Information

Until 1600, was it legal to counterfeit money?


Forging money or currency is more often called counterfeiting and, as is well known, the counterfeiting of money is usually attacked aggressively by today's governments.

But, generally speaking, was it the same during the medieval era? And during the Roman Empire?

I ask because an Italian daily newspaper has claimed that "fino al '600 riprodurre monete altrui fu considerato legale", i.e., until 1600, counterfeiting money belonging to an emperor or reign was considered legal.


As stated, the question has a simple answer: no!

In Rome the right to mint currency was strictly reserved to the emperor. The emperor might at times devolve the right to mint copper or silver (but not gold!) coins to certain favoured cities, but it was his to grant and his to withdraw. There were severe punishments for counterfeiters (don't remember offhand how severe, but rest assured they were so).

Btw, ironically, the imperial government itself often resorted to debasement which nowadays would be called by the respectable name of "turning on the printing press" but in ancient terms is very much akin to counterfeiting.

What, however, your source might have had in mind is that gold or silver bullion, however processed, used to serve as legitimate means of payment. Probably one could legally inscribe his name on his bullion, although I don't know why they should be doing that.


In 17th century England there was a shortage of copper coins. Even lumps of copper were accepted since the value of coins were effectively their bullion weight so trade tokens or outright fakes were perfectly acceptable, provided they were copper. However, if you faked silver or gold coins you were hanged, drawn & quartered (or burnt if you were a woman).


The quotation "fino al '600 riprodurre monete altrui fu considerato legale" actually means that it was legal to counterfeit other people's [i. e. foreign] money, in fact, aristocrats, churchmen, traders, and guild engaged in such counterfeiting, and it was usual for official mints to counterfeit their own currency (thus producing debased coins) - but a private individual could be severely punished if caught by the affected authorities and could end being boiled alive.
There's an interesting chapter on currency counterfeiting in England in Malcom Gaskill's Crime and Mentalities in Early Modern England.


Until 1600, was it legal to counterfeit money? - History

Today we take money for granted. We use coins, bills, checks, and credit cards without giving them a second thought. We depend on our money to hold its value and to buy things for us when we need them.

The history of money spans thousands of years from bartering and the first coins to credit cards and electronic money.

The oldest way of doing business did not involve any money at all. People would trade goods. For example, if a person wanted a chicken, they would offer another good, perhaps a dozen apples in exchange. Once both parties agreed, they would make the trade. This form of trading was difficult and inefficient, however.

As advanced civilizations developed, people around the world began to use money. Different regions used different types of items as money including cowry shells, salt, cattle, beads, grains, and durable metals. Over time, many societies began to use metals such as gold and silver for money. Metals were durable and could be weighed to verify their value.

Between 600 and 700 BC, larger cities and civilizations began to use coins made from medal. Early coins were made of all sizes and shapes. Some coins had holes in the center so they could be carried on a string. Eventually, coins were minted by the local ruler or king. These coins were more precisely made and had a stamp on them saying that they were backed by the king. These coins allowed for easier commerce as they didn't have to be constantly weighed.

The First Paper Money

Paper money was first invented around 600 AD in China. However, it wasn't commonly used as money in China until around 1000 AD. It took a lot longer before paper money was first used in Europe. Banks began to issue banknotes in the 1600s in Europe. At first a banknote was really just a promise that the bank would give the bearer a certain amount of coins. Eventually the banknotes began to be used as money.

The first U.S. paper money was Continental Currency which was printed to help finance the Revolutionary War. After the war, the Continental became worthless and coins continued to be the main form of money. During the Civil War, coins became scarce and the government began to print paper money again. This money was printed with green ink on one side and became known as greenbacks. At first, people still didn't like using paper money, but then the government said they would back the money with gold and paper money became more commonly used.

Credit cards were first issued in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1958, Bank of America issued a card that would later become Visa. A number of other banks launched a rival card, MasterCard, in 1966. Credit cards have since become one of the most common forms of payment.


10 of the strangest wills of all time

Leaving instructions for what should happen to your finances after your death is a serious matter – but for some the temptation to cause mischief or raise a smile from beyond the grave is too much to resist

Using a will to make a point. Photograph: Everyday Images/Alamy

Using a will to make a point. Photograph: Everyday Images/Alamy

Last modified on Mon 25 Nov 2019 12.22 GMT

I n the UK we are not very good at drawing up wills. In fact, fewer than half of UK adults have done so , leaving 26 million people with no formal instructions for what should happen to their possessions on their death.

But perhaps we’re just not imaginative enough. After all, for some people a will is not just a list of bequests it’s a chance to leave a loved-one a final thoughtful gesture, or show a hopeful relative how much you preferred the dog to them. We’ve rounded up 10 strange bequests left in wills for anyone needing a little inspiration …

A rose a day for the rest of your days. Photograph: Alamy

1) A daily rose Legendary US comedian Jack Benny left an unusual but touching instruction in his will when he died in 1974. “Every day since Jack has gone the florist has delivered one long-stemmed red rose to my home,” his widow Mary Livingstone wrote in a magazine, shortly after his death. “I learned Jack actually had included a provision for the flowers in his will. One red rose to be delivered to me every day for the rest of my life.”

2) Anonymous donation “to clear the national debt” A public-spirited donor made a half-million pound bequest to Britain back in 1928, which is now worth more than £350m. Unfortunately, the anonymous donor was very specific about how the money should be spent: it should only be passed on once it is enough to clear the entire national debt. Sadly, the total national debt currently stands at £1.5tn and so the country can’t touch the money.

3) A boozy weekend We all like to think that our friends will raise a glass to us when we’ve gone, but Roger Brown made sure of it. The 67-year-old lost his life to prostate cancer in 2013, leaving behind a secret bequest of £3,500 to seven of his closest friends, with the proviso that they use it for a boozy weekend away to a European city.

“We would like to formally apologise to Roger’s two sons, Sam and Jack, for taking away some of their inheritance,” beneficiary Roger Rees told the South Wales Evening Post after the friends spent a weekend in Berlin. “We spent most of it on beer, the rest we wasted.”

William Shakespeare. A curable romantic, seemingly. Photograph: Alamy

4) The “second-best bed” Poor Anne Hathaway, aka Mrs Shakespeare, has gone down in history as being snubbed by the Bard from beyond the grave. In his will, Shakespeare left her his “second-best bed” while the vast bulk of his estate went to his daughter Susanna.

Antony Nixon, a partner at Thomas Eggar LLP, suggests that today this will could easily be challenged: “Anne could almost certainly claim, under the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975, that William’s will failed to make ‘reasonable financial provision’ for her, and ask a court to award her more.”

5) $12m to a dog In 2004, billionaire hotelier Leona Helmsley left instructions for her $4bn (£2.5bn) fortune to be spent caring for dogs, having apparently re-thought an earlier draft that left it to the poor. Her nine-year-old Maltese, Trouble, received $12m (£8m) in the will, with her grandchildren either cut out or ordered to visit their father’s grave annually in order to inherit their share.

Trouble’s inheritance was later cut to just $2m (£1.2m) by a judge, although the dog still needed to go into hiding amid death and kidnap threats.

6) Flowers for Sidmouth When self-made millionaire financier Keith Owen, 69, was diagnosed with cancer and given just a few weeks to live, he decided to donate his entire £2.3m fortune to his favourite holiday spot, Sidmouth in Devon.

The money was given to the Sid Vale Association, with the stipulation that some of it was to be spent on one million flowering bulbs to keep the coastal town awash with colour. His will specifies that the capital should not be touched, but that the interest – about £125,000 a year – be spent on maintaining the town and two nearby villages.

In bloom … Sidmouth in Devon. Photograph: John Doornkamp/Design Pics/Corbis

The town has not yet planted the million bulbs, saying this could take a few more years.

7) A new husband For some embittered spouses a last will and testament is actually a last chance to insult their life partner one more time. So it was for German poet Heinrich “Henry” Heine who left his estate to his wife, Matilda, in 1856 on the condition that she remarry, so that “there will be at least one man to regret my death”. Ouch.

Nixon warns that this is a joke that would backfire today: “If Henry made no other provision in his will Matilda could, today, get rid of the condition by disclaiming Henry’s gift. Because Henry left no children Matilda would, under a law in force since October last year, inherit Henry’s whole estate, absolutely and unconditionally.”

8) A legacy of bitterness Michigan millionaire Wellington Burt used his will to put his enormous wealth out of reach of his family for almost a full century. When he died in 1919, his will was discovered to specify that his vast fortune would not be passed on until 21 years after the death of his last surviving grandchild. She died in 1989 and the 21-year countdown ended on November 2010. About 12 people discovered they were beneficiaries of the strange will, described as a “legacy of bitterness”, and they shared a fortune estimated to be worth $110m.

9) A wife for a gay son When Frank Mandelbaum’s will was read in 2007, it was discovered that he had left behind a $180,000 trust fund for his grandchildren. There was one additional clause, though, which concerned his son Robert. Robert’s children would only inherit a share if Robert agreed to marry their mother within six months of their birth. One small problem: Robert is gay and is raising his son, Cooper, with his husband.

Random will beneficiaries … the only time it pays to not be ex-directory?

Christine Thornley, head of wills, trusts and probate at Gorvins Solicitors, says that in the UK this will could not be upheld. “It is possible to leave assets to beneficiaries’ contingent on certain events, ie upon attaining the age of 18, or if they look after my dogs, and so on. However, these events are all things that the beneficiary can control. To make a will leaving assets to someone, contingent on ‘someone else doing something’, won’t work as it is ultimately outside of the beneficiaries’ control.”

10) Seventy strangers from a phone directory It’s the stuff of daydreams and film scripts. When Portuguese aristocrat Luis Carlos de Noronha Cabral da Camara wrote up his will, he left his considerable fortune to 70 strangers randomly chosen out of a Lisbon phone directory. “I thought it was some kind of cruel joke,” a 70-year-old heiress told Portugal’s Sol newspaper. “I’d never heard of the man.”

Will power
While it might seem hilarious to write jokes into a will, it’s not without risk. Emma Myers, head of wills for Saga Legal Services, says: “Tempting as it may be to go out with a laugh, it’s probably better to err on the side of caution and to take your will seriously.

“If you absolutely insist on a joke, or an odd request, check to see whether this could invalidate the will and avoid doing it if it could. For more outlandish requests, it may be better to use the non-legally binding letter of wishes.”


The Money Counterfeiters

In the two previous articles here and here readers have been revealed the corrupt money system and how and why it was created, plainly for the purpose as tool to putting all of us in debt slavery. After about 110 years, from which the last 50 years only backed by paper, the Deep State’s fiat dollar system is now running out of steam and blowing itself up. Because, they haven’t been able to create a world event – e.g. WW3, to urgently replace the system with another fraudulent money scheme. Prearranged, the so called SDR-World money system, run by the IMF in the function as central bank for the whole world.

Under the existing fraudulent monetary system, debt in real terms, becomes impossible to be repaid, whereas the required debt liquidation can only be accomplished by debasement of the currency, i.e. inflation. Fake money rewards the special interest groups most closely associated with money managers: to name a few, the Deep State mob, the military industrial complex, Wall Street, Banks, and the many beneficiaries of government spending.

Unfair distribution of wealth is a characteristic of a fiat monetary system and is being witnessed today in its extreme. As an example the three richest people own more than the bottom 50% of the world’s population. Fiat money dislikes morality and creates an immoral society. It requires the rejection of a convertible commodity standard, and can only be enforced with powerful legal tender laws.

Economic bubbles are the monsters birthed by fiat currencies and central bank money supply and the manipulation of interest rates. A fiat currency removes a definable unit of account, which is needed for sound economic calculation.

The real issue with the market is that stocks and real estate are extremely overvalued, thanks to the central bank’s money printing, which has created a fake rally through its secret actions by continuously pumping fake money into the system. The only thing really is supporting the markets is the Central Bank with all the money they are printing. Everyone knows it. They only refuse to admit it. There is no strong economy behind all this. It is an inflation-driven bubble.

Most importantly, the central bank global fiat financial system is being brought to the point of deflation, meaning less debt-money is in circulation, which automatically forces the Deep State to surrender their global control. The fiat financial system will be replaced by local sovereign currencies, i.e. gold- or asset-backed sovereign money systems, operated on the QFS. This will be the foundation for the post-fiat, GESARA world.

As an example Russia is already far less dependent on the US dollar or any other foreign currency. Their central bank is reshaping its international holdings, cutting the share of the US dollar in favour of other currencies and gold. Last year, the none Rothschild owned Central Bank of Russia – CBR reported that the greenback share fell from 43.7 percent to 23.6 percent in twelve months from March 2018. Moscow has also been actively increasing its gold bullion reserves, which totalled $110.3 billion as of January 1.

“If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their Fathers conquered… I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies… The issuing power – of money – should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.” – THOMAS JEFFERSON – Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

Central Banks and Tax Offices are cabal owned corporations

People who think that peace and prosperity are worthy goals, must definitely reject fiat currencies. – For at least since the 1600s in Europe, taxpayer monies have been illegally laundered under supervision of the Pope through the Vatican Bank. Also, became known tax offices and central banks are cabal owned corporations, identified and located at Washington DC, City of London and the Holy See in Vatican City. As tax revenues are for elites and the bribing of politician to filling their pockets along the way. On the other hand Governments are funded totally through black earning projects, such as drug-trafficking, organ- and human-trafficking, including child-sex-trafficking and off-budget accounting as published in the comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR).

In fact, the world is run by unelected and illegitimately elected individuals that for more than 80% are corrupted among others through paedophilia and secret blood rituals. – When President Trump finally implements GESARA Law the Federal Reserve and IRS officially would be defunct. Income taxes will be abolished and replaced with a sales tax on non-essential items.

Recovering from the damage caused by the fiat currencies will prove to be much more difficult than rejecting the temptation to initiate a fiat currency as the unit of account in the first place. – Honest money is the essential ally of liberty. Precious metals must and will return to serve as the foundation for the new QFS-system. The QFS does not exercise control over the financial system in every country, but acts as a supervisor of every transaction to prevent corruption within the system.

Worldwide, people are waking up to the fact that the current economic system of debt-based-fiat money is unsustainable. Central banks are quietly and secretly preparing for the worst, by buying gold on the cheap. Governments will do what they always do in a financial crisis: protecting the insiders and those close to the Deep State.

Inflation is plain Theft leading to Stagflation

Inflation is nothing more than legalised theft by our governments it stands at only two percent, at least that is what the Statistics say. But these numbers don’t portray the truth. The real rate is probably closer to 9%, maybe even higher. Who knows? All published inflation data are fabrications, as these numbers are made up to suit the government. Lower inflation numbers in statistics look better, and they don’t show the theft committed by governments.

For example, an inflation rate of 8% annually means that $100,000 in cash today would be worth only $46,319 in 10 years. That’s more than half its value evaporated into thin air. In 20 years, it would only be worth $21,455. In 30 years, it would be worth an abysmal $9,938. What can you do to protect yourself? – The only answer is to buy precious metals for any amount you have deposited in the bank and don’t immediately need.

Nevertheless, over the past ten years despite the reality of tens of trillions of dollars printed and monetised by Central Banks in the U.S., Europe, UK, and Japan remain most banks underfunded and would be insolvent if they had to administer true accounting practices.

The Cabal-owned Central Banks want an “inflation rate” of 2%. They officially say it’s good as the purchasing power of the currency falls. But for whom is it good? For the banksters themselves and the political class of course, who gets the newly issued currency first. For the rest of us, it is not so great at all. When more currency is pumped into the economic system, more money runs after the same amount of goods, which results in a heavy loss of purchasing power for the people down the line, first the middle class and then the poor. The most vulnerable group of people, are hit hardest.

Consumer price inflation had been low for two decades. In the early ’60s, it was less than 1.5%, as is today, although on altered parameters, see below. But then, it crept up, to 5.8% in 1971. While, the rest of the world – which held billions of dollars – began to get nervous. And rightly so.

Rather than honour its commitment to redeem U.S. dollars at $35 an ounce of gold, the Nixon administration simply “closed the gold window” in 1970. And created a new currency a dollar that wasn’t connected to anything. The feds could now print as many as they wanted.

Shrewd investors anticipated the move, but not too many. Gold was already up to $40 an ounce when the announcement was made on August 15, 1971. Then, the dollar continued to sink until, by the end of 1979, gold was changing hands at $512/ounce.

The premise of the U.S. Treasury, and the economists guiding it – including Nobel Prize winner Milton Friedman – was that the new dollar would be every bit as good as the old one and that its guardians at the Treasury would be careful not to print too many. However, that premise was false. In 1973, the Arabs proved it, raising the price of oil 300% just to keep up with the depreciating dollar.

Governments were spending too much money the deficits had to be borrowed. This “crowded out” private borrowing and slowed the economy. The combination of rising consumer prices and economic stagnation was cleverly stitched together, leading to the monster of “stagflation.”

Stagflation means persistent high inflation combined with high unemployment and stagnant demand. As, inflation destroys consumer purchasing power. The creation of money and credit does not create prosperity. It’s a form of theft through hidden taxation of consumers.

By 1974, that monster was breathing fire. Consumer prices were rising at an 11% rate. Governments, were near panic, and built defences. They created the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) to try to bring their expenses and revenues closer together. Perhaps the CBO has helped. Or maybe it didn’t. Either way, the monster ran wild. U.S. public debt rose from $371 billion in 1970 to $908 billion in 1980. And by 1980, the inflation rate was hitting 14%. – Today’s official inflation rate, by contrast, is less than 2%. But wait…

In the 1990s, the feds changed the way they calculate the inflation numbers. If they thought the quality of a product had increased, they reasoned that buyers got more for their money. So they pretended that consumers got a lower price, too.

If a new computer was 10 times as fast as an old one, for example, they cut the price 90% — even though you had to pay just as much for the new one as for the old one. As you can imagine, these “hedonic” sleights of hand substantially cut the “inflation rate.”

But John Williams, of Shadow Government Statistics, continues to calculate inflation using the same formula used in 1980. Guess what inflation rate he gets for last year? Ten percent. In other words, using the same yardstick, inflation is already higher than it was in 1970. Confirmed by the 8% rice of the gold price, that also is a good measure of real price inflation.

The ’70s ended with no crash in the stock market. But, after inflation, a stockholder left the decade with only about 7% as much real wealth as he had when he entered it. Looks similar to the situation in the 1920s.

In broad terms, the false premise of the ’70s was that the new dollar was as good as the old one. You could have multiplied your money 13 times, simply by betting against the new dollar. All you had to do was to buy gold and sit tight.

And what about now? The leading premise of the 2020s is probably that this economy is just as good as ever. Investors seem to think so. The press says so. And President Donald Trump said recently in Davos that he has led a “spectacular” turnaround of the U.S. economy and urged the world to invest in America. The question is: Is it true or false?

If false, the 2020s will prove to be at least as painful as the 1970s or even the 1920s, and probably much worse.

Free money is a scam corrupting society

On September 17, without a cloud in the sky, the central bank “cranked up the presses” to add about $100 billion a month over the next five months — simply to cover U.S. deficits. That’s inflation. Pure and Simple. The kind of thing that governments do to fund their activities that are often wasteful, but gives the impression being valuable.

Remember, “inflation” refers to increasing the money supply, not specifically to the kind of “inflation” that people don’t like i.e. consumer price inflation. First comes the money-printing. Then come asset price increases. Sharply rising consumer prices are usually the last and is the most spectacular phase of an inflationary disaster.

Free printed money is a scam. The longer it goes on, the more corrupt the whole society becomes, and the more citizens demand radical reforms. The new money, so far, has gone mostly to the Deep State cabal, and into the pockets of the rich, and politicians.

GDP growth is kept positive, by lending money below the rate of consumer price inflation. Worldwide, central banks lowered rates some 90 times last year. And now they are using its Repo Printing Program to pumping money in the system even faster than it did during the crisis of ’08-’09.

For several years through 2013, the Central Banks bought roughly $1.5 trillion of Treasuries and mortgage bonds to try to hold down long-term interest rates and encourage more borrowing and spending. Lower rates also led investors to invest more in stocks.

America and the rest of world won’t be made great again until the real wrongs – perpetual war and perpetual fake-money inflation – are corrected. These wrongs are not committed by capitalists, or by the Chinese, Mexicans, or Iranians. They are committed by central planners at the Rothschild central banks and executed by politicians, bureaucrats, lobbyists, cronies and other Deep State cronies, who instructed them to act that way. They won’t stop until the whole matter blows up.


How Fraud Perpetrators Work

There have been many instances of fraud and stock pool scams in the history of the United States, and all of them expose devious schemes based on greed and a desire for power.

The first documented fraud occurred in 300 B.C., and it is unlikely that it will ever by stamped out completely because it is driven by greed and the desire for power.

The First Insider Trading Scandal

In 1792, only a few years after America officially became independent, the nation experienced its first fraud. At this time, American bonds were similar to developing-world issues or junk bonds today—they fluctuated in value with every bit of news about the fortunes of the colonies that issued them. The trick of investing in such a volatile market was to be a step ahead of the news that would push a bond's value up or down.

Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the Treasury, began to restructure American finance by replacing outstanding bonds from various colonies with bonds from the new central government. Consequently, big bond investors sought out people who had access to the Treasury to find out which bond issues Hamilton was going to replace.

William Duer, a member of President George Washington's inner circle and assistant secretary of the Treasury, was ideally placed to profit from insider information. Duer was privy to all the Treasury's actions and would tip off his friends and trade in his own portfolio before leaking select information to the public that he knew would drive up prices. Then Duer would simply sell for an easy profit. After years of this type of manipulation, even raiding Treasury funds to make larger bets, Duer left his post but kept his inside contacts. He continued to invest his own money as well as that of other investors in both debt issues and the stocks of banks popping up nationwide.

With all the European and domestic money chasing bonds, however, there was a speculative glut as issuers rushed to cash in. Rather than stepping back from the overheating market, Duer was counting on his information edge to keep ahead. He piled his ill-gotten gains and that of his investors into the market. Duer also borrowed heavily to further leverage his bond bets.

The correction was unpredictable and sharp, leaving Duer hanging onto worthless investments and huge debts. Hamilton had to rescue the market by buying up bonds and acting as a lender of last resort. William Duer ended up in debtor's prison, where he died in 1799. The speculative bond bubble in 1792 and the large amount of bond trading was, interestingly enough, the catalyst for the Buttonwood Agreement, which was the beginnings of the Wall Street investment community.

Fraud Wipes Out a President

Ulysses S. Grant, a renowned Civil War hero and former president, only wanted to help his son succeed in business, but he ended up creating a financial panic. Grant's son, Buck, had already failed at several businesses but was determined to succeed on Wall Street. Buck formed a partnership with Ferdinand Ward, an unscrupulous man who was only interested in the legitimacy gained from the Grant name. The two opened up a firm called Grant & Ward. Ward immediately sought capital from investors, falsely claiming that the former president had agreed to help them land lucrative government contracts. Ward then used this cash to speculate on the market. Sadly, Ward was not as gifted at speculating as he was at talking, and he lost heavily.

Of the capital Ward squandered, $600,000 was tied to the Marine National Bank, and both the bank and Grant & Ward were on the verge of collapse. Ward convinced Buck to ask his father for more money. Grant Sr., already heavily invested in the firm, was unable to come up with enough funds and was forced to ask for a $150,000 personal loan from William Vanderbilt. Ward essentially took the money and ran, leaving the Grants, Marine National Bank, and the investors holding the bag. Marine National Bank collapsed after a bank run, and its fall helped touch off the panic of 1884.

Grant Sr. paid off his debt to Vanderbilt with all his personal effects including his uniforms, swords, medals, and other memorabilia from the war. Ward was eventually caught and imprisoned for six years.

The Pioneering Daniel Drew

The late 1800s saw men such as Jay Gould, James Fisk, Russell Sage, Edward Henry Harriman, and J.P. Morgan turn the fledgling stock market into their personal playground. However, Daniel Drew was a true pioneer of fraud and stock market manipulation. Drew started out in cattle, bringing the term "watered stock" to our vocabulary—watered stock are shares issued at a much greater value than its underlying assets, usually as part of a scheme to defraud investors. Drew later became a financier when the portfolio of loans he provided to fellow cattlemen gave him the capital to start buying large positions in transportation stocks.

Drew lived in a time before disclosure, when only the most basic regulations existed. His technique was known as a corner. He would buy up all of a company's stocks, then spread false news about the company to drive the price down. This would encourage traders to sell the stock short. Unlike today, it was possible to sell short many times the actual stock outstanding.

When the time came to cover their short positions, traders would find out that the only person holding stock was Daniel Drew and he expected a high premium. Drew's success with corners led to new operations. Drew often traded wholly owned stocks between himself and other manipulators at higher and higher prices. When this action caught the attention of other traders, the group would dump the stock back on the market.

The danger of Drew's combined poop and scoop and pump and dump schemes lay in taking the short position. In 1864, Drew was trapped in a corner of his own by Vanderbilt. Drew was trying to short a company that Vanderbilt was simultaneously trying to acquire. Drew shorted heavily, but Vanderbilt had purchased all the shares. Consequently, Drew had to cover his position at a premium paid directly to Vanderbilt.

Drew and Vanderbilt battled again in 1866 over a railroad, but this time Drew was much wiser, or at least much more corrupt. As Vanderbilt tried to buy up one of Drew's railroads, Drew printed more and more illegal shares. Vanderbilt followed his previous strategy and used his war chest to buy up the additional shares. This left Drew running from the law for watering stock and left Vanderbilt cash poor. The two combatants came to an uneasy truce: Drew's fellow manipulators, Fisk and Gould, were angered by the truce and conspired to ruin Drew. He died broke in 1879.

The Stock Pools

Until the 1920s, most market fraud affected only the few Americans who were investing. When it was confined largely to battles between wealthy manipulators, the government felt no need to step in. After World War I, however, average Americans discovered the stock market. To take advantage of the influx of eager new money, manipulators teamed up to create stock pools. Basically, stock pools carried out Daniel Drew-style manipulation on a larger scale. With more investors involved, the profits from manipulating stocks were enough to convince the management of the companies being targeted to participate. The stock pools became very powerful, manipulating even large cap stocks such as Chrysler, RCA, and Standard Oil.

When the bubble burst in 1929, both the general public and the government were staggered by the level of corruption that had contributed to the financial catastrophe. Stock pools took the lion's share of the blame, leading to the creation of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Ironically, the first head of the SEC was a speculator and former pool insider, Joseph Kennedy Sr.

Fast Fact

The first head of the SEC was a speculator and former pool insider, Joseph Kennedy Sr. The stock pools were held largely to blame for the bubble that burst in 1929.

The SEC Era

With the creation of the SEC, market rules were formalized and stock fraud was defined. Common manipulation practices were outlawed as was the large trade in insider information. Wall Street would no longer be the Wild West where gunslingers like Drew and Vanderbilt met for showdowns. That isn't to say that the pump and dump or insider trading has disappeared. In the SEC era, investors still get taken in by fraud, but legal protection do now exist giving investors some recourse.


QFS ousts fraudulent monetary system

The banking system is a fantastic business they lend out money they don’t have and charge the lender interest on it, add to it the ‘fractional reserve lending’ that allows the banks to lend ten times more than what they have on deposit. In other words, they lend ‘money’ they don’t have and doesn’t exist, properly called – credit or debt money – with interest charges attached.

Under a fraudulent monetary system, debt in real terms, becomes impossible to pay, while the required debt liquidation can only be accomplished by debasement of the currency, that is inflation, in other words theft. Fake money rewards the special interest cliques most closely associated with money managers: such as the Deep State, banking industry, military industrial complex, Wall Street, and the many beneficiaries of government spending.

Unfair distribution of wealth is a characteristic of a fiat monetary system and is being witnessed today in its extreme. As an example the three richest people on Earth own more than the bottom 60% of the world’s population. Fiat money dislikes morality, and thus creates an immoral society. It requires the rejection of a convertible commodity standard, and can only be enforced with powerful legal tender laws.

Economic bubbles are the monsters birthed by fiat currencies, central bank manipulation of the money supply and interest rates. A fiat currency eliminates a definable unit of accounting, which is needed for sound economic calculation.

Most importantly, the central bank global financial debt system is being brought to the point of deflation, which will force the Deep State to relinquish their global control. The fiat financial system will be replaced by local currencies, i.e. gold-backed sovereign money units, run on the QFS. This will be the foundation for the post-fiat, GESARA world

Recovering from the damage caused by the fiat currencies will prove to be much more difficult than rejecting the temptation to initiate a fiat currency as the unit of account in the first place. – Honest money is the essential ally of liberty. Precious metals must and will return to serve as the foundation for the new QFS-system.

Worldwide, people are waking up to the fact that the current economic system of fiat debt-money is unsustainable, and banksters are quietly and secretly preparing for the worst. Governments will do what they always do in a financial crisis: protect insiders and those close to the Deep State.

Average middle-class citizens are already suffering from the corrupt monetary system, and are scrambling to find the best way to protect their wealth and ensure their safety in these challenging times. The unwinding of history’s largest financial fraud and greatest bubble is now upon us.

People must understand that they are living with a criminal and totally unfair privately owned central banking system with their government as partner. – What is observed is us living like medieval “serfs” under this system. So, it is vital that all private Central Banks are abolished at all costs and that legislation is enacted to ensure no such bank in the future is ever being established again.

Deep State’s funding swindle

The plan is not only to go after the Shadow Government and the Deep State, but to go after the source of their funding that has made it possible for them to do what it does print easy money and promote corruption. In short the Rothschilds controlled central banks print money out of thin air, governments borrow and force taxpayers to fund this Ponzi scheme.

Central Banks are not tied to checks and balances audits, so they are able to do whatever they want to do. They have been applying fraudulent accounting practices that don’t account for the money they have created. And as is observed, the entire economic system is deteriorating rapidly. President Trump continuously and correctly points his finger at the Fed. He maintains that they allow the economy to slide into recession, and repeats endlessly what the Fed is doing is wrong, insinuating that this will be the reason if the economy weakens, and finally falls to pieces, the Central Banks are to blame.

Look at today’s economy and people will see that all sales are drying up. Car sales are down 12%. Also new home sales in various areas are disintegrating with a 5% month to month downtrend. Meanwhile, sales prices in many regions have declined 3,5 % from a year ago. This is a complete and utter disaster, even worse after the Central Bank lowered the interest rate to zero, which first and foremost affects the retirees.

Real money changed into fake money

In the depression of the 1930s it was the supply of money that mattered, but after Nixon in 1972 abolished the gold backing for the US dollar, he changed ‘real money’ into fake ‘credit/debt money’. So now, it’s not the supply of money that matters, it’s the supply of credit – the quantity of debt made. As long as credit is increasing at a healthy rate below 2% which means inflation and is nothing else as plain theft by the government, markets and GDP go up. When the demand of credit doesn’t increase expect recession and bear markets. The idea behind the QE (quantitative easing) was to supply more credit money, but as there was no market for, QE became a worthless tool, because it does not create extra lending capability.

QE effectively cannot create new lending volume. To put it as simply as possible. Reserves are bank assets. Lending is constrained by available capital. QE shifts assets but doesn’t alter capital. For example, if the Central Bank buys $2.6 trillion in Treasuries from the nongovernment sector the nongovernment sector sells $2.6 trillion in Treasuries to the Central Bank. This gives the impression that the Federal Reserve central bank ‘injected’ $2.6 trillion in liquidity into the system. In spite of this, the net effect is still zero.

In addition, a bank can go to Goldman Sachs and lever up that $2.6 trillion as if it were something new, which is false.They could do that before using Treasury securities as collateral.

The idea that the excess reserves point to future hyperinflation is also absurd. The assumption is that the banking system will somehow ‘lend out’ those excess reserves. It can’t happen. It’s impossible. Banks in aggregate cannot lend reserves. Period. Even very well educated people have not been aware of this.

The Central Banks know credit must expand, otherwise there will be a depression. But, today’s debt levels are so high that a depression would be catastrophic. The disaster would be worldwide. While people would die.

“Because a depression in the US would mean tens of millions… maybe hundreds of millions… of people in China and Southeast Asia would lose their jobs. Businesses would go broke. Governments would go broke. People living at the margin – with no savings – would soon be desperate. Civilisation would not survive. That’s why the Fed will not allow a real credit contraction.”

Governments and Central Banks are very keen to stop a depression, as they do not want to admit that they had any role in causing it. Due to their own policies, – ultra-low interest rates and fake money – they have created excesses that need to be purged. Don’t expect them to confess that their impotent remedy of more money-printing, will only make the ultimate correction worse.

So far this century, they’ve held off three major corrections. From October 2000 to July 2003, they chopped 5% off their key lending rate and set off the blow-up of the real estate market in 2008-2009. Then, they thwarted that correction too, again cutting their key rate by more than 5%, and printing up an additional $3.6 trillion. And this year, they’ve gone “Full Weimar”, with rates back down to zero, and another $3 trillion in new fake money.

After the fake COVID pandemic has ended, the new economy will not require so much office and parking spaces, because more people have been working from home. Restaurant tables, airplane seats, big-city housing, cruise ships, and theatres are left empty. Since fewer people commute to work, they don’t need so many automobiles or gasoline, either. Oil shares have been cut in half so far this year.

This has put the financial system in a situation with many fingers in the dike, and it isn’t known in advance, which one finger is being removed that might cause the dike to give way. But it does look more certain that the end of U.S. reserve dollar hegemony is in sight. Two of the main questions at this point in time are: When does it end, and when does the real panic begin? Regardless, the demise of the fiat reserve dollar is a certainty.

Stimulus is Fraud

All stimulus efforts are merely different forms of fraud — all based on misleading consumers, investors and businesses with “inflation,” that is the case, with fake money that no one ever earned or saved.

Counterfeiting money is a do-it-yourself version of inflation. It is illegal, for good reason. It’s a fraud, pretending that this new money represents real wealth. The only people who can get away with this sort of fraud are those who work for the government they falsely claim that their counterfeiting stimulates the economy.

The counterfeit money has been introduced into the economy in a number of different ways. In the West over the last 30 years, it has mostly gone in like a thief through the monetary back alleys, remaining mainly in financialised assets.

Naturally, this was great for people who owned stocks and bonds. The top 10% of the population, for example, watched its wealth grow from about $20 trillion 30 years ago to about $75 trillion today. During that same time, U.S. GDP rose only $15 trillion — which is about what the bottom 90% gained in wealth during that time.

Another way to look at it is to compare total household net worth to GDP. Typically, households have a total net worth equal to about 3.5 times GDP. Now, the figure is over five times GDP. Households have about $30 trillion more, almost all of it owned by the 10% of richest families and almost all of it based not on increased real wealth (GDP increases), but on the aforementioned funny-money counterfeiting.

Gold will be trading for at least ten times what the price is today. It’s going to happen but the date is uncertain. People need to own gold/silver because the central planners are leading the economy to ruin. Also, silver is going to see extraordinary gains over the long term. Copper too will see fantastic gains as they continue to modernise and invest in infrastructure. The bottom line is people need to be patient because the day is drawing near when the world will shift its attention once again to gold, silver, platinum and other commodities, and the criminal central bankers’ manipulations come to an end.

The Western central planners and their agents at the bullion banks have had an ongoing war against gold for a long time now, and the tide may finally be turning against them, despite the ongoing downdraft by their manipulations.

Taxpayer Monies Laundered Through Privately Owned Tax Offices

People who think that peace and prosperity are worthy goals, must eventually reject fiat currencies. For at least since the 1600s, taxpayer monies have been illegally laundered through what now is known as privately owned tax offices, central banks and cabal owned corporations identified as: Washington DC, the City of London and the Holy See in Vatican City. The elites, banksters and politicians have been filling their pockets all along the way.

Governments are funded totally through black earning projects, such as drug-, organ- and human-trafficking, including child-sex-trading and the off-budget accounting as published in the comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR). –

When President Trump finally implements GESARA Law the Federal Reserve Central Bank and IRS will officially be defunct. Income taxes will be abolished and replaced with a sales tax on non-essential items.

The new monetary system known as the Quantum Financial System (QFS) will end the Cabal’s corruption, usury, and manipulation within the banking industry. The QFS is ready for its implementation, and is waiting behind the coulisses. This new Quantum Financial System is set to be run on a quantum computer that is based on an orbiting satellite, and is protected by Secret Space Programs to ensure that it cannot be hacked. The quantum technology that corresponds to this new system is being provided by benevolent Galactics. The key is to implement limitations that will prevent corrupted banksters from gaining significant profits. Crooked banksters are no longer in charge of any funds within the QFS. Paper money and banks will eventually disappear, though coinage will remain as a safeguard against corruption, and the populace will prosper.

All Cabal assets are to be seized by the Alliance and redistributed to benefit humanity. Alliance theoreticians have been working on a daily basis to determine the timing of the RV (currency revaluation) release using mathematical formulas based on multiple factors. The issues taken into account are the current state of the geopolitical arena, the global economy, the number of un-awakened masses, current events, and future planned events.

This allows the Alliance to determine the optimal time to release the RV. This optimal time for the release of the RV is quickly approaching as all the dominoes steadily fall into place, revealing the greater picture.

Meanwhile, the RV has evolved beyond a simple revaluation of currencies, and is not going to be done the way as was originally imagined. Now, it is going to be handled through the Quantum Financial System (QFS). The QFS currently has accounts for each and every human being on Earth. Compensation funds will be given to every human being everything the Cabal has stolen will be directly deposited into individual QFS accounts.

The Quantum Financial System is going to be explained after the full disclosure event, as the enactment of GESARA (the Global Economic Security and Reformation Act) is announced. Assets will be connected to a true algorithm that predicts actual prices based on production and demand, ending the market rigging. The QFS is going to be enacted with:

  • Gold Standard
  • Debt Elimination
  • A flat tax on new goods only
  • Elimination of all income tax
  • Elimination of government subsidised pharmaceutical drug pushers

For readers interested in more details, The book The Great Awakening, explains how the Elite are running the world with the purpose of enslaving every individual in every country of the world. They incite wars for their own profit with as many casualties as possible, the details of which will blow your mind. Be grateful, for every day that Trump has become the US President, the swamp is being drained on a daily basis as he promised. It is everyone’s duty to be a Patriot in their country all over the world.

Awake people want to meet other awake individuals, without masks, for the reason that we together are stronger, and able to defeat the Deep State cabal quicker. Our liberation process cannot be stopped anymore. Uniting with others who are like minded creates and shapes our best reality. World wide awake networks have been and are being created, like those in the Marbella / Malaga area of Spain who have been around for several months with increasing numbers of participants. If you would like to meet up with them, please contact Peggy via email. Meetings and lectures in English are organised on a regular basis.

If you found this information interesting, helpful, or insightful, please share it with everyone you know to help awake them. And don’t forget to put up your national flag showing the world you are awake. The more flags out show that the cabals are losing their grip of power over us. There is much more enlightening information to follow! You can subscribe free of charge in the right hand box.


Fake $1,000 Bills

Good news, I’ll start by saying your $1,000 bill is likely real. If it’s fake, it’s worth

Reviews

Old Money Prices

4.9/5 ★★★★★ 5 Reviews

Verified Customer Reviews

I sold my old World paper money from Hong Kong to Oldmoneyprices.com and it was a very easy process, very happy, 10/10 five star *****

TRUST TRUST TRUST! Do not hesitate to trust Britini Conners. I had no references, no affiliation, and nothing to go off of, I found Britini through google and proceeded to communicate via her easy to follow website. She was almost immediate with response time, as well as completely transparent, she also exceeded all prior offers I had received on my notes. Britini is a refreshing professional, I hope to do business again soon. A+ from start to finish.

Britini Conners is a true expert and is real top-notch. I was somewhat worried about shipping my currency to her but he assured me everything would be OK. And it was lol. There is no risk when I sell my money here because I know I'm getting the full value of my collection.

Very pleasant experience. Been selling old money to Britini for 5 years would recommend.

Britini is very friendly and helpful. She helped determine the value of my currency collection and the best way to go about selling it! She has a large wealth of information regarding $500 bills. Britini also gave me more money for my $500 bill than I could have got anywhere locally. It was a pleasure dealing with you and will come back to you for any other currency-related sales.

So I was given a large paper money collection from my grandfather and had no idea what to do with it. I researched online and found this website. I contacted Britini conners and she made the whole thing really easy. Thank you for everything.

. We’ve handled literally tens of thousands of high denomination $1,000 bills.

We have seen nearly every single fake counterfeit $1,000 bill under the sun. For us, they are pretty easy to point out, even from images over a computer screen.

We have worked for and with some of the best counterfeit paper money detecting experts in the industry for decades.

While it may be second nature for us to spot them out, we wanted to take some time and put together this guide to help you spot fake $1,000 bills and better educate yourself.

If your $1,000 bill is any/all of the following, your bill is fake:

  • It’s laminated
  • It’s black/white
  • It feels like printer paper
  • It’s smaller than paper money today
  • It’s much bigger than paper money today

This is also one of the main reasons why the United States stopped printing $1,000 dollar bills, they didn’t want people to counterfeit them. This goes for any country in the world today that still prints paper money.

High denomination currency is typically the most highly counterfeited money in the world. The idea is the bigger you make the money, the easier it is to transport large quantities without detection.

$1,000 bills from 1900 and earlier have a higher chance of being a forgery. If you need help please send us a picture and we’d gladly determine the authenticity of your high denomination $1,000 bill.


Fake purses, real money: Louis Vuitton's massive Canadian counterfeiting award

This article was published more than 9 years ago. Some information in it may no longer be current.

It has the makings of a prime-time TV drama, almost: A pair of undercover investigators approach the back alley entrance to a Vancouver-area warehouse. Once inside, they aren't searching for drugs, terrorists, or illegal weaponry. They are looking for fake designer purses.

In 2009, private investigators working for Paris-based Louis Vuitton Malletier SA – a subsidiary of LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA – entered the warehouse of Singga Enterprises (Canada) Inc., where they believed the importers and sellers of an array of counterfeit handbags were operating, according to court documents.

The investigators posed as potential customers and were greeted by a woman who showed them merchandise and handed them a catalogue listing handbags and other copied items bearing the trademarks of a laundry list of the world's top luxury brands.

Story continues below advertisement

Two years later, the evidence the investigators found resulted in the largest anti-counterfeiting award ever imposed in Canada, as a Federal Court judge ruled last week that Singga and two other companies involved in the case must pay Louis Vuitton and its co-plaintiff Burberry Ltd. $2.48-million.

The summary judgment, issued without a full trial, is the latest victory in a global assault on counterfeit goods launched by Louis Vuitton – which has an entire department devoted to the cause and regularly employs private investigators and lawyers in its fight. In recent years, Louis Vuitton and other companies like it have taken it upon themselves to stem the flow of fakes, which experts say come mostly from China, to protect their recognizable brands.

They warn that the counterfeit business hurts more than just their bottom lines. Cheaper counterfeit goods are often made in sweatshops, they say. And the much-cheaper goods are often sold on the black market, costing Canadian and other governments tax revenue.

Louis Vuitton hailed the Federal Court judgment as a landmark, saying it showed Canada's courts are increasingly taking counterfeit goods seriously. But Valerie Sonnier, the company's global intellectual property director, said Canada needs to do more, including giving customs agents wider powers to seize suspected counterfeit goods at the border.

"We hope this decision will send a message to counterfeiters the world over that Louis Vuitton will aggressively implement its zero-tolerance policy against counterfeiting," Ms. Sonnier said in a press release.

According to the text of the Federal Court judgment, Louis Vuitton found out about the Singga operation after its head of civil enforcement for North America had purchased two handbags with trademarks "confusingly similar" to its own at a store in Quebec City a few months earlier.


The future of money

Westerners now regard online banking as normal, and it seems inevitable that the trend of digital transactions will continue. It is likely that they will become commonplace around the world. Cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Litecoin, are attracting more public interest.

Whatever the future holds, money will almost certainly maintain its place as a means of facilitating transactions between groups and individuals.

Elisa Abbott is a freelancer whose passion lies in creative writing. She completed a degree in Computer Science and writes about ways to apply machine learning to deal with complex issues. Insights on education, helpful tools and valuable university experiences – she has got you covered) When she’s not engaged in assessing translation services for PickWriters you’ll usually find her sipping cappuccino with a book.


For More Information

Books

American Correctional Association. The American Prison from the Beginning: A Pictorial History. College Park, MD: American Correctional Association, 1983.

Foner, Eric. The Story of American Freedom. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998.

Friedman, Lawrence M. Crime and Punishment in American History. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

Hirsch, Adam Jay. The Rise of the Penitentiary: Prisons and Punishment inEarly America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.

Huggins, Nathan I. Black Odyssey: The Afro-American Ordeal in Slavery. New York: Pantheon Books, 1977.