy officer. [1] As built, Tucker was 315 feet 3 inches (96.09 m) in length and 29 feet 9 inches (9.07 m) abeam and drew 9 feet 4 inches (2.84 m). The ship had a standard displacement of 1,090 long tons (1,110 t) and displaced 1,205 long tons (1,224 t) when fully loaded. [3]

Tucker had two Curtis steam turbines that drove her two screw propellers, and an additional steam turbine geared to one of the propeller shafts for cruising purposes. The power plant could generate 17,000 shaft horsepower (13,000 kW) and move the ship at speeds of up to 29.5 knots (54.6 km/h), [3] though Tucker reached a top speed of 30.03 knots (55.62 km/h) during her trials. [8]

Tucker ' s main battery consisted of four 4-inch (100 mm)/50 Mark 9 guns, [1] [9] [Note 1] with each gun weighing in excess of 6,100 pounds (2,800 kg). [9] The guns fired 33-pound (15 kg) armor-piercing projectiles at 2,900 feet per second (880 m/s). At an elevation of 20°, the guns had a range of 15,920 yards (14,560 m). [9]

Tucker was also equipped with eight 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes. The General Board of the United States Navy had called for two anti-aircraft guns for the Tucker-class ships, as well as provisions for laying up to 36 floating mines. [3] From sources, it is unclear if these recommendations were followed for Tucker or any of the other ships of the class.

USS Tucker was commissioned into the United States Navy on 11 April 1916 under the temporary command of Lieutenant, junior grade, Frank Slingluff, Jr. Lieutenant Commander Benyaurd B. Wygant assumed permanent command 13 days later. Following her commissioning, Tucker commenced trials off the east coast before reporting to Division 8, Destroyer Force, United States Atlantic Fleet. With World War I ongoing in Europe, Tucker and units of the Fleet conducted exercises and maneuvers in southern and Cuban waters into the spring of 1917. [1]

Steaming independently in the West Indies, she received word of the United States' declaration of war on 6 April 1917. Tucker joined the fleet at its anchorage in the York River before being ordered to proceed to the Boston Navy Yard, for fitting-out for war. [1]

The immediate and pressing need for escort ships led to the deployment of American destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland Tucker, Rowan, Cassin, Ericsson, Winslow, and Jacob Jones set out from Boston on 7 May 1917 as the second contingent of United States ships designated to operate in conjunction with British surface forces patrolling off the Irish coast. Arriving ten days later, Tucker and her sister ships soon commenced wartime operations. On 12 June, she rescued 47 survivors from the stricken merchantman SS Poluxena on 1 August, she saved 39 men from SS Karina, [1] which had been torpedoed by German submarine UC-75. [10] For the remainder of 1917 and into the late spring of 1918, Tucker operated out of Queenstown, hunting German submarines, escorting and convoying ships through the submarine-infested war zones, and providing assistance to ships in distress. [1]

In June 1918, Tucker joined the escorts working out of Brest, France. On 1 August, while steaming out to meet an inbound convoy, she received word that the group's escort, the French cruiser French cruiser Dupetit-Thouars|, had been torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine SM U-62. The American destroyer soon arrived on the scene and helped to save the survivors of the stricken French warship from the waters of the Bay of Biscay. Tucker ' s efforts, and those of the five other American destroyers who were also present, were rewarded by a commendation from the Préfet Maritime, on behalf of the French Ministry of Marine. [1]

Tucker obtained her share of the submarine hunting the day after assisting in the rescue of Dupetit-Thuoars ' crew, on 8 August. Sighting a U-boat, Tucker sped to the attack, dropping depth bombs on the vessel. The British Admiralty gave credit to Tucker for a "possibly sunk" as a result of the attack. And the Commander of US Naval Forces in France authorized its commanding officer to paint a white star on the forward smokestack « to denote the fact that the USS Tucker has successfully engaged and put out of action an enemy submarine on 9 August 1918. » As antisubmarine warfare was in its infancy, however, attempts to verify the "kill" proved to be inconclusive. On 11 November 1918, the armistice was signed, and hostilities ceased along the war-torn Western Front. [1]

While American forces withdrew from Europe and headed home to the United States, Tucker carried passengers and mail between French and British ports. Departing from Brest for the last time on 16 December 1918, she headed for Boston, where she entered the navy yard for extended repairs. [1]

In July 1919, she departed Boston and cruised along the coastlines of Massachusetts and Maine, engaged in recruiting duty. In October 1919, she was placed in reserve in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where she remained until placed out of commission on 16 May 1921. On 17 July 1920, Tucker was designated DD-57 under the Navy's new hull classification system. [1]

On 17 January 1920, Prohibition was instituted by law in the United States. Soon, the smuggling of alcoholic beverages along the coastlines of the United States became widespread and blatant. The Treasury Department eventually determined that the United States Coast Guard simply did not have the ships to constitute a successful patrol. To cope with the problem, President Calvin Coolidge in 1924 authorized the transfer from the Navy to the Coast Guard of twenty old destroyers that were in reserve and out of commission. Tucker was activated and acquired by the Coast Guard on 25 March 1926, as part of a second group of five to augment the original twenty. [1]

Designated CG-23, Tucker was commissioned on 29 September, and joined the "Rum Patrol" to aid in the attempt to enforce prohibition laws. She served as the flagship of Division 4 of the Destroyer Force through October 1927, when she was transferred to Division 1. [5] On 4 April 1933, the greatest disaster which aeronautics had experienced up to that time occurred off the New Jersey coast. [1] The Navy airship Akron crashed in a storm killing 73 men, including Rear Admiral William A. Moffett, Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. Tucker received word of the crash and sped to the scene. Upon arrival, she found that the German motorship Phoebus had rescued four men from the sea—one of whom died shortly after being rescued. The survivors were transferred to Tucker and were disembarked at the New York Navy Yard. [1]

After the United States Congress proposed the Twenty-first Amendment to end prohibition in February 1933, plans were made for Tucker to be returned to the Navy. [1] On 26 May, Tucker arrived at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, and was decommissioned ten days later, on 5 June. [5] Tucker was transferred back to the Navy on 30 June. On 1 November, Tucker was renamed DD-57 in order to free the name Tucker for a new destroyer of the same name. For a time, DD-57 served as a Sea Scout training ship at Sandy Hook, New Jersey. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 24 October 1936. DD-57 was sold on 10 December and reduced to a hulk on 23 December. [1]

  1. ^ The 50 denotes the length of the gun barrels in this case, the gun is 50 calibers, meaning that the gun is 50 times as long as it is in diameter, 200 inches (5.1 m) in this case. The Mark number is the version of the gun in this case, the ninth U.S. Navy design of the 4-inch/50 gun.
  1. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaNaval History & Heritage Command. "Tucker". DANFS . Retrieved 22 April 2009 .
  2. ^
  3. "Tucker (6105790)" . Miramar Ship Index . Retrieved 22 April 2009 .
  4. ^ abcdef Gardiner, pp. 122–23.
  5. ^
  6. "Table 21 - Ships on Navy List June 30, 1919". Congressional Serial Set. U.S. Government Printing Office: 762. 1921.
  7. ^ abcd
  8. "Tucker: CG-23" (pdf) . Historian's Office, United States Coast Guard . Retrieved 23 April 2009 .
  9. ^
  10. "Table 16 - Ships on Navy List June 30, 1919". Congressional Serial Set. U.S. Government Printing Office: 749. 1921.
  11. ^
  12. "Table 10 - Ships on Navy List June 30, 1919". Congressional Serial Set. U.S. Government Printing Office: 714. 1921.
  13. ^
  14. "USS Tucker (Destroyer # 57, later DD-57), 1916-1936 renamed DD-57 in 1933". Online Library of Selected Images: U.S. Navy Ships. Navy Department, Naval Historical Center. 23 March 2004 . Retrieved 22 April 2009 .
  15. ^ abc
  16. DiGiulian, Tony (15 August 2008). "United States of America: 4"/50 (10.2 cm) Marks 7, 8, 9 and 10". Naval Weapons of the World. Navweaps.com . Retrieved 22 April 2009 .
  17. ^
  18. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Karina". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net . Retrieved 22 April 2009 .

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.


Tucker Class Destroyers - History

INTRODUCTION - THE MAN - PhM3 Henry Warren Tucker 1919 &ndash 1942


USS Henry W. Tucker (DD/DDR 875) was named in honor of Pharmacist's mate
third class Henry Warren Tucker, United States Naval Reserve. He was born in
Birmingham, Alabama on 5 October 1919. He enlisted in the USNR on 24 June 1941.
Tucker was called to active duty in July 1941, and was assigned to the US Naval
Hospital in Pensacola Florida. On 15 January 1942, he was transferred aboard the
tanker, USS Neosho (AO 23) for sea duty. The NEOSHO had just survived the Pearl
Harbor attack despite being berthed on &ldquoBattleship Row&rdquo.

For next five months NEOSHO fueled fighting ships all over the Pacific.

On 7 May 1942, five
months to the day after
the crushing attack at
Pearl Harbor, in the
company of the Destroyer


USS Sims (DD 409), she was to meet the carriers of
her task force a few hundred miles off the Australian
coast. Captain Phillips had received a coded message
that the Japanese were near at hand in heavy force.
What the Captain could not know for radio silence was
that the battle of the Coral Sea was here and now, and
his ship was between the opposing fleets.

The Imperial Japanese Navy was at the peak of its success. The United States was striving desperately to regroup
and regain the advantage. The USS Neosho (AO 23) steamed restlessly, her men alert for the sudden deadly
appearance of the flashing wing displaying the fire-like sun symbol. And it came.


During the opening phase of the battle of the
Coral Sea, Japanese naval forces launched an
aerial attack on what they believed was the main

U.S. battle force. What the Japanese found
instead was the NEOSHO and the destroyer USS
Sims (DD 409) waiting for a fueling rendezvous.
Facing a 60-plane attack, the fate of the two
American ships was never in doubt. SIMS
exploded and sank immediately with a loss of 237
men, almost the entire crew. Despite its cargo of
burning aviation gas and fuel oil, the NEOSHO
managed to remain afloat for a while because
some of the fuel tanks were empty and their
buoyancy kept the oiler afloat.

Neosho&rsquos position when she was attacked
was determined later as Longitude 158º03E,
Latitude 16º09S

NEOSHO attempted numerous maneuvers but
could not avoid what was inevitable. She was hit,
and hit again. Fires blazed uncontrolled. Burning
and immobilized, the Neosho began listing sharply
in the choppy seas. She heeled slowly. Her life
was ebbing as the Pacific waters invaded her.


Afraid that NEOSHO would capsize, Captain John Phillips ordered the crew to prepare to abandon ship. NEOSHO&rsquos
decks were canting perilously, and men scrambled in desperation to free the life rafts.

Dozens of men immediately jumped into the water. Many of those drowned while others piled into the three
motorized whaleboats that slowly circled the ailing ship. Dozens more clambered onto life rafts that slowly began
drifting away from NEOSHO. Most of those men were never seen again.

INTRODUCTION - THE MAN - PhM3 Henry Warren Tucker 1919 &ndash 1942

More men jumped. Still others fell. The surrounding waters were turmoil of burning oil, debris, and shouting,
struggling humanity. Many men were afflicted with searing burns received on board or in the water, suffering
unbearably.

With complete disregard for his own life, Henry Tucker swam between the various life rafts, carrying tannic acid in
his hands to treat the burns of the injured men. He
braved the dangers of exposure and exhaustion to
continue his task, helping the injured to boats, but
refusing a place for himself.

The Japanese imperial forces took this photo of
NEOSHO during their attack. It has since been
released and is now posted on Wikipedia.

The next morning, the men on the motor
whaleboats went back aboard the immobilized
NEOSHO, now listing at 30 degrees with the
starboard rail underwater, and Captain John Phillips
did a head count. Of the 293 men onboard the ship
before the attack, 20 men were confirmed dead and
158 men were missing, many of whom were on the
rafts that had drifted away from the ship.

Despite the battering it had suffered, NEOSHO
refused to sink, buoyed by her partly emptied
tanks. The deck of the listing ship, however, was a
mess. Half of the men were burned or wounded and almost everyone was covered with black oil. The men patiently
waited in the hot sun for three days without knowing what had happened in the battle. They had almost decided to
abandon NEOSHO when an Australian aircraft participating in the search flew overhead, signaling: "Do you need
help?" Captain Phillips signaled his response: "What do you think?"

NEOSHO&rsquos location was transmitted and the next day, on 11 May, the 123 men remaining on the badly listing but
still afloat NEOSHO were rescued by the destroyer, USS Henley (DD 391). After the surviving 123 men were
safely aboard the Henley, the destroyer tried to sink NEOSHO so that the Japanese wouldn't find her. The ailing
tanker was stubborn, though, and it took two torpedoes followed by 146 shells to put her under. Finally she began
to sink, stern first, and many of NEOSHO's crewmen wept from the deck of HENLEY as they watched their beloved
tanker sink beneath the waves.

Five days later, another destroyer, USS Helm (DD 388), picked up four more survivors of the attack several miles
away. These were the only survivors of those 68 Neosho crewmen who had jumped into rafts and lashed them
together shortly after the attack. Two of those rescued died shortly after.

Henry Tucker was one of many subsequently reported as missing in action and it is believed he lost his life in his
loyal and courageous devotion to duty. Those who survived and were rescued shared their stories of the brave
efforts by Henry Tucker to treat the suffering of as many men as he possibly could. His valorous actions enhance
and sustain the finest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

For his actions during this attack and the subsequent sinking of NEOSHO, Henry Warren Tucker was posthumously
awarded the Purple Heart and the Navy Cross, one of the highest tributes that can be paid by his country.

INTRODUCTION - THE MAN - PhM3 Henry Warren Tucker 1919 &ndash 1942

The Navy Cross Henry Warren Tucker The Purple Heart

The Navy Cross citation reads as follows:

"For extraordinary heroism and distinguished service in the line
of his professionalism following the attack on USS Neosho by
enemy Japanese aerial forces on 7 May 1942.

With complete disregard for his own life, Tucker swam between the
various life rafts carrying tannic acid in his hands to treat the
burns of the injured men. He hazarded the dangers of exposure
and exhaustion to continue his task, helping the injured to boats
but refusing a place for himself. Tucker was subsequently reported
missing in action and it is believed he lost his life in his loyal and
courageous devotion to duty. His valorous actions enhance and
sustain the finest traditions of the United States Naval Service.&rdquo

Frank Knox
Secretary of the Navy


FROM THE FILES OF JIM ALVAREZ, GMG1 USN (RET.)
SERVICE YEARS 1969-1991


The decommissioned USS The Sullivans is a great example of the Fletcher-class Destroyer, the largest and most important class of U.S. Destroyers used in World War II.

The Buffalo Naval Park’s decommissioned Fletcher-class Destroyer, DD-537, was the largest and most important class of U.S. Destroyers used in World War II. USS The Sullivans, named after the five brothers from Waterloo, Iowa, was the only ship in the Navy to be named after more than one person. She was commissioned in 1943 and saw action in the Pacific Theater, shooting down eight Japanese planes, bombarding Iwo Jima and Okinawa, as well as rescuing American pilots and crew from burning or sinking vessels. She also saw action during the Korean War and the Cuban Missile Crisis. USS The Sullivans was decommissioned in 1965 earning 11 battle stars for meritorious performances, and is now a historic landmark moored at the Buffalo Waterfront.

On board you will see what it was like to serve as a “Tin Can Sailor” along with 310 of your shipmates. She is also a place for reflection and remembrance for the five Sullivan brothers who died together, an act which is borne out in her motto “We Stick Together!”


Tucker Class Destroyers - History

4 Last Update 22 June, 2021

Home of the Newport Dealeys

This site is dedicated to the nine Dealeys Class ships that were based in Newport Rhode Island from 1954 through 1973

USS Dealey DE-1006 USS Cromwell DE1014 USS Hammerberg DE-1015 USS Courtney DE-1021 USS Lester DE1022 USS John Willis DE-1027 USS Van Voorhis DE-1028 USS Hartley DE-1029 USS Joseph K Taussig DE-1030

Pier 1 and 2 Newport RI
Mid 1960s

C ourtesy of Tom Sobeck
USS Hartley

USS Dealey DE 1006

The lead destroyer escort of the Dealey (DE-1006) class was authorized in FY1952. DE-1014 and 1015 followed in FY1953, DE-1021 and 1022 in FY1954, and DE-1023 thru 1030 in FY1955 for a total of thirteen ships. These were commissioned in the US Navy 1954-58. DE-1039, 1042, and 1046 of this design were authorized as offshore procurements for the Portugese Navy, DE-1007 thru 1013 and 1016 thru 1019 were offshore procurements for the French Navy, and DE-1020 for the Italian Navy all built in foreign shipyards to the DE-1006 specification. A total of fifteen offshore procurements were built.

These were the first escort ships built for the US Navy following World War II. They were to carry a Mk17 Hedgehog launcher which utilized a 5-inch/38 mounting and carried 61 rounds but this program was cancelled. Dealey (DE-1006) was fitted with "Squid", a British ASW weapon, in 1954 but this weapon was found unsuitable and was removed. These ships were slightly faster and larger than their Second World War predecessors. They were fitted with the newer Mk33 3-inch guns in twin mounts, the Weapon "Alpha" ASW rocket, one depth charge rack and six depth charge projectors. They were later modernized the Weapon Alpha and depth charge equipment was removed and replaced with the Mk112 ASROC 8-tube anti-submarine rocket launcher which could fire a nuclear tipped depth charge or encapsulated Mk46 torpedo, and two triple Mk32 torpedo mounts which could fire the Mk46 lightweight homing torpedo.

Their service life was short, on average fifteen years the class was decommissioned 1972-73 after introduction of the Knox (DE-1052) class frigates which were much larger and more capable. The inability of this class to carry ASW helicopters contributed to their early retirement. USS Dealey (DE-1006) was transferred to Uruguay and USS Hartley (DE-1029) to Columbia in July 1972. The remainder were sold for scrap.


Explorers Just Found the Remains of a WWII Hero Destroyer

The USS Johnston saved the lives of thousands of sailors before sinking.

  • Underwater explorers have confirmed the identity of the sunken destroyer USS Johnston.
  • Johnston and her sister ships saved the lives of thousands of sailors taking on a much larger Japanese force during the World War II Battle of Samar.
  • The explorers positively identified the sunken warship in nearly 4 miles of water, where it&rsquos protected by U.S. law from looting.

Explorers have finally identified the remains of a U.S. Navy destroyer that sunk during one of the most heroic actions of World War II.

➡ You love badass ships. So do we. Let&rsquos nerd out over them together.

The USS Johnston went down defending a force of lightly armed escort carriers from a much larger Japanese force that included the battleship Yamato. The action saved the lives of thousands and won Johnston&rsquos commander a posthumous Congressional Medal of Honor.

The fateful action took place during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, which pitched the U.S. Navy against Japanese air and naval forces in October 1944. The battle was a decisive victory for the Allies, destroying what remained of Japanese naval power and permitting the amphibious landings that liberated the Philippines.

The Battle of Leyte Gulf included one of the fiercest fleet actions to involve the U.S. Navy. While the Navy enjoyed a decisive advantage in ships and planes, the Battle off Samar
saw an American task force heavily outnumbered by a superior Japanese force in ships and firepower.

The Battle off Samar saw Rear Adm. Clifton Sprague&rsquos six escort carriers (known as Taffy 3)&mdashguarded by three destroyers (including Johnston) and four destroyer escorts&mdashface off against a major Japanese task force of four battleships, six heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, and 11 destroyers. The force included Yamato, the biggest battleship ever built.

During the action, Taffy 3&rsquos escorts, hopelessly outnumbered, charged headlong into the Japanese task force. Johnston and her fellow escorts intended to buy the American escort carriers time to escape. The escorts confronted the guns of the Japanese fleet&mdashincluding the 18-inch guns of Yamato, the largest ever fitted to a battleship&mdashwith their own meager 5-inch guns and torpedoes.

The escorts knew if the Japanese broke through their thin screen, the lives of thousands of Americans were at risk&mdashnot only those on the escort carriers, but on transports of the Philippines-bound invasion fleet, too.

Johnston, led by Cdr. Ernest Evans, inflicted heavy damage on a far larger ship, the Imperial Japanese Navy heavy cruiser Kumano. But enemy battleships struck the destroyer several times, crippling it and leaving it dead in the water 2.5 hours after the battle started.

Evans gave the order to abandon ship, according to the U.S. Navy History and Heritage Command, and only 141 of 327 crew survived. Evans was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for the spirited counterattack, which almost certainly saved thousands of lives.

The Battle off Samar took place above the Philippine Trench, and for decades, historians have assumed the ships sunk in the battle had been lost in deep water. In 2019, however, an underwater exploration team led by the R/V Petrel discovered the remains of a Fletcher-class destroyer in 21,180 feet of water.

The expedition, according to U.S. Naval Institute News, couldn&rsquot determine the identity of the destroyer, which could have been USS Johnston or her fellow Taffy 3 escort, USS Hoel, which also sunk during the battle.

Last week, Caladan Oceanic released footage of the same wreck that confirmed it as the USS Johnston.


Need Inspiration Designing Station Rotation Lessons for your Math, English, History, or Science Class?

As teachers navigate online learning, hybrid schedules, or the demands of the concurrent classroom, I’ve recommended the station rotation model. I know this recommendation may seem odd given that most teachers are not in classrooms daily with students, or if they are, there are strict social distancing protocols in place. In our current situation, it is necessary to emphasize that a “station” does not need to be a physical location in a classroom, but rather it is a learning activity. Students do not need to rotate physically. Instead, they shift from one learning activity to the next.

The beauty of the station rotation model lies in the small group dynamic, opportunities to differentiate more consistently, and increased student control over the pace at which they move through individual tasks.

Teachers may find the template below a useful resource as they plan their station rotation lessons, especially if they teach online or in a concurrent classroom where the teacher-led stations are likely happening via video conferencing.

I know getting started can be the most challenging part! So, I’ve created the following idea documents brainstorming learning activities that teachers in math, English, and history may find helpful as they plan for their station rotation lessons.

Math: Station Rotation Ideas

Often, math teachers have the most challenging time designing a station rotation because the curriculum is so linear with each concept and process builds on the previous. However, as I work with math teachers exploring the station rotation model, I encourage them to think about the stations serving specific functions.

  • Teacher-led Station: Move linearly through the curriculum
  • Online Station: Support self-paced progress, collaborative small group challenges, and mathematical reasoning
  • Offline Station: Encourage students to revisit and review concepts or apply mathematical thinking to real-world situations individually or collaboratively.

English: Station Rotation Ideas

English teachers frustrated by the volume of work they take home can leverage the station rotation design to pull some of that work into the classroom (physical or virtual). The teacher-led station provides time for the teacher to provide differentiated instruction around concepts and skills, support students as they read or employ reading strategies, and provide focused feedback as they write.

The online and offline stations can then allow students the time and space to engage in conversations about texts, read and write, complete more artistic tasks, or conduct online research to build their background knowledge.

History: Station Rotation Ideas

When I work with history teachers, I adapt and use many of the strategies I employed in my English class. I think of history as a story told from different perspectives. As a result, students must think critically about who is telling the story of an event or moment and how that point of view impacts the way they tell the story. What is emphasized? What is neglected? Which perspectives are absent?

Students also need opportunities to connect their identities and their lives with past events. That is easier to do if they have time to explore, discuss, and reflect.

Science: Station Rotation Ideas

Science curriculum, like math, can be very linear. It also involves a lot of hands-on work (e.g., labs and experiments) that the teacher may want to monitor. These realities can make it challenging for science teachers to design a station rotation however, stations provide students the time and space to explore and process complex concepts and phenomena.

You can access the virtual station rotation template and the idea documents below. I hope these resources support teachers in designing engaging, student-centered learning experiences for any learning landscape!


The Tucker Was the 1940s Car of the Future

Francis Ford Coppola’s car connection began at birth, or even before. He was delivered at Detroit’s Henry Ford Hospital, and Henry Ford himself sometimes attended rehearsals of the Detroit Symphony, where Coppola’s father played first flute. “In a family tradition of giving the middle name to an important family acquaintance, they gave me ‘Ford,’” the Godfather director explains.

From This Story

Video: A Rare Look at Tucker Cars

Unveiled in 1946 in a series of sketches, the Tucker Torpedo, as the sedan was called, hurtled into the future: With its swooping lines, the car appeared almost as if it were moving, even when standing still. (Cade Martin) The Tucker on display at the National Museum of American History. (Cade Martin) It wasn’t only the sleek shape that resonated: The car boasted innovations including a third, centered headlight, which swiveled to light the way around corners fenders that pivoted defensively when the car turned disc brakes a rear engine and a padded dashboard. (Cade Martin)

Photo Gallery

But Coppola would soon come to admire a more obscure automotive icon: Preston Tucker, father of the unlucky Tucker 󈧴, a cutting-edge car that was never mass-produced because of the inventor’s legal and financial woes.

“As a child, my father told me about the new Tucker,” Coppola recounts. “He had ordered one and invested in the Tucker stock. He took me to see the car when it was on exhibit and I was very excited. I remember the details very well and for months kept asking, ‘When is the Tucker coming?’ Finally he said it was never coming, and that the big companies didn’t want it to exist, and wouldn’t let Mr. Tucker buy steel or the supplies he needed.”

Coppola’s father lost his $5,000 investment, a lot of money for a middle-class man in the 1940s, but “he didn’t blame Tucker. He loved innovation.” And to Coppola, the Tucker car became “a mythical thing.” Nearly 40 years later, Coppola directed Tucker: The Man and His Dream, a critical success that, in the Tucker tradition, failed to make money.

Today, Tucker’s 475-acre Chicago production plant houses a Tootsie Roll factory and shopping center. But 47 of the original 51 cars built there still exist in collections scattered throughout the world. Parked in a Smithsonian National Museum of American History warehouse, Number 1039 is the color of champagne. Usually up on blocks, and drained of all fluids but oil, it still emits a living glow, like a pearl.

Preston Tucker, an affable character with a weakness for statement neckties, was a Prohibition-era policeman known for chasing down boosmtleggers in Lincoln Park, Michigan. (He would be gratified to learn that the Smithsonian’s Tucker was seized during a government narcotics raid.) One frigid winter, he torched a hole in the dashboard of his unheated cruiser to pipe in warmth from under the hood, was demoted for his trouble and left the force. He later built race cars and the Tucker Turret, a swiveling machine-gun turret used in World War II.

After the war, and years of sugar and meat rationing, America’s biggest appetite was for cars. They were the keystone of the emerging suburban culture, but production had stopped entirely between 1942 and 󈧱, as automobile factories cranked out bomber engines and other wartime goods. There were long waiting lists for new vehicles, and consumers plunked down money, sight unseen. But the first models produced in 1946 featured tired prewar designs. Tucker knew that he could top them.

“Tucker thought of the automobile as a malleable object,” says NMAH curator Roger White. “He was kind of like Frank Lloyd Wright in that respect, unafraid to start from scratch.”

Unveiled in 1946 in a series of sketches, the Tucker Torpedo, as the sedan was called, hurtled into the future: With its swooping lines, the car appeared almost as if it were moving, even when standing still. “It was like the Star Wars of that period,” says Jay Follis, historian for the Tucker Automobile Club of America. It wasn’t only the sleek shape that resonated: The car boasted innovations including a third, centered headlight, which swiveled to light the way around corners fenders that pivoted defensively when the car turned disc brakes a pop-out windshield (designed to eject during a crash, protecting passengers) a rear engine and a padded dashboard.

But while his designs and safety innovations were pioneering, Tucker’s business model lagged. Car manu­facturing had contracted during the Great Depression by the late 󈧬s, only a handful of companies remained, rooted in a culture that valued corporate prudence over individual genius. By the mid-1950s, Ford, General Motors and Chrysler manufactured 95 percent of American cars.


Tucker Carlson Makes the Case that the BLM/ Antifa Revolution Is Not about Race, But Class Warfare

Mugshots of suspected rioters with the New African Black Panther Party

The so-called revolutionaries who were busted for rioting at a New Afrikan Black Panther Party rally took a break from their yacht club lives and modeling careers to be a part of the mayhem.

The seven “comrades” — including wealthy Upper East Sider Clara Kraebber — had their mug shots tweeted out by the NYPD early Wednesday, days after their arrests for smashing storefront windows in the Flatiron District.

They were cuffed during a protest organized by the Panthers and the Revolutionary Abolitionist Movement groups condemning the death of Daniel Prude, who was killed while in custody of the Rochester Police Department in March.

Affluent NYC protesters busted for rioting

Seven of the protesters who joined demonstrations for the death of Daniel Prude with the New Afrikan Black Panther Party and the Revolutionary Abolitionist Movement groups are believed to be the offspring of wealthy and privileged parents.

The so-called revolutionaries who were busted for rioting at a New Afrikan Black Panther Party rally took a break from their yacht club lives and modeling careers to be a part of the mayhem.

The seven “comrades” — including wealthy Upper East Sider Clara Kraebber — had their mug shots tweeted out by the NYPD early Wednesday, days after their arrests for smashing storefront windows in the Flatiron District.

They were cuffed during a protest organized by the Panthers and the Revolutionary Abolitionist Movement groups condemning the death of Daniel Prude, who was killed while in custody of the Rochester Police Department in March.

Aside from Kraebber, the redhead daughter of an architect and a child psychiatrist with a second home in Connecticut, five of the others arrested appear to also come from privileged backgrounds — leading one police source to call their actions “the height of hypocrisy.”

Frank Fuhrmeister, 30, of Stuyvesant Heights, charged with rioting and possession of a graffiti instrument, is a freelance art director who’s designed ads for Joe Coffee and has also worked for Pepsi, Samsung and The Glenlivet, among other high-profile brands, his LinkedIn profile and portfolio shows.

He studied fine arts with a concentration in photography at Florida State College in Jacksonville, according to his LinkedIn, and his most recent address is a stately home on Reed Island Drive in the city’s tony Beacon Hills and Harbour Neighborhood, public records show.

Calls to Fuhrmeister went unreturned.

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Offline is a documentary on the inevitability of the Earth being slammed by a mega solar flare – not the common type that interrupts communications and creates a light show in the Northern skies – but the big brothers thousands of times more powerful. These monsters deliver enough energy to blow apart the master transformers that supply the planet’s energy grids. When that happens, the lights go out for longer than anyone wants to think about. These X-Class solar storms hit the Earth every 150 years, on average. The last one arrived 156 years ago. We are overdue (More)

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